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Sample records for deception detection accuracy

  1. Content in Context Improves Deception Detection Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Pete; Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison S.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that people are only slightly better than chance at distinguishing truths from lies. Higher accuracy rates, however, are possible when contextual knowledge is used to judge the veracity of situated message content. The utility of content in context was shown in a series of experiments with students (N = 26, 45, 51, 25, 127)…

  2. Unobtrusive Deception Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Burgoon, Judee; Calvo, Rafael; D' Mello, Sidney; Gratch, Jonathan; Kappas, Arvid

    In response to national security needs and human deception detection limitations paired with advances in sensor and computing technology research into automated deception detection has increased in recent years. These technologies rely on psychological and communication theories of deception to

  3. Deception Detection in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhe; Singh, Bharat; Davis, Larry S.; Subrahmanian, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for covert automated deception detection in real-life courtroom trial videos. We study the importance of different modalities like vision, audio and text for this task. On the vision side, our system uses classifiers trained on low level video features which predict human micro-expressions. We show that predictions of high-level micro-expressions can be used as features for deception prediction. Surprisingly, IDT (Improved Dense Trajectory) features which have been widely ...

  4. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    deception than any one method on its own. This research project focuses on students at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA, to...international military officers were also limited on the type of contextual questioning methods and scenarios. These scenarios were not a very good ...research received participation from 52 students . Although the sample size was small, proportionally, 24% is a good response rate for lab research

  5. Determination of the Trainability of Deception Detection Cues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... The officers were tested to determine their baseline deception detection abilities, then trained on the deception cues, Arousal, Emotion, Cognitive Effort, Communicator Tactics, and Memory Processes...

  6. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  7. You can’t kid a kidder: Association between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the ability to deceive others, and the ability to detect deception, have long been proposed to confer an evolutionary advantage. Deception detection has been studied extensively, and the finding that typical individuals fare little better than chance in detecting deception is one of the more robust in the behavioral sciences. Surprisingly, little research has examined individual differences in lie-production ability. As a consequence, as far as we are aware, no previous study has investigated whether there exists an association between the ability to lie successfully and the ability to detect lies. Furthermore, only a minority of studies have examined deception as it naturally occurs; in a social, interactive setting. The present study therefore explored the relationship between these two facets of deceptive behavior by employing a novel competitive interactive deception task. For the first time, signal-detection theory was used to measure performance in both the detection and production of deception. A significant relationship was found between the deception-related abilities; those who could accurately detect a lie were able to produce statements that others found difficult to classify as deceptive or truthful. Furthermore, neither ability was related to measures of intelligence or emotional ability. We therefore suggest the existence of an underlying deception-general ability that varies across individuals.

  8. Assessment of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD) Pretest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Academy for Credibility Assessment (DACA) Research Division contracted with Battelle to conduct scientific research to determine the relationship between the content of the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD...

  9. From Tactical to Strategic Deception Detection: Application of Psychological Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Reid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deception detection has ubiquitously focussed upon detecting deceit in the individual, whether in national security, forensic or business-related environments. In contrast an understanding of how to identify deception committed by multiple individuals or groups challenging strategic interests has been neglected. In this article - to enhance understanding of practitioners working across security, intelligence and forensic areas - a process of psychological synthesis is advocated. Psychological synthesis incorporates a multitude of approaches reflecting contextual requirements towards deception detection across verbal/linguistic behavior, non-verbal behavior, online interactions and intelligence analysis approaches. These combined with in-depth understanding of individuals’ cultures, personality and manner of presentation can be understood in challenging environments. Juxtaposed to these factors psychological synthesis considers how intelligence, surveillance and evidence may be used in detecting deception and identifying links between individuals engaging in deception and related activities. An illustration of how such an approach may work is provided through a scenario of a terrorist incident and how a tailored deception detection approach may seek to counter such a threat.

  10. The fundamental attribution error in detecting deception: the boy-who-cried-wolf effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2003-10-01

    Most people are unable to detect accurately when others are lying. Many explanations for this inability have been suggested but the cognitive heuristics involved in lie detection have received little attention. The present study offers evidence from two experiments, based on two different groups of observers, judging two different kinds of lies, presented in two different testing situations, that the fundamental attribution error significantly undermines the ability to detect honesty and deception accurately. Trait judgments of trustworthiness were highly correlated with state judgments of truthfulness, leading, as predicted, to positive correlations with honest detection accuracy and negative correlations with deception detection accuracy. More accurate lie detectors were significantly more likely than less accurate lie detectors to separate state and trait judgments of honesty. The effect of other biases, such as the halo effect and the truthfulness bias, also are examined. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  11. Deception Detection in a Computer-Mediated Environment: Gender, Trust, and Training Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dziubinski, Monica

    2003-01-01

    .... This research draws on communication and deception literature to develop a conceptual model proposing relationships between deception detection abilities in a computer-mediated environment, gender, trust, and training...

  12. Plagiarism and Source Deception Detection Based on Syntax Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Salih Al-Shamery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the shingle algorithm with Jaccard method are employed as a new approach to detect deception in sources in addition to detect plagiarism . Source deception occurs as a result of taking a particular text from a source and relative it to another source, while plagiarism occurs in the documents as a result of taking part or all of the text belong to another research, this approach is based on Shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient , Shingling is an efficient way to compare the set of shingle in the files that contain text which are used as a feature to measure the syntactic similarity of the documents and it will work with Jaccard coefficient that measures similarity between sample sets . In this proposed system, text will be checked whether it contains syntax plagiarism or not and gives a percentage of similarity with other documents , As well as research sources will be checked to detect deception in source , by matching it with available sources from Turnitin report of the same research by using shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient. The motivations of this work is to discovery of literary thefts that occur on the researches , especially what students are doing in their researches , also discover the deception that occurs in the sources.

  13. NEW APPROACHES IN DECEPTION DETECTION II. ACTIVE INTERVIEWING STRATEGIES AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analytical evidence shows that behavioural indicators of deception are scant, poorly diagnostic and inconsistent. This has yielded a shift in deception detection research. Rather than passively scrutinising the communication sender to find tell-tale behavioural indicators of deception, the deception judge needs to (a adopt an active role by using interviewing techniques specifically designed to detect deception, or (b focus on contextual (rather than behavioural deception cues. In the previous paper (Masip & Herrero, 2015a, we reviewed the antecedents of this change in focus, as well as the theoretical grounding of the new approaches. Here we describe specific interviewing strategies for detecting deception, as well as the (still scant research on contextual deception indicia. In doing this, we hope to offer the reader a detailed perspective on the recent developments in this specific area of psychology and law.

  14. The application of fractional Mel cepstral coefficient in deceptive speech detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinyu; Zhao, Heming; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The inconvenience operation of EEG P300 or functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) will be overcome, when the deceptive information can be effectively detected from speech signal analysis. In this paper, the fractional Mel cepstral coefficient (FrCC) is proposed as the speech character for deception detection. The different fractional order can reveal various personalities of the speakers. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model (which has the ability of global optimal vector mapping) is introduced, and the performance of FrCC and MFCC in deceptive detection is compared when all the data are mapped to low dimensional. Then, the hidden Markov model (HMM) is introduced as a long-term signal analysis tool. Twenty-five male and 25 female participants are involved in the experiment. The results show that the clustering effect of optimal fractional order FrCC is better than that of MFCC. The average accuracy for male and female speaker is 59.9% and 56.2%, respectively, by using the FrCC under the LDA model. When MFCC is used, the accuracy is reduced by 3.2% and 5.9%, respectively, for male and female. The accuracy can be increased to 71.0% and 70.2% for male and female speakers when HMM is used. Moreover, some individual accuracy is increased over 20%, or even more than 85%, when FrCC is introduced. The results show that the deceptive information is indeed hidden in the speech signals. Therefore, speech-based psychophysiology calculating may be a valuable research field.

  15. Cortical network during deception detection by functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    We examined the coherence of cortical network during deception detection. First, we performed combined EEG-MRI experiments during the Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) using number cards which has been used to model deception and 5 right-handed healthy participants performed the experiment. The superior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal lobule were activated and the P 300 event-related brain potential (300-450 ms) was detected at only 'Lie' card. Secondary, we measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data during GKT and the other 5 right-handed healthy subjects participated in the next experiment. The coherence between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule showed significant differences between 'Lie' card and 'truth' cards during P 300 emerging. This results indicates that the coherence of cortical network is useful for GKT. (author)

  16. When interference helps: Increasing executive load to facilitate deception detection in the Concealed Information Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eVisu-Petra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem, and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift. The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants. The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior.

  17. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a repeat strategy to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers and guilty participants (liars had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi, contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after one week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable, 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable, to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable. These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%.

  18. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O' Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  19. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  20. Interference and deception detection technology of satellite navigation based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Deng, Pingke; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Satellite navigation system plays an important role in people's daily life and war. The strategic position of satellite navigation system is prominent, so it is very important to ensure that the satellite navigation system is not disturbed or destroyed. It is a critical means to detect the jamming signal to avoid the accident in a navigation system. At present, the detection technology of jamming signal in satellite navigation system is not intelligent , mainly relying on artificial decision and experience. For this issue, the paper proposes a method based on deep learning to monitor the interference source in a satellite navigation. By training the interference signal data, and extracting the features of the interference signal, the detection sys tem model is constructed. The simulation results show that, the detection accuracy of our detection system can reach nearly 70%. The method in our paper provides a new idea for the research on intelligent detection of interference and deception signal in a satellite navigation system.

  1. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  2. An object cue is more effective than a word in ERP-based detection of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Tim R H; Djakovic, Tatjana; Kebbell, Mark R; Shum, David H K

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies of deception have used a form of the guilty knowledge test along with the oddball P300 event-related potential (ERP) to uncover hidden memories. These studies typically have used words as the cuing stimuli. In the present study, a mock crime was enacted by participants to prime their episodic memory and different memory cue types (Words, Pictures of Objects and Faces) were created to investigate their relative efficacy in identifying guilt. A peak-to peak (p-p) P300 response was computed for rare known non-guilty item (target), rare guilty knowledge item (probe) and frequently presented unknown items (irrelevant). Difference in this P300 measure between the probe and irrelevant was the key dependent variable. Object cues were found to be the most effective, particularly at the parietal site. A bootstrap procedure commonly used to detect deception in individual participants by comparing their probe and irrelevant P300 p-p showed the object cues to provide the best discrimination. Furthermore, using all three of the cue types together provided high detection accuracy (94%). These results confirm prior findings on the utility of ERPs for detecting deception. More importantly, they provide support for the hypothesis that direct cueing with a picture of the crime object may be more effective than using a word (consistent with the picture superiority effect reported in the literature). Finally, a face cue (e.g., crime victim) may also provide a useful probe for detection of guilty knowledge but this stimulus form needs to be chosen with due caution.

  3. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  4. When Pinocchio’s nose does not grow: Belief regarding lie detectability modulates production of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ewa Sip

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true versus false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, during the production of false (compared to true claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie detector was switched off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one’s actions and recollections.

  5. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  6. Human Deception Detection from Whole Body Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    associated with incentivized deception, an initial reward /punishment protocol was designed to apply a level of stakes/significance to the checkpoint...questionnaire asking them about their emotions and deception strategy . Once completed, the participants removed all the markers and changed into their... Sony MiniDV Handycam® Camcorder, Model # DCR-HC38. All camera footage were saved to MiniDV tape and then transferred to a PC for processing. Once

  7. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  8. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  9. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J.; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim’s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one’s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of ‘murderers’ and 81.25% of ‘innocents’. Moreover, the participant’s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants’ identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  10. Deception Detection: The Relationship of Levels of Trust and Perspective Taking in Real-Time Online and Offline Communication Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Catherine; Fox Hamilton, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline. Second, participant PT abilities could not predict accurate detection in either conversation medium. Finally, this study found that conversation medium also had no effect on deception detection. This study finds support for the effects of the Truth Bias and online disinhibition in deception, and further implications in law enforcement are discussed.

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  12. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  13. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques.

  14. A reverse order interview does not aid deception detection regarding intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; McGuire, Mollie; Langben, Sara; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order) or low (sequential order) cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques PMID:26379610

  15. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: scientific challenges and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Fisher, Carl; Appelbaum, Paul S; Ploesser, Marcus; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2009-01-01

    Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior relationships due to their ability to directly alter cortical activity. In particular, TMS and tDCS have proven to be useful tools for establishing causal relationships between behavioral and brain imaging measures. As such, there has been interest in whether these tools may represent novel technologies for deception detection by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit. Investigation of deceptive behavior using noninvasive brain stimulation is at an early stage. Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception. Whether such approaches could be usefully applied to the detection of deception by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit remains to be validated. Ethical and legal consequences of the development of such a technology are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Saeb

    Full Text Available Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  17. Detecting deception in movement: the case of the side-step in rugby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Brault

    Full Text Available Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player's decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of 'honest' movement signals (Centre of Mass, performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of 'deceptive' movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement (p<.001. These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or 'tackle' the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001. By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05. In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the 'honest' information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage.

  18. Caldera unrest detected with seawater temperature anomalies at Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Prates, G.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Peci, L. M.; de Gil, A.; Rosado, B.; Páez, R.; Jigena, B.

    2018-04-01

    Increased thermal activity was detected to coincide with the onset of volcano inflation in the seawater-filled caldera at Deception Island. This thermal activity was manifested in pulses of high water temperature that coincided with ocean tide cycles. The seawater temperature anomalies were detected by a thermometric sensor attached to the tide gauge (bottom pressure sensor). This was installed where the seawater circulation and the locations of known thermal anomalies, fumaroles and thermal springs, together favor the detection of water warmed within the caldera. Detection of the increased thermal activity was also possible because sea ice, which covers the entire caldera during the austral winter months, insulates the water and thus reduces temperature exchange between seawater and atmosphere. In these conditions, the water temperature data has been shown to provide significant information about Deception volcano activity. The detected seawater temperature increase, also observed in soil temperature readings, suggests rapid and near-simultaneous increase in geothermal activity with onset of caldera inflation and an increased number of seismic events observed in the following austral summer.

  19. Simultaneous Event-Triggered Fault Detection and Estimation for Stochastic Systems Subject to Deception Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunji; Wu, QingE; Peng, Li

    2018-01-23

    In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited. This approach can transform the considered system into two subsystems and the unknown disturbances are removed from one of the subsystems. The gain of fault-detection filter is derived by minimizing an upper bound of filter error covariance. Meanwhile, system faults can be reconstructed by the remote fault estimator. An recursive approach is developed to obtain fault estimator gains as well as guarantee the fault estimator performance. Furthermore, the corresponding event-triggered sensor data transmission scheme is also presented for improving working-life of the wireless sensor node when measurement information are aperiodically transmitted. Finally, a scaled version of an industrial system consisting of local PC, remote estimator and wireless sensor node is used to experimentally evaluate the proposed theoretical results. In particular, a novel fault-alarming strategy is proposed so that the real-time capacity of fault-detection is guaranteed when the event condition is triggered.

  20. It's the deceiver, not the receiver: No individual differences when detecting deception in a foreign and a native language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin K H Law

    Full Text Available Individual differences in lie detection remain poorly understood. Bond and DePaulo's meta-analysis examined judges (receivers who were ascertaining lies from truths and senders (deceiver who told these lies and truths. Bond and DePaulo found that the accuracy of detecting deception depended more on the characteristics of senders rather than the judges' ability to detect lies/truths. However, for many studies in this meta-analysis, judges could hear and understand senders. This made language comprehension a potential confound. This paper presents the results of two studies. Extending previous work, in Study 1, we removed language comprehension as a potential confound by having English-speakers (N = 126, mean age = 19.86 judge the veracity of German speakers (n = 12 in a lie detection task. The twelve lie-detection stimuli included emotional and non-emotional content, and were presented in three modalities-audio only, video only, and audio and video together. The intelligence (General, Auditory, Emotional and personality (Dark Triads and Big 6 of participants was also assessed. In Study 2, a native German-speaking sample (N = 117, mean age = 29.10 were also tested on a similar lie detection task to provide a control condition. Despite significantly extending research design and the selection of constructs employed to capture individual differences, both studies replicated Bond and DePaulo's findings. The results of Study1 indicated that removing language comprehension did not amplify individual differences in judge's ability to ascertain lies from truths. Study 2 replicated these results confirming a lack of individual differences in judge's ability to detect lies. The results of both studies suggest that Sender (deceiver characteristics exerted a stronger influence on the outcomes of lie detection than the judge's attributes.

  1. Data-Driven and Deep Learning Methodology for Deceptive Advertising and Phone Scams Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, TonTon Hsien-De; Yu, Chia-Mu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The advance of smartphones and cellular networks boosts the need of mobile advertising and targeted marketing. However, it also triggers the unseen security threats. We found that the phone scams with fake calling numbers of very short lifetime are increasingly popular and have been used to trick the users. The harm is worldwide. On the other hand, deceptive advertising (deceptive ads), the fake ads that tricks users to install unnecessary apps via either alluring or daunting texts and pictur...

  2. Secrecy in Educational Practices: Enacting Nested Black Boxes in Cheating and Deception Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo An Oravec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers secrecy from the vantage point of recent technological initiatives designed to detect cheating and deception in educational contexts as well as to monitor off-campus social media speech code violations. Many of these systems are developed and implemented by third-party corporate entities who claim practices to be proprietary and secret. The outsourcers involved in these efforts have provided one level of secrecy and educational administrators involved yet another level, thus constructing "nested black boxes." Also discussed in this paper is the “paranoid style” of administration, often supported by the surveillance and construction of rosters of potential non-conformists, such as alleged cheaters and speech code violators. The educational technologies described in this article are increasingly applied to workplace practices, with young people being trained in what is deemed acceptable conduct. Secrecy can serve to alter the character of relationships within the educational institutions involved as well as inside the workplaces in which the approaches are increasingly being integrated.

  3. A massive experiment on choice blindness in political decisions: Confidence, confabulation, and unconscious detection of self-deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rieznik

    Full Text Available We implemented a Choice Blindness Paradigm containing political statements in Argentina to reveal the existence of categorical ranges of introspective reports, identified by confidence and agreement levels, separating easy from very hard to manipulate decisions. CBP was implemented in both live and web-based forms. Importantly, and contrary to what was observed in Sweden, we did not observe changes in voting intentions. Also, confidence levels in the manipulated replies where significantly lower than in non-manipulated cases even in undetected manipulations. We name this phenomenon unconscious detection of self-deception. Results also show that females are more difficult to manipulate than men.

  4. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  5. Accuracy of CNV Detection from GWAS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several computer programs are available for detecting copy number variants (CNVs using genome-wide SNP arrays. We evaluated the performance of four CNV detection software suites--Birdsuite, Partek, HelixTree, and PennCNV-Affy--in the identification of both rare and common CNVs. Each program's performance was assessed in two ways. The first was its recovery rate, i.e., its ability to call 893 CNVs previously identified in eight HapMap samples by paired-end sequencing of whole-genome fosmid clones, and 51,440 CNVs identified by array Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH followed by validation procedures, in 90 HapMap CEU samples. The second evaluation was program performance calling rare and common CNVs in the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS data set (1001 bipolar cases and 1033 controls, all of European ancestry as measured by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. Accuracy in calling rare CNVs was assessed by positive predictive value, based on the proportion of rare CNVs validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, while accuracy in calling common CNVs was assessed by false positive/false negative rates based on qPCR validation results from a subset of common CNVs. Birdsuite recovered the highest percentages of known HapMap CNVs containing >20 markers in two reference CNV datasets. The recovery rate increased with decreased CNV frequency. In the tested rare CNV data, Birdsuite and Partek had higher positive predictive values than the other software suites. In a test of three common CNVs in the BiGS dataset, Birdsuite's call was 98.8% consistent with qPCR quantification in one CNV region, but the other two regions showed an unacceptable degree of accuracy. We found relatively poor consistency between the two "gold standards," the sequence data of Kidd et al., and aCGH data of Conrad et al. Algorithms for calling CNVs especially common ones need substantial improvement, and a "gold standard" for detection of CNVs remains to be established.

  6. A System of Deception and Fraud Detection Using Reliable Linguistic Cues Including Hedging, Disfluencies, and Repeated Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Sean LaMarc

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing problem of fraud, crime, and national security threats, assessing credibility is a recurring research topic in Information Systems and in other disciplines. Decision support systems can help. But the success of the system depends on reliable cues that can distinguish deceptive/truthful behavior and on a proven classification…

  7. Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) oxidizes hydroxylamine probes: deceptive implications for free radical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganini, Douglas; Canistro, Donatella; Jiang, JinJie; Jang, JinJie; Stadler, Krisztian; Mason, Ronald P; Kadiiska, Maria B

    2012-10-01

    Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) is a copper-binding protein known to promote Fe(2+) oxidation in plasma of mammals. In addition to its classical ferroxidase activity, ceruloplasmin is known to catalyze the oxidation of various substrates, such as amines and catechols. Assays based on cyclic hydroxylamine oxidation are used to quantify and detect free radicals in biological samples ex vivo and in vitro. We show here that human ceruloplasmin promotes the oxidation of the cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (CPH) and related probes in Chelex-treated phosphate buffer and rat serum. The reaction is suppressed by the metal chelators DTPA, EDTA, and desferal, whereas heparin and bathocuproine have no effect. Catalase or superoxide dismutase additions do not interfere with the CPH-oxidation yield, demonstrating that oxygen-derived free radicals are not involved in the CPH oxidation mediated by ceruloplasmin. Plasma samples immunodepleted of ceruloplasmin have lower levels of CPH oxidation, which confirms the role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) as a biological oxidizing agent of cyclic hydroxylamines. In conclusion, we show that the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin is a possible biological source of artifacts in the cyclic hydroxylamine-oxidation assay used for reactive oxygen species detection and quantification. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Deception: Counterdeception and Counterintelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    deception and support deception campaigns. While deception today relies on traditional basic principles, the authors recognize that it requires a fresh approach due to the roles played by information technologies such as social media. Their unique treatment of the perspectives of both the operations planner...... in deception for both both operational planners and intelligence analysts using a case-based approach. By reading and working through the exercises in this text, operations planners will learn how to build and conduct a deception campaign; and intelligence analysts will develop the ability to recognize...... when conducting intelligence analysis. Finally, it goes beyond existing books by dealing with multichannel deception across the political, military, economic, social, infrastructure, and information domains, with special emphasis on use of the rich modern environment for conveying information....

  9. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  10. Quantitative Models of Imperfect Deception in Network Security using Signaling Games with Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlick, Jeffrey; Zhu, Quanyan

    2017-01-01

    Deception plays a critical role in many interactions in communication and network security. Game-theoretic models called "cheap talk signaling games" capture the dynamic and information asymmetric nature of deceptive interactions. But signaling games inherently model undetectable deception. In this paper, we investigate a model of signaling games in which the receiver can detect deception with some probability. This model nests traditional signaling games and complete information Stackelberg ...

  11. A functional MRI study of deception among offenders with antisocial personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W; Liu, H; Liao, J; Ma, X; Rong, P; Tang, Y; Wang, W

    2013-08-06

    Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people with ASPD. The neural correlates of lie-telling in ASPD, and which specific brain activities are related to the capacity to lie, are unclear. In this study, 32 offenders who satisfied the Personality Diagnostic Questionaire-4 and PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview) criteria for ASPD were divided into three groups based on their capacity for deception, which was evaluated based on the deceitfulness criterion of the PDI-IV ASPD. All offenders underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while responding to questions in a truthful, inverse, or deceitful manner. We primarily created contrasts in the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the Pearson's correlation coefficients between activities contrasts of individual, i.e. BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) strength during deception minus that during truth-telling, and the capacity for deception. Our results indicated that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extending to the middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus/medial superior frontal gyrus were associated with deception among people with ASPD. As the capacity for deception increased, the contrasted brain activities of the above regions decreased. This study found that truthful and untruthful communications of ASPD subjects can be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, and more importantly, this study is the first to use fMRI to discover that BOLD activities during deception are correlated with the capacity to lie. The latter finding might challenge the diagnostic accuracy of lie

  12. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  13. The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germolec, D.R.; Kashon, M.; Nyska, A.; Kuper, C.F.; Portier, C.; Kommineni, C.; Johnson, K.A.; Luster, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals in female B6C3F1 mice was evaluated under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP). A workgroup was formed consisting of four pathologists who conducted extended histopathological evaluation of lymphoid tissues

  14. Detecting accuracy of flaws by manual and automatic ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1988-01-01

    As the final stage work in the nine year project on proving tests of the ultrasonic inspection technique applied to the ISI of LWR plants, automatic ultrasonic inspection tests were carried out on EDM notches, surface fatigue cracks, weld defects and stress corrosion cracks, which were deliberately introduced in full size structural components simulating a 1,100 MWe BWR. Investigated items are the performance of a newly assembled automatic inspection apparatus, detection limit of flaws, detection resolution of adjacent collinear or parallel EDM notches, detection reproducibility and detection accuracy. The manual ultrasonic inspection of the same flaws as inspected by the automatic ultrasonic inspection was also carried out in order to have comparative data. This paper reports how it was confirmed that the automatic ultrasonic inspection is much superior to the manual inspection in the flaw detection rate and in the detection reproducibility

  15. “Time for Some Traffic Problems": Enhancing E-Discovery and Big Data Processing Tools with Linguistic Methods for Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Smith Crabb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic deception theory provides methods to discover potentially deceptive texts to make them accessible to clerical review. This paper proposes the integration of these linguistic methods with traditional e-discovery techniques to identify deceptive texts within a given author’s larger body of written work, such as their sent email box. First, a set of linguistic features associated with deception are identified and a prototype classifier is constructed to analyze texts and describe the features’ distributions, while avoiding topic-specific features to improve recall of relevant documents. The tool is then applied to a portion of the Enron Email Dataset to illustrate how these strategies identify records, providing an example of its advantages and capability to stratify the large data set at hand.

  16. Medicine, lies and deceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, P

    2001-04-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  17. Pushing the limits of NAA. Accuracy, uncertainty and detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some highlights from the author's efforts to improve neutron activation analysis (NAA) detection limits through development and optimization of radiochemical separations, as well as to improve the overall accuracy of NAA measurements by identifying, quantifying and reducing measurement biases and uncertainties. Efforts to demonstrate the metrological basis of NAA, and to establish it as a 'Primary Method of Measurement' will be discussed. (author)

  18. Accuracy, precision, and lower detection limits (a deficit reduction approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the accuracy, precision and lower detection limits of the determination of trace radionuclides in environmental samples can become quite sophisticated and time consuming. This in turn could add significant cost to the analyses being performed. In the present method, a open-quotes deficit reduction approachclose quotes has been taken to keep costs low, but at the same time provide defensible data. In order to measure the accuracy of a particular method, reference samples are measured over the time period that the actual samples are being analyzed. Using a Lotus spreadsheet, data are compiled and an average accuracy is computed. If pairs of reference samples are analyzed, then precision can also be evaluated from the duplicate data sets. The standard deviation can be calculated if the reference concentrations of the duplicates are all in the same general range. Laboratory blanks are used to estimate the lower detection limits. The lower detection limit is calculated as 4.65 times the standard deviation of a set of blank determinations made over a given period of time. A Lotus spreadsheet is again used to compile data and LDLs over different periods of time can be compared

  19. Technique of experimental evaluation of cloud environment attacks detection accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Klimachev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of efficiency evaluation of IDS used for dynamic and complex organizational and technical structure computing platform guard. The components of the platform have a set of heterogeneous parameters. Analysis of existing IDS evaluation technique revealed shortcomings in justification of quantitative metrics that describe the efficiency and reliability IDS resolving. This makes if difficult to prove IDS evaluation technique. The purpose of the study is to increase IDS evaluation objectivity. To achive the purpose it is necessary to develop the correct technique, tools, experimental stand. The article proposes the results of development and approbation of the technique of IDS efficiency evaluation and software for it. The technique is based on defining of optimal set of attack detection accuracy scores. The technique and the software allow solving problems of comparative analysis of IDS that have similar functionality. As a result of the research, a number of task have been solved, including the selection of universal quantitative metrics for attack detection accuracy evaluation, the defining of summarised attack detection accuracy evaluation metric based on defining of pareto-optimal set of scores that ensure the confidentiality, integrity and accessibility of cloud environment information and information resources,  the development of a functional model,  a functional scheme and a software for cloud environment IDS research.

  20. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    /QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION......ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE...

  1. Improving the Accuracy of Cloud Detection Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. E.; Alliss, R. J.; Mason, M.

    2017-12-01

    show 97% accuracy during the daytime, 94% accuracy at night, and 95% accuracy for all times. The total time to train, tune and test was approximately one week. The improved performance and reduced time to produce results is testament to improved computer technology and the use of machine learning as a more efficient and accurate methodology of cloud detection.

  2. The Dark Triad and the PID-5 Maladaptive Personality Traits: Accuracy, Confidence and Response Bias in Judgments of Veracity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno G. Wissing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dark Triad traits—narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy—have been found to be associated with intra- or interpersonal deception production frequency. This cross-sectional study (N = 207 investigated if the Dark Triad traits are also associated with deception detection accuracy, as implicated by the recent conception of a deception-general ability. To investigate associations between maladaptive personality space and deception, the PID-5 maladaptive personality traits were included to investigate if besides Machiavellianism, Detachment is negatively associated with response bias. Finally, associations between the Dark Triad traits, Antagonism, Negative Affectivity and confidence judgments were investigated. Participants watched videos of lying vs. truth-telling senders and judged the truthfulness of the statements. None of the Dark Triad traits was found to be associated with the ability to detect deception. Detachment was negatively associated with response bias. Psychopathy was associated with global confidence judgments. The results provide additional support that dark and maladaptive personality traits are associated with judgmental biases but not with accuracy in deception detection. The internal consistencies of 4 of the 8 subscales of the used personality short scales were only low and nearly sufficient (αs =0.65–0.69.

  3. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  4. Deception Detection: Study of Information Manipulation Through Electronic Identity Theft - Email Forgery in the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rockwell, Roy

    2002-01-01

    ... their ability to detect email forgery. The results did determine that government computer users are extremely vulnerable to email forgery and that new security measures need to be adapted to protect these systems from this type...

  5. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Duran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the science and the everyday practice of detecting a lie rest on the same assumption: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalogue of nonverbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors - a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow - that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these nonverbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context.

  6. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies...

  7. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  8. Statistical deception at work

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, John

    2013-01-01

    Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence microlymphography for detecting limb lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo, H H; Husmann, M; Groechenig, E; Willenberg, T; Gretener, S B

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescence microlymphography (FML) is a minimally invasive technique for visualization of the cutaneous lymphatic network. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and safety of FML in patients with unilateral lymphedema. This was a cross sectional study. Patients with unilateral leg swelling were assessed and compared with the unaffected contralateral limb. FML was performed in all index legs and the contralateral leg by injecting 0.1 mL of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran intradermally in both limbs at the same level. The most prominent swelling of the affected limb was the anatomical reference. The spread of the dye in the lymphatic capillaries of the skin was measured in all dimensions by epiluminator intravital microscopy and the maximum dye spread value 10 min after injection was used for statistical analysis. The contralateral leg served as control. Test accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess threshold values that best predict lymphedema. Between March 2008 and February 2014 seventy patients with unilateral chronic leg swelling were clinically diagnosed with lymphedema. The median age was 45 (IQR 27-56) years. Of those, 46 (65.7%) were female and 71.4% had primary and 28.6% secondary lymphedema. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive value were 94.3%, 78.6%, 4.40, 0.07, 81.5%, and 93.2% for the 12 mm cut off level and 91.4%, 85.7%, 6.40, 0.10, 86.5%, and 90.9% for the 14 mm cut off level, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95). No major adverse events were observed. FML is an almost atraumatic and safe technique for detecting lymphedema in patients with leg swelling. In this series the greatest accuracy was observed at a cut off level of ≥14 mm maximum spread. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ströfer

    Full Text Available Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

  11. The ethics of deception in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Neil C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper appeared in the Handbook of Research on Technoethics, ed. R. Luppicini, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2008. We examine the main ethical issues concerning deception in cyberspace. We first discuss the concept of deception and survey ethical theories applicable to cyberspace. We then examine deception for commercial gain such as spam, phishing, spyware, deceptive commercial software, and dishonest games. We next examine deception used in attacks on comput...

  12. Information asymmetry and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  13. Information Asymmetry and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eClots Figueras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project’s value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee. The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a nonbinding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  14. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    2018-04-27

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntactic and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.

  15. Detection Accuracy of Collective Intelligence Assessments for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of skin cancer are increasing globally, and the correct classification of skin lesions (SLs) into benign and malignant tissue remains a continuous challenge. A collective intelligence approach to skin cancer detection may improve accuracy. To evaluate the performance of 2 well-known collective intelligence rules (majority rule and quorum rule) that combine the independent conclusions of multiple decision makers into a single decision. Evaluations were obtained from 2 large and independent data sets. The first data set consisted of 40 experienced dermoscopists, each of whom independently evaluated 108 images of SLs during the Consensus Net Meeting of 2000. The second data set consisted of 82 medical professionals with varying degrees of dermatology experience, each of whom evaluated a minimum of 110 SLs. All SLs were evaluated via the Internet. Image selection of SLs was based on high image quality and the presence of histopathologic information. Data were collected from July through October 2000 for study 1 and from February 2003 through January 2004 for study 2 and evaluated from January 5 through August 7, 2015. For both collective intelligence rules, we determined the true-positive rate (ie, the hit rate or specificity) and the false-positive rate (ie, the false-alarm rate or 1 - sensitivity) and compared these rates with the performance of single decision makers. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of group size on true- and false-positive rates. One hundred twenty-two medical professionals performed 16 029 evaluations. Use of either collective intelligence rule consistently outperformed single decision makers. The groups achieved an increased true-positive rate and a decreased false-positive rate. For example, individual decision makers in study 1, using the pattern analysis as diagnostic algorithm, achieved a true-positive rate of 0.83 and a false-positive rate of 0.17. Groups of 3 individuals achieved a true-positive rate of 0.91 and a

  16. Web of Deception: Social Media and Implications for Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    additional deception and OPSEC concerns. 35 Beyond just the open source intelligence ( OSINT ) that can be collected by other entities, there is also a...witting participants, in an effort to mislead or confuse the enemy. Just as the United States would be monitoring social media for OSINT , the...deception. Exploiting adversary use of social media OSINT through DISO is another lower threat avenue to examine as a starting point. As previously

  17. Magnetoencephalographic accuracy profiles for the detection of auditory pathway sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Trahms, Lutz; Sander, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    The detection limits for cortical and brain stem sources associated with the auditory pathway are examined in order to analyse brain responses at the limits of the audible frequency range. The results obtained from this study are also relevant to other issues of auditory brain research. A complementary approach consisting of recordings of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data and simulations of magnetic field distributions is presented in this work. A biomagnetic phantom consisting of a spherical volume filled with a saline solution and four current dipoles is built. The magnetic fields outside of the phantom generated by the current dipoles are then measured for a range of applied electric dipole moments with a planar multichannel SQUID magnetometer device and a helmet MEG gradiometer device. The inclusion of a magnetometer system is expected to be more sensitive to brain stem sources compared with a gradiometer system. The same electrical and geometrical configuration is simulated in a forward calculation. From both the measured and the simulated data, the dipole positions are estimated using an inverse calculation. Results are obtained for the reconstruction accuracy as a function of applied electric dipole moment and depth of the current dipole. We found that both systems can localize cortical and subcortical sources at physiological dipole strength even for brain stem sources. Further, we found that a planar magnetometer system is more suitable if the position of the brain source can be restricted in a limited region of the brain. If this is not the case, a helmet-shaped sensor system offers more accurate source estimation.

  18. IS SELF-DECEPTION PRETENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO PORCHER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess Tamar Gendler's (2007 account of self-deception according to which its characteristic state is not belief, but imaginative pretense. After giving an overview of the literature and presenting the conceptual puzzles engendered by the notion of self-deception, I introduce Gendler's account, which emerges as a rival to practically all extant accounts of self-deception. I object to it by first arguing that her argument for abandoning belief as the characteristic state of self-deception conflates the state of belief and the process of belief-formation when interpreting David Velleman's (2000 thesis that belief is an essentially truth-directed attitude. I then call attention to the fact that Velleman's argument for the identity of motivational role between belief and imagining, on which Gendler's argument for self-deception as pretense depends, conflates two senses of 'motivational role'-a stronger but implausible sense and a weaker but explanatorily irrelevant sense. Finally, I introduce Neil Van Leeuwen's (2009 argument to the effect that belief is the practical ground of all non-belief cognitive attitudes in circum-stances wherein the latter prompt action. I apply this framework to Gendler's account to ultimately show that imaginative pretense fails to explain the existence of voluntary actions which result from self-deception.

  19. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  20. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  1. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  2. An Analysis of Trust in Deception Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    presents an overview of deception, both from the military and academic perspectives. The importance of the adversarial mind to a successful deception is...to most literature on deception. This section will introduce both military and academic theories of deception and discuss their relevance to trust...claim, faking documentation, plagiarism , and purchasing one (p. 226). A doctorate is regarded as a valuable item for establishing reputational

  3. Accuracy of self-report in detecting taste dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, Ana; Kim, John; Jackman, Alexis; Tourbier, Isabelle; Kaul, Arti; Doty, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of responses to the following questionnaire statements in detecting taste loss: "I can detect salt in chips, pretzels, or salted nuts," "I can detect sourness in vinegar, pickles, or lemon," "I can detect sweetness in soda, cookies, or ice cream," and "I can detect bitterness, in coffee, beer, or tonic water." Responses to an additional item, "I can detect chocolate in cocoa, cake or candy," was examined to determine whether patients clearly differentiate between taste loss and flavor loss secondary to olfactory dysfunction. A total of 469 patients (207 men, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 15 years; and 262 women, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 14 years) were administered a questionnaire containing these questions with the response categories of "easily," "somewhat," and "not at all," followed by a comprehensive taste and smell test battery. The questionnaire items poorly detected bona fide taste problems. However, they were sensitive in detecting persons without such problems (i.e., they exhibited low positive but high negative predictive value). Dysfunction categories of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were not meaningfully related to subjects' responses to the questionnaire statements. Both sex and age influenced performance on most of the taste tests, with older persons performing more poorly than younger ones and women typically outperforming men. Although it is commonly assumed that straight-forward questions concerning taste may be useful in detecting taste disorders, this study suggests this is not the case. However, patients who specifically report having no problems with taste perception usually do not exhibit taste dysfunction. The difficulty in detecting true taste problems by focused questionnaire items likely reflects a combination of factors. These include the relatively low prevalence of taste deficits in the

  4. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  5. The accuracy of transvaginal sonography to detect endometriosis cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantika, M.; Gunardi, E. R.

    2017-08-01

    Endometriosis is common in women of reproductive age. Late diagnosis is still the main concern. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic testing, such as transvaginal sonography, is recommended. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal sonography in diagnosing endometrial cysts in patients in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. This diagnostic study was carried out at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between January 2014 and June 2015. Outpatients suspected have an endometrial cyst based on the patient history and a clinical examination was recruited. The patients were then evaluated using transvaginal sonography by an experienced sonologist, according to the research protocol. The gold standard test was a histological finding in the removed surgical mass. Ninety-eight patients were analyzed. An endometrial cyst was confirmed by histology in 85 patients (87%). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of transvaginal sonography was established to be 85% (a range of 71-99%), 93%, 77%, 96%, and 63%, respectively. A significantly higher area under the curve was identified using transvaginal sonogpraphy compared to that achieved with a clinical examination alone (85% versus 79%). Transvaginal sonography was useful in diagnosing endometrial cysts in outpatients and is recommended in daily clinical practice.

  6. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic Resistome: Improving Detection and Quantification Accuracy for Comparative Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2016-04-01

    The unprecedented rise of life-threatening antibiotic resistance (AR), combined with the unparalleled advances in DNA sequencing of genomes and metagenomes, has pushed the need for in silico detection of the resistance potential of clinical and environmental metagenomic samples through the quantification of AR genes (i.e., genes conferring antibiotic resistance). Therefore, determining an optimal methodology to quantitatively and accurately assess AR genes in a given environment is pivotal. Here, we optimized and improved existing AR detection methodologies from metagenomic datasets to properly consider AR-generating mutations in antibiotic target genes. Through comparative metagenomic analysis of previously published AR gene abundance in three publicly available metagenomes, we illustrate how mutation-generated resistance genes are either falsely assigned or neglected, which alters the detection and quantitation of the antibiotic resistome. In addition, we inspected factors influencing the outcome of AR gene quantification using metagenome simulation experiments, and identified that genome size, AR gene length, total number of metagenomics reads and selected sequencing platforms had pronounced effects on the level of detected AR. In conclusion, our proposed improvements in the current methodologies for accurate AR detection and resistome assessment show reliable results when tested on real and simulated metagenomic datasets.

  8. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Accuracy comparison among different machine learning techniques for detecting malicious codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Komal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a machine learning based model for malware detection is proposed. It can detect newly released malware i.e. zero day attack by analyzing operation codes on Android operating system. The accuracy of Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network for detecting malicious code has been compared for the proposed model. In the experiment 400 benign files, 100 system files and 500 malicious files have been used to construct the model. The model yields the best accuracy 88.9% when neural network is used as classifier and achieved 95% and 82.8% accuracy for sensitivity and specificity respectively.

  10. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  11. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  12. Digging in the Dark Triad: A Replication of ``Machiavellianism and Dating: Deception and Intimacy''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a replication and an extension of Dussault, Hojjat, and Boone (2013. Machiavellianism and dating: Deception and intimacy. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(2, 283-294. The results support the positive association between Machiavellianism and the use of deceptive dating strategies, but fail to detect a correlation between Machiavellianism and perceived intimacy. The extension to the Dark Triad reveals that psychopathy is a stronger predictor than Machiavellianism to assess deceptive dating strategies, and supports a relationship between higher degrees of narcissism and history of intimate behaviors.

  13. The Ethics of Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    comment directly on the moral dimensions of military deception is the great Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Of paramount...action is to be commended, if what is 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, I.xiii.40, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913... Aurelius Augustinus (A.D. 354-430), later known as Saint Augustine, the Catholic bishop of Hippo in North Africa, is in many ways the pivotal

  14. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-04-02

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

  16. Estimated accuracy of classification of defects detected in welded joints by radiographic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, M.H.S.; De Silva, R.R.; De Souza, M.P.V.; Rebello, J.M.A.; Caloba, L.P.; Mery, D.

    2004-01-01

    This work is a study to estimate the accuracy of classification of the main classes of weld defects detected by radiography test, such as: undercut, lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusion, crack or lack of fusion. To carry out this work non-linear pattern classifiers were developed, using neural networks, and the largest number of radiographic patterns as possible was used as well as statistical inference techniques of random selection of samples with and without repositioning (bootstrap) in order to estimate the accuracy of the classification. The results pointed to an estimated accuracy of around 80% for the classes of defects analyzed. (author)

  17. Estimated accuracy of classification of defects detected in welded joints by radiographic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, M.H.S.; De Silva, R.R.; De Souza, M.P.V.; Rebello, J.M.A. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Dept., of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Caloba, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Dept., of Electrical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mery, D. [Pontificia Unversidad Catolica de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria - DCC, Dept. de Ciencia de la Computacion, Casilla, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    This work is a study to estimate the accuracy of classification of the main classes of weld defects detected by radiography test, such as: undercut, lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusion, crack or lack of fusion. To carry out this work non-linear pattern classifiers were developed, using neural networks, and the largest number of radiographic patterns as possible was used as well as statistical inference techniques of random selection of samples with and without repositioning (bootstrap) in order to estimate the accuracy of the classification. The results pointed to an estimated accuracy of around 80% for the classes of defects analyzed. (author)

  18. Accuracy and detection limits for bioassay measurements in radiation protection. Statistical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides statistical concepts and formulas for defining minimum detectable amount (MDA), bias and precision of sample analytical measurements of radioactivity for radiobioassay purposes. The defined statistical quantities and accuracy criteria were developed for use in standard performance criteria for radiobioassay, but are also useful in intralaboratory quality assurance programs. This report also includes a literature review and analysis of accuracy needs and accuracy recommendations of national and international scientific organizations for radiation or radioactivity measurements used for radiation protection purposes. Computer programs are also included for calculating the probabilities of passing or failing multiple analytical tests for different acceptable ranges of bias and precision

  19. EEG channels reduction using PCA to increase XGBoost's accuracy for stroke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, N.; Wijaya, S. K.; Fanany, M. I.; Badri, C.; Rezal, M.

    2017-07-01

    In Indonesia, based on the result of Basic Health Research 2013, the number of stroke patients had increased from 8.3 ‰ (2007) to 12.1 ‰ (2013). These days, some researchers are using electroencephalography (EEG) result as another option to detect the stroke disease besides CT Scan image as the gold standard. A previous study on the data of stroke and healthy patients in National Brain Center Hospital (RS PON) used Brain Symmetry Index (BSI), Delta-Alpha Ratio (DAR), and Delta-Theta-Alpha-Beta Ratio (DTABR) as the features for classification by an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). The study got 85% accuracy with sensitivity above 86 % for acute ischemic stroke detection. Using EEG data means dealing with many data dimensions, and it can reduce the accuracy of classifier (the curse of dimensionality). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) could reduce dimensionality and computation cost without decreasing classification accuracy. XGBoost, as the scalable tree boosting classifier, can solve real-world scale problems (Higgs Boson and Allstate dataset) with using a minimal amount of resources. This paper reuses the same data from RS PON and features from previous research, preprocessed with PCA and classified with XGBoost, to increase the accuracy with fewer electrodes. The specific fewer electrodes improved the accuracy of stroke detection. Our future work will examine the other algorithm besides PCA to get higher accuracy with less number of channels.

  20. Detection capabilities and accuracy requirements of concentrations of radioactive material in air for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in the formulation of detection capability and accuracy criteria for bioassay measurements will be interpreted and adapted to provide similar criteria for the measurement of air concentrations of radioactive material for radiation protection purposes. Considerations of accuracy will be related to the known variability of measurement processes, as well as the uncertainties in the calculated limits of intake that serve as the basis of regulatory and voluntary standards of practice. Formulations and criteria will be presented for minimum detection amounts (MDA) and precision and bias of measurements for radiation protection purposes. 17 references

  1. The Dependence of Cloud Property Trend Detection on Absolute Calibration Accuracy of Passive Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting trends in climate variables on global, decadal scales requires highly accurate, stable measurements and retrieval algorithms. Trend uncertainty depends on its magnitude, natural variability, and instrument and retrieval algorithm accuracy and stability. We applied a climate accuracy framework to quantify the impact of absolute calibration on cloud property trend uncertainty. The cloud properties studied were cloud fraction, effective temperature, optical thickness, and effective radius retrieved using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Property Retrieval System, which uses Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements (MODIS). Modeling experiments from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) agree that net cloud feedback is likely positive but disagree regarding its magnitude, mainly due to uncertainty in shortwave cloud feedback. With the climate accuracy framework we determined the time to detect trends for instruments with various calibration accuracies. We estimated a relationship between cloud property trend uncertainty, cloud feedback, and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and also between effective radius trend uncertainty and aerosol indirect effect trends. The direct relationship between instrument accuracy requirements and climate model output provides the level of instrument absolute accuracy needed to reduce climate model projection uncertainty. Different cloud types have varied radiative impacts on the climate system depending on several attributes, such as their thermodynamic phase, altitude, and optical thickness. Therefore, we also conducted these studies by cloud types for a clearer understanding of instrument accuracy requirements needed to detect changes in their cloud properties. Combining this information with the radiative impact of different cloud types helps to prioritize among requirements for future satellite sensors and understanding the climate detection

  2. Online deception: prevalence, motivation, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This research has three goals: first, to find out how prevalent online deception is within a sample of Israeli users, second, to explore the underlying motivations to deceive online, and third, to discover the emotions that accompany online deception. A web-based survey was distributed in 14 discussion groups, and the answers of 257 respondents were analyzed. It was found that, while most of the respondents believe that online deception is very widespread, only about one-third of them reported engaging in online deception. Frequent users deceive online more than infrequent users, young users more than old, and competent users more than non-competent. The most common motivations to deceive online were "play" on the one hand and privacy concerns on the other. Most people felt a sense of enjoyment while engaging in online deception. The results are discussed in light of a possible mechanism for changing personal moral standards.

  3. Types of deception and underlying motivation: what people think

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2005-01-01

    In computer-mediated communication, there are various types of possible deception such as category deception (gender switching), attractiveness deception, or identity concealment. The present article argues that it is meaningful to differentiate among these types of deception. More specifically, it

  4. Accuracy of the detection of infratentorial stroke lesions using perfusion CT: an experimenter-blinded study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Hyouk; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Myeong Sub; You, Joshua H.; Lee, Ji Yong; Whang, Kum

    2010-01-01

    Although perfusion CT (PCT) for the detection of supratentorial stroke is well established, there is a dearth of evidence of its effectiveness in the detection of infratentorial stroke. Hence, this study compared sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PCT maps between infratentorial and supratentorial stroke lesions. One hundred patients with acute stroke who had successfully undergone near whole-brain PCT with the toggling table technique and follow-up MRI were included. Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was performed at P 0.01 in all PCT maps) between supratentorial and infratentorial stroke. Also, there was no remarkable difference in both sensitivity and specificity of PCT maps. This was the first study to investigate the accuracy of PCT with the toggling table technique in detection of infratentorial stroke lesions. Clinically, PCT is highly reliable and accurate in detecting infratentorial stroke lesions. (orig.)

  5. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of actinides: Pushing the limits of accuracy and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stefan; Boulyga, Sergei; Cunningham, Alan; Klose, Dilani; Koepf, Andreas; Poths, Jane [Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Richter, Stephan [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, JRC-EU, Geel (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    New method developments in multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) for actinide isotope ratio analysis to improve accuracy and limits of detection will be presented. With respect to limits of detection, results on improving work function using various carbon additives will be reviewed and presented as well as developments in cavity ion source (as compared to standard flat ribbon filament ion source) for femto- and attogram levels of uranium, plutonium, and americium. With respect to accuracy, results on isotope ratio measurements of isotopes of uranium (relative accuracy of 0.3% to 0.01%) are presented with an example being U-234-Th-230 age-dating (NBL CRM 112-A). In this context, the importance of traceability (to the S.I. units) and the use of (certified) reference materials are emphasized. The focus of this presentation is on applications to nuclear safeguards / forensics.

  6. d'plus: A program to calculate accuracy and bias measures from detection and discrimination data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1997-01-01

    The program d'plus calculates accuracy (sensitivity) and response-bias parameters using Signal Detection Theory. Choice Theory, and 'nonparametric' models. is is appropriate for data from one-interval, two- and three-interval forced-choice, same different, ABX, and oddity experimental paradigms.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of contemporary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection of lumbar disc herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notohamiprodjo, S.; Stahl, R.; Braunagel, M.; Kazmierczak, P.M.; Thierfelder, K.M.; Treitl, K.M.; Wirth, S. [University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector CT (MDCT) for detection of lumbar disc herniation with MRI as standard of reference. Patients with low back pain underwent indicated MDCT (128-row MDCT, helical pitch), 60 patients with iterative reconstruction (IR) and 67 patients with filtered back projection (FBP). Lumbar spine MRI (1.5 T) was performed within 1 month. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), annulus fibrosus (AF) and the spinal cord (SC) were determined for all modalities. Two readers independently rated image quality (IQ), diagnostic confidence and accuracy in the diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using MRI as standard of reference. Inter-reader correlation was assessed with weighted κ. Sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of MDCT for disc protrusion were 98.8%, 96.5%, 97.1%, 97.8% (disc level), 97.7%, 92.9%, 98.6%, 96.9% (patient level). SNR of IR was significantly higher than FBP. IQ was significantly better in IR owing to visually reduced noise and improved delineation of the discs. κ (>0.90) was excellent for both algorithms. MDCT of the lumbar spine yields high diagnostic accuracy for detection of lumbar disc herniation. IR improves image quality so that the provided diagnostic accuracy is principally equivalent to MRI. (orig.)

  8. Enhancing spatial detection accuracy for syndromic surveillance with street level incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemi Farrokh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Department of Defense Military Health System operates a syndromic surveillance system that monitors medical records at more than 450 non-combat Military Treatment Facilities (MTF worldwide. The Electronic Surveillance System for Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE uses both temporal and spatial algorithms to detect disease outbreaks. This study focuses on spatial detection and attempts to improve the effectiveness of the ESSENCE implementation of the spatial scan statistic by increasing the spatial resolution of incidence data from zip codes to street address level. Methods Influenza-Like Illness (ILI was used as a test syndrome to develop methods to improve the spatial accuracy of detected alerts. Simulated incident clusters of various sizes were superimposed on real ILI incidents from the 2008/2009 influenza season. Clusters were detected using the spatial scan statistic and their displacement from simulated loci was measured. Detected cluster size distributions were also evaluated for compliance with simulated cluster sizes. Results Relative to the ESSENCE zip code based method, clusters detected using street level incidents were displaced on average 65% less for 2 and 5 mile radius clusters and 31% less for 10 mile radius clusters. Detected cluster size distributions for the street address method were quasi normal and sizes tended to slightly exceed simulated radii. ESSENCE methods yielded fragmented distributions and had high rates of zero radius and oversized clusters. Conclusions Spatial detection accuracy improved notably with regard to both location and size when incidents were geocoded to street addresses rather than zip code centroids. Since street address geocoding success rates were only 73.5%, zip codes were still used for more than one quarter of ILI cases. Thus, further advances in spatial detection accuracy are dependant on systematic improvements in the collection of individual

  9. Analysis on detection accuracy of binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Yin, Jian-ling; Wu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu-dan

    2017-11-01

    Low-light level night vision device and thermal infrared imaging binocular photoelectric instrument are used widely. The maladjustment of binocular instrument ocular axises parallelism will cause the observer the symptom such as dizziness, nausea, when use for a long time. Binocular photoelectric equipment digital calibration instrument is developed for detecting ocular axises parallelism. And the quantitative value of optical axis deviation can be quantitatively measured. As a testing instrument, the precision must be much higher than the standard of test instrument. Analyzes the factors that influence the accuracy of detection. Factors exist in each testing process link which affect the precision of the detecting instrument. They can be divided into two categories, one category is factors which directly affect the position of reticle image, the other category is factors which affect the calculation the center of reticle image. And the Synthesize error is calculated out. And further distribute the errors reasonably to ensure the accuracy of calibration instruments.

  10. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  11. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  12. Improving Accuracy of Intrusion Detection Model Using PCA and optimized SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya Thaseen Ikram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is very essential for providing security to different network domains and is mostly used for locating and tracing the intruders. There are many problems with traditional intrusion detection models (IDS such as low detection capability against unknown network attack, high false alarm rate and insufficient analysis capability. Hence the major scope of the research in this domain is to develop an intrusion detection model with improved accuracy and reduced training time. This paper proposes a hybrid intrusiondetection model by integrating the principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machine (SVM. The novelty of the paper is the optimization of kernel parameters of the SVM classifier using automatic parameter selection technique. This technique optimizes the punishment factor (C and kernel parameter gamma (γ, thereby improving the accuracy of the classifier and reducing the training and testing time. The experimental results obtained on the NSL KDD and gurekddcup dataset show that the proposed technique performs better with higher accuracy, faster convergence speed and better generalization. Minimum resources are consumed as the classifier input requires reduced feature set for optimum classification. A comparative analysis of hybrid models with the proposed model is also performed.

  13. Accuracy of the detection of infratentorial stroke lesions using perfusion CT: an experimenter-blinded study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyouk; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Myeong Sub [Yonsei University, Department of Radiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); You, Joshua H. [Center for Health, Wellness, Fitness, Prevention, and Healing Across the Life Span, Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Rehabilitation Science, Yonsei University, Center for Movement Impairment Solutions, Wonju City (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yong [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Kum [Yonsei University, Department of Neurosurgery, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Although perfusion CT (PCT) for the detection of supratentorial stroke is well established, there is a dearth of evidence of its effectiveness in the detection of infratentorial stroke. Hence, this study compared sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PCT maps between infratentorial and supratentorial stroke lesions. One hundred patients with acute stroke who had successfully undergone near whole-brain PCT with the toggling table technique and follow-up MRI were included. Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was performed at P < 0.01. There was no significant statistical difference in the accuracy (91.79% vs. 93.23% in regional cerebral blood volume; 92.26% vs. 95.31% in regional cerebral blood flow; 89.17% vs. 92.71% in mean transit time; 89.76% vs. 92.19% in time to peak; P > 0.01 in all PCT maps) between supratentorial and infratentorial stroke. Also, there was no remarkable difference in both sensitivity and specificity of PCT maps. This was the first study to investigate the accuracy of PCT with the toggling table technique in detection of infratentorial stroke lesions. Clinically, PCT is highly reliable and accurate in detecting infratentorial stroke lesions. (orig.)

  14. Advancing the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of biomolecular detection using multi-length-scale engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Shana O.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Walt, David R.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; Toner, Mehmet; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in identifying disease biomarkers has increased the importance of creating high-performance detection technologies. Over the last decade, the design of many detection platforms has focused on either the nano or micro length scale. Here, we review recent strategies that combine nano- and microscale materials and devices to produce large improvements in detection sensitivity, speed and accuracy, allowing previously undetectable biomarkers to be identified in clinical samples. Microsensors that incorporate nanoscale features can now rapidly detect disease-related nucleic acids expressed in patient samples. New microdevices that separate large clinical samples into nanocompartments allow precise quantitation of analytes, and microfluidic systems that utilize nanoscale binding events can detect rare cancer cells in the bloodstream more accurately than before. These advances will lead to faster and more reliable clinical diagnostic devices.

  15. Study on Classification Accuracy Inspection of Land Cover Data Aided by Automatic Image Change Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.-J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.-P.; Zhou, J.; Mao, W.-J.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of carrying out national geographic conditions monitoring is to obtain information of surface changes caused by human social and economic activities, so that the geographic information can be used to offer better services for the government, enterprise and public. Land cover data contains detailed geographic conditions information, thus has been listed as one of the important achievements in the national geographic conditions monitoring project. At present, the main issue of the production of the land cover data is about how to improve the classification accuracy. For the land cover data quality inspection and acceptance, classification accuracy is also an important check point. So far, the classification accuracy inspection is mainly based on human-computer interaction or manual inspection in the project, which are time consuming and laborious. By harnessing the automatic high-resolution remote sensing image change detection technology based on the ERDAS IMAGINE platform, this paper carried out the classification accuracy inspection test of land cover data in the project, and presented a corresponding technical route, which includes data pre-processing, change detection, result output and information extraction. The result of the quality inspection test shows the effectiveness of the technical route, which can meet the inspection needs for the two typical errors, that is, missing and incorrect update error, and effectively reduces the work intensity of human-computer interaction inspection for quality inspectors, and also provides a technical reference for the data production and quality control of the land cover data.

  16. Detection of the spatial accuracy of an O-arm in the region of surgical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, Tapani; Katisko, Jani P. A.; Koivukangsa, John P.

    2013-03-01

    Medical imaging is an essential component of a wide range of surgical procedures1. For image guided surgical (IGS) procedures, medical images are the main source of information2. The IGS procedures rely largely on obtained image data, so the data needs to provide differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues, especially when other surgical guidance devices are used in the procedures. The image data also needs to provide accurate spatial representation of the patient3. This research has concentrated on the concept of accuracy assessment of IGS devices to meet the needs of quality assurance in the hospital environment. For this purpose, two precision engineered accuracy assessment phantoms have been developed as advanced materials and methods for the community. The phantoms were designed to mimic the volume of a human head as the common region of surgical interest (ROSI). This paper introduces the utilization of the phantoms in spatial accuracy assessment of a commercial surgical 3D CT scanner, the O-Arm. The study presents methods and results of image quality detection of possible geometrical distortions in the region of surgical interest. The results show that in the pre-determined ROSI there are clear image distortion and artefacts using too high imaging parameters when scanning the objects. On the other hand, when using optimal parameters, the O-Arm causes minimal error in IGS accuracy. The detected spatial inaccuracy of the O-Arm with used parameters was in the range of less than 1.00 mm.

  17. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Xingmin, E-mail: quxingmin@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Gang, E-mail: kqgang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Zuyan, E-mail: zhangzy-bj@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma Xuchen, E-mail: kqxcma@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Nandajie, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A{sub z}) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A{sub z} values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  18. Detection accuracy of in vitro approximal caries by cone beam computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xingmin; Li Gang; Zhang Zuyan; Ma Xuchen

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of approximal carious lesions among five CBCT systems and to assess the effect of detector types employed by different CBCT systems on the accuracy of approximal caries diagnosis. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine extracted non-cavitated human permanent teeth were employed in the study. Seven observers evaluated 78 approximal surfaces of the teeth with respect to caries by the images from the following five CBCT systems: (1) NewTom 9000; (2) Accuitomo 3DX; (3) Kodak 9000 3D; (4) ProMax 3D; and (5) DCT PRO, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (A z ) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results: Microscopy of approximal surfaces found 47.4% sound, 39.8% enamel and 12.8% dentin lesions. The differences of A z values among the five CBCT systems were not statistically significant (p = 0.348). No significant difference was found between the two detector types of CBCT systems (p = 0.47). Conclusions: The five CBCT systems employed in the study showed no significant difference in the in vitro approximal caries detection. Neither the detector nor the FOV employed by the CBCT systems has an impact on the detection accuracy of approximal caries.

  19. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  20. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  1. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached.

  2. The Utility of Military Deception During Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-29

    ZAPU constituency was part of the Matabeles ( Zulu ) warrior class ( tribe ) that dominated the Shona tribes in pre-colonial times. Thus their...MILDEC is useful to counterinsurgents. In particular, the most effective deceptions in counterinsurgent history involve the prudent use of pseudo...In particular, the most effective deceptions in counterinsurgent history involve the prudent use of pseudo operators who are able to generate

  3. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  4. Pro-active data breach detection: examining accuracy and applicability on personal information detected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available breaches but does not provide a clear indication of the level of personal information available on the internet since only reported incidents are taken into account. The possibility of pro-active automated breach detection has previously been discussed as a...

  5. Accuracy of spirometry for detection of asthma: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Andréa Cristina; Paulino, Ana Carolina Botto; Pereira, Luciano Penha; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.

  6. Amplitude Integrated Electroencephalography Compared With Conventional Video EEG for Neonatal Seizure Detection: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Rao, Shripada; Palumbo, Linda; Ghosh, Soumya; Nagarajan, Lakshmi

    2017-08-01

    This diagnostic accuracy study compared the accuracy of seizure detection by amplitude-integrated electroencephalography with the criterion standard conventional video EEG in term and near-term infants at risk of seizures. Simultaneous recording of amplitude-integrated EEG (2-channel amplitude-integrated EEG with raw trace) and video EEG was done for 24 hours for each infant. Amplitude-integrated EEG was interpreted by a neonatologist; video EEG was interpreted by a neurologist independently. Thirty-five infants were included in the analysis. In the 7 infants with seizures on video EEG, there were 169 seizure episodes on video EEG, of which only 57 were identified by amplitude-integrated EEG. Amplitude-integrated EEG had a sensitivity of 33.7% for individual seizure detection. Amplitude-integrated EEG had an 86% sensitivity for detection of babies with seizures; however, it was nonspecific, in that 50% of infants with seizures detected by amplitude-integrated EEG did not have true seizures by video EEG. In conclusion, our study suggests that amplitude-integrated EEG is a poor screening tool for neonatal seizures.

  7. Improving Accuracy of Dempster-Shafer Theory Based Anomaly Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence has been widely used in anomaly detection, there are some issues with them. Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence trusts evidences equally which does not hold in distributed-sensor ADS. Moreover, evidences are dependent with each other sometimes which will lead to false alert. We propose improving by incorporating two algorithms. Features selection algorithm employs Gaussian Graphical Models to discover correlation between some candidate features. A group of suitable ADS were selected to detect and detection result were send to the fusion engine. Information gain is applied to set weight for every feature on Weights estimated algorithm. A weighted Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence combined the detection results to achieve a better accuracy. We evaluate our detection prototype through a set of experiments that were conducted with standard benchmark Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset and real Internet traffic. Evaluations on the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset show that our prototype can find the correlation in nine features and improve the detection rate without affecting the false positive rate. Evaluations on Internet traffic show that Weights estimated algorithm can improve the detection performance significantly.

  8. Assessing the accuracy of TDR-based water leak detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi Aghda, S. M.; GanjaliPour, K.; Nabiollahi, K.

    2018-03-01

    The use of TDR system to detect leakage locations in underground pipes has been developed in recent years. In this system, a bi-wire is installed in parallel with the underground pipes and is considered as a TDR sensor. This approach greatly covers the limitations arisen with using the traditional method of acoustic leak positioning. TDR based leak detection method is relatively accurate when the TDR sensor is in contact with water in just one point. Researchers have been working to improve the accuracy of this method in recent years. In this study, the ability of TDR method was evaluated in terms of the appearance of multi leakage points simultaneously. For this purpose, several laboratory tests were conducted. In these tests in order to simulate leakage points, the TDR sensor was put in contact with water at some points, then the number and the dimension of the simulated leakage points were gradually increased. The results showed that with the increase in the number and dimension of the leakage points, the error rate of the TDR-based water leak detection system increases. The authors tried, according to the results obtained from the laboratory tests, to develop a method to improve the accuracy of the TDR-based leak detection systems. To do that, they defined a few reference points on the TDR sensor. These points were created via increasing the distance between two conductors of TDR sensor and were easily identifiable in the TDR waveform. The tests were repeated again using the TDR sensor having reference points. In order to calculate the exact distance of the leakage point, the authors developed an equation in accordance to the reference points. A comparison between the results obtained from both tests (with and without reference points) showed that using the method and equation developed by the authors can significantly improve the accuracy of positioning the leakage points.

  9. Assessing the accuracy of TDR-based water leak detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fatemi Aghda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of TDR system to detect leakage locations in underground pipes has been developed in recent years. In this system, a bi-wire is installed in parallel with the underground pipes and is considered as a TDR sensor. This approach greatly covers the limitations arisen with using the traditional method of acoustic leak positioning. TDR based leak detection method is relatively accurate when the TDR sensor is in contact with water in just one point. Researchers have been working to improve the accuracy of this method in recent years.In this study, the ability of TDR method was evaluated in terms of the appearance of multi leakage points simultaneously. For this purpose, several laboratory tests were conducted. In these tests in order to simulate leakage points, the TDR sensor was put in contact with water at some points, then the number and the dimension of the simulated leakage points were gradually increased. The results showed that with the increase in the number and dimension of the leakage points, the error rate of the TDR-based water leak detection system increases.The authors tried, according to the results obtained from the laboratory tests, to develop a method to improve the accuracy of the TDR-based leak detection systems. To do that, they defined a few reference points on the TDR sensor. These points were created via increasing the distance between two conductors of TDR sensor and were easily identifiable in the TDR waveform. The tests were repeated again using the TDR sensor having reference points. In order to calculate the exact distance of the leakage point, the authors developed an equation in accordance to the reference points. A comparison between the results obtained from both tests (with and without reference points showed that using the method and equation developed by the authors can significantly improve the accuracy of positioning the leakage points. Keywords: Multiple leakage points, TDR, Reference points

  10. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ... (warnings of player deception) relate to perceptions of deception and task difficulty and in turn how these perceptions relate to the final group game scores in a cooperative effort with conflicting goals...

  11. Accuracy of Daily Lung Ultrasound for the Detection of Pulmonary Edema Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; Co, Ivan; Pandey, Aditya S; Gregory Thompson, B; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna

    2016-04-01

    Early detection of pulmonary edema is vital to appropriate fluid management following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been shown to accurately identify pulmonary edema in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Our objective was to determine the accuracy of daily screening LUS for the detection of pulmonary edema following SAH. Screening LUS was performed in conjunction with daily transcranial doppler for SAH patients within the delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) risk period in our neuroICU. We reviewed records of SAH patients admitted 7/2012-5/2014 who underwent bilateral LUS on at least 5 consecutive days. Ultrasound videos were reviewed by an investigator blinded to the final diagnosis. "B+ lines" were defined as ≥3 B-lines on LUS. Two other investigators blinded to ultrasound results determined whether pulmonary edema with ARF (PE-ARF) was present during the period of evaluation on the basis of independent chart review, with a fourth investigator performing adjudication in the event of disagreement. The diagnostic accuracy of B+ lines for the detection of PE-ARF and RPE was determined. Of 59 patients meeting criteria for inclusion, 21 (36%) had PE-ARF and 26 (44%) had B+ lines. Kappa for inter-rater agreement was 0.821 (p pulmonary edema following SAH and may assist with fluid titration during the risk period for DCI.

  12. No special K! A signal detection framework for the strategic regulation of memory accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Philip A

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments investigated criterion setting and metacognitive processes underlying the strategic regulation of accuracy on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) using Type-2 signal detection theory (SDT). In Experiment 1, report bias was manipulated by penalizing participants either 0.25 (low incentive) or 4 (high incentive) points for each error. Best guesses to unanswered items were obtained so that Type-2 signal detection indices of discrimination and bias could be calculated. The same incentive manipulation was used in Experiment 2, only the test was computerized, confidence ratings were taken so that receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves could be generated, and feedback was manipulated. The results of both experiments demonstrated that SDT provides a viable alternative to A. Koriat and M. Goldsmith's (1996c) framework of monitoring and control and reveals information about the regulation of accuracy that their framework does not. For example, ROC analysis indicated that the threshold model implied by formula scoring is inadequate. Instead, performance on the SAT should be modeled with an equal-variance Gaussian, Type-2 signal detection model. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen to detect colorectal cancer recurrence – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Caspar G; Karlsson, William K; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) has been used as a tumor marker in the follow-up of colorectal cancer for more than 40 years. Controversy exists regarding its diagnostic applicability due to a relatively low sensitivity and a questionable effect on mortality. The aim of this review...... was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CEA in detecting recurrence after intended curative surgery for primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, and articles were chosen based on predefined inclusion criteria. Reference lists...

  15. Accuracy of ultrasonography in the detection of severe hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A E; Mohammed, H

    1992-04-01

    The accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of feline hepatic lipidosis was studied retrospectively. The following ultrasonographic criteria were associated positively with severe hepatic lipidosis: the liver hyperechoic, compared with falciform fat; the liver isoechoic or hyperechoic, compared with omental fat; poor visualization of intrahepatic vessel borders; and increased attenuation of sound by the liver. In a group of 36 cats with clinically apparent hepatobiliary disease and in which liver biopsy was done, liver hyperechoic, compared with falciform fat, was the best criterion for diagnosis of severe hepatic lipidosis with 91% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100% positive predictive value.

  16. Liar! Liar! Deception Detection in 2035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    How would you know?‖ retorts her companion Nova. ―You were barely out of diapers yourself when that event happened. That‘s ancient history!‖ ―I know...40 Alton Crawford Walter Brown is the part scientist-part chef who hosts Food Network‟s “Iron Chef America” and “Good Eats” programs. On the

  17. Detection of Active Topology Probing Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the probing host and day, which contain traceroute data across all /24 prefixes in the routed IPv4 address space. Luckie [21] designed Scam - per to be...1 0 4067 0 0 0 0 1 69 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 70 List of References [1] ATIS Committee PRQC. (2015). ATIS Telecom Glossary. [ Online ...Werber. (2013, Feb). Star Wars Traceroute. [ Online ]. Available: http: //beaglenetworks.net/post/42707829171/star-wars-traceroute [4] (2015). Virtual

  18. Detecting deception: the scope and limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila E; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William

    2008-01-01

    has been put into their development, paradigms are still inadequate. The problems that bedevilled the old technology have not been eliminated by the new. Advances will only be possible if experiments are designed that take account of the intentions of the subject and the context in which these occur...

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-brain CT perfusion in the detection of acute infratentorial infarctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollwein, Christine; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Plate, Annika; Straube, Andreas; Baumgarten, Louisa von [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [South Nuremberg Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes. Two blinded readers evaluated NECT and four different CTP maps independently for the presence and location of infratentorial ischemic perfusion deficits. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study and included 280 patients (cases/controls = 1/3). WB-CTP revealed a greater diagnostic sensitivity than NECT (41.4 vs. 17.1 %, P = 0.003). The specificity, however, was comparable (93.3 vs. 95.0 %). Mean transit time (MTT) and time to drain (TTD) were the most sensitive (41.4 and 40.0 %) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) the most specific (99.5 %) perfusion maps. Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml; P = 0.0007); infarct location, however, did not influence the detection rate. The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-brain CT perfusion in the detection of acute infratentorial infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollwein, Christine; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Plate, Annika; Straube, Andreas; Baumgarten, Louisa von; Janssen, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes. Two blinded readers evaluated NECT and four different CTP maps independently for the presence and location of infratentorial ischemic perfusion deficits. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study and included 280 patients (cases/controls = 1/3). WB-CTP revealed a greater diagnostic sensitivity than NECT (41.4 vs. 17.1 %, P = 0.003). The specificity, however, was comparable (93.3 vs. 95.0 %). Mean transit time (MTT) and time to drain (TTD) were the most sensitive (41.4 and 40.0 %) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) the most specific (99.5 %) perfusion maps. Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml; P = 0.0007); infarct location, however, did not influence the detection rate. The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. (orig.)

  1. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  2. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that…

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal echocardiogram for the detection of patent foramen ovale: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Bogush, Nikolay; Caceres, Jose Diego; Msaouel, Pavlos; Tobis, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a remnant of the fetal circulation present in 20% of the population. Right-to-left shunting (RLS) through a PFO has been linked to the pathophysiology of stroke, migraine with aura, and hypoxemia. While different imaging modalities including transcranial Doppler, intra-cardiac echo, and transthoracic echo (TTE) have often been used to detect RLS, transesophageal echo (TEE) bubble study remains the gold standard for diagnosing PFO. The aim of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO. A systematic review of Medline, using a standard approach for meta-analysis, was performed for all prospective studies assessing accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO using confirmation by autopsy, cardiac surgery, and/or catheterization as the reference. Search results revealed 3105 studies; 4 met inclusion criteria. A total of 164 patients were included. TEE had a weighted sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI: 81.1-94.7%) and specificity of 91.4% (95% CI: 82.3-96.8%) to detect PFO. The overall positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 5.93 (95% CI: 1.30-27.09) and the overall negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.56). While TEE bubble study is considered to be the gold standard modality for diagnosing PFO, some PFOs may still be missed or misdiagnosed. It is important to understand the limitations of TEE and perhaps use other highly sensitive screening tests, such as transcranial doppler (TCD), in conjunction with TEE before scheduling a patient for transcatheter PFO closure. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ascites Fluid Gross Appearance in Detection of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Hosseininejad, Seyed Mohammad; Montazer, Hosein; Bozorgi, Farzad; Goli Khatir, Iraj; Jahanian, Fateme; Raee, Behnaz

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) as a monomicrobial infection of ascites fluid is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. This study was aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ascites fluid color in detection of SBP in cirrhotic cases referred to the emergency department. Cirrhotic patients referred to the ED for the paracentesis of ascites fluid were enrolled. For all studied patients, the results of laboratory analysis and gross appearance of ascites fluid registered and reviewed by two emergency medicine specialists. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ration of the ascites fluid gross appearance in detection of SBP were measured with 95% confidence interval. The present project was performed in 80 cirrhotic patients with ascites (52.5 female). The mean of the subjects' age was 56.25±12.21 years (35-81). Laboratory findings revealed SBP in 23 (29%) cases. Fifty nine (73%) cases had transparent ascites fluid appearance of whom 17 (29%) ones suffered from SBP. From 21 (26%) cases with opaque ascites appearance, 15 (71%) had SBP. The sensitivity and specificity of the ascites fluid appearance in detection of SBP were 46.88% (Cl: 30.87-63.55) and 87.50% (95% Cl: 75.3-94.14), respectively. It seems that the gross appearance of ascites fluid had poor diagnostic accuracy in detection of SBP and considering its low sensitivity, it could not be used as a good screening tool for this propose.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ascites Fluid Gross Appearance in Detection of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP as a monomicrobial infection of ascites fluid is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. This study was aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ascites fluid color in detection of SBP in cirrhotic cases referred to the emergency department. Methods: Cirrhotic patients referred to the ED for the paracentesis of ascites fluid were enrolled. For all studied patients, the results of laboratory analysis and gross appearance of ascites fluid registered and reviewed by two emergency medicine specialists. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ration of the ascites fluid gross appearance in detection of SBP were measured with 95% confidence interval. Results: The present project was performed in 80 cirrhotic patients with ascites (52.5 female. The mean of the subjects’ age was 56.25±12.21 years (35-81. Laboratory findings revealed SBP in 23 (29% cases. Fifty nine (73% cases had transparent ascites fluid appearance of whom 17 (29% ones suffered from SBP. From 21 (26% cases with opaque ascites appearance, 15 (71% had SBP. The sensitivity and specificity of the ascites fluid appearance in detection of SBP were 46.88% (Cl: 30.87-63.55 and 87.50% (95% Cl: 75.3-94.14, respectively. Conclusion: It seems that the gross appearance of ascites fluid had poor diagnostic accuracy in detection of SBP and considering its low sensitivity, it could not be used as a good screening tool for this propose.

  6. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  7. A systematic review on diagnostic accuracy of CT-based detection of significant coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janne d'Othee, Bertrand; Siebert, Uwe; Cury, Ricardo; Jadvar, Hossein; Dunn, Edward J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced coronary computed tomography (CE-CCT). Background: Noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) by CE-CCT as an alternative to catheter-based coronary angiography (CCA) may improve patient management. Methods: Forty-one articles published between 1997 and 2006 were included that evaluated native coronary arteries for significant stenosis and used CE-CCT as diagnostic test and CCA as reference standard. Study group characteristics, study methodology and diagnostic outcomes were extracted. Pooled summary sensitivity and specificity of CE-CCT were calculated using a random effects model (1) for all coronary segments, (2) assessable segments, and (3) per patient. Results: The 41 studies totaled 2515 patients (75% males; mean age: 59 years, CAS prevalence: 59%). Analysis of all coronary segments yielded a sensitivity of 95% (80%, 89%, 86%, 98% for electron beam CT, 4/8-slice, 16-slice and 64-slice MDCT, respectively) for a specificity of 85% (77%, 84%, 95%, 91%). Analysis limited to segments deemed assessable by CT showed sensitivity of 96% (86%, 85%, 98%, 97%) for a specificity of 95% (90%, 96%, 96%, 96%). Per patient, sensitivity was 99% (90%, 97%, 99%, 98%) and specificity was 76% (59%, 81%, 83%, 92%). Heterogeneity was quantitatively important but not explainable by patient group characteristics or study methodology. Conclusions: Current diagnostic accuracy of CE-CCT is high. Advances in CT technology have resulted in increases in diagnostic accuracy and proportion of assessable coronary segments. However, per patient, accuracy may be lower and CT may have more limited clinical utility in populations at high risk for CAD

  8. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  9. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  10. A new device for liver cancer biomarker detection with high accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaipeng Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cantilever array-based bio-sensor was batch-fabricated with IC compatible MEMS technology for precise liver cancer bio-marker detection. A micro-cavity was designed in the free end of the cantilever for local antibody-immobilization, thus adsorption of the cancer biomarker is localized in the micro-cavity, and the adsorption-induced k variation can be dramatically reduced with comparison to that caused by adsorption of the whole lever. The cantilever is pizeoelectrically driven into vibration which is pizeoresistively sensed by Wheatstone bridge. These structural features offer several advantages: high sensitivity, high throughput, high mass detection accuracy, and small volume. In addition, an analytical model has been established to eliminate the effect of adsorption-induced lever stiffness change and has been applied to precise mass detection of cancer biomarker AFP, the detected AFP antigen mass (7.6 pg/ml is quite close to the calculated one (5.5 pg/ml, two orders of magnitude better than the value by the fully antibody-immobilized cantilever sensor. These approaches will promote real application of the cantilever sensors in early diagnosis of cancer.

  11. Accuracy of digital peripical radiography and cone-beam computed tomography in detecting external root resorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, Adriana Gabriela [Division of Dental Diagnostic Science, Rutgers School of Dental Medicine, Newark (United States); Geha, Hassem; Sankar, Vidya; Mcmahan, Clyde Alex; Noujeim, Marcel [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio (United States); Teixeira, Fabrico B. [Dept. of Endodontics, University of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital intraoral radiography in diagnosing simulated small external root resorption cavities. Cavities were drilled in 159 roots using a small spherical bur at different root levels and on all surfaces. The teeth were imaged both with intraoral digital radiography using image plates and with CBCT. Two sets of intraoral images were acquired per tooth: orthogonal (PA) which was the conventional periapical radiograph and mesioangulated (SET). Four readers were asked to rate their confidence level in detecting and locating the lesions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of each modality in detecting the presence of lesions, the affected surface, and the affected level. Analysis of variation was used to compare the results and kappa analysis was used to evaluate interobserver agreement. A significant difference in the area under the ROC curves was found among the three modalities (P=0.0002), with CBCT (0.81) having a significantly higher value than PA (0.71) or SET (0.71). PA was slightly more accurate than SET, but the difference was not statistically significant. CBCT was also superior in locating the affected surface and level. CBCT has already proven its superiority in detecting multiple dental conditions, and this study shows it to likewise be superior in detecting and locating incipient external root resorption.

  12. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A.-M., E-mail: annemarie.roos@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom); Abdool, Z. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.-M.; Abdool, Z.; Sultan, A.H.; Thakar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B and K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. Results: On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Conclusion: Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect.

  15. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...... to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study...

  16. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Nonmydriatic Fundus Photography for the Detection of Glaucoma in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Muñoz-Negrete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the diagnostic accuracy for glaucoma of a set of criteria with nonmydriatic monoscopic fundus photography (NMFP in diabetics. Methods. Diabetics recruited from a screening program for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic glaucoma patients recruited from our glaucoma unit were included. Any patient with evidence of diabetic retinopathy was excluded. Diabetic patients had to have no visual field defects to be included as controls. Glaucoma patients had to have a glaucomatous field defect in at least one eye to be included. One NMFP was taken per eye for all subjects. These photographs were evaluated by two masked glaucoma specialists for the presence of the following: bilateral cup to disc (C/D ratio ≥0.6, notching or thinning of the neuroretinal rim, disc hemorrhages, and asymmetry in the C/D ratio between both eyes ≥0.2. This evaluation led to a dichotomous classification: if any of the above criteria was present, the patient was classified as glaucoma. If none were present, the patient was classified as normal. Results. 72 control subjects and 72 glaucoma patients were included. Evaluation of NMFP had a sensitivity of 79.17% and a specificity of 80.56% for specialist 1 and a sensitivity of 72.22% and a specificity of 88.88% for specialist 2 for the detection of glaucoma. The overall accuracy was 79.83% and 80.55%, respectively. Discussion. NMFP evaluation by a glaucoma specialist may be useful for the detection of glaucoma in diabetics.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of serum activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Roghaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP still remains a main cause of maternal mortalities. This study is designed to evaluate the accuracy of serum Activin A in detection of ectopic pregnancy. Methods : This prospective observational study was conducted from 2009 to 2010 at two main referral university hospitals, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Two hundred subjects who were under 10 week′s pregnancy with clinical presentations of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding were enrolled. After sampling serum Activin A, patients underwent ultrasonography, titer of B-HCG and surgery (if indicated and were divided into two groups: EP (n = 100 and intrauterine pregnancy (IUP (n = 100. The mean of Activin A was compared between groups and by ROC curve, the optimal cut off with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were determined. Results : The mean age of women with IUP was 25.4 ± 4.3 years (15-40 years compared with 25.9 ± 4.1 years in women in EP group (P = 0.448. Statistical difference was not found between EP versus IUP groups in gestational age (6.32 ± 1.03 vs. 6.85 ± 1.82 weeks, P = 0.124. The mean of serum Activin A in EP group was 0.264 ± 0.0703 ng/ml versus 0.949 ± 0.5283 ng/ml in IUP group (P < 0.05. According to ROC curve (area under the curve = 0.981, P < 0.05, confidence interval: 0.961-1.000, the optimal cut off was estimated as 0.504 ng/ml with sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 93.5%. Conclusion : This study indicated that the mean of serum Activin A is lower in EP compared with IUP. The serum Activin A has a fair accuracy in detecting EP.

  19. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A Storm

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts, Up (Jawbone, One (Fitbit, ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc., Tractivity (Kineteks Corp. and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia. Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  20. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  1. Multidetector CT of the coronary imaging: assessment of image quality and accuracy in detecting stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Meiping; Liu Qishun; Liu Hui; Liang Changhong; Zhang Shaobin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the image quality of 64-multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) and the clinical accuracy in detecting coronary artery lesions. Methods: One hundred and five patients were studied by MDCT. The results were compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Patients were excluded for atrial fibrillation, but not for high heart rate, coronary calcification, or obesity. MDCT was analyzed with regard to image quality and presence of coronary artery lesions. Results: The data evaluation of the image quality was based on a total of 1365 segments (13 coronary segments for each patient), of which 1144 segments were considered to have diagnostic image quality, but 221 segments (16.2%) could not be sufficiently evaluated because of severe calcifications (153 segments) and motion artifacts (68 segments). The median calcium score [Agatston score equivalent (ASE)] was 154 (range 0--1983). 87 of the 105 patients had an ASE of less than 1,000 [median 105 (range 0-994)], and 18 patients had an ASE greater than 1000 [median 1477 (range 1115-1983)]. For detecting lesions with 50% or greater narrowing (without any exclusion criteria), the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85.7%, 97.9%, 93.0%, and 95.5%, respectively. When limiting the number of patients to those with a calcium score of less than 1000 ASE, the threshold- corrected sensitivity for lesions with 50% or greater narrowing was 96.0%; specificity, 98.9%; positive predictive value, 95.3%; and negative predictive value, 99.0%. Conclusion: Our results indicate high quantitative and qualitative diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in comparison to QCA in a broad spectrum of patients. (authors)

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Methods for Detection of Diabetic Sensory Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, A. R.; Alvi, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of clinical methods for detection of sensory neuropathy as compared to biothesiometry. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: 1 Mountain Medical Battalion, Azad Kashmir, from October 2013 to September 2014. Methodology: Patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled by convenience sampling. Exclusion criteria included other identifiable causes of neuropathy, extensive ulceration of feet, amputated feet, those on treatment for neuropathy and unwilling patients. Average of 3 vibration perception threshold values measured with a biothesiometer on distal hallux was calculated. Ten gm monofilament was used to examine touch sensation over dorsal surfaces of great toes. Vibration sensation was checked over the tips of great toes using 128Hz tuning fork. Ankle jerks were checked bilaterally. Result: Neuropathy (vibration perception threshold > 25 volts) was present in 34 (21.12 percentage) out of 161 patients and 93 (57.76 percentage) were symptomatic. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for monofilament, tuning fork and ankle jerks were: sensitivity 41.18 percentage, 55.88 percentage and 64.71 percentage; specificity 92.91 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 80.31 percentage; positive predictive value (PPV) 60.87 percentage, 70.37 percentage and 46.81 percentage; negative predictive value (NPV) 85.51 percentage, 88.81 percentage and 89.47 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 81.99 percentage, 85.71 percentage and 77.02 percentage, respectively. Values for any 1 positive sign, any 2 positive signs or all 3 positive signs were: sensitivity 35.29 percentage, 14.71 percentage and 32.35 percentage; specificity 81.89 percentage, 93.70 percentage and 99.21 percentage; PPV 34.29 percentage, 38.46 percentage and 91.67 percentage; NPV 82.54 percentage, 80.41 percentage and 84.56 percentage; and, diagnostic accuracy 72.05 percentage, 77.02 percentage and 85.09 percentage, respectively. Conclusion: Clinical methods are

  3. Response bias in judging deceptive movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two not mutually exclusive explanations, perceptual and motor expertise, account for the finding that experts outperform novices in recognizing deceptive actions from bodily (kinematic) cues. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we sought to examine the impact of motor and perceptual

  4. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresent the type, kind, grade, quality, quantity, metallic content, size, weight, cut, color, character..., distribution, or any other material aspect of an industry product. Note 1 to § 23.1: If, in the sale or..., the identity of the grading system used should be disclosed. Note 2 to § 23.1: To prevent deception...

  5. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  6. Are computers effective lie detectors? A meta-analysis of linguistic cues to deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauch, Valerie; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Masip, Jaume; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2015-11-01

    This meta-analysis investigates linguistic cues to deception and whether these cues can be detected with computer programs. We integrated operational definitions for 79 cues from 44 studies where software had been used to identify linguistic deception cues. These cues were allocated to six research questions. As expected, the meta-analyses demonstrated that, relative to truth-tellers, liars experienced greater cognitive load, expressed more negative emotions, distanced themselves more from events, expressed fewer sensory-perceptual words, and referred less often to cognitive processes. However, liars were not more uncertain than truth-tellers. These effects were moderated by event type, involvement, emotional valence, intensity of interaction, motivation, and other moderators. Although the overall effect size was small, theory-driven predictions for certain cues received support. These findings not only further our knowledge about the usefulness of linguistic cues to detect deception with computers in applied settings but also elucidate the relationship between language and deception. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Accuracy of the Spot and Plusoptix photoscreeners for detection of astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescioni, Mabel; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the Spot (V2.0.16) and Plusoptix S12 (ROC4, V6.1.4.0) photoscreeners in detecting astigmatism meeting AAPOS referral criteria in students from a population with high prevalence of astigmatism. Students attending grades 3-8 on the Tohono O'odham reservation were examined. Screening was attempted with both the Spot and Plusoptix photoscreeners. Results were compared to cycloplegic refraction. Screening attempts providing no estimate of refractive error were considered fail/refer. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of refractive errors were determined using AAPOS referral criteria and receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) analysis was conducted for measures of astigmatism. Agreement between screening and cycloplegic refraction measurements of astigmatism, spherical equivalent, and anisometropia were assessed using t tests and correlation analyses. A total of 209 students were included. Of the total, 116 (55%) met examination-positive criteria based on cycloplegic refraction, with 105 of those (90%) meeting the criterion for astigmatism. Measurements success rates were 97% for Spot and 54% for Plusoptix. Comparing the Spot and the Plusoptix, sensitivity was 96% versus 100%, specificity was 87% versus 61%, PPV was 90% versus 76%, and NPV was 94% versus 100% for detection of refractive error. Both screeners overestimated astigmatism by 1/3 D to 2/3 D. AUC for astigmatism was 0.97 for Spot and 0.83 for Plusoptix. In this highly astigmatic population, the Spot and the Plusoptix had similar sensitivity, but the Spot had better specificity and measurement success rates. Compared with results from study samples with lower rates of astigmatism, our results highlight the need to assess the ability of screening instruments to detect individual types of refractive errors. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gameren, Ingrid I.; Hazenberg, BPC; Bijzet, J.; van Rijswijk, M.H.

    Objective. Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is a simple and fast method for detecting systemic amyloidosis; however, the sensitivity of this approach remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and the

  10. Accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) with iotroxate in the detection of choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Robert N.; Vincent, Janette M.; Speer, Tony; Noack, Keith; Collier, Neil A.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of computed tomographic intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) for detection of choledocholithiasis. Sixty-five patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) underwent CT-IVC prior to ERC, using a single detector helical CT following intravenous infusion of 100 ml iotroxate. Patients with bilirubin levels >3 times normal were excluded. ERC was indeterminate in three patients (4.7%) and CT-IVC in four (6.3%). Twenty-three patients had ductal calculi at ERC, and CT-IVC was positive in 22, with two false positives and one false negative: sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 94.3%. Stones were multiple in nine and solitary in 14. Of the 14 solitary stones, ten were ≤5 mm and eight were ≤4 mm. The bilirubin level in positive cases was within normal in 20. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats showed stones in only 27% of cases and surface rendered (SR) reformats in none. CT-IVC is highly accurate for detection of ductal calculi, including single small calculi, with a normal or near normal serum bilirubin. Axial images should be used for interpretation rather than MIP or SR reformats. (orig.)

  11. Accuracy Analysis Comparison of Supervised Classification Methods for Anomaly Detection on Levees Using SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakalavathi Marapareddy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the use of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery to support levee condition assessment by detecting potential slide areas in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Levees are prone to a failure in the form of internal erosion within the earthen structure and landslides (also called slough or slump slides. If not repaired, slough slides may lead to levee failures. In this paper, we compare the accuracy of the supervised classification methods minimum distance (MD using Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance, support vector machine (SVM, and maximum likelihood (ML, using SAR technology to detect slough slides on earthen levees. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR. The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  12. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Audureau, Etienne [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Forensic, Paris (France); Fitton, Isabelle [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  13. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre; Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury; Audureau, Etienne; Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand; Fitton, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of the accuracy of AortaScan for detection of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A; Smith, A; Cecelja, M; Waltham, M

    2012-02-01

    AortaScan AMI 9700 is a portable 3D ultrasound device that automatically measures the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta without the need for a trained sonographer. It is designed to rapidly diagnose or exclude an AAA and may have particular use in screening programs. Our objective was to determine its accuracy to detect AAA. Subjects from our AAA screening and surveillance programs were examined. The aorta was scanned using the AortaScan and computed tomography (CT). Ninety-one subjects underwent imaging (44 AAA on conventional ultrasound surveillance and 47 controls). The largest measurement obtained by AortaScan was compared against the CT-aortic measurement. The mean aortic diameter was 2.8 cm. The CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of AAA in 43 subjects. There was one false positive measurement on conventional ultrasound. AortaScan missed the diagnosis of AAA in eight subjects. There were thirteen false positive measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 81%, 72%, 72% and 81% respectively. A device to detect AAA without the need for a trained operator would have potential in a community-based screening programme. The AortaScan, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and significant technical improvement is necessary before it could be considered a replacement for trained screening personnel. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of advanced colorectal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollub, M.J.; Grewal, R.K.; Panu, N.; Thipphavong, S.; Sohn, M.; Zheng, J.; Moskowitz, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) in the detection of advanced colorectal adenomas. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, patient consent was waived by the institutional review board. Combined FDG whole-body PET and computed tomography (CT) images (2000–2009) were re-read and compared with reports of complete colonoscopy performed up to 1 year after the PET examination. One or more areas of focal colonic uptake greater than the background indicated a positive PET result, irrespective of standardized uptake value (SUV). Lesion and patient-level measures of PET accuracy with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: One hundred and eighty patients undergoing colonoscopy with or without biopsy underwent PET within 1 year prior to colonoscopy. There were 92 women and 88 men (mean age 63.3 years). Indications for PET were extent of disease and treatment response in all cases. Patients had non-colorectal cancer (n = 160) or colon cancer (n = 20). One hundred and fourteen FDG-avid lesions were present. In 33, there was no colonoscopic correlate. Two hundred and fifty-eight biopsies revealed tubular adenomas (n = 91, one with intra-mucosal cancer), tubulovillous adenomas (n = 28), adenocarcinoma (n = 37), inflammation (n = 22), hyperplastic polyps (n = 54), serrated adenoma (n = 5), metastatic disease (n = 5), normal/benign mucosa or submucosal benign tumors (n = 13) or miscellaneous (n = 3). Per-lesion performance of PET showed a sensitivity of 38% (95% CI: 31–46; 64/167) for all adenomas and carcinomas and 58% (95% CI: 49–67; 57/98) for lesions ≥10 mm. At the patient level, for all adenomas and carcinomas the sensitivity was 54% (95% CI: 44–63; 61/113), specificity 100% (pre-defined), positive predictive value (PPV) 100% (pre-defined), and negative predictive value (NPV) 56% (95% CI: 47–65; 67/119). For patients with advanced

  16. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M. Raheel; Hong, Melissa J.; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into “true” and “lie” classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph. PMID:26082733

  17. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raheel eBhutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into true and lie classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of a Novel Mobile Phone Application for the Detection and Monitoring of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Guy; Vaid, Jeena; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammadreza; Kaadan, M Ihsan; Rafael, Allon; Roka, Attila; Poh, Yukkee C; Poh, Ming-Zher; Heist, Edwin Kevin; Ruskin, Jeremy Neil

    2018-05-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in adults, associated with significant morbidity, increased mortality, and rising health-care costs. Simple and available tools for the accurate detection of arrhythmia recurrence in patients after electrical cardioversion (CV) or ablation procedures for AF can help to guide therapeutic decisions. We conducted a prospective, single-center study to evaluate the accuracy of Cardiio Rhythm Mobile Application (CRMA) for AF detection. Patients >18 years of age who were scheduled for elective CV for AF were enrolled in the study. CRMA finger pulse recordings, utilizing an iPhone camera, were obtained before (pre-CV) and after (post-CV) the CV. The findings were validated against surface electrocardiograms. Ninety-eight patients (75.5% men), mean age of 67.7 ± 10.5 years, were enrolled. No electrocardiogram for validation was available in 1 case. Pre-CV CRMA readings were analyzed in 97 of the 98 patients. Post-CV CRMA readings were analyzed for 92 of 93 patients who underwent CV. One patient left before the recording was obtained. The Cardiio Rhythm Mobile Application correctly identified 94 of 101 AF recordings (93.1%) as AF and 80 of 88 non-AF recordings (90.1%) as non-AF. The sensitivity was 93.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.9% to 97.2%) and the specificity was 90.9% (95% CI = 82.9% to 96.0%). The positive predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI = 85.8% to 95.8%) and the negative predictive value was 92.0% (95% CI = 94.8% to 95.9%). In conclusion, the CRMA demonstrates promising potential in accurate detection and discrimination of AF from normal sinus rhythm in patients with a history of AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The diagnostic accuracy of endovaginal and transperineal ultrasound for detecting anal sphincter defects: The PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A-M; Abdool, Z; Sultan, A H; Thakar, R

    2011-07-01

    To determine the accuracy and predictive value of transperineal (TPU) and endovaginal ultrasound (EVU) in the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with obstetric anal sphincter injuries and/or postpartum symptoms of faecal incontinence. One hundred and sixty-five women were recruited, four women were excluded as they were seen years after their last delivery. TPU and EVU, followed by endonanal ultrasound (EAU), were performed using the B&K Viking 2400 scanner. Sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values with 95% confidence intervals, for detecting anal sphincter defects were calculated for EVU and TPU, using EAU as the reference standard. On EAU a defect was found in 42 (26%) women: 39 (93%) had an external (EAS) and 23 (55%) an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. Analysable images of one level of the EAS combined with an analysable IAS were available in 140 (87%) women for EVU and in 131 (81%) for TPU. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of any defect was 48% (30-67%) and 85% (77-91%) for EVU and 64% (44-81%) and 85% (77-91%) for TPU, respectively. Although EAU using a rotating endoprobe is the validated reference standard in the identification of anal sphincter defects, it is not universally available. However while TPU and/or EVU with conventional ultrasound probes can be useful in identifying normality, for clinical purposes they are not sensitive enough to identify an underlying sphincter defect. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Accuracy of Pulse Spectroscopy for Detecting Hypoxemia and Coexisting Methemoglobin or Carboxyhemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcke, Axel; Feiner, John; Menn, Ingolf; Holmer, Amadeus; Hayoz, Josef; Bickler, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Pulse spectroscopy is a new noninvasive technology involving hundreds of wavelengths of visible and infrared light, enabling the simultaneous quantitation of multiple types of normal and dysfunctional hemoglobin. We evaluated the accuracy of a first-generation pulse spectroscopy system (V-Spec™ Monitoring System, Senspec, Germany) in measuring oxygen saturation (SpO2) and detecting carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) or methemoglobin (MetHb), alone or simultaneously, with hypoxemia. Nineteen volunteers were fitted with V-Spec probes on the forehead and fingers. A radial arterial catheter was placed for blood sampling during (1) hypoxemia with arterial oxygen saturations (SaO2) of 100% to 58.5%; (2) normoxia with MetHb and COHb increased to approximately 10%; (3) 10% COHb or MetHb combined with hypoxemia with SaO2 of 100% to 80%. Standard measures of pulse-oximetry performance were calculated: bias (pulse spectroscopy measured value - arterial measured value) mean ± SD and root-mean-square error (Arms). The SpO2 bias for SaO2 approximately 60% to 100% was 0.06% ± 1.30% and Arms of 1.30%. COHb bias was 0.45 ± 1.63, with an Arms of 1.69% overall, and did not degrade substantially during moderate hypoxemia. MetHb bias was 0.36 ± 0.80 overall and stayed small with hypoxemia. Arms was 0.88 and was 10%. Pulse spectroscopy accurately detects hypoxemia, MetHb, and COHb. The technology also accurately detects these dysfunctional hemoglobins during hypoxemia. Future releases of this device may have an improved SpO2 algorithm that is more robust with methemoglobinemia.

  1. Verbal lie detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, Aldert; Taylor, Paul J.; Picornell, Isabel; Oxburgh, Gavin; Myklebust, Trond; Grant, Tim; Milne, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss verbal lie detection and will argue that speech content can be revealing about deception. Starting with a section discussing the, in our view, myth that non-verbal behaviour would be more revealing about deception than speech, we then provide an overview of verbal lie

  2. The Art of Deception and the Role of Intelligence Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.

    2016-01-01

    Is deception an art? And if so, what role might it have in military intelligence education? To offer some answers to the these questions, the paper draws upon the discovery phase of efforts to synchronize deception theory, research, practice, in order to develop a post-graduate military deception...... course for a military intelligence studies. In doing so, it reflects upon the recognition afforded from discovery to creativity, innovation, science, doctrine, and ethics, within the studies of deception and the construct of military deception itself. It follows with bridge building between theory...... and practice through the adaptive use of Boyds Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) and a target centric intelligence approach to explain the dynamics concerning military intelligence in warfighting. These initial findings suggest that deception, as part of a post-graduate military intelligence education, not only...

  3. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  4. Evaluating the accuracy of low cost UAV generated topography and its effectiveness for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen

    2015-04-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion (SfM) software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than 850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 4 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after the 2014 typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. The accuracy of the SfM point clouds depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface being considered, with vegetation and small scale texture causing inaccuracies. However, we

  5. Accuracy of computed tomography-intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) in detection of choledocholithiasis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.; Speer, A.G.; Collier, N.A.; Vincent, J.M.; Jardine, C.; Noack, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of computed tomography-intravenous cholangiography (CT-IVC) in the detection of choledocholithiasis, compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). 65 patients undergoing ERC had CT-IVC within 24 hours prior to ERC. Helical CT-IVC was performed following intravenous infusion of 100ml Biliscopin (Schering, Berlin). 2mm beam collimation was used with axial reformats at 1.5mm intervals used for image interpretation. Patients with serum bilirubin levels>3 times normal were excluded. CT-IVC and ERC studies were interpreted independently, and studies were graded as positive, negative or indeterminate for the presence of ductal calculi. 65 patients had a median age of 56 years. Median serum bilirubin at the time of CT-IVC was 13 mmol/L (range 5-47). ERC was indeterminate in 3 patients (4.7%) and CT-IVC in 4 (6.3%). 23 patients had ductal calculi on ERC and CT-IVC was positive in 22 (sensitivity 96%). False positive rate for CT-IVC was 8.3% with positive and negative predictive values of 92% and 97% respectively. Stones' size range was 4-16mm. Of the 14 solitary stones, 10 were pound 5mm and 8 pound 4mm.The bilirubin level in the positive cases was within the normal range in 20, with a range of 7-37 mmol/L. CT-IVC is highly accurate for detection of ductal calculi, including single small calculi, in patients with a serum bilirubin of <3 times normal. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of tablet-based software for the detection of concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suosuo; Flores, Benjamin; Magal, Rotem; Harris, Kyrsti; Gross, Jonathan; Ewbank, Amy; Davenport, Sasha; Ormachea, Pablo; Nasser, Waleed; Le, Weidong; Peacock, W Frank; Katz, Yael; Eagleman, David M

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there are few rapid and straightforward tests to improve its assessment. To this end, we developed a tablet-based software battery ("BrainCheck") for concussion detection that is well suited to sports, emergency department, and clinical settings. This article is a study of the diagnostic accuracy of BrainCheck. We administered BrainCheck to 30 TBI patients and 30 pain-matched controls at a hospital Emergency Department (ED), and 538 healthy individuals at 10 control test sites. We compared the results of the tablet-based assessment against physician diagnoses derived from brain scans, clinical examination, and the SCAT3 test, a traditional measure of TBI. We found consistent distributions of normative data and high test-retest reliability. Based on these assessments, we defined a composite score that distinguishes TBI from non-TBI individuals with high sensitivity (83%) and specificity (87%). We conclude that our testing application provides a rapid, portable testing method for TBI.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of tablet-based software for the detection of concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suosuo Yang

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI, there are few rapid and straightforward tests to improve its assessment. To this end, we developed a tablet-based software battery ("BrainCheck" for concussion detection that is well suited to sports, emergency department, and clinical settings. This article is a study of the diagnostic accuracy of BrainCheck. We administered BrainCheck to 30 TBI patients and 30 pain-matched controls at a hospital Emergency Department (ED, and 538 healthy individuals at 10 control test sites. We compared the results of the tablet-based assessment against physician diagnoses derived from brain scans, clinical examination, and the SCAT3 test, a traditional measure of TBI. We found consistent distributions of normative data and high test-retest reliability. Based on these assessments, we defined a composite score that distinguishes TBI from non-TBI individuals with high sensitivity (83% and specificity (87%. We conclude that our testing application provides a rapid, portable testing method for TBI.

  8. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. evolution converges to a behavior unrelated to the desired solution. More specifically, cognitive behaviors often require accumulating neural structure that provides no immediate fitness benefit, and evolution often thus converges to non-cognitive solutions. To investigate this hypothesis, a common...... evolutionary robotics T-Maze domain is adapted in three separate ways to require agents to communicate, remember, and learn. Indicative of deception, evolution driven by objective-based fitness often converges upon simple non- cognitive behaviors. In contrast, evolution driven to explore novel behaviors, i...

  9. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. The effect of Linkedin on deception in resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how Linkedin shapes patterns of deception in resumes. The general self-presentation goal to appear favorably to others motivates deception when one's true characteristics are inconsistent with their desired impression. Because Linkedin makes resume claims public, deception patterns should be altered relative to traditional resumes. Participants (n=119) in a between-subjects experiment created resumes in one of three resume settings: a traditional (offline) resume, private Linkedin profiles, or publicly available Linkedin profiles. Findings suggest that the public nature of Linkedin resume claims affected the kinds of deception used to create positive impressions, but did not affect the overall frequency of deception. Compared with traditional resumes, Linkedin resumes were less deceptive about the kinds of information that count most to employers, namely an applicant's prior work experience and responsibilities, but more deceptive about interests and hobbies. The results stand in contrast to assumptions that Internet-based communication is more deceptive than traditional formats, and suggests that a framework that considers deception as a resource for self-presentation can account for the findings.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of a novel software technology for detecting pneumothorax in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Shane M; Chin, Eric J; April, Michael D; Grisell, Ronald D; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Salinas, Jose; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to measure the diagnostic accuracy of a novel software technology to detect pneumothorax on Brightness (B) mode and Motion (M) mode ultrasonography. Ultrasonography fellowship-trained emergency physicians performed thoracic ultrasonography at baseline and after surgically creating a pneumothorax in eight intubated, spontaneously breathing porcine subjects. Prior to pneumothorax induction, we captured sagittal M-mode still images and B-mode videos of each intercostal space with a linear array transducer at 4cm of depth. After collection of baseline images, we placed a chest tube, injected air into the pleural space in 250mL increments, and repeated the ultrasonography for pneumothorax volumes of 250mL, 500mL, 750mL, and 1000mL. We confirmed pneumothorax with intrapleural digital manometry and ultrasound by expert sonographers. We exported collected images for interpretation by the software. We treated each individual scan as a single test for interpretation by the software. Excluding indeterminate results, we collected 338M-mode images for which the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92-99%), specificity of 95% (95% CI 86-99), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 21.6 (95% CI 7.1-65), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.02 (95% CI 0.008-0.046). Among 364 B-mode videos, the software demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI 81-90%), specificity of 85% (81-91%), LR+ of 5.7 (95% CI 3.2-10.2), and LR- of 0.17 (95% CI 0.12-0.22). This novel technology has potential as a useful adjunct to diagnose pneumothorax on thoracic ultrasonography. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Classification Accuracy of MMPI-2 Validity Scales in the Detection of Pain-Related Malingering: A Known-Groups Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Kevin J.; Etherton, Joseph L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Heinly, Matthew T.; Meyers, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory" 2nd edition (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) validity indicators in the detection of malingering in clinical patients with chronic pain using a hybrid clinical-known groups/simulator design. The…

  13. Accuracy of imaging methods for detection of bone tissue invasion in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, S; Rojas, LA; Rosas, CF

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of imaging methods for detection of mandibular bone tissue invasion by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A systematic review was carried out of studies in MEDLINE, SciELO and ScienceDirect, published between 1960 and 2012, in English, Spanish or German, which compared detection of mandibular bone tissue invasion via different imaging tests against a histopathology reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity data were extracted from each study. The outcome measure was diagnostic accuracy. We found 338 articles, of which 5 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Tests included were: CT (four articles), MRI (four articles), panoramic radiography (one article), positron emission tomography (PET)/CT (one article) and cone beam CT (CBCT) (one article). The quality of articles was low to moderate and the evidence showed that all tests have a high diagnostic accuracy for detection of mandibular bone tissue invasion by SCC, with sensitivity values of 94% (MRI), 91% (CBCT), 83% (CT) and 55% (panoramic radiography), and specificity values of 100% (CT, MRI, CBCT), 97% (PET/CT) and 91.7% (panoramic radiography). Available evidence is scarce and of only low to moderate quality. However, it is consistently shown that current imaging methods give a moderate to high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of mandibular bone tissue invasion by SCC. Recommendations are given for improving the quality of future reports, in particular provision of a detailed description of the patients' conditions, the imaging instrument and both imaging and histopathological invasion criteria. PMID:23420854

  14. Accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma detection on multidetector CT in a transplant liver population with explant liver correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addley, H.C.; Griffin, N.; Shaw, A.S.; Mannelli, L.; Parker, R.A.; Aitken, S.; Wood, H.; Davies, S.; Alexander, G.J.; Lomas, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation. Secondary aims were to examine the effect of radiologist experience and lesion size on diagnostic accuracy. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients (72% male with a mean age of 56.5 years) underwent liver transplantation following preoperative triple-phase MDCT examination of the liver. MDCT examinations were retrospectively independently reviewed by three radiologists for the presence and location of suspected HCCs, with the diagnostic confidence recorded using a five-point confidence scale. MDCT examinations were compared with explant specimens for histopathological correlation. Results: Histopathological results demonstrated 46 HCCs in 29 of the 39 patients. Analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 65-75% and specificity of 47-88% for detection of HCC lesions. The sensitivity dropped to 48-57% for lesions of size ≤20 mm. As the diagnostic confidence increased, there was a further decrease in the sensitivity (4-26%). The radiologist with the greatest number of years experience was found to have a significantly higher accuracy of detection of HCC lesions compared with the least experienced radiologist. Conclusion: Larger lesion size of HCC and greater number of years experience of the radiologist resulted in significantly higher accuracy of HCC lesion detection. The overall sensitivity and specificity results for MDCT detection of HCC are comparable to previous helical CT imaging.

  15. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  16. Improving supervised classification accuracy using non-rigid multimodal image registration: detecting prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Viswanath, Satish; Monaco, James; Rosen, Mark; Tomaszewski, John; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant

    2008-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for the detection of cancer in medical images require precise labeling of training data. For magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) of the prostate, training labels define the spatial extent of prostate cancer (CaP); the most common source for these labels is expert segmentations. When ancillary data such as whole mount histology (WMH) sections, which provide the gold standard for cancer ground truth, are available, the manual labeling of CaP can be improved by referencing WMH. However, manual segmentation is error prone, time consuming and not reproducible. Therefore, we present the use of multimodal image registration to automatically and accurately transcribe CaP from histology onto MRI following alignment of the two modalities, in order to improve the quality of training data and hence classifier performance. We quantitatively demonstrate the superiority of this registration-based methodology by comparing its results to the manual CaP annotation of expert radiologists. Five supervised CAD classifiers were trained using the labels for CaP extent on MRI obtained by the expert and 4 different registration techniques. Two of the registration methods were affi;ne schemes; one based on maximization of mutual information (MI) and the other method that we previously developed, Combined Feature Ensemble Mutual Information (COFEMI), which incorporates high-order statistical features for robust multimodal registration. Two non-rigid schemes were obtained by succeeding the two affine registration methods with an elastic deformation step using thin-plate splines (TPS). In the absence of definitive ground truth for CaP extent on MRI, classifier accuracy was evaluated against 7 ground truth surrogates obtained by different combinations of the expert and registration segmentations. For 26 multimodal MRI-WMH image pairs, all four registration methods produced a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to that

  17. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Ma, Yina; Bhatt, Meghana A; Montague, P Read; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN), which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game. We found that the sophisticated strategists engaged stronger directional connectivity from both dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex to rostral prefrontal cortex, and the strengths of these directional influences were associated with higher level of deception during the game. Using the directional connectivity as a neural signature, we identified the strategic deception with 80% accuracy by a machine-learning classifier. These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition.

  18. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN, which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game. We found that the sophisticated strategists engaged stronger directional connectivity from both dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex to rostral prefrontal cortex, and the strengths of these directional influences were associated with higher level of deception during the game. Using the directional connectivity as a neural signature, we identified the strategic deception with 80% accuracy by a machine-learning classifier. These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition.

  19. Effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Shokri, Abbas, E-mail: Dr.a.shokri@gmail.com [Dental Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asl, Amin Mahdavi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, Mohsen [Department of Endodontics, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tayari, Maryam [Department of Pedodontics, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinipanah, Mohammad [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fardmal, Javad [Research Center for Health Sciences and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog’s teeth. Forty eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans. (author)

  20. Effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for detection of vertical root fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandarloo, Amir; Shokri, Abbas; Asl, Amin Mahdavi; Jalalzadeh, Mohsen; Tayari, Maryam; Hosseinipanah, Mohammad; Fardmal, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis of vertical root fractures (VRFs) is imperative to prevent extensive bone loss and unnecessary endodontic and prosthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time lapse on the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for VRFs in endodontically treated dog’s teeth. Forty eight incisors and premolars of three adult male dogs underwent root canal therapy. The teeth were assigned to two groups: VRFs were artificially induced in the first group (n=24) while the teeth in the second group remained intact (n=24). The CBCT scans were obtained by NewTom 3G unit immediately after inducing VRFs and after one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to the date of radiographs assessed the presence/absence of VRFs on CBCT scans. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values were calculated and data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 software and ANOVA. The total accuracy of detection of VRFs immediately after surgery, one, two, three, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks was 67.3%, 68.7%, 66.6%, 64.6%, 64.5%, 69.4%, 68.7%, 68% respectively. The effect of time lapse on detection of VRFs was not significant (p>0.05). Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CBCT for detection of VRFs were 74.3%, 62.2%, 67.2% respectively. Cone beam computed tomography is a valuable tool for detection of VRFs. Time lapse (four months) had no effect on detection of VRFs on CBCT scans. (author)

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Detection of Myometrial Invasion in Endometrial Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Hussain, Z.; Taufiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWMRI) in the detection of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer taking histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: DWMRI (b-value = 50,400 and 800 s/mm2) was performed in 85 patients of biopsy-proven endometrial carcinoma before hysterectomy using body and spine coil at 1.5 Tesla. DWI was evaluated for presence of myometrial invasion by tumor with histopathology as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, the negative predictive value and positive predictive value and accuracy of DWI were assessed against the gold standard. Results: On DWI, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 42 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 43. On histopathology, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 53 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 32. Hence sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for the assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial tumor on DW images was 90 percentage, 73 percentage, 67 percentage, 92 percentage and 80 percentage, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in detection of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer was 80 percentage. Conclusion: DWI is highly accurate in assessing myometrial invasion and can be used as an adjunct to routine MRI for pre-operative evaluation of myometrial invasion of endometrial cancer. (author)

  2. The diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, S K; Smith, T O

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasound for the detection of lateral epicondylitis. An electronic search of databases registering published (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect) and unpublished literature was conducted to January 2013. All diagnostic accuracy studies that compared the accuracy of ultrasound (index test) with a reference standard for lateral epicondylitis were included. The methodological quality of each of the studies was appraised using the QUADAS tool. When appropriate, the pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis was conducted. Ten studies investigating 711 participants and 1077 elbows were included in this review. Ultrasound had variable sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity: 64%-100%; specificity: 36%-100%). The available literature had modest methodological quality, and was limited in terms of sample sizes and blinding between index and reference test results. There is evidence to support the use of ultrasound in the detection of lateral epicondylitis. However, its accuracy appears to be highly dependent on numerous variables, such as operator experience, equipment and stage of pathology. Judgement should be used when considering the benefit of ultrasound for use in clinical practice. Further research assessing variables such a transducer frequency independently is specifically warranted. Level II. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 16-slice MDCT arthrography of the shoulder: accuracy for detection of glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Huoung Jun; Kim, Hye Won; Oh, Jung Taek; Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Ah [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    We wanted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice MDCT arthrography (CTA) for glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. We enrolled forty-five patients who underwent arthroscopy after CTA for pain or instability of the shoulder joint. The CTA images were analyzed for the existence, sites and types of glenoid labral tears and the presence and severity of rotator cuff tears. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CTA for detecting glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears on the basis of the arthroscopy findings. At arthroscopy, there were 33 SLAP lesions (9 type I, 23 type II and 1 type III), 6 Bankart lesions and 31 rotator cuff lesions (21 supraspinatus, 9 infraspinatus and 1 subscapularis). On CTA, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting 24 SLAP lesions, excluding the type I lesions, were 83%, 100% and 91%, the total rotator cuff tears were 90%, 100% and 98%, the full thickness supraspinatus tendon tears were 100%, 94% and 96%, and the partial thickness supraspinatus tendon tears were 29%, 100% and 89%, respectively. 16-slice MDCT arthrography has high accuracy for the diagnosis of abnormality of the glenoid labrum or rotator cuff tears and it can be a useful alternative to MRI or US.

  4. A sequential sampling account of response bias and speed-accuracy tradeoffs in a conflict detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Anita; Kwantes, Peter J; Humphreys, Michael; Neal, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green & Swets, 1966) is a popular tool for understanding decision making. However, it does not account for the time taken to make a decision, nor why response bias might change over time. Sequential sampling models provide a way of accounting for speed-accuracy trade-offs and response bias shifts. In this study, we test the validity of a sequential sampling model of conflict detection in a simulated air traffic control task by assessing whether two of its key parameters respond to experimental manipulations in a theoretically consistent way. Through experimental instructions, we manipulated participants' response bias and the relative speed or accuracy of their responses. The sequential sampling model was able to replicate the trends in the conflict responses as well as response time across all conditions. Consistent with our predictions, manipulating response bias was associated primarily with changes in the model's Criterion parameter, whereas manipulating speed-accuracy instructions was associated with changes in the Threshold parameter. The success of the model in replicating the human data suggests we can use the parameters of the model to gain an insight into the underlying response bias and speed-accuracy preferences common to dynamic decision-making tasks. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  5. 16-slice MDCT arthrography of the shoulder: accuracy for detection of glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Huoung Jun; Kim, Hye Won; Oh, Jung Taek; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Lee, Sung Ah

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice MDCT arthrography (CTA) for glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. We enrolled forty-five patients who underwent arthroscopy after CTA for pain or instability of the shoulder joint. The CTA images were analyzed for the existence, sites and types of glenoid labral tears and the presence and severity of rotator cuff tears. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CTA for detecting glenoid labral and rotator cuff tears on the basis of the arthroscopy findings. At arthroscopy, there were 33 SLAP lesions (9 type I, 23 type II and 1 type III), 6 Bankart lesions and 31 rotator cuff lesions (21 supraspinatus, 9 infraspinatus and 1 subscapularis). On CTA, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting 24 SLAP lesions, excluding the type I lesions, were 83%, 100% and 91%, the total rotator cuff tears were 90%, 100% and 98%, the full thickness supraspinatus tendon tears were 100%, 94% and 96%, and the partial thickness supraspinatus tendon tears were 29%, 100% and 89%, respectively. 16-slice MDCT arthrography has high accuracy for the diagnosis of abnormality of the glenoid labrum or rotator cuff tears and it can be a useful alternative to MRI or US

  6. Accuracy of hiatal hernia detection with esophageal high-resolution manometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; van Hoeij, F. B.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of a sliding hiatal hernia is classically made with endoscopy or barium esophagogram. Spatial separation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and diaphragm, the hallmark of hiatal hernia, can also be observed on high-resolution manometry (HRM), but the diagnostic accuracy of this

  7. Coupling Uncertainties with Accuracy Assessment in Object-Based Slum Detections, Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratomo, J.; Kuffer, M.; Martinez, Javier; Kohli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of static CT perfusion for the detection of myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørgaard, Mathias Holm; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Linde, Jesper James

    2016-01-01

    : Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of static CTP imaging alone or combined with coronary CT angiography (CTA) in comparison to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP), and/or invasive coronary angiography...

  9. Comparison of accuracy of uncorrected and corrected sagittal tomography in detection of mandibular condyle erosions: An exvivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Zamani Naser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiographic examination of TMJ is indicated when there are clinical signs of pathological conditions, mainly bone changes that may influence the diagnosis and treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the validity and diagnostic accuracy of uncorrected and corrected sagittal tomographic images in the detection of simulated mandibular condyle erosions. Methods : Simulated lesions were created in 10 dry mandibles using a dental round bur. Using uncorrected and corrected sagittal tomography techniques, mandibular condyles were imaged by a Cranex Tome X-ray unit before and after creating the lesions. The uncorrected and corrected tomography images were examined by two independent observers for absence or presence of a lesion. The accuracy for detecting mandibular condyle lesions was expressed as sensitivity, specificity, and validity values. Differences between the two radiographic modalities were tested by Wilcoxon for paired data tests. Inter-observer agreement was determined by Cohen′s Kappa. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and validity were 45%, 85% and 30% in uncorrected sagittal tomographic images, respectively, and 70%, 92.5% and 60% in corrected sagittal tomographic images, respectively. There was a significant statistical difference between the accuracy of uncorrected and corrected sagittal tomography in detection of mandibular condyle erosions (P = 0.016. The inter-observer agreement was slight for uncorrected sagittal tomography and moderate for corrected sagittal tomography. Conclusion: The accuracy of corrected sagittal tomography is significantly higher than that of uncorrected sagittal tomography. Therefore, corrected sagittal tomography seems to be a better modality in detection of mandibular condyle erosions.

  10. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of 3 commonly used neurodynamic tests (slump test, straight-leg raise [SLR] test, femoral neurodynamic test) and 2 clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (radiculopathy I, 1 neurologic sign; radiculopathy II, 2 neurologic signs corresponding to 1 specific nerve root) in detecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression, and foraminal nerve root compression). Validity study. Secondary care. We included subjects (N=99; mean age, 58y; 54% women) referred for epidural steroid injection because of lumbar radicular symptoms who had positive clinical and MRI findings. Positive clinical findings included the slump test (n=67), SLR test (n=50), femoral neurodynamic test (n=7), radiculopathy I (n=70), and radiculopathy II (n=33). Positive MRI findings included extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (n=14), and foraminal nerve compression (n=25). Not applicable. Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics analysis with area under the curve (AUC). The slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (.78) and subarticular nerve compression (1.00), but the respective specificity was low (.36 and .38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting foraminal nerve compression (.80) but with low specificity (.34). Only 1 assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity (ie, radiculopathy II) in detecting subarticular nerve compression (.71 and .73, respectively). The AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, subarticular nerve compression, and foraminal nerve compression showed ranges of .48 to .60, .63 to .82, and .33 to .57, respectively. In general, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was the most sensitive test, while radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no

  11. Effects of deception in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A

    2014-09-07

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies ('white' lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The biology of deception: emotion and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Fricchione, G L

    1995-01-01

    The biology of deception suggests that denial-like processes are at the core of the cognitive coping. In this regard, with cognitive ability, one associates or assumes that this process occurs by way of a 'rational' mind. Such a detailed cognitive process as being rational would also lead, counter intuitively, to inactivity and or major delays in conclusion reaching. Thus, our perceived rationality may also be a deceptive behavioral response. Of equal noteworthyness, man is also 'emotional'. We surmise that emotion represents the pre-cognitive short-cut to overcome this potential for excessive rationality. In this light, we may explain certain psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behavior as emotional extremes dealing with cognitive habits used to bind anxiety operating most probably at the pre-cognitive level. Given recent discoveries in neuroimmunology and an understanding of naturally occurring morphine as both an immune and neurological down-regulatory substance we hypothesize that abnormalities associated with emotional extremes may be due, in part, to morphinergic imbalances.

  13. Second International Diagnostic Accuracy Study for the Serological Detection of West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchini, Andrea; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Papa, Anna; Sambri, Vittorio; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans of West Nile virus (WNV) infection have increased. Serological diagnosis of WNV infection can be performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA) neutralization test (NT) and by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. The aim of this study is to collect updated information regarding the performance accuracy of WNV serological diagnostics. Methodology/Principal findings: In 2011, the E...

  14. Evaluation of accuracy of intra operative imprint cytology for detection of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Z.; Shahbaz, A.; Qureshi, A.; Aziz, N.; Niazi, S.; Qureshi, S.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of imprint cytology as an intraoperative diagnostic procedure for breast lesions with histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study on 40 cases of breast lesions comprising of inflammatory, benign and malignant lesions including their margins etc. It was conducted at King Edward Medical University, Lahore in collaboration with all Surgical Departments of Mayo Hospital. Relevant clinical data was recorded in a proforma. Both touch and scrape imprints were prepared from all the lesions and stained with May-Grunwaled Giemsa and Haematoxylin and Eosin stains. The imprints were subsequently compared with histopathology sections. Results: When we used atypical cases as negative both touch and scrape imprints gave sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy at 100%. However when we used cases with atypia as positive, sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100% with both touch and scrape imprints. Specificity, positive predictive value and accuracy were 71%, 86%, 85.5% respectively with touch imprints and 78%, 89%, 89% respectively with scrape imprints. No diagnostic difference was noted between the results of both stains. All the imprints were well correlated with histopathological diagnosis. Conclusion: Imprint cytology is an accurate and simple intraoperative method for diagnosing breast lesions. It can provide the surgeons with information regarding immediate clinical and surgical interventions. (author)

  15. Accuracy of Estimating Highly Eccentric Binary Black Hole Parameters with Gravitational-wave Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondán, László; Kocsis, Bence; Raffai, Péter; Frei, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes on highly eccentric orbits are among the targets for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, including LIGO, VIRGO, and KAGRA. These sources may commonly form through gravitational-wave emission in high-velocity dispersion systems or through the secular Kozai–Lidov mechanism in triple systems. Gravitational waves carry information about the binaries’ orbital parameters and source location. Using the Fisher matrix technique, we determine the measurement accuracy with which the LIGO–VIRGO–KAGRA network could measure the source parameters of eccentric binaries using a matched filtering search of the repeated burst and eccentric inspiral phases of the waveform. We account for general relativistic precession and the evolution of the orbital eccentricity and frequency during the inspiral. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio and the parameter measurement accuracy may be significantly higher for eccentric sources than for circular sources. This increase is sensitive to the initial pericenter distance, the initial eccentricity, and the component masses. For instance, compared to a 30 {M}ȯ –30 {M}ȯ non-spinning circular binary, the chirp mass and sky-localization accuracy can improve by a factor of ∼129 (38) and ∼2 (11) for an initially highly eccentric binary assuming an initial pericenter distance of 20 M tot (10 M tot).

  16. Is diagnostic accuracy for detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT reduced after a long day of reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Caldwell, Robert; Schartz, Kevin M.

    2012-02-01

    Radiologists are reading more cases with more images, especially in CT and MRI and thus working longer hours than ever before. There have been concerns raised regarding fatigue and whether it impacts diagnostic accuracy. This study measured the impact of reader visual fatigue by assessing symptoms, visual strain via dark focus of accommodation, and diagnostic accuracy. Twenty radiologists and 20 radiology residents were given two diagnostic performance tests searching CT chest sequences for a solitary pulmonary nodule before (rested) and after (tired) a day of clinical reading. 10 cases used free search and navigation, and the other 100 cases used preset scrolling speed and duration. Subjects filled out the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) and the oculomotor strain subscale of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before each session. Accuracy was measured using ROC techniques. Using Swensson's technique yields an ROC area = 0.86 rested vs. 0.83 tired, p (one-tailed) = 0.09. Using Swensson's LROC technique yields an area = 0.73 rested vs. 0.66 tired, p (one-tailed) = 0.09. Using Swensson's Loc Accuracy technique yields an area = 0.77 rested vs. 0.72 tired, p (one-tailed) = 0.13). Subjective measures of fatigue increased significantly from early to late reading. To date, the results support our findings with static images and detection of bone fractures. Radiologists at the end of a long work day experience greater levels of measurable visual fatigue or strain, contributing to a decrease in diagnostic accuracy. The decrease in accuracy was not as great however as with static images.

  17. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  18. The Slow Decay and Quick Revival of Self-Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eChance

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1; this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Expanding HBV diagnosis and treatment programmes into low resource settings will require high quality but inexpensive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in addition to laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIAs to detect HBsAg. The purpose of this review is to assess the clinical accuracy of available diagnostic tests to detect HBsAg to inform recommendations on testing strategies in 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines. Methods The systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines using 9 databases. Two reviewers independently extracted data according to a pre-specified plan and evaluated study quality. Meta-analysis was performed. HBsAg diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was compared to enzyme immunoassay (EIA and nucleic-acid test (NAT reference standards. Subanalyses were performed to determine accuracy among brands, HIV-status and specimen type. Results Of the 40 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 33 compared RDTs and/or EIAs against EIAs and 7 against NATs as reference standards. Thirty studies assessed diagnostic accuracy of 33 brands of RDTs in 23,716 individuals from 23 countries using EIA as the reference standard. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (95% CI: 89.1, 90.8 and 99.5% (95% CI: 99.4, 99.5 respectively, but accuracy varied widely among brands. Accuracy did not differ significantly whether serum, plasma, venous or capillary whole blood was used. Pooled sensitivity of RDTs in 5 studies of HIV-positive persons was lower at 72.3% (95% CI: 67.9, 76.4 compared to that in HIV-negative persons, but specificity remained high. Five studies evaluated 8 EIAs against a chemiluminescence immunoassay reference standard with a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% (95% CI: 87.0, 90.6 and

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Volume Rendering Images of Multi-Detector CT for the Detection of Lumbar Transverse Process Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Hak; Chun, Tong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) volume rendering techniques with axial images of multi-detector row computed tomography to identify lumbar transverse process (LTP) fractures in trauma patients. We retrospectively evaluated 42 patients with back pain as a result of blunt trauma between January and June of 2010. Two radiologists examined the 3D CT volume rendering images independently. The confirmation of a LTP fracture was based on the consensus of the axial images by the two radiologists. The results of 3D CT volume rendering images were compared with the axial images and the diagnostic powers (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) were calculated. Seven of the 42 patients had twenty five lumbar transverse process fractures. The diagnostic power of the 3D CT volume rendering technique is as accurate as axial images. Reader 1, sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%, accuracy 99.9%; and Reader 2 sensitivity 100%, specificity 99.8%, accuracy 99.8%. The accordance of the two radiologists was 99.8%. 3D CT volume rendering images can alternate axial images to detect lumbar transverse process fractures with good image quality.

  1. Accuracy of Administrative Billing Codes to Detect Urinary Tract Infection Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Auger, Katherine A.; Hain, Paul D.; Jerardi, Karen E.; Myers, Angela L.; Rahman, Suraiya S.; Williams, Derek J.; Shah, Samir S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital billing data are frequently used for quality measures and research, but the accuracy of the use of discharge codes to identify urinary tract infections (UTIs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) discharge codes to identify children hospitalized with UTIs. METHODS: This multicenter study conducted in 5 children's hospitals included children aged 3 days to 18 years who had been admitted to the hospital, undergone a urinalysis or urine culture, and discharged from the hospital. Data were obtained from the pediatric health information system database and medical record review. With the use of 2 gold-standard methods, the positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated for individual and combined UTI codes and for common UTI identification strategies. PPV was measured for all groupings for which the UTI code was the principal discharge diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 833 patients in the study. The PPV was 50.3% with the use of the gold standard of laboratory-confirmed UTIs but increased to 85% with provider confirmation. Restriction of the study cohort to patients with a principle diagnosis of UTI improved the PPV for laboratory-confirmed UTI (61.2%) and provider-confirmed UTI (93.2%), as well as the ability to benchmark performance. Other common identification strategies did not markedly affect the PPV. CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 codes can be used to identify patients with UTIs but are most accurate when UTI is the principal discharge diagnosis. The identification strategies reported in this study can be used to improve the accuracy and applicability of benchmarking measures. PMID:21768320

  2. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Ludwig Sporer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes. Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012 working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009, the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed. Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  3. Accuracy of phenotypic methicillin susceptibility methods in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying different SCCmec types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricilla DM de Matos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 138 isolates, 118 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates (staphylococcal cassette chromosome type II, 20 isolates, type III, 39 isolates and type IV, 59 isolates and 20 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates were evaluated by phenotypic methods: cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion (DD, agar dilution (AD, latex agglutination (LA, oxacillin agar screening (OAS and chromogenic agar detection. All methods showed 100% specificity, but only the DD tests presented 100% sensitivity. The sensitivity of the other tests ranged from 82.2% (OAS-98.3% (AD. The LA test showed the second lowest sensitivity (86.4%. The DD test showed high accuracy in the detection of MRSA isolates, but there was low precision in the detection of type IV isolates by the other tests, indicating that the genotypic characteristics of the isolates should be considered.

  4. Accuracy of phenotypic methicillin susceptibility methods in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying different SCCmec types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Pricilla D M de; Schuenck, Ricardo P; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Caboclo, Roberta M F; Santos, Kátia Regina N dos

    2010-11-01

    A total of 138 isolates, 118 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (staphylococcal cassette chromosome type II, 20 isolates, type III, 39 isolates and type IV, 59 isolates) and 20 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates were evaluated by phenotypic methods: cefoxitin and oxacillin disk diffusion (DD), agar dilution (AD), latex agglutination (LA), oxacillin agar screening (OAS) and chromogenic agar detection. All methods showed 100% specificity, but only the DD tests presented 100% sensitivity. The sensitivity of the other tests ranged from 82.2% (OAS)-98.3% (AD). The LA test showed the second lowest sensitivity (86.4%). The DD test showed high accuracy in the detection of MRSA isolates, but there was low precision in the detection of type IV isolates by the other tests, indicating that the genotypic characteristics of the isolates should be considered.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound, computed tomography, and endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography in the detection of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanen, P.A.; Partainen, K.; Pikkarainen, P.; Alhava, E.; Pirinen, A.; Janatuinen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the distinction between extrahepatic and intrahepatic causes of jaundice. The limit for the inclusion to the study was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration ≥40μmol/l. Altogether 187 jaundiced patients were studied. The sensitivities of US, CT and ERCP were 63%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. The differences between all these methods were statistically significant. The specificities and positive predictive values were high, reaching 96-99%, but the negative predictive values were low, ranging between 38% and 60%. Choledochal stone disease constituted the main etiology of false-negative studies in all investigations. Imaging procedures have a prominent role in the diagnostic study of the jaundiced patient, but it is obvious that their diagnostic accuracy may vary between institutions because of the variance in local experience and expertise and because of the differences in diseases causing jaundice. 37 refs., 5 tabs

  6. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  7. Initial accuracy assessment of the modified S-LANSS for the detection of neuropathic orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Babiloni, Alberto; Nixdorf, Donald R; Law, Alan S; Moana-Filho, Estephan J; Shueb, Sarah S; Nguyen, Ruby H; Durham, Justin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a questionnaire modified for the identification of intraoral pain with neuropathic characteristics in a clinical orofacial pain sample population. 136 participants with at least one of four orofacial pain diagnoses (temporomandibular disorders [TMD, n = 41], acute dental pain [ADP, n = 41], trigeminal neuralgia [TN, n = 19], persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder [PDAP, n = 14]) and a group of pain-free controls (n = 21) completed the modified S-LANSS, a previously adapted version of the original questionnaire devised to detected patients suffering from intraoral pain with neuropathic characteristics. Psychometric properties (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value [PPV], negative predictive value [NPV]) were calculated in two analyses with two different thresholds: (1) Detection of pain with neuropathic characteristics: PDAP + TN were considered positive, and TMD + ADP + controls were considered negative per gold standard (expert opinion). (2) Detection of PDAP: PDAP was considered positive and TMD + ADP were considered negative per gold standard. For both analyses, target values for adequate sensitivity and specificity were defined as ≥ 80%. For detection of orofacial pain with neuropathic characteristics (PDAP + TN), the modified S-LANSS presented with the most optimistic threshold sensitivity of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34-69), specificity of 70% (95% CI, 60-79), PPV of 35% (95% CI, 22-51), and NPV of 82% (95% CI, 72-89). For detection of PDAP only, with the most optimistic threshold sensitivity was 64% (95% CI, 35-87), specificity 63% (95% CI, 52-74), PPV 23% (95% CI, 11-39) and NPV 91% (95% CI, 81-97). Based on a priori defined criteria, the modified S-LANSS did not show adequate accuracy to detect intraoral pain with neuropathic characteristics in a clinical orofacial pain sample.

  8. The Accuracy of Plain Radiography in Detection of Traumatic Intrathoracic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abedi Khorasgani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries leads to improvement in patient management. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chest radiography (CXR in comparison to chest computed tomography (CT scan in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries. Methods: Participants of this prospective diagnostic accuracy study included multiple trauma patients over 15 years old with stable vital admitted to emergency department (ED during one year. The correlation of CXR and CT scan findings in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was evaluated using SPSS 20. Screening characteristics of CXR were calculated with 95% CI. Results: 353 patients with the mean age of 35.2 ± 15.8 were evaluated (78.8% male. Age 16-30 years with 121 (34.2%, motorcycle riders with 104 (29.5% cases and ISS < 12 with 185 (52.4% had the highest frequency among patients. Generally, screening performance characteristics of chest in diagnosis of chest traumatic injuries were as follows: sensitivity 50.3 (95% CI: 44.8 – 55.5, specificity 98.9 (95% CI: 99.5 – 99.8, PPV 97.8 (95% CI: 91.5 – 99.6, NPV 66.4 (95% CI: 60.2 – 72.03, PLR 44.5 (95% CI: 11.3 175.3, and NLR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4 – 0.6. Accuracy of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries was 74.5 (95% CI: 69.6 – 78.9 and its area under the ROC curve was 74.6 (95% CI: 69.3 – 79.8. Conclusion: The screening performance characteristics of CXR in diagnosis of traumatic intrathoracic injuries were higher than 90% in all pathologies except pneumothorax (50.3%. It seems that this matter has a great impact on the general screening characteristics of the test (74.3% accuracy and 50.3%sensitivity. It seems that, plain CXR should be used as an initial screening tool more carefully.

  9. 14 CFR 257.4 - Unfair and deceptive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violation of 49 U.S.C. 41712 unless, in conjunction with such holding out or sale, carriers and ticket... Unfair and deceptive practice. The holding out or sale of scheduled passenger air transportation...

  10. 75 FR 23565 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... are subsumed within, though not identical to, the protections of the Credit CARD Act and the Board's... protection, Credit, Credit cards, Deception, Intergovernmental relations, Savings associations, Trade... ``Prohibited Consumer Credit Practices'' to avoid duplication and inconsistency with the Credit Card...

  11. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  12. The Art of Darkness Deception and Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerwehr, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the battle on friendly urban terrain and the employment of deception might be fairly characterized as asymmetric strategies, aimed at reducing an opponent's strengths and exposing his weaknesses...

  13. Web Of Deception: Misinformation On The Internet | Chete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web Of Deception: Misinformation On The Internet. ... Parodies/spoofs, malicious misinformation, promotion of false products on commercial sites, ... greatly reduced since most people do not believe every information they read on the internet, ...

  14. Second thoughts about privacy, safety and deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tom; Draper, Heather

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we point out some difficulties with interpreting three of five principles formulated at a retreat on robot ethics sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. We also attempt to iron out some conflicts between the principles. Some of the difficulties arise from the way that the autonomy of robot users - their capacity to live by their own choices - can be a goal in the design of care robots. We discuss (a) problems for Principle 2 that arise from competing legal and philosophical understandings of privacy; (b) a tension between privacy and safety (Principles 2 and 3) and (c) some scepticism about the application of Principle 4, which addresses robot design that might result in the deception of vulnerable users.

  15. Accuracy of automated software-guided detection of significant coronary artery stenosis by CT angiography: comparison with invasive catheterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Katharina; Uder, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan; Petit, Isabel; Daniel, Werner G.; Pflederer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    True automated detection of coronary artery stenoses might be useful whenever expert evaluation is not available, or as a ''second reader'' to enhance diagnostic confidence. We evaluated the accuracy of a PC-based stenosis detection tool alone and combined with expert interpretation. One hundred coronary CT angiography datasets were evaluated with the automated software alone, by manual interpretation (axial images, multiplanar reformations and maximum intensity projections in free double-oblique planes), and by expert interpretation aware of the automated findings. Stenoses ≥ 50 % were noted per-vessel and per-patient, and compared with invasive angiography. Automated post-processing was successful in 90 % of patients (88 % of vessels). When excluding uninterpretable datasets, per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 89 %, 79 %, 74 % and 92 % (per-vessel: 82 %, 85 %, 48 % and 96 %). All 100 datasets were evaluable by expert interpretation. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 95 %, 95 %, 93 % and 97 % (per-vessel: 89 %,98 %, 88 % and 98 %). Knowing the results of automated interpretation did not improve the performance of expert readers. Automated off-line post-processing of coronary CT angiography shows adequate sensitivity, but relatively low specificity in coronary stenosis detection. It does not increase accuracy of expert interpretation. Failure of post-processing in 10 % of all patients necessitates additional manual image work-up. (orig.)

  16. Detection of pulmonary metastases with pathological correlation: effect of breathing on the accuracy of spiral CT. Editor`s note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, F.V. [Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cohen, M.D. [Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Waters, D.J. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Davis, M.M. [Department of Pathology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, B. [Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gonin, R. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hanna, M.P. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Background. CT of the chest for suspected pulmonary metastases in adults is generally performed using a breath-hold technique. The results may not be applicable to young children in whom breath-holding may be impossible. Objective. Determine the effect of breathing on the accuracy of pulmonary metastasis detection by spiral CT (SCT). Materials and methods. Prior to euthanasia four anesthetized dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma underwent SCT with a collimation of 5 mm and a pitch of 2, during both induced breath-hold and normal quiet breathing. Images were reconstructed as contiguous 5-mm slices. Macroscopically evident metastases were noted at postmortem. Hard-copy SCT images were reviewed by ten radiologists, each of whom circled all suspected metastases. SCT images were compared with postmortem results to determine true and false positives. Results. The pathologist identified 132 macroscopically evident pulmonary metastases. For metastasis detection, there was no significant difference between breath-hold SCT and breathing SCT. Conclusion. In our animal model, SCT can be performed during normal resting breathing without significant loss of accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. (orig.). With 3 tabs.

  17. Detection of pulmonary metastases with pathological correlation: effect of breathing on the accuracy of spiral CT. Editor's note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, F.V.; Cohen, M.D.; Waters, D.J.; Davis, M.M.; Karmazyn, B.; Gonin, R.; Hanna, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background. CT of the chest for suspected pulmonary metastases in adults is generally performed using a breath-hold technique. The results may not be applicable to young children in whom breath-holding may be impossible. Objective. Determine the effect of breathing on the accuracy of pulmonary metastasis detection by spiral CT (SCT). Materials and methods. Prior to euthanasia four anesthetized dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma underwent SCT with a collimation of 5 mm and a pitch of 2, during both induced breath-hold and normal quiet breathing. Images were reconstructed as contiguous 5-mm slices. Macroscopically evident metastases were noted at postmortem. Hard-copy SCT images were reviewed by ten radiologists, each of whom circled all suspected metastases. SCT images were compared with postmortem results to determine true and false positives. Results. The pathologist identified 132 macroscopically evident pulmonary metastases. For metastasis detection, there was no significant difference between breath-hold SCT and breathing SCT. Conclusion. In our animal model, SCT can be performed during normal resting breathing without significant loss of accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. (orig.). With 3 tabs

  18. The Makara of Hizballah: Deception in the 2006 Summer War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    another example of the interaction between information activities. The use of the internet covers over into the realm of computer network operations...the Internet and home computers . Furthermore, the individual can use technology to network with others to counter deceptive acts by an opponent...use of information technologies greatly enhanced their ability to wield deception. Finally, this paper will address the interrelation of various

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of suspected recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh; Pal, Sujoy; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma, suspected clinically or following conventional investigations. This was a retrospective study. Data from 180 patients (age 56.3 ± 10.4 years; 126 men, 54 women) with histopathologically proven oesophageal carcinoma (squamous cell 115, adenocarcinoma 59, neuroendocrine carcinoma 4, small cell 1, poorly differentiated 1) who had undergone 227 18 F-FDG PET/CT studies for suspected recurrence were analysed. Recurrence was suspected clinically or following conventional investigations. PET/CT images were revaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians in consensus. Findings were grouped into local, nodal and distant recurrence. Results were compared to those from contrast-enhanced (CE) CT when available (109 patients). Clinical/imaging follow-up (minimum 6 months) with histopathology (when available) was taken as the reference standard. Of the 227 18 F-FDG PET/CT studies,166 were positive and 61 were negative for recurrent disease. PET/CT showed local recurrence in 134, nodal recurrence in 115 and distant recurrence in 47, with more than one site of recurrence in 34. The PET/CT findings were true-positive in 153 studies, true-negative in 54, false-positive in 13 and false-negative in 7. The sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET/CT was 96 %, the specificity was 81 %, the positive and negative predictive values were 92 % and 89 %, respectively, and the accuracy was 91 %. PET/CT showed similar accuracy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and in those with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.181). 18 F-FDG PET/CT was more specific than CECT (67 % vs. 21 %; P 18 F-FDG PET/CT shows high accuracy in the detection of suspected recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma. It is more specific than and is superior to CECT in the detection of nodal recurrence. (orig.)

  20. Effects of population variability on the accuracy of detection probability estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordonez Gloria, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Observing a constant fraction of the population over time, locations, or species is virtually impossible. Hence, quantifying this proportion (i.e. detection probability) is an important task in quantitative population ecology. In this study we determined, via computer simulations, the ef- fect of...

  1. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Loudon (Sjoukje); C.A. Rook (Caitlin); D.S. Nassif (Deborah); N.V. Piskun (Nadya); D.G. Hunter (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable

  2. Accuracy analysis of the CTBTO nuclear test detection scale and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Kwang [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization) is charge of nuclear test monitoring for nuclear non-proliferation. CTBTO has 170 seismic stations in operation in 76 countries in order to detect the artificial earthquake that was caused by an underground nuclear test. Korea use formula that is based on the equations that are used by the IMS (International Monitoring System) of CTBTO for analysis of explosive scale, and reflect the nature of the terrain, such as rock. But the expression for calculating the exact scale explosive is still un-established state. And generally CTBTO doesn't care about artificial explosive that is being received low-yield in accordance with the criteria of nuclear detection. But, at the time that North Korea conduct a nuclear test, it should not be overlooked that the scale of the earthquake detection criteria below. Because DPRK is trying to conceal their nuclear development capability, there are possibility of low-yield nuclear test or possibility of install a buffer to hide actual explosive scale. These radionuclide observations were consistent with a DPRK low-yield nuclear test on May 2010, even though no seismic signals from such a test have been detected. But there were a few times of low-yield (magnitude 1.39-1.93) occurred around DPRK nuclear test site at that time.

  3. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve detection accuracy of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, Remco; van der Kleij, Rick; Kallen, Victor; Stekkinger, Michael; de Vries, Peter

    Purpose: Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to

  4. Accuracy and Sensitivity of a Method of Jump Detection, Evaluated by Simulated Time Series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapanov, Y.; Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2017), s. 73-82 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : time series * data jump detection * high-sensitive method Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  5. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain : does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abesi, F.; Mirshekar, A.; Moudi, E.; Seyedmajidi, M.; Haghanifar, S.; Haghighat, N.; Bijani, A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries. The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of charge coupled devices, Photo Stimulable Phosphor and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries. Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: charge coupled devices Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland), and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination. Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% dentinoenamel junction and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin. The sensitivity and specificity of film, charge coupled devices and Photo Stimulable Phosphor for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96%; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, charge coupled devices and Photo Stimulable Phosphor for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

  7. Self-deception as pseudo-rational regulation of belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Christoph; Newen, Albert

    2010-09-01

    Self-deception is a special kind of motivational dominance in belief-formation. We develop criteria which set paradigmatic self-deception apart from related phenomena of auto-manipulation such as pretense and motivational bias. In self-deception rational subjects defend or develop beliefs of high subjective importance in response to strong counter-evidence. Self-deceivers make or keep these beliefs tenable by putting prima-facie rational defense-strategies to work against their established standards of rational evaluation. In paradigmatic self-deception, target-beliefs are made tenable via reorganizations of those belief-sets that relate relevant data to target-beliefs. This manipulation of the evidential value of relevant data goes beyond phenomena of motivated perception of data. In self-deception belief-defense is pseudo-rational. Self-deceivers will typically apply a dual standard of evaluation that remains intransparent to the subject. The developed model of self-deception as pseudo-rational belief-defense is empirically anchored. So, we hope to put forward a promising candidate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of carboxyhemoglobin detection by pulse CO-oximetry during hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, John R; Rollins, Mark D; Sall, Jeffrey W; Eilers, Helge; Au, Paul; Bickler, Philip E

    2013-10-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant problem in most countries, and a reliable method of quick diagnosis would greatly improve patient care. Until the recent introduction of a multiwavelength "pulse CO-oximeter" (Masimo Rainbow SET(®) Radical-7), obtaining carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in blood required blood sampling and laboratory analysis. In this study, we sought to determine whether hypoxemia, which can accompany carbon monoxide poisoning, interferes with the accurate detection of COHb. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking, adult volunteers were fitted with 2 standard pulse-oximeter finger probes and 2 Rainbow probes for COHb detection. A radial arterial catheter was placed for blood sampling during 3 interventions: (1) increasing hypoxemia in incremental steps with arterial oxygen saturations (SaO2) of 100% to 80%; (2) normoxia with incremental increases in %COHb to 12%; and (3) elevated COHb combined with hypoxemia with SaO2 of 100% to 80%. Pulse-oximeter (SpCO) readings were compared with simultaneous arterial blood values at the various increments of hypoxemia and carboxyhemoglobinemia (≈25 samples per subject). Pulse CO-oximeter performance was analyzed by calculating the mean bias (SpCO - %COHb), standard deviation of the bias (precision), and the root-mean-square error (A(rms)). The Radical-7 accurately detected hypoxemia with both normal and elevated levels of COHb (bias mean ± SD: 0.44% ± 1.69% at %COHb <4%, and -0.29% ± 1.64% at %COHb ≥4%, P < 0.0001, and A(rms) 1.74% vs 1.67%). COHb was accurately detected during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (bias mean ± SD: -0.98 ± 2.6 at SaO2 ≥95%, and -0.7 ± 4.0 at SaO2 <95%, P = 0.60, and A(rms) 2.8% vs 4.0%), but when SaO2 decreased below approximately 85%, the pulse CO-oximeter always gave low signal quality errors and did not report SpCO values. In healthy volunteers, the Radical-7 pulse CO-oximeter accurately detects hypoxemia with both low and elevated COHb levels, and accurately detects COHb

  9. Retrieval Accuracy Assessment with Gap Detection for Case 2 Waters Chla Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. I.; Higa, H.; Kim, H.; Oki, K.; Oki, T.

    2016-12-01

    Inland lakes and coastal regions types of Case 2 Waters should be continuously and accurately monitored as the former contain 90% of the global liquid freshwater storage, while the latter provide most of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which is an important link in the global carbon cycle. The optical properties of Case 2 Waters are dominated by three optically active components: phytoplankton, non-algal particles (NAP) and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM). During the last three decades, researchers have proposed several algorithms to retrieve Chla concentration from the remote sensing reflectance. In this study, seven algorithms are assessed with various band combinations from multi and hyper-spectral data with linear, polynomial and power regression approaches. To evaluate the performance of the 43 algorithm combination sets, 500,000 remote sensing reflectance spectra are simulated with a wide range of concentrations for Chla, NAP and CDOM. The concentrations of Chla and NAP vary from 1-200 (mg m-3) and 1-200 (gm m-3), respectively, and the absorption of CDOM at 440 nm has the range of 0.1-10 (m-1). It is found that the three-band algorithm (665, 709 and 754 nm) with the quadratic polynomial (3b_665_QP) indicates the best overall performance. 3b_665_QP has the least error with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.2 (mg m-3) and a mean absolute relative error (MARE) of 0.7 %. The less accurate retrieval of Chla was obtained by the synthetic chlorophyll index algorithm with RMSE and MARE of 35.8 mg m-3 and 160.4 %, respectively. In general, Chla algorithms which incorporates 665 nm band or band tuning technique performs better than those with 680 nm. In addition, the retrieval accuracy of Chla algorithms with quadratic polynomial and power regression approaches are consistently better than the linear ones. By analyzing Chla versus NAP concentrations, the 3b_665_QP outperforms the other algorithms for all Chla concentrations and NAP concentrations above 40

  10. The accuracy of combined physical examination and ultrasonography for the detection of abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârstea, Doina; Streba, Letiţia Adela Maria; Glodeanu, Adina; Cârstea, A P; Vancu, Mihaela; Ninulescu, Ana-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most frequent cause in the appearance of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) and plays an important role in his development. Most AAA does not cause any symptoms, especially when talking about elderly patients, however, many of those aneurysms can be detected during physical examination. Their detection is very important because the natural evolution and the major reason in treating AAA is their tendency to rupture. We present the case of an adult man with a complex clinical pathology, but not related to the AAA. The diagnosis of the AAA has been suspicion through palpation, and the abdominal ultrasound exam confirmed it. This case is particular interesting, as the AAA requires surgical intervention, while patient's health status was poor. An essential issue is establishing the importance of the AAA screening, when there are no symptoms present. For now, there are not satisfactory studies to be used as a guide.

  11. Rapid, high-accuracy detection of strabismus and amblyopia using the pediatric vision scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Loudon, Sjoukje; Rook, Caitlin; Nassif, Deborah; Piskun, Nadya; Hunter, David

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. The Pediatric Vision Scanner (PVS) detects strabismus by identifying ocular fixation in both eyes simultaneously. This study was undertaken to assess the ability of the PVS to identify patients with amblyopia or strabismus, particularly anisometropic amblyopia with no measurable strabismus. Methods. The PVS test, administered from 40 cm and requiring 2.5 seconds of attention, generated a binocularity score (BIN, 0%-100%). We tested 154 patients and 48 controls between the...

  12. Reflotron cholesterol measurement in general practice: accuracy and detection of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M J; Robertson, I K; Woods, M

    1994-11-01

    Comparison of cholesterol determinations by nurses using a Reflotron analyser in a general practice setting showed a good correlation with plasma cholesterol determinations by wet chemistry in a clinical biochemistry laboratory. A limited number of comparisons did, however, give a much lower result on the Reflotron. In an experimental situation, small sample volumes (which could result from poor technique) were shown to produce falsely low readings. A simple method which may immediately detect falsely low Reflotron readings is discussed.

  13. Accuracy of detecting stenotic changes on coronary cineangiograms using computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, Tetsuo; Kimura, Koji; Maeda, Hirofumi.

    1990-01-01

    To accurately interprets stenotic changes on coronary cineangiograms, an automatic method of detecting stenotic lesion using computer image processing was developed. First, tracing of artery was performed. The vessel edges were then determined by unilateral Gaussian fitting. The stenotic change was detected on the basis of the reference diameter estimated by Hough transformation. This method was evaluated in 132 segments of 27 arteries in 18 patients. Three observers carried out visual interpretation and computer-aided interpretation. The rate of detection by visual interpretation was 6.1, 28.8 and 20.5%, and by computer-aided interpretation, 39.4, 39.4 and 45.5%. With computer-aided interpretation, the agreement between any two observers on lesions and non-lesions was 40.2% and 59.8%, respectively. Therefore, visual interpretation tended to underestimate the stenotic changes on coronary cineangiograms. We think that computer-aided interpretation increase the reliability of diagnosis on coronary cineangiograms. (author)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Honda, Kazuya; Endo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Norikazu; Funahashi, Itsuo

    2008-01-01

    Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

  15. Functional MRI analysis of deception among people with antisocial personality disorders%反社会人格障碍患者说谎的功能磁共振分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟雄; 廖坚; 刘华生; 唐艳; 王维

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of deception in antisocial personality disorders (ASPD).Methods: A total of 32 criminals meeting the criteria for ASPD underwent fMRI at 1.5T while responding truthfully questions or lying. We compared the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the correlation coefficient between the contrast brain activities and the inclination to deception.Results: The left anterior cingulate gyrus, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal lobule were associated with the executive aspects of deception among people with ASPD. But with the greater inclination to deception, the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activities in those regions decreased Conclusion: Evaluations of truthful and untruthful communications pertaining to ASPD subjects may be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, though those activities may decrease in habitual liars, which remains a challenge to the diagnostic accuracy in lie detection.%目的:研究反社会人格的罪犯说谎时的功能磁共振情况.方法:对32个满足反社会人格标准的男性罪犯进行功能磁共振,分析他们在说真话和说假话时的脑区激活差异以及习惯性说谎程度与激活脑区强弱之间的关系.结果:反社会人格障碍患者左扣带回前部,双侧的背外侧前额叶,左顶下小叶与其欺骗行为的执行相关.并且随着善于说谎程度的加强,这些区域的激活强度呈下降趋势.结论:利用大脑的血氧水平依赖激活可对反社会人格障碍患者说谎和说真话行为进行识别,但是血氧水平依赖激活差异会随着善于说谎程度的增加而降低,这对测谎精确度提出了挑战.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multidetector CT for detection of in-stent restenosis in an unselected, consecutive patient population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsdottir, Sigurdis, E-mail: sigurdisha@gmail.com [Boston Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street (Evans 124), Boston, MA, 02118 (United States); Gudnason, Thorarinn, E-mail: thorgudn@landspitali.is [Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Sigurdsson, Axel F., E-mail: axelfsig@landspitali.is [Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Gudjonsdottir, Jonina, E-mail: jonina@rd.is [Rontgen Domus Medica, Egilsgata 3, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Lehman, Sam J., E-mail: slehman@partners.org [Massachusetts General Hospital, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Eyjolfsson, Kristjan, E-mail: kristey@landspitali.is [Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Scheving, Sigurpall S., E-mail: sigurpal@landspitali.is [Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Gibson, C. Michael, E-mail: mgibson@perfuse.org [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hoffmann, Udo, E-mail: uhoffmann@partners.org [Massachusetts General Hospital, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jonsdottir, Birna, E-mail: birna@rd.is [Rontgen Domus Medica, Egilsgata 3, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Andersen, Karl, E-mail: andersen@landspitali.is [Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2010-11-15

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-CT) for detection of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in an unselected, consecutive patient population. Background: Detection of in-stent restenosis by cardiac CT would be a major advance for the evaluation of patients suspected of having ISR. However, the diagnostic accuracy of current generation 64-CT in this context is not fully established. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on patients with stable angina or acute coronary syndrome with no prior history of coronary artery disease. Six months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement they underwent a 64-CT scan (Toshiba Multi-Slice Aquilion 64) and consequently a repeat coronary angiography for comparison. Cardiac CT data sets were analyzed for the presence of in-stent restenosis by two independent expert readers blinded to the coronary angiographic data. Results: Ninety-three patients with a total of 140 stents were evaluated. Males comprised 82% of the study group and the mean age was 63 {+-} 10 years. The mean time from PCI to the repeat coronary angiography was 208 {+-} 37 days and the mean time from 64-CT to repeat coronary angiography was 3.7 {+-} 4.9 days. The restenosis rate according to coronary angiography was 26%. Stent diameter, strut thickness, heart rate and body mass index (BMI) significantly affected image quality. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 64-CT for detection of in-stent restenosis were 27%, 95%, 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusions: Current generation, 64-slice CT, remains limited in its ability to accurately detect in-stent restenosis.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of point shear wave elastography in the detection of portal hypertension in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak Özkan, M; Bilgici, M C; Eren, E; Caltepe, G

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of point shear wave elastography (p-SWE) of the liver and spleen for the detection of portal hypertension in pediatric patients. The study consisted of 38 healthy children and 56 pediatric patients with biopsy-proven liver disease who underwent splenic and liver p-SWE. The diagnostic performance of p-SWE in detecting clinically significant portal hypertension was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Reliable measurements of splenic and liver stiffness with p-SWE were obtained in 76/94 (81%) and 80/94 patients (85%), respectively. The splenic stiffness was highest in the portal hypertension group (Pportal hypertension was lower for splenic p-SWE than for liver p-SWE (0.906 vs. 0.746; P=0.0239). The cut-off value of splenic p-SWE for portal hypertension was 3.14m/s, with a specificity of 98.59% and a sensitivity of 68.18%. The cut-off value of liver p-SWE for portal hypertension was 2.09m/s, with a specificity of 80.28% and a sensitivity of 77.27%. In pediatric patients, p-SWE is a reliable method for detecting portal hypertension. However, splenic p-SWE is less accurate than liver p-SWE for the diagnosis of portal hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The accuracy of CT and tumor markers in the detection of a recurrent ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Yukari; Ishida, Jiro; Kotake, Fumio; Hirose, Masahiro; Kawana, Koji; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; Akiya, Kiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-three patients previously diagnosed as having ovarian cancer were examined with both serum tumor markers (CA 125, CA 19-9, TPA, IAP, AFP) and a pelvic CT scan. The tumor markers predict the clinical outcome more accurately than the CT scan. Further, the tumor markers showed a clear correlation with the clinical course. But in one case, however, the tumor markers were seen to reduce below the normal level from chemotherapy, while the CT scan showed a tumor mass. Thus, both, a CT scan and tumor marker assays are felt to be indispensable for detecting the recurrence of an ovarian cancer. (author)

  19. Accuracy of pulmonary auscultation to detect abnormal respiratory mechanics: a cross-sectional diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Glaciele Nascimento; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Melo-Silva, César Augusto; dos Santos, Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio; Amado, Veronica Moreira

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a method used in clinical practice for the evaluation and detection of abnormalities relating to the respiratory system. This method has limitations, as it depends on the experience and hearing acuity of the examiner to determine adventitious sounds. In this context, it's important to analyze whether there is a correlation between auscultation of lung sounds and the behavior of the respiratory mechanical properties of the respiratory system in patients with immediate postoperative cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting representative data and generating synthetic samples to improve learning accuracy with imbalanced data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chiang Li

    Full Text Available It is difficult for learning models to achieve high classification performances with imbalanced data sets, because with imbalanced data sets, when one of the classes is much larger than the others, most machine learning and data mining classifiers are overly influenced by the larger classes and ignore the smaller ones. As a result, the classification algorithms often have poor learning performances due to slow convergence in the smaller classes. To balance such data sets, this paper presents a strategy that involves reducing the sizes of the majority data and generating synthetic samples for the minority data. In the reducing operation, we use the box-and-whisker plot approach to exclude outliers and the Mega-Trend-Diffusion method to find representative data from the majority data. To generate the synthetic samples, we propose a counterintuitive hypothesis to find the distributed shape of the minority data, and then produce samples according to this distribution. Four real datasets were used to examine the performance of the proposed approach. We used paired t-tests to compare the Accuracy, G-mean, and F-measure scores of the proposed data pre-processing (PPDP method merging in the D3C method (PPDP+D3C with those of the one-sided selection (OSS, the well-known SMOTEBoost (SB study, and the normal distribution-based oversampling (NDO approach, and the proposed data pre-processing (PPDP method. The results indicate that the classification performance of the proposed approach is better than that of above-mentioned methods.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of metronome-paced tachypnea to detect dynamic hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaije, Anke J M C; Willems, Laura M; van Hees, Hieronymus W H; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van Helvoort, Hanneke A C; Heijdra, Yvonne F

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out to investigate if metronome-paced tachypnea (MPT) can serve as an accurate diagnostic tool to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are susceptible to develop dynamic hyperinflation during exercise. Commonly, this is assessed by measuring change in inspiratory capacity (IC) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), which, however, is complex and laborious. Fifty-three patients with COPD (FEV(1) 58 ± 22%pred) and 20 age-matched healthy subjects were characterized by lung function testing and performed CPET (reference standard) and MPT. The repeatability coefficient of IC (10·2%) was used as cut-off to classify subjects as hyperinflators during CPET. Subsequently, dynamic hyperinflation was measured after MPT. With receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cut-off for MPT-induced dynamic hyperinflation was determined and sensitivity and specificity of MPT to identify hyperinflators were evaluated. With 10·2% decrease in IC as cut-off for CPET-induced dynamic hyperinflation, the optimal cut-off for MPT was 11·1% decrease in IC. Using these cut-offs, MPT had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 85% to identify the subjects who hyperinflated during CPET. The MPT test shows good overall accuracy to identify subjects who are susceptible to develop dynamic hyperinflation during CPET. Before considering the use of MPT as a screening tool for dynamic hyperinflation in COPD, sensitivity and specificity need further evaluation. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  2. Accuracy of multidetector CT in detecting anastomotic leaks following stapled left-sided colonic anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, P.; Karandikar, S.S.; Roy-Choudhury, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To assess accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and individual radiological signs in the diagnosis of anastomotic leaks. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing anterior resection with a stapled anastomosis over a 2 year period were identified. Electronic and clinical records of these patients were reviewed. Unenhanced and/or enhanced MDCT was performed with intravenous and/or per-rectal contrast medium and read by a radiologist blinded to the patients' clinical details to determine the sensitivity and specificity of specific findings at MDCT for identifying leaks. Results: Seventeen percent (30/170) of the anterior resections were suspected to have an anastomotic leak. Ninety-three percent (28/30) of patients underwent MDCT. Seven point six percent (11+2/170) had a confirmed leak. Two patients underwent surgery without MDCT. A leak was confirmed by MDCT in 91% (10/11) of patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT in diagnosing a leak was 0.91, 1, 1, and 0.95, respectively. The sensitivity of peri-anastomotic air, peri-anastomotic collection, extravasation of rectal contrast medium, and staple line integrity was 0.81, 0.63, 0.54, and 0.72, respectively. Use of rectal contrast medium (8/11 cases) increased the subjective ease of diagnosis and was the only sign in one patient. Conclusions: Presence of peri-anastomotic air is a reliable marker of anastomotic leaks at MDCT. Leakage of rectal contrast medium is highly accurate and increases confidence of diagnosis. The appearance of the staple line itself is not accurate in assessing anastomotic integrity

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of phosphor plate systems and conventional radiography in the detection of simulated internal root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karla de Faria; Rovaris, Karla; Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Távora, Débora de Melo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the performance of conventional radiography and photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate in the detection of simulated internal root resorption (IRR) lesions in early stages. Twenty single-rooted teeth were X-rayed before and after having a simulated IRR early lesion. Three imaging systems were used: Kodak InSight dental film and two PSPs digital systems, Digora Optime and VistaScan. The digital images were displayed on a 20.1″ LCD monitor using the native software of each system, and the conventional radiographs were evaluated on a masked light box. Two radiologists were asked to indicate the presence or absence of IRR and, after two weeks, all images were re-evaluated. Cohen's kappa coefficient was calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement. The three imaging systems were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For interexaminer agreement, overall kappa values were 0.70, 0.65 and 0.70 for conventional film, Digora Optima and VistaScan, respectively. Both the conventional and digital radiography presented low sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values with no significant difference between imaging systems (p = .0725). The performance of conventional and PSP was similar in the detection of simulated IRR lesions in early stages with low accuracy.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of (18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullier E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (18 F-FDG positron emission tomography/ computerized tomography (PET/CT for the detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC of colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods: one hundred and forty six eligible patients referred for a PET/CT to evaluate CRC at a single institution were included consecutively and retrospectively. After joint training on 20 similar patient files, two nuclear physicians reviewed the PET/CT scans blindly and independently using a method specifically designed for PC detection. The gold standard was either histological results from surgical exploration for resected patients (n=65 or clinical follow up defined as the 3-month CT follow up supplemented by one year of clinical information and CT monitoring for non-resected patients (n=81. As secondary objectives we evaluated the interobserver reliability between the two PET/CT readings and the diagnostic accuracy of a contemporary ceCT (n=69 or CT component of the PET/CT (n=77 reviewed by an independent radiologist . The extent of PC according to a simplified Sugarbaker index (PCI was examined for the operated subgroup, when PCI was available from the surgeon and PET/CT (n=12. Results: according to the gold standard, 35/146 patients had PC (including 19 of 65 patients with histological gold standard and 16 of 81 patients with clinical follow up gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT were 88% and 96% respectively and positive and negative predictive values and accuracy, 88%, 96% and 94% respectively. For CT alone, the corresponding values were: 68%, 92%, 72%, 90% and 86%. The interobserver agreement for the detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis in PET/CT showed high agreement at 0.91 (Kappa. Median PCI was 3 [range: 1–13] when assessed by surgeons and 4 [range: 1–10] on PET/CT. Focal uptake was the most frequently observed sign on PET. Conclusions: PET/CT appears to be an accurate and reproducible test for PC diagnosis in

  5. Accuracy assessment of tree crown detection using local maxima and multi-resolution segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N; Hamid, J R A; Latif, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of trees forms an important component in the forest ecosystems and needs proper inventories to assist the forest personnel in their daily activities. However, tree parameter measurements are often constrained by physical inaccessibility to site locations, high costs, and time. With the advancement in remote sensing technology, such as the provision of higher spatial and spectral resolution of imagery, a number of developed algorithms fulfil the needs of accurate tree inventories information in a cost effective and timely manner over larger forest areas. This study intends to generate tree distribution map in Ampang Forest Reserve using the Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation algorithm. The utilization of recent worldview-2 imagery with Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation proves to be capable of detecting and delineating the tree crown in its accurate standing position

  6. Accuracy of multidetector row computed tomography for the detection of transplant vasculopathy: comparison with invasive coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Carrascosa, J.; Perrone, S.; Deviggiano, A.; Lopez, E.M.; Lev, G.; Garcia, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detection of luminal stenosis and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in comparison with coronary angiography (CA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) respectively. Material and methods: Nineteen cardiac transplant patients scheduled for follow-up CA were included. MDCT coronary angiography was performed using a 16-row CT scanner within 7-14 days after CA and IVUS. Studies were analyzed by independent readers; two observers evaluated the CT datasets for the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50% and allograft vasculopathy. Results: The sensitivity for detecting > 50% luminal stenosis was 80-88% and specificity, 98-99% and for detection of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, the sensitivity was 91-96% and specificity, 88-91%. Conclusion: In this preliminary series, our results indicate that MDCT coronary angiography was capable of detecting both significant coronary stenosis as well as diffuse intimal proliferation. This non-invasive procedure could be an alternative to CA and IVUS in the surveillance of heart transplant patients. (authors) [es

  7. High-accuracy detection of early Parkinson's Disease using multiple characteristics of finger movement while typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick R Adams

    Full Text Available Parkinson's Disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disease affecting over 6 million people worldwide. Loss of dopamine-producing neurons results in a range of both motor and non-motor symptoms, however there is currently no definitive test for PD by non-specialist clinicians, especially in the early disease stages where the symptoms may be subtle and poorly characterised. This results in a high misdiagnosis rate (up to 25% by non-specialists and people can have the disease for many years before diagnosis. There is a need for a more accurate, objective means of early detection, ideally one which can be used by individuals in their home setting. In this investigation, keystroke timing information from 103 subjects (comprising 32 with mild PD severity and the remainder non-PD controls was captured as they typed on a computer keyboard over an extended period and showed that PD affects various characteristics of hand and finger movement and that these can be detected. A novel methodology was used to classify the subjects' disease status, by utilising a combination of many keystroke features which were analysed by an ensemble of machine learning classification models. When applied to two separate participant groups, this approach was able to successfully discriminate between early-PD subjects and controls with 96% sensitivity, 97% specificity and an AUC of 0.98. The technique does not require any specialised equipment or medical supervision, and does not rely on the experience and skill of the practitioner. Regarding more general application, it currently does not incorporate a second cardinal disease symptom, so may not differentiate PD from similar movement-related disorders.

  8. Neural correlates of self-deception and impression-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Tom F D; Burgess, Jenny; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Self-deception and impression-management comprise two types of deceptive, but generally socially acceptable behaviours, which are common in everyday life as well as being present in a number of psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish and dissociate the 'normal' brain substrates of self-deception and impression-management. Twenty healthy participants underwent fMRI scanning at 3T whilst completing the 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding' test under two conditions: 'fake good', giving the most desirable impression possible and 'fake bad' giving an undesirable impression. Impression-management scores were more malleable to manipulation via 'faking' than self-deception scores. Response times to self-deception questions and 'fake bad' instructions were significantly longer than to impression-management questions and 'fake good' instructions respectively. Self-deception and impression-management manipulation and 'faking bad' were associated with activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Impression-management manipulation was additionally associated with activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 'Faking bad' was additionally associated with activation of right vlPFC, left temporo-parietal junction and right cerebellum. There were no supra-threshold activations associated with 'faking good'. Our neuroimaging data suggest that manipulating self-deception and impression-management and more specifically 'faking bad' engages a common network comprising mPFC and left vlPFC. Shorter response times and lack of dissociable neural activations suggests that 'faking good', particularly when it comes to impression-management, may be our most practiced 'default' mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of a multi-segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-04-01

    Kinematic models are commonly used to quantify foot and ankle kinematics, yet no marker sets or models have been proven reliable or accurate when wearing shoes. Further, the minimal detectable difference of a developed model is often not reported. We present a kinematic model that is reliable, accurate and sensitive to describe the kinematics of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg during walking gait. In order to achieve this, a new marker set was established, consisting of 25 markers applied on the shoe and skin surface, which informed a four segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg. Three independent experiments were conducted to determine the reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of the marker set and model. Inter-rater reliability of marker placement on the shoe was proven to be good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.98) indicating that markers could be applied reliably between raters. Intra-rater reliability was better for the experienced rater (ICC=0.68-0.99) than the inexperienced rater (ICC=0.38-0.97). The accuracy of marker placement along each axis was <6.7 mm for all markers studied. Minimal detectable difference (MDD90) thresholds were defined for each joint; tibiocalcaneal joint--MDD90=2.17-9.36°, tarsometatarsal joint--MDD90=1.03-9.29° and the metatarsophalangeal joint--MDD90=1.75-9.12°. These thresholds proposed are specific for the description of shod motion, and can be used in future research designed at comparing between different footwear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Accuracy of Digital Radiography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography on Periapical Radiolucency Detection in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Venskutonis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography in the detection of periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: Radiographic images (cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans and digital periapical radiography [PR] images from 60 patients, achieved from September 2008 to July 2013, were retrieved from databases of the Department of Oral Diseases, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for further evaluation. Results: In 20 patients (42.4 [SD 12.1] years, 65% men and 35% women a total of 35 endodontically treated teeth (1.75 [SD 0.91]; 27 in maxilla and 8 in mandible were evaluated. Overall, it was observed a statistical significant difference between the number of periapical lesions observed in the CBCT (n = 42 and radiographic (n = 24 examinations (P < 0.05. In molar teeth, CBCT identify a significantly higher amount of periapical lesions than with the radiographic method (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between CBCT and PR in the mean number of lesions identified per tooth (1.2 vs 0.66, P = 0.03, number of teeth with lesions (0.71 vs 0.46, P = 0.03 and number of lesions identified per canal (0.57 vs 0.33, P = 0.005. Considering CBCT as “gold standard” in lesion detection with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy considering as score 1, then the same parameters of PR were 0.57, 1 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that cone beam computed tomography scans were more accurate compared to digital periapical radiographs for detecting periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. The difference was more pronounced in molar teeth.

  11. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  12. Effect of absorbing impurities on the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances resulting from the processing of waste nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Simanovsky, I. G.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The study is aimed at an increase in the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances in technological liquids resulting form the processing of the waste nuclear fuel. It is demonstrated that the accuracy can be increased owing to the measurements at various combinations of wavelengths depending on the concentrations of impurities that are contained in the sample under study and absorb in the spectral range used for the detection of the iodine-containing substances.

  13. Comparative accuracy of Computed Tomography and lymphoangiography in detecting lymph node metastases from epithelial cancer of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Fianza, A.; Dore, R.; Campani, R.; Babilonti, L.; Tateo, S.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy is investigated of both lymphangiography and CT in detecting lymph nodes metastases in 59 patients evaluated preoperatively and subsequently submitted to surgery with selective/systemic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. CT accuracy was also investigated in 46 patients with a clinically suspected relapse of ovarian cancer (verified by means of clinical and/or CT follow-up in 36 patients, by laparotomy in 7, by fine-needle biopsy in 1 and by necroscopy in the last 2). In the first group (previously untreated patients) the overall results in the pelvis were, respectively, for lymphangiography and CT: 94.9% vs 89.8% accuracy, 86.6% vs 60% sensitivity, 97.7% vs 100% specificity, and 92.8% vs 100%, 95.5% vs 88% positive and negative predictive values. In the paraaortic region the results were: 89.1% vs 86.5% accuracy, 73.3% vs 66.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity for both techniques, 100% positive predictive value, and 84.6% vs 81.5% negative predictive value. In the second group (clinically suspected relapse), CT accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were, respectively: 91.3%, 81.8%,and 100%. Our experience demonstrated a high incidence of lymph node metastases in ovarian cancer, both in pelvic (15/49; 25.5%) and especially in aortic (15/37; 40.5%) locations in untreated patients, and an even higher incidence in relapses (22/42; 52.5%). The high specificity and positive predictive value of CT depended on the fact that there were no false positives. We arbitrarily considered as metastatic a lymph node with diameter >2cm, and this threshold seemed to be of clinical value since it made a good predictor of metastases. Among diagnostic imaging modalities, CT is suggested as the method of choice for the evaluation of pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastases in untreated and relapsing ovarian cancers. Lymphangiography, a more invasive- though more accurate- technique, is indicated after normal CT

  14. Development of a geometric uncertainty model describing the accuracy of position-sensitive, coincidence neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, Cory L., E-mail: cory@psu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania, State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brenizer, J.S. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania, State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A diameter of uncertainty (D{sub u}) was derived from a geometric uncertainty model describing the error that would be introduced into position-sensitive, coincidence neutron detection measurements by charged-particle transport phenomena and experimental setup. The transport of {alpha} and Li ions, produced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction, through free-standing boro-phosphosilicate glass (BPSG) films was modeled using the Monte Carlo code SRIM, and the results of these simulations were used as input to determine D{sub u} for position-sensitive, coincidence techniques. The results of these calculations showed that D{sub u} is dependent on encoder separation, the angle of charged particle emission, and film thickness. For certain emission scenarios, the magnitude of D{sub u} is larger than the physical size of the neutron converting media that were being modeled. Spheres of uncertainty were developed that describe the difference in flight path times among the bounding-case emission scenarios that were considered in this work. It was shown the overlapping spheres represent emission angles and particle flight path lengths that would be difficult to resolve in terms of particle time-of-flight measurements. However, based on the timing resolution of current nuclear instrumentation, emission events that yield large D{sub u} can be discriminated by logical arguments during spectral deconvolution.

  15. Accuracy of an automated system for tuberculosis detection on chest radiographs in high-risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J; Hogeweg, L; Sánchez, C I; Philipsen, R H H M; Aldridge, R W; Hayward, A C; Abubakar, I; van Ginneken, B; Story, A

    2018-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes can be optimised by reducing the number of chest radiographs (CXRs) requiring interpretation by human experts. To evaluate the performance of computerised detection software in triaging CXRs in a high-throughput digital mobile TB screening programme. A retrospective evaluation of the software was performed on a database of 38 961 postero-anterior CXRs from unique individuals seen between 2005 and 2010, 87 of whom were diagnosed with TB. The software generated a TB likelihood score for each CXR. This score was compared with a reference standard for notified active pulmonary TB using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and localisation ROC (LROC) curve analyses. On ROC curve analysis, software specificity was 55.71% (95%CI 55.21-56.20) and negative predictive value was 99.98% (95%CI 99.95-99.99), at a sensitivity of 95%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.90 (95%CI 0.86-0.93). Results of the LROC curve analysis were similar. The software could identify more than half of the normal images in a TB screening setting while maintaining high sensitivity, and may therefore be used for triage.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin; Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç

    To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax(®) 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm(3) voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm(3) voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm(3) voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general, higher Az values were

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of different display types in detection of recurrent caries under restorations by using CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltacıoĝlu, İsmail H; Eren, Hakan; Yavuz, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of CBCT images using seven different display types in the detection of recurrent caries. Methods: Our study comprised 128 extracted human premolar and molar teeth. 8 groups each containing 16 teeth were obtained as follows: (1) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling without caries; (2) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling without caries; (3) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling without caries; (4) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling without caries; (5) Black Class I (Occlusal) amalgam filling with caries; (6) Black Class I (Occlusal) composite filling with caries; (7) Black Class II (Proximal) amalgam filling with caries; and (8) Black Class II (Proximal) composite filling with caries. Teeth were imaged using 100 × 90 mm field of view at three different voxel sizes of a CBCT unit (Planmeca ProMax® 3D ProFace™; Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). CBCT TIFF images were opened and viewed using custom-designed software for computers on different display types. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer, reading and restoration were compared using z-tests against Az = 0.5. The significance level was set at p = 0.05. Results: We found poor and moderate agreements. In general, Az values were found when software and medical diagnostic monitor were utilized. For Observer 2, Az values were statistically significantly higher when software was used on medical monitor [p = 0.036, p = 0.015 and p = 0.002, for normal-resolution mode (0.200 mm3 voxel size), high-resolution mode (0.150 mm3 voxel size) and low-resolution mode (0.400 mm3 voxel size), respectively]. No statistically significant differences were found among other display types for all modes (p > 0.05). In general, no difference was found among 3 different voxel sizes (p > 0.05). In general

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighatkhah, H. R.; Sabouri, S.; Borzouyeh, F.; Bagherzadeh, M. H.; Bakhshandeh, H.; Jalali, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  19. A computer simulation study comparing lesion detection accuracy with digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xing; Glick, Stephen J.; Liu, Bob; Vedula, Aruna A.; Thacker, Samta

    2006-01-01

    Although conventional mammography is currently the best modality to detect early breast cancer, it is limited in that the recorded image represents the superposition of a three-dimensional (3D) object onto a 2D plane. Recently, two promising approaches for 3D volumetric breast imaging have been proposed, breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT breast imaging (CTBI). To investigate possible improvements in lesion detection accuracy with either breast tomosynthesis or CT breast imaging as compared to digital mammography (DM), a computer simulation study was conducted using simulated lesions embedded into a structured 3D breast model. The computer simulation realistically modeled x-ray transport through a breast model, as well as the signal and noise propagation through a CsI based flat-panel imager. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra of Mo/Mo 28 kVp for digital mammography, Mo/Rh 28 kVp for BT, and W/Ce 50 kVp for CTBI were modeled. For the CTBI simulation, the intensity of the x-ray spectra for each projection view was determined so as to provide a total average glandular dose of 4 mGy, which is approximately equivalent to that given in conventional two-view screening mammography. The same total dose was modeled for both the DM and BT simulations. Irregular lesions were simulated by using a stochastic growth algorithm providing lesions with an effective diameter of 5 mm. Breast tissue was simulated by generating an ensemble of backgrounds with a power law spectrum, with the composition of 50% fibroglandular and 50% adipose tissue. To evaluate lesion detection accuracy, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed with five observers reading an ensemble of images for each case. The average area under the ROC curves (A z ) was 0.76 for DM, 0.93 for BT, and 0.94 for CTBI. Results indicated that for the same dose, a 5 mm lesion embedded in a structured breast phantom was detected by the two volumetric breast imaging systems, BT and CTBI, with statistically

  20. Accuracy of methods for detecting an irregular pulse and suspected atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggar, Jaspal S; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah; Heneghan, Carl; Jones, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Pulse palpation has been recommended as the first step of screening to detect atrial fibrillation. We aimed to determine and compare the accuracy of different methods for detecting pulse irregularities caused by atrial fibrillation. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS until 16 March 2015. Two reviewers identified eligible studies, extracted data and appraised quality using the QUADAS-2 instrument. Meta-analysis, using the bivariate hierarchical random effects method, determined average operating points for sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR, NLR); we constructed summary receiver operating characteristic plots. Twenty-one studies investigated 39 interventions (n = 15,129 pulse assessments) for detecting atrial fibrillation. Compared to 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) diagnosed atrial fibrillation, blood pressure monitors (BPMs; seven interventions) and non-12-lead ECGs (20 interventions) had the greatest accuracy for detecting pulse irregularities attributable to atrial fibrillation (BPM: sensitivity 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.00), specificity 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.95), PLR 12.1 (95% CI 8.2-17.8) and NLR 0.02 (95% CI 0.00-0.09); non-12-lead ECG: sensitivity 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.94), specificity 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.97), PLR 20.1 (95% CI 12-33.7), NLR 0.09 (95% CI 0.06-0.14)). There were similar findings for smartphone applications (six interventions) although these studies were small in size. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse palpation (six interventions) were 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-0.96) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.76-0.88), respectively (PLR 5.2 (95% CI 3.8-7.2), NLR 0.1 (95% CI 0.05-0.18)). BPMs and non-12-lead ECG were most accurate for detecting pulse irregularities caused by atrial fibrillation; other technologies may therefore be pragmatic alternatives to pulse palpation for the first step of atrial fibrillation screening. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  1. Accuracy and precision of equine gait event detection during walking with limb and trunk mounted inertial sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    The increased variations of temporal gait events when pathology is present are good candidate features for objective diagnostic tests. We hypothesised that the gait events hoof-on/off and stance can be detected accurately and precisely using features from trunk and distal limb-mounted Inertial....... Accuracy (bias) and precision (SD of bias) was calculated to compare force plate and IMU timings for gait events. Data were collected from seven horses. One hundred and twenty three (123) front limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was detected with a bias (SD) of -7 (23) ms, hoof-off with 0.7 (37) ms...... and front limb stance with -0.02 (37) ms. A total of 119 hind limb steps were analysed; hoof-on was found with a bias (SD) of -4 (25) ms, hoof-off with 6 (21) ms and hind limb stance with 0.2 (28) ms. IMUs mounted on the distal limbs and sacrum can detect gait events accurately and precisely....

  2. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p theory of mind ability (p theory of mind) results in better processing of the target and consequently better destination memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  3. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... 3235-AK77 Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based... fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based... measured and reasonable means to prevent fraud, manipulation, and deception in connection with security...

  4. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function (EF) and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to…

  5. An evaluation of the subtraction photoshop software accuracy to detect minor changes in optical density by radiovisiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaeipour AR.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Subtraction is a newly presented radiography technique to detect minor density"nchanges that are not visible by conventional radiography."nPurpose: The aim of this In-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of photoshop subtraction software for"ndetecting minor density changes between two dental images."nMaterials and Methods: In this research, five dried human mandibles were held in fixed position while thin"naluminium sheets were superimposed on each mandible on the 1th and 2nd molar teeth regions."nA reference image, without aluminium sheet placement, was obtained from each mandible subsequently series"nconsist of 20 images with aluminium sheets, ranging from 50p. to "5Q0"x were recorded by radiovisiography"n(RVG system. Initial images were subtracted from subsequent ones by Photoshop subtraction software. The"ndifference in density between the two images at the 1st and 2nd molar sites was related to the aluminium"nsheets. The optical density of aluminium sheets was determined by densitometer."nResults: In the present study, 6.6% of the optical density changes of the minimum aluminium thickness as"n300u. could be detected by photoshop software software."nConclusion: The findings of this study showed that the accuracy of photoshop subtraction software was equal"nto that of the conventional subtraction softwares. Additionally, the accuracy of this software was proved to be"nsuitable for clinical investigations of small localized changes in alveolar bone.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Cardiac Electrical Biomarker for Detection of Electrocardiogram Changes Suggestive of Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, David M; Fishberg, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Objective A new cardiac “electrical” biomarker (CEB) for detection of 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) changes indicative of acute myocardial ischemic injury has been identified. Objective was to test CEB diagnostic accuracy. Methods This is a blinded, observational retrospective case-control, noninferiority study. A total of 508 ECGs obtained from archived digital databases were interpreted by cardiologist and emergency physician (EP) blinded reference standards for presence of acute myocardial ischemic injury. CEB was constructed from three ECG cardiac monitoring leads using nonlinear modeling. Comparative active controls included ST voltage changes (J-point, ST area under curve) and a computerized ECG interpretive algorithm (ECGI). Training set of 141 ECGs identified CEB cutoffs by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. Test set of 367 ECGs was analyzed for validation. Poor-quality ECGs were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Adjudication was performed by consensus. Results CEB demonstrated noninferiority to all active controls by hypothesis testing. CEB adjudication demonstrated 85.3–94.4% sensitivity, 92.5–93.0% specificity, 93.8–98.6% negative predictive value, and 74.6–83.5% positive predictive value. CEB was superior against all active controls in EP analysis, and against ST area under curve and ECGI by cardiologist. Conclusion CEB detects acute myocardial ischemic injury with high diagnostic accuracy. CEB is instantly constructed from three ECG leads on the cardiac monitor and displayed instantly allowing immediate cost-effective identification of patients with acute ischemic injury during cardiac rhythm monitoring. PMID:24118724

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of bone metastases detection in cancer patients. Comparison between bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Ryota; Higashi, Tatsuya; Nakamoto, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become widely available and an important oncological technique. To evaluate the influence of PET on detection of bone metastasis, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of PET and conventional bone scintigraphy (BS) in a variety of cancer patients. Consecutive ninety-five patients with various cancers, who received both PET and BS within one month, were retrospectively analyzed. A whole-body PET (from face to upper thigh) and a standard whole body BS were performed and these images were interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians with and without patient information using monitor diagnosis. Each image interpretation was performed according to 8 separate areas (skull, vertebra, upper limbs, sternum and clavicles, scapula, ribs, pelvis, and lower limbs) using a 5-point-scale (0: definitely negative, 1: probably negative, 2: equivocal, 3: probably positive, 4: definitely positive for bone metastasis). Twenty-one of 95 patients (22.1%) with 43 of 760 areas (5.7%) of bone metastases were finally confirmed. In untreated patients, 12 of 14 bone metastasis positive patients were detected by PET, while 9 of 14 were detected by BS. Three cases showed true positive in PET and false negative in BS due to osteolytic type bone metastases. In untreated cases, PET with and without clinical information showed better sensitivity than BS in patient-based diagnosis. For the purpose of treatment effect evaluation, PET showed better results because of its ability in the evaluation of rapid response of tumor cells to chemotherapy. Out of 10 cases of multiple-area metastases, 9 cases included vertebrae. There was only one solitary lesion located outside of field of view (FOV) of PET scan in the femur, but with clinical information that was no problem for PET diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy of bone metastasis was comparable in PET and BS in the present study. In a usual clinical condition, limited FOV (from

  8. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  9. Accuracy of detection of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in human and bovine blood with an inexpensive, pocket-size infrared scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Margot P; Rhodes, Laura J

    2018-01-01

    Detecting life-threatening common dyshemoglobins such as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb, resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning) or methemoglobin (MetHb, caused by exposure to nitrates) typically requires a laboratory CO-oximeter. Because of cost, these spectrophotometer-based instrument are often inaccessible in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an inexpensive pocket infrared spectrometer and smartphone (SCiO®Pocket Molecular Sensor, Consumer Physics Ltd., Israel) accurately detects COHb and MetHb in single drops of blood. COHb was created by adding carbon monoxide gas to syringes of heparinized blood human or cow blood. In separate syringes, MetHb was produced by addition of sodium nitrite solution. After incubation and mixing, fractional concentrations of COHb or MetHb were measured using a Radiometer ABL-90 Flex® CO-oximeter. Fifty microliters of the sample were then placed on a microscope slide, a cover slip applied and scanned with the SCiO spectrometer. The spectrograms were used to create simple linear models predicting [COHb] or [MetHb] based on spectrogram maxima, minima and isobestic wavelengths. Our model predicted clinically significant carbon monoxide poisoning (COHb ≥15%) with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 88% (regression r2 = 0.63, slope P20% MetHb) was detected with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 71% (regression r2 = 0.92, slope Psmartphone detects >15% COHb or >20% MetHb on a single drop of blood with enough accuracy to be useful as an initial clinical screening. The SCiO and similar relatively low cost spectrometers could be developed as inexpensive diagnostic tools for developing countries.

  10. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: a prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Susan E; Schumacher, Samuel G; Alland, David; Nabeta, Pamela; Armstrong, Derek T; King, Bonnie; Hall, Sandra L; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tukvadze, Nestani; Bablishvili, Nino; Stevens, Wendy; Scott, Lesley; Rodrigues, Camilla; Kazi, Mubin I; Joloba, Moses; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Nicol, Mark P; Ghebrekristos, Yonas; Anyango, Irene; Murithi, Wilfred; Dietze, Reynaldo; Lyrio Peres, Renata; Skrahina, Alena; Auchynka, Vera; Chopra, Kamal Kishore; Hanif, Mahmud; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Xing; Boehme, Catharina C; Ellner, Jerrold J; Denkinger, Claudia M

    2018-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil). Participants were allocated to the case detection group if no drugs had been taken for tuberculosis in the past 6 months or to the multidrug-resistance risk group if drugs for tuberculosis had been taken in the past 6 months, but drug resistance was suspected. Demographic information, medical history, chest imaging results, and HIV test results were recorded at enrolment, and each participant gave at least three sputum specimen on 2 separate days. Xpert and Xpert Ultra diagnostic performance in the same sputum specimen was compared with culture tests and drug susceptibility testing as reference standards. The primary objectives were to estimate and compare the sensitivity of Xpert Ultra test with that of Xpert for detection of smear-negative tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance and to estimate and compare Xpert Ultra and Xpert specificities for detection of rifampicin resistance. Study participants in the case detection group were included in all analyses, whereas participants in the multidrug-resistance risk group were only included in analyses of rifampicin-resistance detection. Between Feb 18, and Dec 24, 2016, we enrolled 2368 participants for sputum sampling. 248 participants were excluded from the analysis, and 1753 participants were distributed to the case detection group (n=1439

  11. Improved quantification accuracy for duplex real-time PCR detection of genetically modified soybean and maize in heat processed foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time PCR technique has been widely used in quantitative GMO detection in recent years.The accuracy of GMOs quantification based on the real-time PCR methods is still a difficult problem,especially for the quantification of high processed samples.To develop the suitable and accurate real-time PCR system for high processed GM samples,we made ameliorations to several real-time PCR parameters,including re-designed shorter target DNA fragment,similar lengths of amplified endogenous and exogenous gene targets,similar GC contents and melting temperatures of PCR primers and TaqMan probes.Also,one Heat-Treatment Processing Model (HTPM was established using soybean flour samples containing GM soybean GTS 40-3-2 to validate the effectiveness of the improved real-time PCR system.Tested results showed that the quantitative bias of GM content in heat processed samples were lowered using the new PCR system.The improved duplex real-time PCR was further validated using processed foods derived from GM soybean,and more accurate GM content values in these foods was also achieved.These results demonstrated that the improved duplex real-time PCR would be quite suitable in quantitative detection of high processed food products.

  12. Reduction of Motion Artifacts and Improvement of R Peak Detecting Accuracy Using Adjacent Non-Intrusive ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring has many advantages: easy to measure and apply in daily life. However, motion noise in the measured signal is the major problem of non-intrusive measurement. This paper proposes a method to reduce the noise and to detect the R peaks of ECG in a stable manner in a sitting arrangement using non-intrusive sensors. The method utilizes two capacitive ECG sensors (cECGs to measure ECG, and another two cECGs located adjacent to the sensors for ECG are added to obtain the information on motion. Then, active noise cancellation technique and the motion information are used to reduce motion noise. To verify the proposed method, ECG was measured indoors and during driving, and the accuracy of the detected R peaks was compared. After applying the method, the sum of sensitivity and positive predictivity increased 8.39% on average and 26.26% maximally in the data. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the motion noise was reduced and that more reliable R peak positions could be obtained by the proposed method. The robustness of the new ECG measurement method will elicit benefits to various health care systems that require noninvasive heart rate or heart rate variability measurements.

  13. Accuracy of digital radiography and cone beam computed tomography on periapical radiolucency detection in endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venskutonis, Tadas; Daugela, Povilas; Strazdas, Marijus; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography in the detection of periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. Radiographic images (cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans and digital periapical radiography [PR] images) from 60 patients, achieved from September 2008 to July 2013, were retrieved from databases of the Department of Oral Diseases, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for further evaluation. In 20 patients (42.4 [SD 12.1] years, 65% men and 35% women) a total of 35 endodontically treated teeth (1.75 [SD 0.91]; 27 in maxilla and 8 in mandible) were evaluated. Overall, it was observed a statistical significant difference between the number of periapical lesions observed in the CBCT (n = 42) and radiographic (n = 24) examinations (P cone beam computed tomography scans were more accurate compared to digital periapical radiographs for detecting periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. The difference was more pronounced in molar teeth.

  14. Accuracy of detection of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in human and bovine blood with an inexpensive, pocket-size infrared scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot P Bickler

    Full Text Available Detecting life-threatening common dyshemoglobins such as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb, resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning or methemoglobin (MetHb, caused by exposure to nitrates typically requires a laboratory CO-oximeter. Because of cost, these spectrophotometer-based instrument are often inaccessible in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an inexpensive pocket infrared spectrometer and smartphone (SCiO®Pocket Molecular Sensor, Consumer Physics Ltd., Israel accurately detects COHb and MetHb in single drops of blood. COHb was created by adding carbon monoxide gas to syringes of heparinized blood human or cow blood. In separate syringes, MetHb was produced by addition of sodium nitrite solution. After incubation and mixing, fractional concentrations of COHb or MetHb were measured using a Radiometer ABL-90 Flex® CO-oximeter. Fifty microliters of the sample were then placed on a microscope slide, a cover slip applied and scanned with the SCiO spectrometer. The spectrograms were used to create simple linear models predicting [COHb] or [MetHb] based on spectrogram maxima, minima and isobestic wavelengths. Our model predicted clinically significant carbon monoxide poisoning (COHb ≥15% with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 88% (regression r2 = 0.63, slope P20% MetHb was detected with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 71% (regression r2 = 0.92, slope P15% COHb or >20% MetHb on a single drop of blood with enough accuracy to be useful as an initial clinical screening. The SCiO and similar relatively low cost spectrometers could be developed as inexpensive diagnostic tools for developing countries.

  15. Accuracy of Medical Students in Detecting Pleural Effusion Using Lung Ultrasound as an Adjunct to the Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Peter; Oleskevich, Sharon; Dyachenko, Alina; McCusker, Jane; Lewis, John

    2018-03-25

    This study compared the accuracy of medical students in identifying pleural effusion in hospitalized patients using the physical examination versus lung ultrasound (US). Fourth-year medical students (n = 14) received 20 hours of general practical US training (including 2 hours of specialized lung US training) plus theoretical and video documentation. The students used the physical examination alone versus the physical examination plus lung US to document the presence or absence of pleural effusion in the right and left hemithoraces of hospitalized patients (n = 11 patients; 22 hemithoraces examined 544 times in total). The reference standard for identification of pleural effusion was a lung US examination by 2 expert point-of-care sonographers. The odds of correctly identifying the presence versus absence of pleural effusion was 5 times greater with lung US as an adjunct to the physical examination compared to the physical examination alone (odds ratio [OR], 5.1 from multivariate logistic regression; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-8.0). The addition of lung US to the physical examination resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 48% to 90%, in specificity from 73% to 86%, and in accuracy from 60% to 88%. The benefits of using US were greater when pleural effusion was present versus absent (OR, 10.8 versus 2.4) and when examining older versus younger patients (OR, 10.2 versus 2.8). These results demonstrate that medical students' ability to detect the presence or absence of pleural effusion is superior when using lung US as an adjunct to the physical examination than when using the physical examination alone. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of serologic and molecular methods for detecting visceral leishmaniasis in HIV infected patients: meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Fernandes Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a potentially fatal disease, has emerged as an important opportunistic condition in HIV infected patients. In immunocompromised patients, serological investigation is considered not an accurate diagnostic method for VL diagnosis and molecular techniques seem especially promising. OBJECTIVE: This work is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of serologic and molecular tests for VL diagnosis specifically in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and LILACS databases. The quality of studies was assessed by QUADAS score. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures: diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC. RESULTS: Thirty three studies recruiting 1,489 patients were included. The following tests were evaluated: Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting (Blot, direct agglutination test (DAT and polimerase chain reaction (PCR in whole blood and bone marrow. Most studies were carried out in Europe. Serological tests varied widely in performance, but with overall limited sensitivity. IFAT had poor sensitivity ranging from 11% to 82%. DOR (95% confidence interval was higher for DAT 36.01 (9.95-130.29 and Blot 27.51 (9.27-81.66 than for IFAT 7.43 (3.08-1791 and ELISA 3.06 (0.71-13.10. PCR in whole blood had the highest DOR: 400.35 (58.47-2741.42. The accuracy of PCR based on Q-point was 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.97, which means good overall performance. CONCLUSION: Based mainly on evidence gained by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi, serological tests should not be used to rule out a diagnosis of VL among the HIV-infected, but a positive test at even low titers has diagnostic value when combined with the clinical case definition. Considering the available evidence, tests based on DNA

  17. Can breast MRI computer-aided detection (CAD) improve radiologist accuracy for lesions detected at MRI screening and recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arazi-Kleinman, T.; Causer, P.A.; Jong, R.A.; Hill, K.; Warner, E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) computer-aided detection (CAD) for breast MRI screen-detected lesions recommended for biopsy in a high-risk population. Material and methods: Fifty-six consecutive Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 3-5 lesions with histopathological correlation [nine invasive cancers, 13 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 34 benign] were retrospectively evaluated using a breast MRI CAD prototype (CAD-Gaea). CAD evaluation was performed separately and in consensus by two radiologists specializing in breast imaging, blinded to the histopathology. Thresholds of 50, 80, and 100% and delayed enhancement were independently assessed with CAD. Lesions were rated as malignant or benign according to threshold and delayed enhancement only and in combination. Sensitivities, specificities, and negative predictive values (NPV) were determined for CAD assessments versus pathology. Initial MRI BI-RADS interpretation without CAD versus CAD assessments were compared using paired binary diagnostic tests. Results: Threshold levels for lesion enhancement were: 50% to include all malignant (and all benign) lesions; and 100% for all invasive cancer and high-grade DCIS. Combined use of threshold and enhancement patterns for CAD assessment was best (73% sensitivity, 56% specificity and 76% NPV for all cancer). Sensitivities and NPV were better for invasive cancer (100%/100%) than for all malignancies (54%/76%). Radiologists' MRI interpretation was more sensitive than CAD (p = 0.05), but less specific (p = 0.001) for cancer detection. Conclusion: The breast MRI CAD system used could not improve the radiologists' accuracy for distinguishing all malignant from benign lesions, due to the poor sensitivity for DCIS detection.

  18. Defining body deception and its role in peer based social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shiovitz, Rachel; Alfano, Lauren; Greif, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to operationalize the phenomenon of body deception, describe its theoretical importance, and validate its existence in an experimental paradigm. The definition of body deception includes the intentional misrepresentation of information about appearance to others. The present study examined body deception in a controlled experimental study of male and female same-sex peer groups using a series of hierarchical linear models. Ninety male and 90 female undergraduates were randomized to an experimental same-sex peer group or individual control condition. The results suggested that both men and women used body deception among peers, but men's body deception was muscularity driven whereas women's was thinness driven. Body dissatisfaction was significantly predictive of the degree of body deception used by both genders and it was significantly related to peer group membership. An integrated model for the role of body deception in body image disturbance is proposed.

  19. Deception in research: distinctions and solutions from the perspective of utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, David J

    2002-01-01

    The use of deception in psychological research continues to be a controversial topic. Using Rawls's explication of utilitarianism, I attempt to demonstrate how professional organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, can provide more specific standards that determine the permissibility of deception in research. Specifically, I argue that researchers should examine the costs and benefits of creating and applying specific rules governing deception. To that end, I offer 3 recommendations. First, that researchers who use deception provide detailed accounts of the procedures they used to minimize the harm created by deception in their research reports. Second, that the American Psychological Association offer a definition of deception that describes techniques commonly used in research. Finally, I recommend that the informed consent procedure be revised to indicate that the researcher may use deception as part of the study.

  20. The diagnostic accuracy of a single CEA blood test in detecting colorectal cancer recurrence: Results from the FACS trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Shinkins

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a single CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen blood test in detecting colorectal cancer recurrence.Patients who have undergone curative resection for primary colorectal cancer are typically followed up with scheduled CEA testing for 5 years. Decisions to investigate further (usually by CT imaging are based on single test results, reflecting international guidelines.A secondary analysis was undertaken of data from the FACS trial (two arms included CEA testing. The composite reference standard applied included CT-CAP imaging, clinical assessment and colonoscopy. Accuracy in detecting recurrence was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, predictive values, time-dependent area under the ROC curves, and operational performance when used prospectively in clinical practice are reported.Of 582 patients, 104 (17.9% developed recurrence during the 5 year follow-up period. Applying the recommended threshold of 5μg/L achieves at best 50.0% sensitivity (95% CI: 40.1-59.9%; in prospective use in clinical practice it would lead to 56 missed recurrences (53.8%; 95% CI: 44.2-64.4% and 89 false alarms (56.7% of 157 patients referred for investigation. Applying a lower threshold of 2.5μg/L would reduce the number of missed recurrences to 36.5% (95% CI: 26.5-46.5% but would increase the false alarms to 84.2% (924/1097 referred. Some patients are more prone to false alarms than others-at the 5μg/L threshold, the 89 episodes of unnecessary investigation were clustered in 29 individuals.Our results demonstrated very low sensitivity for CEA, bringing to question whether it could ever be used as an independent triage test. It is not feasible to improve the diagnostic performance of a single test result by reducing the recommended action threshold because of the workload and false alarms generated. Current national and international guidelines merit re-evaluation and options to improve performance, such as

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect Hepatitis C antibody: a meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Chen, Wen; Amini, Ali; Boeras, Debi; Falconer, Jane; Kelly, Helen; Peeling, Rosanna; Varsaneux, Olivia; Tucker, Joseph D; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    Although direct-acting antivirals can achieve sustained virological response rates greater than 90% in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected persons, at present the majority of HCV-infected individuals remain undiagnosed and therefore untreated. While there are a wide range of HCV serological tests available, there is a lack of formal assessment of their diagnostic performance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate he diagnostic accuracy of available rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and laboratory based EIA assays in detecting antibodies to HCV. We used the PRISMA checklist and Cochrane guidance to develop our search protocol. The search strategy was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42015023567). The search focused on hepatitis C, diagnostic tests, and diagnostic accuracy within eight databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, SCOPUS, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde and WHO Global Index Medicus. Studies were included if they evaluated an assay to determine the sensitivity and specificity of HCV antibody (HCV Ab) in humans. Two reviewers independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of the studies using the QUADAS tool. We pooled test estimates using the DerSimonian-Laird method, by using the software R and RevMan. 5.3. A total of 52 studies were identified that included 52,673 unique test measurements. Based on five studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of HCV Ab rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were 98% (95% CI 98-100%) and 100% (95% CI 100-100%) compared to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) reference standard. High HCV Ab RDTs sensitivity and specificity were observed across screening populations (general population, high risk populations, and hospital patients) using different reference standards (EIA, nucleic acid testing, immunoblot). There were insufficient studies to undertake

  2. Do tumor size or patient age influence the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (Sn) detection in breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.; Fernandez, A.; Benito, E.; Azpeitia, D.; Ricart, Y.; Escobedo, A.; Martin-Comin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim was to analyze the influence of the age of the patient and tumor size on the accuracy to identify SN in patients with breast cancer. The whole population are 250 patients with breast cancer. In 236 data on size and age were available. Mean age was 53.6 years, range 28-87 years. Patients were classified 1) depending an age: 40 60 years: 73 p and 2) depending on tumor size (mm): 30: 46 p. Examination protocol: All patients received a peritumoral injection of 111 MBq (3mCi) of 99mTc-HSA-nanocolloid in 1 - 3 ml. 2 h later 300 seconds anterior and lateral thoracic scans were obtained. A 57-Co flood phantom was positioned back to the patient to outline the anatomical contour and help to localize SN. SN was marked on the skin with permanent ink. Intraoperative SN localization was performed using a gamma probe. Histopathologic analysis of SN was done with haematoxylin/eosin, immunohistochemistry and PCR. Histopathology of the SN was compared to the histopathology of all the other lymph nodes drawn out by the surgeon. SN were identified by lymphoscintigraphy in 227 cases of 250 (91 %). 221 of them (97 %) were localized in axyla. In 210 of 221 SN could be localized and drawn out at surgery. The no detection and false negative rate were much higher in patients aged > 60 (29 and 33 %) and in tumors > 30 mm (32 and 19 %) than in patients 60 y and tumors > 30 mm (46 %) and the highest false negative rate appears in patients >60 and tumors > 30 mm (33 %) 1) No FN were found in patients with tumor size <10 mm. 2) No FN were found in patients aged under 40 years. 3) FN rate seems to be higher in older patients. 4) The age of patients and the size of tumor seem to influence an the SN detection rates. (author)

  3. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, Christine; Pousset, Maud; Elie, Caroline; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Merran, Samuel; Tranquart, Francois; Khairoune, Ahmed; Helenon, Olivier; Correas, Jean-Michel; Joly, Dominique; Richard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement (κ value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of a loop-mediated isothermal PCR assay for detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi during acute Scrub Typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Blacksell, Stuart D; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Teeraratkul, Achara; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P J

    2011-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop rapid and accurate point-of-care (POC) technologies for acute scrub typhus diagnosis in low-resource, primary health care settings to guide clinical therapy. In this study we present the clinical evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal PCR assay (LAMP) in the context of a prospective fever study, including 161 patients from scrub typhus-endemic Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. A robust reference comparator set comprising following 'scrub typhus infection criteria' (STIC) was used: a) positive cell culture isolate and/or b) an admission IgM titer ≥1∶12,800 using the 'gold standard' indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and/or c) a 4-fold rising IFA IgM titer and/or d) a positive result in at least two out of three PCR assays. Compared to the STIC criteria, all PCR assays (including LAMP) demonstrated high specificity ranging from 96-99%, with sensitivities varying from 40% to 56%, similar to the antibody based rapid test, which had a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 95%. The diagnostic accuracy of the LAMP assay was similar to realtime and nested conventional PCR assays, but superior to the antibody-based rapid test in the early disease course. The combination of DNA- and antibody-based detection methods increased sensitivity with minimal reduction of specificity, and expanded the timeframe of adequate diagnostic coverage throughout the acute phase of scrub typhus.

  5. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  6. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The analysis of the post-game surveys showed support for participants in games using a face-to-face communication method to have lower perceptions of deception and task difficulty when compared to games using real-time plain text chat.

  7. A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    sampled from 160 documents representing over 40 disciplines. The areas of magic, mentalism, paranormal phenomena, and confidence games are particularly...Skeptical Inquirer, the (formerly the Zetetic) ( Paranormal phenomena); P.O. Box 29, Kensington Station, Buffalo, NY. . . Military Deception...happening, is perceived as unlikely (and perhaps paranormal ) because of a failure to realize the very large . number of opportunities for matches. A

  8. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  9. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  10. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  11. Action Simulation Plays a Critical Role in Deceptive Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in

  12. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  13. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, - (2006), s. 219-235 ISSN 1464-7931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cross-pollination * floral deception * geitonogamy * inbreeding * nectar * Orchidaceae * pollinaria * reward * self-pollination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.565, year: 2006

  14. Deception in experiments: revisiting the arguments in its defense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertwig, R.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-92 ISSN 1050-8422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : deception * experimental control * research ethics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2008

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of commercial system for computer-assisted detection (CADx) as an adjunct to interpretation of mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, Sabatino; Di Virgilio, Maria Rosaria; Burke, Paolo; Frigerio, Alfonso; Boglione, Elisa; Ciccarelli, Grazia; Di Filippo, Sabato; Garretti, Licia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the commercial computer-aided detection CADx system for the reading of mammograms. Materials and methods. The study assessed the Second Look system developed and marketed by CADx Medical Systems, Montreal, Canada. The diagnostic sensitivity was evaluated by means of a retrospective study on 98 consecutive cancers detected at screening by double independent reading. The specificity and the positive predictive value (PPV) for cancer of the CADx system were prospectively evaluated on a second group of 560 consecutive mammograms of asymptomatic women not included in screening program. The radiologist who was present during the test assessed the abnormal mammographic findings by one or more of the following diagnostic procedures: physical examination, additional mammographic detail views with or without magnification,ultrasonography, ultrasound- or mammography guided fine needle aspiration cytology, and core-biopsy. The exams first underwent conventional reading and then a second reading carried out with the aid of the CADx system. Results.The overall diagnostic sensitivity of the CADx system on the 98 screening cancers was 81.6%; in particular it was 89.3% for calcifications, 83.9% for masses and only 37.5% for architectural distortion. The CADx markings for each mammography were 4.7 on average. Identification of invasive carcinoma was independent from tumour size. In the second group of 560 mammograms, the CADx system marked all cases identified as positive by conventional reading and confirmed by biopsy (7/7), but did not permit the detection of any additional cancer. The CADx markings per exam were 4.2 on average, the specificity was 13.7% and the PPV was 0.55% versus 13.7% recall rate of conventional reading. CADx reading led to a 1.96% (11/560) increase of the women necessitating further diagnostic investigation. Conclusions. The results of our study show that the diagnostic sensitivity of the CADx system is lower

  16. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  17. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Osvath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes. As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  18. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  19. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding Our Horizon with a Working Memory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the "cognitive load approach" as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes). Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012) working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal, and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009), the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed). Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  20. Multiple shifts to different pollinators fuelled rapid diversification in sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Hendrik; Onstein, Renske E; Cafasso, Donata; Schlüter, Philipp M; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Episodes of rapid speciation provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species radiations and patterns of biodiversity. Here we investigated the radiation of sexually deceptive bee orchids (Ophrys). Based on a time-calibrated phylogeny and by means of ancestral character reconstruction and divergence time estimation, we estimated the tempo and mode of this radiation within a state-dependent evolutionary framework. It appears that, in the Pleistocene, the evolution of Ophrys was marked by episodes of rapid diversification coinciding with shifts to different pollinator types: from wasps to Eucera bees to Andrena and other bees. An abrupt increase in net diversification rate was detected in three clades. Among these, two phylogenetically distant lineages switched from Eucera to Andrena and other bees in a parallel fashion and at about the same time in their evolutionary history. Lack of early radiation associated with the evolution of the key innovation of sexual deception suggests that Ophrys diversification was mainly driven by subsequent ecological opportunities provided by the exploitation of novel pollinator groups, encompassing many bee species slightly differing in their sex pheromone communication systems, and by spatiotemporal fluctuations in the pollinator mosaic. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to issue... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  2. Detection of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia: accuracy of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can occur in skin and mucosa, causing disfiguring lesions. The laboratory diagnosis of CL involves immunological methods and optical detection of the parasite, al of which have limitations. There is a need for more effective diagnostic methods for CL which wil allow treatment to be initiated more promptly in order to help prevent the development of severe forms of mucosal disease, and to estimate the prognosis of the infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been widely used to diagnose CL, because of its higher sensitivity. This study estimated the accuracy and compared PCRs of samples from lesion scarification (PCR-L and blood sample-enriched leukocytes (PCR-B with three conventional diagnostic techniques: parasite direct search (DS, Montenegro skin test (MST, and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF. The study included 276 patients under suspicion of CL. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which patients were selected by convenience sampling. We used MP3H/MP1L primers to generate a Leishmania (Viannia (minicircle kDNA fragment of 70-bp. Of 106 patients with CL, 83.87%, 51.67%, 64.52%, 85.71%, or 96.10% tested positive by PCR-L, PCR-B, DS, IIF, or MST, respectively. Five patients tested positive only by PCR-L, and two other patients only by PCR-B. PCR-L is indicated for use in patients with chronic lesions or Leishmania reinfection, which may progress to mucosal lesion. PCR-B is indicated for use in patients with negative results in conventional tests or for patients with no apparent lesion. PCR is not only useful in diagnosing CL but also helps to identify the infecting species.

  3. Accuracy of non-invasive 13C-urea breath test compared to invasive tests for helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Khaar, B.; Omar, M.; Qureshi, T.Z.; Ahmed, T.; Latif, Z.; Jaffery, I.; Omar, M.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity, specificity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of histology, Campylobacter-Like Organism (CLO) test, culture and 13C-Urea Breath Test (UBT) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. District Headquarter Hospital, Rawalpindi, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Pakistan Institute of Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad from June 2002 to 2003. Three mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained during endoscopy of 90 symptomatic patients. Histology, CLO test and culture were performed on these specimens. Breath samples for 13C-UBT were collected and sent to RIAD, PINSTECH on the same day for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. For analysis purpose, each of the tests was fixed as the gold standard in turn and the others were then compared against it. In addition, any two as well as any three positive tests were then set as the gold standard and the other tests compared against them to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and PPV of other tests. Urea breath test had the highest sensitivity, ranging from 95 to 100%, against all the gold standards with specificity ranging from 55 to 100%, whereas the sensitivity of histological examination was around 98% but it had comparatively lower specificity (49-89%). The CLO test had a sensitivity range of 86-100% and specificity of 67-100%. Culture had the minimum sensitivity (59-70%) but had highest specificity (96-100%) against all the gold standards. Age and gender had no effect on p-value of each test or in combination. The urea breath test has shown the highest ability to detect the organism with 95-100% sensitivity in symptomatic individuals and specificity, which is comparable to other tests. (author)

  4. Low Accuracy of Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography to Detect Lung and Lymph Node Metastases of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Renaud, Stéphane; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Nigra, Victor; Solidoro, Paolo; Santelmo, Nicola; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ruffini, Enrico; Oliaro, Alberto; Massard, Gilbert

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation are commonly proposed in the case of pulmonary colorectal-metastasis as alternatives to conventional open surgery. Preoperative imaging assessment by computed tomography (CT) scan and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are critical to guide oncologic radical treatment. Our aim was to investigate the accuracy of CT and FDG-PET for the evaluation of the number of pulmonary colorectal metastases and thoracic lymph nodal involvement (LNI). Patients who underwent lung surgical resection for pulmonary colorectal metastases from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed. Concordance between histology, CT scan, and FDG-PET findings were assessed. Data of 521 patients were analyzed. Of those, FDG-PET was performed in 435 (83.5%). A moderate agreement between both CT scan (kappa index: 0.42) and FDG-PET (kappa index: 0.42) findings and the histologically proven number of metastases was observed. The number of histologically proven metastases was correctly discriminated in 61.7% of cases with CT scan and in 61.8% of cases with FDG-PET. Multiple metastases were discovered in 20.9% of clinical single metastasis cases with CT scan, and in 24.4% of those cases with FDG-PET. One hundred fifty patients (29.1%) presented with pathologic LNI. A poor agreement was observed between LNI and CT scan findings (kappa index: 0.02), and a weak agreement was observed concerning LNI and FDG-PET findings (kappa index: 0.39). Computed tomography and FDG-PET have limitations if the objective is to detect all malignant nodules and to discriminate the LNI in cases of pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of direct ophthalmoscopy for detection of diabetic retinopathy using fundus photographs as a reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Shahid; Basit, Abdul; Ahmed, Kazi Rumana; Ali, Liaquat; Shaheen, Fariha; Ulhaque, Muhammad Saif; Fawwad, Asher

    2014-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of direct ophthalmoscopy for the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using fundus photographs as a reference standard. Patients with type 2 diabetes attending the outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care diabetes center, from October 2009 to March 2010 were recruited in the study after obtaining signed informed consent. Patients with type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes or having eye problems were excluded. After checking visual acuity, direct ophthalmoscopy of each eye was done by diabetologist, followed by photography of two fields of retina by fundus camera. DR was graded by a retinal specialist, according to International Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale. According to severity, patients with DR were grouped into non-sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (NSTDR) and sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR). Sensitivity and specificity of direct ophthalmoscopy for detection of any retinopathy, NSTDR and STDR was calculated. A total of 728 eyes were examined by direct ophthalmoscopy as well as fundus photography. Sensitivity (95% CI) of direct ophthalmoscopy for any retinopathy, NSTDR and STDR was found to be 55.67% (50.58-60.78), 37.63% (32.67-42.59) and 68.25% (63.48-73.02) respectively. Whereas, specificity of direct ophthalmoscopy was found to be 76.78% (72.45-81.11), 71.27% (CI: 66.63-75.91) and 90.0% (86.93-93.07) for any retinopathy, NSTDR and STDR respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of direct ophthalmoscopy performed by the diabetologist for the presence and severity of DR was lower compared to the recommended level of sensitivity and specificity of a screening test of DR. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of detecting malignant transformation of low-grade glioma using O-(2-[F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Brennum, Jannick; Broholm, Helle

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The diagnostic accuracy of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) PET scanning in detecting the malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is controversial. In this study, the authors retrospectively assessed the diagnostic potential of FET PET in patients with MRI-suspected ...

  7. A comparison of accuracy and precision of 5 gait-event detection algorithms from motion capture in horses during over ground walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Boye, Jenny Katrine; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    and use robust and validated algorithms. It is the objective of this study to compare accuracy (bias) and precision (SD) for five published human and equine motion capture foot-on/off and stance phase detection algorithms during walk. Six horses were walked over 8 seamlessly embedded force plates...... of mass generally provides the most accurate and precise results in walk....

  8. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  9. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 p...

  10. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    influenza A virus detection and H1N1-p subtyping. The PLEX-ID Flu assay demonstrated a high level of accuracy for the simultaneous detection and identification of influenza A and B viruses in patient specimens, providing a new laboratory tool for the rapid diagnosis and management of influenza A and B virus infections.

  11. A Report of Research on Detection of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-09-15

    roce -dt or tho ’ ,oo other oubJoao wore ~,ncorinloti2.) Also stwiplo3 of the heart rate worn -’ Akon following the ribJootnt rcioprinn.o to th* ncutral...v.nr worn t’. akon , the only differonce in tho situation being that the S’s ir ,tvuin tho auditory stiil (four each at intervals of a minute as soon as...show’- 1I mr 2.* In this caso I or 2 is subtracted from aJ. inda~x readlings t akon (ri r’ nofrfti-ot. (2) h O Icction ol the indicati~ng imotnr for a

  12. Deception Based Intrusion Detection & Prevention for SCADA Environments -

    Science.gov (United States)

    types of cyber security, cutting-edge cyber security technologies that are being brought into the energy of a state sponsorship - for states, it's very easy just to open up a shell company and buy whatever security controls, things like FireEye or things like your various types of firewalls that are out there

  13. Localization accuracy of compact binary coalescences detected by the third-generation gravitational-wave detectors and implication for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Wen, Linqing

    2018-03-01

    using GW sources as independent tools to constrain the Hubble constant H0, the deceleration parameter q0, and the equation-of-state (EoS) of dark energy. We find that, in general, if 10 BNSs or NSBHs at z =0.1 with known redshifts are detected by 3G networks consisting of two ET-like detectors, H0 can be measured with an accuracy of 0.9%. If 1000 face-on BNSs at z <2 are detected with known redshifts, we are able to achieve Δ q0=0.002 for the deceleration parameter, or Δ w0=0.03 and Δ wa=0.2 for EoS of dark energy, respectively.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography scans with high- and low-resolution modes for the detection of root perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Eskandarloo, Amir; Norouzi, Marouf; Poorolajal, Jalal; Majidi, Gelareh; Aliyaly, Alireza

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans obtained with 2 CBCT systems with high- and low-resolution modes for the detection of root perforations in endodontically treated mandibular molars. The root canals of 72 mandibular molars were cleaned and shaped. Perforations measuring 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm in diameter were created at the furcation area of 48 roots, simulating strip perforations, or on the external surfaces of 48 roots, simulating root perforations. Forty-eight roots remained intact (control group). The roots were filled using gutta-percha (Gapadent, Tianjin, China) and AH26 sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The CBCT scans were obtained using the NewTom 3G (QR srl, Verona, Italy) and Cranex 3D (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) CBCT systems in high- and low-resolution modes, and were evaluated by 2 observers. The chi-square test was used to assess the nominal variables. In strip perforations, the accuracies of low- and high-resolution modes were 75% and 83% for NewTom 3G and 67% and 69% for Cranex 3D. In root perforations, the accuracies of low- and high-resolution modes were 79% and 83% for NewTom 3G and was 56% and 73% for Cranex 3D. The accuracy of the 2 CBCT systems was different for the detection of strip and root perforations. The Cranex 3D had non-significantly higher accuracy than the NewTom 3G. In both scanners, the high-resolution mode yielded significantly higher accuracy than the low-resolution mode. The diagnostic accuracy of CBCT scans was not affected by the perforation diameter.

  15. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  16. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  17. The Role of Power and Negotiation in Online Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Albrecht

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to advance theoretical understanding of the important role of both power and negotiation during online deception.  By so doing, the paper provides insight into the relationship between perpetrator and victim in Internet fraud. The growing prevalence of Internet Fraud continues to be a burden to both society and individuals. In an attempt to better understand Internet fraud and online deception, this article attempts to build an interactive model, based upon the dimensions of power and negotiation from the management and psychology literature. Using the model presented, the article examines the effects of the Internet on the communication process that takes place between perpetrator and victim. Finally, the article discusses some of the major tactics employed to appeal to each power type in predominant fraud forms, as well exploring future types of fraud.

  18. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  19. Communication, compassion, and computers: Adolescents' and adults' evaluations of online and face-to-face deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Sean; Eskritt, Michelle; Bosacki, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    We explored Canadian adolescents', emergent adults', and adults' understandings of deception in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared to face to face (FtF). Participants between 13 and 50 years read vignettes of different types of questionable behaviour that occurred online or in real life, and were asked to judge whether deception was involved, and the acceptability of the behaviour. Age groups evaluated deception similarly; however, adolescents held slightly different views from adults about what constitutes deception, suggesting that the understanding of deception continues to develop into adulthood. Furthermore, CMC behaviour was rated as more deceptive than FtF in general, and participants scoring higher on compassion perceived vignettes to be more deceptive. This study is a step towards better understanding the relationships between perceptions of deception across adolescence into adulthood, mode of communication, and compassion, and may have implications for how adults communicate with youth about deception in CMC and FtF contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deception Recognition: Rethinking the Operational Commander’s Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    Understanding this cultural relativism gives us insight into intent. Social norms tend to be tacitly established and maintained through body...the concept of ―face‖ in dealing with people in a personal or professional relationship is first and foremost in the Chinese culture . The western... morality ,‖5 the operational commander can be and usually is directly affected by both political deception and MILDEC and must be able to recognize and

  1. Deception and price in a market with asymmetric information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In markets with asymmetric information, only sellers have knowledge about the quality of goods. Sellers may of course make a declaration of the quality, but unless there are sanctions imposed on false declarations or reputations are at stake, such declarations are tantamount to cheap talk. Nonetheless, in an experimental study we find that most people make honest declarations, which is in line with recent findings that lies damaging another party are costly in terms of the liar's utility. Moreover, we find in this experimental market that deceptive sellers offer lower prices than honest sellers, which could possibly be explained by the same wish to limit the damage to the other party. However, when the recipient of the offer is a social tie we find no evidence for lower prices of deceptive offers, which seems to indicate that the rationale for the lower price in deceptive offers to strangers is in fact profit-seeking (by making the deal more attractive rather than moral.

  2. Subarray-based FDA radar to counteract deceptive ECM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Wang, Wen-Qin; Yuan, Zhao; Mohamed, Suhad; Bin, Tang

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar concept has attracted extensive attention, as it may benefit from a small frequency increment, compared to the carrier frequency across the array elements and thereby achieve an array factor that is a function of the angle, the time, and the range which is superior to the conventional phase array radar (PAR). However, limited effort on the subject of FDA in electronic countermeasure scenarios, especially in the presence of mainbeam deceptive jamming, has been published. Basic FDA is not desirable for anti-jamming applications, due to the range-angle coupling response of targets. In this paper, a novel method based on subarrayed FDA signal processing is proposed to counteract deceptive ECM signals. We divide the FDA array into multiple subarrays, each of which employs a distinct frequency increment. As a result, in the subarray-based FDA, the desired target can be distinguished at subarray level in joint range-angle-Doppler domain by utilizing the fact that the jammer generates false targets with the same ranges to each subarray without reparations. The performance assessment shows that the proposed solution is effective for deceptive ECM targets suppression. The effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  3. Modulation of financial deprivation on deception and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Ling, Xiaoli; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Guo, Xiuyan

    2017-11-01

    Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision. Twenty-one participants were scanned when they played a series of adapted Dictator Game with different partners after a ball-guess game. Specifically, participants gained or lost money in the ball-guess game, and had opportunities to get more financial gains through cheating in the following adapted Dictator Game. Behavioral results indicated that participants did not cheat to the full extent; instead they were more likely to lie after losing money compared with gaining money. At the neural level, weaker activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were observed when participants lied after losing money than gaining money. Together, our data indicated that, people really had an internalized norm of keeping honest, but it would be lenient when people feel financial deprivation. And suppressing the truthful response originating from moral norm of keeping honest was associated with increased level of activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, but this association became weaker when people were under financial deprivation.

  4. Pollinator-Driven Speciation in Sexually Deceptive Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been suggested to play a major role for the origin and maintenance of the species diversity in orchids. Sexually deceptive orchids are one of the prime examples for rapid, pollinator-mediated plant radiations, with many species showing little genetic differentiation, lack of postzygotic barriers, but strong prezygotic reproductive isolation. These orchids mimic mating signals of female insects and employ male insects as pollinators. This kind of sexual mimicry leads to highly specialised pollination and provides a good system for investigating the process of pollinator-driven speciation. Here, we summarise the knowledge of key processes of speciation in this group of orchids and conduct a meta-analysis on traits that contribute to species differentiation, and thus potentially to speciation. Our study suggests that pollinator shift through changes in floral scent is predominant among closely related species in sexually deceptive orchids. Such shifts can provide a mechanism for pollinator-driven speciation in plants, if the resulting floral isolation is strong. Furthermore, changes in floral scent in these orchids are likely controlled by few genes. Together these factors suggest speciation in sexually deceptive orchids may happen rapidly and even in sympatry, which may explain the remarkable species diversity observed in this plant group.

  5. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in Patients with Rising Prostatic-Specific Antigen After Definitive Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Detection Efficacy and Diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Maged Abdel Galil; Basha, Mohammad Abd Alkhalik; Ahmed, Hussien; Obaya, Ahmed Ali; Afifi, Amira Hamed Mohamed; Abdelbary, Eman H

    2018-06-20

    68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen-11 ( 68 Ga-PSMA-11) is a recently developed positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that can detect prostate cancer (PC) relapses and metastases with high contrast resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the detection efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT image in patients with rising prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) after treatment of PC. The present prospective study included 188 patients who exhibited rising of PSA level on a routine follow-up examination after definitive treatment of PC. All patients underwent a 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT examination. For each patient, we determined the disease stage, the Gleason score, and the maximum standardized uptake value of the local recurrence and extraprostatic metastases. The detection efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT were established by histopathology and clinical and imaging follow-up as the reference standards. 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT detected tumour relapse in 165 patients (35 patients had local recurrence, 106 patients had extraprostatic metastases, and 24 patients had combined lesions). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT examination in the detection of PC recurrence were 98.8%, 100%, and 98.8%, respectively. 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT revealed an overall detection rate of 87.8% (165/188) in patients with rising PSA (median of 2.2 ng/mL, and range of 0.01-70 ng/mL). 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT is a valuable tool for the detection of PC local recurrence or extraprostatic metastases following rising PSA levels after primary definitive therapy and should be incorporated during routine work-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Consumers' behavioural intentions after experiencing deception or cognitive disonance caused by deceptive packaging, package downsizing or slack filling

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, SJK; Beckenuyte, C; Butt, MM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to discover the extent to which consumers are aware of air filling in food packaging, the extent to which deceptive packaging and slack filling – which often result from package downsizing – lead to cognitive dissonance, and the extent to which feelings of cognitive dissonance and being deceived lead consumers to engage in negative post purchase behaviours. Design/methodology/approach – The study analysed respondents’ reactions to a series of images of a...

  7. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  8. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang; Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Wehrmann, Ursula; Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank; Aust, Daniela; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas ≥10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV max was ≥5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV max . FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV max ≥ 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Explicit instructions increase cognitive costs of deception in predictable social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eFalkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT, which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e. atheist or conservative. In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue. In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue. With internal cues, reaction times are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues, reaction times are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when external cues were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only

  10. Accuracy of LightCycler® SeptiFast for the detection and identification of pathogens in the blood of patients with suspected sepsis: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dark, Paul; Wilson, Claire; Blackwood, Bronagh; McAuley, Danny F.; Perkins, Gavin D.; McMullan, Ronan; Gates, Simon; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in the potential utility of molecular diagnostics in improving the detection of life-threatening infection (sepsis). LightCycler® SeptiFast is a multipathogen probebased real-time PCR system targeting DNA sequences of bacteria and fungi present in blood samples within a few hours. We report here the protocol of the first systematic review of published clinical diagnostic accuracy studies of this technology when compared with blood culture in the setting o...

  11. Improved Accuracy of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT for the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease by Utilizing a Support Vector Machines Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanjani, Reza; Xu, Yuan; Dey, Damini; Fish, Matthews; Dorbala, Sharmila; Hayes, Sean; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of automatic myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) interpretation analysis for prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) by integrating several quantitative perfusion and functional variables for non-corrected (NC) data by support vector machines (SVM), a computer method for machine learning. Methods 957 rest/stress 99mtechnetium gated MPS NC studies from 623 consecutive patients with correlating invasive coronary angiography and 334 with low likelihood of CAD (LLK < 5% ) were assessed. Patients with stenosis ≥ 50% in left main or ≥ 70% in all other vessels were considered abnormal. Total perfusion deficit (TPD) was computed automatically. In addition, ischemic changes (ISCH) and ejection fraction changes (EFC) between stress and rest were derived by quantitative software. The SVM was trained using a group of 125 pts (25 LLK, 25 0-, 25 1-, 25 2- and 25 3-vessel CAD) using above quantitative variables and second order polynomial fitting. The remaining patients (N = 832) were categorized based on probability estimates, with CAD defined as (probability estimate ≥ 0.50). The diagnostic accuracy of SVM was also compared to visual segmental scoring by two experienced readers. Results Sensitivity of SVM (84%) was significantly better than ISCH (75%, p < 0.05) and EFC (31%, p < 0.05). Specificity of SVM (88%) was significantly better than that of TPD (78%, p < 0.05) and EFC (77%, p < 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of SVM (86%) was significantly better than TPD (81%), ISCH (81%), or EFC (46%) (p < 0.05 for all). The Receiver-operator-characteristic area-under-the-curve (ROC-AUC) for SVM (0.92) was significantly better than TPD (0.90), ISCH (0.87), and EFC (0.60) (p < 0.001 for all). Diagnostic accuracy of SVM was comparable to the overall accuracy of both visual readers (85% vs. 84%, p < 0.05). ROC-AUC for SVM (0.92) was significantly better than that of both visual readers (0.87 and 0.88, p < 0.03). Conclusion Computational

  12. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of fracture detection in suspected non-accidental injury: the effect of edge enhancement and digital display on observer performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom) and Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: amaka.offiah@gosh.nhs.uk; Moon, L. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Hall, C.M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Todd-Pokropek, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    AIM: To compare the effect of varying degrees of edge enhancement and method of digital image display on fracture detection in suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty radiographs from post-mortem skeletal surveys in 13 children with suspected NAI were selected. Images were obtained using a Fuji 5000R computed radiography system. Hard copies were printed with edge enhancement factors 0, 0.5 and 1.2. Images (edge enhancement 0.5) were also displayed on a 1K{sup 2} monitor. Six observers independently evaluated all 200 images for the presence of abnormality. Observers also scored each image for visualization of soft tissues, visualization of trabecular markings and overall image quality. The paired Student's t-test and location receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis were used to compare quality scores and diagnostic accuracy of each display method. Individual and pooled true-positive rates (sensitivity) were determined. For the purposes of ROC analysis, histology was taken as the gold standard. RESULTS: There was no difference in duration of hard and soft-copy reading sessions (p=0.76). After image manipulation soft-copy radiographs scored significantly better for image quality than hard copy (p<0.0001). Pooled observer sensitivity (at a specificity of 90%) was below 50% for all display methods. Diagnostic accuracy varied significantly between observers. Diagnostic accuracy of individual observers was not affected by display method. CONCLUSION: In suspected NAI, diagnostic accuracy of fracture detection is generally low. Diagnostic accuracy appears to be affected more by observer-related factors than by the method of digital image display.

  14. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  15. An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others' actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.; van Kesteren, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies thus far have confounded motor and perceptual experience when examining their contributions to the recognition of deceptive and non-deceptive intentions from another person's movements. In the present study, we manipulated viewing perspective as an additional demarcation to

  16. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  17. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  18. Screening for Dyslexia in French-Speaking University Students: An Evaluation of the Detection Accuracy of the Alouette Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Eddy; Colé, Pascale; Leloup, Gilles; Poracchia-George, Florence; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; El Ahmadi, Abdessadek

    Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i.e., phonological skills). However, the test's psychometric properties have not previously been available, and it is not standardized for adults. The results showed that, on the Alouette test, dyslexic readers were impaired on measures of accuracy, speed, and efficiency (accuracy/reading time). We also found significant correlations between the Alouette reading efficiency and phonological efficiency scores. Finally, in terms of the Alouette test, speed-accuracy trade-offs were found in both groups, and optimal cutoff scores were determined with receiver operator characteristic curves analysis, yielding excellent discriminatory power, with 83.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for reading efficiency. Thus, this study supports the Alouette test as a sensitive and specific screening tool for adults with dyslexia.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA using dried blood spot (DBS) samples - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Roberts, Teri; Cohn, Jennifer; Greenman, Jamie; Camp, Johannes; Ishizaki, Azumi; Messac, Luke; Tuaillon, Edouard; van de Perre, Philippe; Pichler, Christine; Denkinger, Claudia M; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    The detection and quantification of hepatitis B (HBV) DNA and hepatitis C (HCV) RNA in whole blood collected on dried blood spots (DBS) may facilitate access to diagnosis and treatment of HBV and HCV infection in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of DBS compared to venous blood samples for detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA in two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of HBV DNA and HCV RNA from DBS compared to venous blood samples. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Web of Science, LILAC and Cochrane library for studies that assessed diagnostic accuracy with DBS. Heterogeneity was assessed and where appropriate pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated using bivariate analyses with maximum likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals. We also conducted a narrative review on the impact of varying storage conditions or different cut-offs for detection from studies that undertook this in a subset of samples. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess risk of bias. In the quantitative synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HBV-DNA using DBS, 521 citations were identified, and 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall quality of studies was rated as low. The pooled estimate of sensitivity and specificity for HBV-DNA was 95% (95% CI: 83-99) and 99% (95% CI: 53-100), respectively. In the two studies that reported on cut-offs and limit of detection (LoD) - one reported a sensitivity of 98% for a cut-off of ≥2000 IU/ml and another reported a LoD of 914 IU/ml using a commercial assay. Varying storage conditions for individual samples did not result in a significant variation of results. In the synthesis for diagnostic accuracy of HCV-RNA using DBS, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, and this included six additional studies to a previously published review. The pooled sensitivity and specificity was 98% (95% CI:95-99) and 98% (95% CI:95-99.0), respectively

  20. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Davalloo, Reza Tayefeh; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying 'Sharpening 2' and 'Noise Reduction' processing options to the original images; (2) applying the 'Magnification 1:3' option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the 'Diagonal/' option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying 'Magnification 1:3'; (5) applying 'Sharpening UM' to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying 'Magnification 1:3.' Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of 'Sharpening UM' along with the 'Magnification 1:3' processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  1. The effects of noise reduction, sharpening, enhancement, and image magnification on diagnostic accuracy of a photostimulable phosphor system in the detection of non-cavitated approximal dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Davalloo, Reza Tayefeh; Tavangar, Mayam; Valizade, Fatemeh [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contrast, sharpness, enhancement, and density can be changed in digital systems. The important question is to what extent the changes in these variables affect the accuracy of caries detection. Forty eight extracted human posterior teeth with healthy or proximal caries surfaces were imaged using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor. All original images were processed using a six-step method: (1) applying 'Sharpening 2' and 'Noise Reduction' processing options to the original images; (2) applying the 'Magnification 1:3' option to the image obtained in the first step; (3) enhancing the original images by using the 'Diagonal/' option; (4) reviewing the changes brought about by the third step of image processing and then, applying 'Magnification 1:3'; (5) applying 'Sharpening UM' to the original images; and (6) analyzing the changes brought about by the fifth step of image processing, and finally, applying 'Magnification 1:3.' Three observers evaluated the images. The tooth sections were evaluated histologically as the gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of the observers was compared using a chi-squared test. The accuracy levels irrespective of the image processing method ranged from weak (18.8%) to intermediate (54.2%), but the highest accuracy was achieved at the sixth image processing step. The overall diagnostic accuracy level showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). This study shows that the application of 'Sharpening UM' along with the 'Magnification 1:3' processing option improved the diagnostic accuracy and the observer agreement more effectively than the other processing procedures.

  2. Comparison of the accuracy of Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction in detecting clinically important cervical dysplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Hung N; Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; VonVille, Helena M; Scheurer, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985–2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89–0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84–0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73–0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62–0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio – dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39–11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86–11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16–6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50–9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12–19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87–10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31–6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy

  3. Influenza detection and prediction algorithms: comparative accuracy trial in Östergötland county, Sweden, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, A; Eriksson, O; Dahlström, Ö; Timpka, T

    2017-07-01

    Methods for the detection of influenza epidemics and prediction of their progress have seldom been comparatively evaluated using prospective designs. This study aimed to perform a prospective comparative trial of algorithms for the detection and prediction of increased local influenza activity. Data on clinical influenza diagnoses recorded by physicians and syndromic data from a telenursing service were used. Five detection and three prediction algorithms previously evaluated in public health settings were calibrated and then evaluated over 3 years. When applied on diagnostic data, only detection using the Serfling regression method and prediction using the non-adaptive log-linear regression method showed acceptable performances during winter influenza seasons. For the syndromic data, none of the detection algorithms displayed a satisfactory performance, while non-adaptive log-linear regression was the best performing prediction method. We conclude that evidence was found for that available algorithms for influenza detection and prediction display satisfactory performance when applied on local diagnostic data during winter influenza seasons. When applied on local syndromic data, the evaluated algorithms did not display consistent performance. Further evaluations and research on combination of methods of these types in public health information infrastructures for 'nowcasting' (integrated detection and prediction) of influenza activity are warranted.

  4. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum characterization and sensitive quantification in food matrices by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection--validation using accuracy profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, G; Campargue, C

    2012-11-02

    Interest concerning functional ingredients and especially dietary fibres has been growing in recent years. At the same time, the variety of ingredient accepted as dietary fibres and their mixing at low level in complex matrices have considerably complicated their quantitative analysis by approved AOAC methods. These reasons have led to the specific development of an innovative analytical method performed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) to detect and quantify partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in fruit preparation and dairy matrices. The analytical methodology was divided in two steps which could be deployed separately or in conjunction. The first, consists in a complete characterization of PHGG by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection and HPAEC-PAD to determine its physico-chemical properties and galactomannans content, and the second step is the development of a new HPAEC-PAD method for PHGG direct quantification in complex matrices (dairy product). Validation in terms of detection and quantification limits, linearity of the analytical range, average accuracy (recovery, trueness) and average uncertainty were statistically carried out with accuracy profile. Overall, this new chromatographic method has considerably improved the possibility to quantify without fractionation treatment, low level of dietary fibres emerging from specific galactomannans, in complex matrices and many foodstuffs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging for detecting root avulsions in traumatic adult brachial plexus injuries: protocol for a systematic review of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie G; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Wormald, Justin C R; Ridgway, John P; Tanner, Steven; Rankine, James J; Bourke, Grainne

    2018-05-19

    Adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) are becoming more common. The reconstruction and prognosis of pre-ganglionic injuries (root avulsions) are different to other types of BPI injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to identify root avulsions, but the evidence from studies of its diagnostic accuracy are conflicting. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to address uncertainty about the accuracy of MRI and to guide future research. We will conduct a systematic search of electronic databases alongside reference tracking. We will include studies of adults with traumatic BPI which report the accuracy of preoperative MRI (index test) against surgical exploration of the roots of the brachial plexus (reference standard) for detecting either of the two target conditions (any root avulsion or any pseudomeningocoele as a surrogate marker of root avulsion). We will exclude case reports, articles considering bilateral injuries and studies where the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives and true negatives cannot be derived. The methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using a tailored version of the QUADAS-2 tool. Where possible, a bivariate model will be used for meta-analysis to obtain summary sensitivities and specificities for both target conditions. We will investigate heterogeneity in the performance of MRI according to field strength and the risk of bias if data permits. This review will summarise the current diagnostic accuracy of MRI for adult BPI, identify shortcomings and gaps in the literature and so help to guide future research. PROSPERO CRD42016049702 .

  6. Role of MRI in detecting involvement of the uterine internal os in uterine cervical cancer: Systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Peter de, E-mail: p.deboer@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adam, Judit A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, UvA (Netherlands); Department of Nuclear Medicine, AMC, UvA (Netherlands); Buist, Marrije R. [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, AMC, UvA (Netherlands); Vijver, Marc J. van de [Department of Pathology, AMC, UvA (Netherlands); Rasch, Coen R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap; Bipat, Shandra [Department of Radiology, AMC, UvA (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: In patients with uterine cervical cancer, pretreatment recognition of uterine extension is crucial in treatment decision-making for fertility-sparing surgery and for target delineation in radiotherapy. Although MRI is generally considered the most reliable method, its value for detecting involvement of the uterine internal os is unclear. Methods: Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched (January 1997–December 2012) for MRI studies that measured the accuracy of involvement of the uterine internal os compared to histopathology as reference standard in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Data were assessed using the QUADAS tool. Accuracy concerned either involvement (yes/no) of the uterine internal os, or measuring invasion distance toward the uterine corpus. Results: Two retrospective and two prospective studies described 366 patients diagnosed with uterine cervical cancer FIGO stage IIB or below, in whom 64 (17%) had uterine internal os involvement. For three studies the summary estimates of specificity, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and accuracy were 91%, 97%, 99%, 79% and 95%, respectively; one study had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8. Conclusion: MRI has a high level of accuracy; however, data are limited and for validation a large prospective study is needed that compares actual measurements on MRI with histopathological examination.

  7. The accuracy of chest radiographs in the detection of congenital heart disease and in the diagnosis of specific congenital cardiac lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laya, Bernard F.; Goske, Marilyn J.; Morrison, Stuart; Reid, Janet R.; Swischuck, Leonard; Ey, Elizabeth H.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Lieber, Michael; Obuchowski, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Traditional teaching holds that specific types of CHD can be diagnosed on the chest radiograph (CXR) through pattern recognition. To determine the accuracy of radiologists in detecting CHD on the CXR. This study was a blinded retrospective review of chest radiographs from 281 patients (<12 years) by five pediatric radiologists from three institutions. Thirteen groups were evaluated that included 12 categories of CHD and a control group of patients without heart disease. Radiographs were assessed for heart size, heart and mediastinal shape and vascularity. Clinical information, angiography, echocardiograms and surgery were used as the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The average accuracy of the five readers in distinguishing normal from CHD patients was 78% (range of 72% to 82%). The overall measure of accuracy in distinguishing specific congenital cardiac lesions among 13 groups of patients was 71% (range of 63% to 79%). CXR alone is not diagnostic of specific cardiac lesions, with a low accuracy of only 71%. We believe that less emphasis should be placed on the use of radiographs alone in diagnosing specific congenital cardiac lesions. (orig.)

  8. Accuracy of optical spectroscopy for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without colposcopic tissue information; a step toward automation for low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Zewdie, Getie A; Cox, Dennis D; Atkinson, E Neely; Cantor, Scott B; MacAulay, Calum; Davies, Kalatu; Adewole, Isaac; Buys, Timon P H; Follen, Michele

    2012-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been proposed as an accurate and low-cost alternative for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. We previously published an algorithm using optical spectroscopy as an adjunct to colposcopy and found good accuracy (sensitivity=1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.92 to 1.00], specificity=0.71 [95% CI=0.62 to 0.79]). Those results used measurements taken by expert colposcopists as well as the colposcopy diagnosis. In this study, we trained and tested an algorithm for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (i.e., identifying those patients who had histology reading CIN 2 or worse) that did not include the colposcopic diagnosis. Furthermore, we explored the interaction between spectroscopy and colposcopy, examining the importance of probe placement expertise. The colposcopic diagnosis-independent spectroscopy algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.98 (95% CI=0.89 to 1.00) and a specificity of 0.62 (95% CI=0.52 to 0.71). The difference in the partial area under the ROC curves between spectroscopy with and without the colposcopic diagnosis was statistically significant at the patient level (p=0.05) but not the site level (p=0.13). The results suggest that the device has high accuracy over a wide range of provider accuracy and hence could plausibly be implemented by providers with limited training.

  9. Matrix effect on the detection limit and accuracy in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjou, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of matrix contents on the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was experimentally investigated using a set of multielement standard solutions (500 ng/mL of each element) in variable concentrations of NH 4 NO 3 . It was found that high matrix concentration, i.e. 0.1-10% NH 4 NO 3 , had a strong effect on the detection limits for all investigated elements, whereas no effect was observed at lower matrix concentration, i.e. 0-0.1% NH 4 NO 3 . The effect of soil and blood sample masses on the detection limit was also studied. The results showed decreasing the detection limit (in concentration unit, μg/g) with increasing the sample mass. However, the detection limit increased (in mass unit, ng) with increasing sample mass. The optimal blood sample mass of ca. 200 μg was sufficient to improve the detection limit of Se determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The capability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze different kinds of samples was discussed with respect to the accuracy and detection limits based on certified and reference materials. Direct analysis of unknown water samples from several sources was also presented in this work

  10. Presence of Spotters Improves Bench Press Performance: A Deception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Andrew; Marchant, David C; Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Hewitt, Phil A; Sparks, S Andy

    2017-10-24

    Sheridan, A, Marchant, DC, Williams, EL, Jones, HS, Hewitt, PA, and Sparks, SA. Presence of spotters improves bench press performance: a deception study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Resistance exercise is a widely used method of physical training in both recreational exercise and athletic populations. The use of training partners and spotters during resistance exercise is widespread, but little is known about the effect of the presence of these individuals on exercise performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of spotter presence on bench press performance. Twelve recreationally trained participants (age, 21.3 ± 0.8 years, height, 1.82 ± 0.1 m, and weight, 84.8 ± 11.1 kg) performed 2 trials of 3 sets to failure at 60% of 1 repetition maximum on separate occasions. The 2 trials consisted of spotters being explicitly present or hidden from view (deception). During the trials, total repetitions (reps), total weight lifted, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-efficacy were measured. Total reps and weight lifted were significantly greater with spotters (difference = 4.5 reps, t = 5.68, p < 0.001 and difference = 209.6 kg, t = 5.65, p < 0.001, respectively). Although RPE and local RPE were significantly elevated in the deception trials (difference = 0.78, f = 6.16, p = 0.030 and difference = 0.81, f = 5.89, p = 0.034, respectively), self-efficacy was significantly reduced (difference = 1.58, f = 26.90, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that resistance exercise is improved by the presence of spotters, which is facilitated by reduced RPE and increased self-efficacy. This has important implications for athletes and clients, who should perform resistance exercise in the proximity of others, to maximize total work performed.

  11. Between reality and deception: the anamorphosis in visual communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the use of anamorphosis in the context of the graphic and visual communication by presenting a brief evolution of anamorphosis in visual communication, from its origin to the present time, through the analysis of historical and contemporary examples of anamorphic representations used in art and design. This is a reflection on the potential of the mechanism of anamorphosis as a vehicle of visual communication based on perceptive game between reality and deception. Thus, we propose the possibility of this perceptual mechanism to fit in a more comprehensive history, the history of visuality.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun): A Method to Detect Workers Who Have Health Problems Affecting their Work and to Evaluate Fitness for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Saito, Kumi; Uehara, Masamichi; Oyama, Ichiro; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun), a questionnaire to detect workers with health problems which affect their work, using an assessment by an occupational health nurse as objective standard. The WFun was completed by 294 employees. The nurse interviewed to assess 1) health problems; 2) effects of health on their work; necessity for 3) treatment, 4) health care instruction, and 5) consideration of job accommodation. The odds ratio in the high work functioning impairment group compared with the low was highly statistically significant with 9.05, 10.26, 5.77, 9.37, and 14.70, respectively. The WFun demonstrated the high detectability with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.75, 0.81, 0.72, 0.79, and 0.83, respectively. This study suggests that the WFun is useful in detecting those who have health problems affecting their work.

  13. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. Results On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. Conclusion The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  14. Diagnoses accuracy in the detection of abnormalities in the thorax x-ray: Teleradiology vs. conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron, Fanny Emilia; Melendez, Patricia; Martinez, Carlos Eli

    1998-01-01

    Background: introduction of teleradiology in Colombia is very recent and its operative characteristics and reliability are unknown. Objective: to evaluate intra and interobserver concordance in the interpretation of digitized chest x-ray films and to compare diagnostic Accuracy of teleradiology and film screen interpretation. Design: cross-sectional study for evaluation or concordance and operative characteristics of a diagnostic test. Patients and methods: convenience sample of 40 chest films. Independent lecture of digitized images for each radiologist to evaluate interobserver concordance: second lecture of digitized images for evaluation of intraobserver concordance. Generation of a gold standard diagnosis with a consensus interpretation of film screens, comparison of operative characteristics of teleradiology and conventional interpretation, using as a reference the gold standard (consensus lectures) and comparison of diagnostic precision using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves). Results: agreements and concordance were significant higher than expected in both evaluations (inter and intraobserver). Sensitivity of teleradiology was similar to sensitivity of film screen interpretation and areas under ROC curves were not statistically different. Conclusions: concordance in the interpretation of chest radiological studies are significant in a teleradiology system and diagnostic utility of teleradiology is the same as conventional film screen interpretation. Accuracy and reliability of teleradiology are optimal

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of DXA compared to conventional spine radiographs for the detection of vertebral fractures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiotomre, E.; Summers, L.; Digby, M.; Allison, A.; Walters, S.J.; Broadley, P.; Lang, I.; Morrison, G.; Bishop, N.; Arundel, P.; Offiah, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    In children, radiography is performed to diagnose vertebral fractures and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess bone density. In adults, DXA assesses both. We aimed to establish whether DXA can replace spine radiographs in assessment of paediatric vertebral fractures. Prospectively, lateral spine radiographs and lateral spine DXA of 250 children performed on the same day were independently scored by three radiologists using the simplified algorithm-based qualitative technique and blinded to results of the other modality. Consensus radiograph read and second read of 100 random images were performed. Diagnostic accuracy, inter/intraobserver and intermodality agreements, patient/carer experience and radiation dose were assessed. Average sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) in diagnosing one or more vertebral fractures requiring treatment was 70 % (58-82 %) and 97 % (94-100 %) respectively for DXA and 74 % (55-93 %) and 96 % (95-98 %) for radiographs. Fleiss' kappa for interobserver and average kappa for intraobserver reliability were 0.371 and 0.631 respectively for DXA and 0.418 and 0.621 for radiographs. Average effective dose was 41.9 μSv for DXA and 232.7 μSv for radiographs. Image quality was similar. Given comparable image quality and non-inferior diagnostic accuracy, lateral spine DXA should replace conventional radiographs for assessment of vertebral fractures in children. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of DXA compared to conventional spine radiographs for the detection of vertebral fractures in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adiotomre, E. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Summers, L.; Digby, M. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Allison, A.; Walters, S.J. [University of Sheffield, School of Health and Related Research, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Broadley, P.; Lang, I. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Morrison, G. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Medical Physics, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Bishop, N.; Arundel, P. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    In children, radiography is performed to diagnose vertebral fractures and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess bone density. In adults, DXA assesses both. We aimed to establish whether DXA can replace spine radiographs in assessment of paediatric vertebral fractures. Prospectively, lateral spine radiographs and lateral spine DXA of 250 children performed on the same day were independently scored by three radiologists using the simplified algorithm-based qualitative technique and blinded to results of the other modality. Consensus radiograph read and second read of 100 random images were performed. Diagnostic accuracy, inter/intraobserver and intermodality agreements, patient/carer experience and radiation dose were assessed. Average sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) in diagnosing one or more vertebral fractures requiring treatment was 70 % (58-82 %) and 97 % (94-100 %) respectively for DXA and 74 % (55-93 %) and 96 % (95-98 %) for radiographs. Fleiss' kappa for interobserver and average kappa for intraobserver reliability were 0.371 and 0.631 respectively for DXA and 0.418 and 0.621 for radiographs. Average effective dose was 41.9 μSv for DXA and 232.7 μSv for radiographs. Image quality was similar. Given comparable image quality and non-inferior diagnostic accuracy, lateral spine DXA should replace conventional radiographs for assessment of vertebral fractures in children. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy and Inter-Observer Agreement of Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Arthrography in the Detection of Labral Lesion and Assessment of Lesion Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Song, Sook Yun; Choi, Jin Ha; Shin, Sang Jin [School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in the detection of labral lesions by location and to describe useful MR imaging findings of labral tears. Sixty-eight patients who underwent both pre-operative MR arthrography and arthroscopy were included. The location of the labrum was classified into anterior (2-6 o'clock), superior (12-2 o'clock), and posterior (6-12 o'clock). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and inter-observer agreement of MR arthrography for the diagnosis of labral lesions by location were calculated. Frequency of MR imaging findings such as detachment, high signal intensity cleft, contour change, absence, and signal change of the labrum by location were analyzed. 35 anterior, 44 superior and 15 posterior labral lesions were detected by arthroscopy. The corresponding sensitivities were 91.4%, 79.5%, and 40.0%, specificities were 90.9%, 20.8%, and 86.8%, accuracies were 91.2%, 58.8%, and 76.5%, and kappa values were 0.823, 0.252, and 0.394, for anterior, superior, posterior lesions, respectively. The most common MR imaging findings were detachment in 60.0% of anterior labrums, high signal intensity cleft in 52.3% of superior labrums, and normal in 60.0% of posterior labrums. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement of MR arthrography in the diagnosis of labral lesions are high in anterior labrums and low in superior or posterior labrums. The useful MR imaging findings of labral tears were different according to labral location.

  18. Accuracy of CT enterography and magnetic resonance enterography imaging to detect lesions preoperatively in patients undergoing surgery for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastedt, Kenneth P; Trencheva, Koiana; Michelassi, Fabrizio; Alsaleh, Doaa; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Sonoda, Toyooki; Lee, Sang W; Nandakumar, Govind

    2014-12-01

    CT enterography and magnetic resonance enterography have emerged as first-line imaging technologies for the evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn's disease. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of these imaging modalities to identify Crohn's disease lesions preoperatively. This was a retrospective chart review. The study was conducted at a single institution. Seventy-six patients with Crohn's disease with preoperative CT enterography and/or magnetic resonance enterography were included in the study. The number of stenoses, fistulas, and abscesses on CT enterography and/or magnetic resonance enterography before surgery were compared with operative findings. Forty patients (53%) were women, 46 (60%) underwent surgery for recurrent Crohn's disease, and 46 (57%) had previous abdominal surgery. Thirty-six (47%) had a preoperative CT enterography and 43 (57%) had a preoperative magnetic resonance enterography. CT enterography sensitivity was 75% for stenosis and 50% for fistula. MRE sensitivity was 68% for stenosis and 60% for fistula. The negative predictive values of CT enterography and magnetic resonance enterography for stenosis were very low (54% and 65%) and were 85% and 81% for fistula. CT enterography had 76% accuracy for stenosis and 79% for fistula; magnetic resonance enterography had 78% accuracy for stenosis and 85% for fistula. Both were accurate for abscess. False-negative rates for CT enterography were 50% for fistula and 25% for stenosis. False-negative rates for magnetic resonance enterography were 40% for fistula and 32% for stenosis. Unexpected intraoperative findings led to modification of the planned surgical procedure in 20 patients (26%). This study was limited by its small sample size, its retrospective nature, and that some studies were performed at outside institutions. CT enterography and magnetic resonance enterography in patients with Crohn's disease were accurate for the identification of abscesses but not for

  19. Accuracy of magnetic resonance studies in the detection of chondral and labral lesions in femoroacetabular impingement: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, A M; Redant, C; El-Batouty, M; El-Lakkany, M R; El-Adl, W A; Anthonissen, J; Verdonk, R; Audenaert, E A

    2017-02-16

    Several types of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used in imaging of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), however till now there are no clear protocols and recommendations for each type. The aim of this meta-analysis is to detect the accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), direct magnetic resonance arthrography (dMRA) and indirect magnetic resonance arthrography (iMRA) in the diagnosis of chondral and labral lesions in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A literature search was finalized on the 17th of May 2016 to collect all studies identifying the accuracy of cMRI, dMRA and iMRA in diagnosing chondral and labral lesions associated with FAI using surgical results (arthroscopic or open) as a reference test. Pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects meta-analysis for MRI, dMRA and iMRA were calculated also area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was retrieved whenever possible where AUC is equivocal to diagnostic accuracy. The search yielded 192 publications which were reviewed according inclusion and exclusion criteria then 21 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria for the qualitative analysis with a total number of 828 cases, lastly 12 studies were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that as regard labral lesions the pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC for cMRI were 0.864, 0.833 and 0.88 and for dMRA were 0.91, 0.58 and 0.92. While in chondral lesions the pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC for cMRI were 0.76, 0.72 and 0.75 and for dMRA were 0.75, 0.79 and 0.83, while for iMRA were sensitivity of 0.722 and specificity of 0.917. The present meta-analysis showed that the diagnostic test accuracy was superior for dMRA when compared with cMRI for detection of labral and chondral lesions. The diagnostic test accuracy was superior for labral lesions when compared with chondral lesions in both cMRI and dMRA. Promising results are

  20. The diagnostic accuracy of TCD for intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke: the importance of time interval between detection of TCD and CTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingxia; Zhou, Qin; Ouyang, Huangqing; Zhang, Shaofeng; Lu, Zuneng

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial doppler (TCD) as an additional screening tool for intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease against computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) if both are performed in a short time interval. Between July 2011 and May 2012, 128 patients who were hospitalized within 24 hours of symptom onset and fulfilled the criteria for the clinical diagnosis of AIS were enrolled. Bedside detection of TCD was accomplished immediately after admission. High-resolution brain CTA was performed within 3 hours after the completion of TCD and the images were interpreted by a neuroradiologist blinded to TCD findings. The accuracy parameters of TCD against CTA were calculated after computation of true-positive, false-positive, true negative, and false-negative values. Among the 128 patients, there were 68 males and 60 females, aged 61.4 ± 17.5 years. The mean time interval between the detection of TCD and CTA was 89.7 (77.8) minutes. In 65% of patients, both examinations were performed with less than a half-hour interval between them. The diagnostic accuracy of TCD for different arteries showed slight distinction. Transcranial doppler demonstrated the most accurate diagnosis for middle cerebral artery (MCA), where TCD showed 35 true-positive, 0 false-negative, 1 false-positive, and 92 true-negative studies compared with CTA. Furthermore, elevated MCA velocities on TCD correlated well with the severity of intracranial stenosis detected on CTA. Vertebral artery (VA) is one of the arteries with the lowest sensitivity for TCD diagnosis (sensitivity 63.4%, specificity 96.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 89.6%, negative predictive value (NPV) 84.8%, and accuracy 85.9%). In 20 cases (15.6%), TCD showed findings complementary to CTA (real-time embolization, collateral flow patterns, and steal phenomenon). Transcranial doppler shows high diagnostic accuracy against CTA if both are

  1. Attention Measures of Accuracy, Variability, and Fatigue Detect Early Response to Donepezil in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Castelar, Clara; Ly, Jenny J; Kaplan, Lillian; Van Dyk, Kathleen; Berger, Jeffrey T; Macina, Lucy O; Stewart, Jennifer L; Foldi, Nancy S

    2018-04-09

    Donepezil is widely used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but detecting early response remains challenging for clinicians. Acetylcholine is known to directly modulate attention, particularly under high cognitive conditions, but no studies to date test whether measures of attention under high load can detect early effects of donepezil. We hypothesized that load-dependent attention tasks are sensitive to short-term treatment effects of donepezil, while global and other domain-specific cognitive measures are not. This longitudinal, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03073876) evaluated 23 participants newly diagnosed with AD initiating de novo donepezil treatment (5 mg). After baseline assessment, participants were randomized into Drug (n = 12) or Placebo (n = 11) groups, and retested after approximately 6 weeks. Cognitive assessment included: (a) attention tasks (Foreperiod Effect, Attentional Blink, and Covert Orienting tasks) measuring processing speed, top-down accuracy, orienting, intra-individual variability, and fatigue; (b) global measures (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, Dementia Rating Scale); and (c) domain-specific measures (memory, language, visuospatial, and executive function). The Drug but not the Placebo group showed benefits of treatment at high-load measures by preserving top-down accuracy, improving intra-individual variability, and averting fatigue. In contrast, other global or cognitive domain-specific measures could not detect treatment effects over the same treatment interval. The pilot-study suggests that attention measures targeting accuracy, variability, and fatigue under high-load conditions could be sensitive to short-term cholinergic treatment. Given the central role of acetylcholine in attentional function, load-dependent attentional measures may be valuable cognitive markers of early treatment response.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of audio-based seizure detection in patients with severe epilepsy and an intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Johan B.; van Dorp, Jasper; van Hoek, Dennis; Kramer, Niels; van Mierlo, Petra; van der Vorst, Derek; Tan, Francis I.Y.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of audio-based detection of major seizures (tonic–clonic and long generalized tonic) in adult patients with intellectual disability living in an institute for residential care. Methods First, we checked in a random sample (n = 17, 102 major seizures) how many patients

  3. Detecting and Analyzing Cybercrime in Text-Based Communication of Cybercriminal Networks through Computational Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Feature Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaziira, Alex Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Cybercriminals are increasingly using Internet-based text messaging applications to exploit their victims. Incidents of deceptive cybercrime in text-based communication are increasing and include fraud, scams, as well as favorable and unfavorable fake reviews. In this work, we use a text-based deception detection approach to train models for…

  4. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuerger Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM- based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM, and frequency-hopped (FH. Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  5. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  6. Accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography in detection of endometrial polyps and submucosal leiomyomas in women of reproductive age with abnormal uterine bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, C A; Dos Santos Simões, R; Bernardo, W M; Fuchs, L F P; Soares Júnior, J M; Pastore, A R; Baracat, E C

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) in the detection of endometrial polyps and submucosal uterine leiomyomas in women of reproductive age with abnormal uterine bleeding compared with gold standard hysteroscopy. A systematic review of diagnostic studies that compared 2D- and/or 3D-SCSH with hysteroscopy and anatomopathology was conducted according to PRISMA and SEDATE recommendations. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically using specific terms with no restriction on language or publication year. Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analysis was performed with the Meta-DiSk program and data presented as forest plots and summary receiver-operating characteristics (SROC) curves. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios of SCSH in the detection of uterine cavity abnormalities were calculated. A total of 1398 citations were identified and five studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 2D-SCSH in detecting endometrial polyps were 93% (95% CI, 89-96%) and 81% (95% CI, 76-86%), respectively, with pooled LR+ of 5.41 (95% CI, 2.60-11.28) and LR- of 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.17). In the detection of submucosal uterine leiomyomas, pooled sensitivity and specificity were 94% (95% CI, 89-97%) and 81% (95% CI, 76-86%), respectively, with pooled LR+ of 4.25 (95% CI, 2.20-8.21) and LR- of 0.11 (95% CI, 0.05-0.22). 2D-SCSH had good accuracy in detecting endometrial polyps and submucosal uterine leiomyomas, with areas under the SROC curves of 0.97 ± 0.02 and 0.97 ± 0.03, respectively. Studies that analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of 3D-SCSH could not be compared due to high heterogeneity related to menopausal status, type of technique used and primary outcome being investigation of infertility. 2D

  7. Children's reasoning about deception and defiance as ways of resisting parents' and teachers' directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    This research presented 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (N = 120) with hypothetical situations depicting comparably aged children engaging in defiance and deception to circumvent authorities' directives that they disagreed with. The nature of the situations varied in terms of domain (personal, moral, or prudential) and type of authority figure (parent or teacher). Evaluations and justifications for the legitimacy of the directives, defiance, and deception were examined, as were general evaluations of deception. Across domains, increased age was associated with decreased acceptance of directives, and increased acceptance of defiance and deception. Participants judged that defiance and deception were legitimate ways to resist immoral directives. Directives about personal acts were also widely rejected, particularly teachers' directives. Defiance and deception were seen by some as legitimate ways to resist unwarranted control over children's personal choices. Prudential directives were widely accepted, whereas defiance and deception in those situations was generally rejected. Results indicate that children value honesty and authority but sometimes prioritize moral and personal considerations when deciding whether or not to lie. Findings are discussed in terms of the ways children coordinate multiple competing rules and motivations when making moral judgments about honesty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios in Detecting Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas in Benign Multinodular Goitres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR ratios in detecting occult papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in benign, multinodular goitres. Methods. 397 total thyroidectomy patients were identified from the institutional thyroid surgery database between 2007 and 2016 (94 males, 303 females, mean age 53 ± 14.5 years. NLR and PLR were calculated as the absolute neutrophil and absolute platelet counts divided by the absolute lymphocyte count, respectively, based on the preoperative complete blood cell count. Results. NLR was significantly higher in carcinomas and microcarcinomas compared to benign pathology (p=0.026, whereas a direct association could not be established for PLR. Both NLR and PLR scored low in all parameters of diagnostic accuracy, with overall accuracy ranging between 45 and 50%. Conclusions. As surrogate indices of the systemic inflammatory response, NLR and PLR are inexpensive and universally available from routine blood tests. Although we found higher NLR values in cases of malignancy, NLR and PLR cannot effectively predict the presence of occult papillary microcarcinomas in otherwise benign, multinodular goitres.

  9. Accuracy of Combined Computed Tomography Colonography and Dual Energy Iiodine Map Imaging for Detecting Colorectal masses using High-pitch Dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Han, Ruijuan; Han, Yang; Shi, Xuesen; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Bin

    2018-02-28

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined computed tomography colonography (CTC) and dual-energy iodine map imaging for detecting colorectal masses using high-pitch dual-source CT, compared with optical colonography (OC) and histopathologic findings. Twenty-eight consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were underwent contrast-enhanced CTC acquisition using dual-energy mode and OC and pathologic examination. The size of the space-occupied mass, the CT value after contrast enhancement, and the iodine value were measured and statistically compared. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, and positive predictive and negative predictive values of dual-energy contrast-enhanced CTC were calculated and compared between conventional CTC and dual-energy iodine images. The iodine value of stool was significantly lower than the colonic neoplasia (P dual-energy iodine maps imaging was 95.6% (95% CI = 77.9%-99.2%). The specificity of the two methods was 42.8% (95% CI = 15.4%-93.5%) and 100% (95% CI = 47.9%-100%; P = 0.02), respectively. Compared with optical colonography and histopathology, combined CTC and dual-energy iodine maps imaging can distinguish stool and colonic neoplasia, distinguish between benign and malignant tumors initially and improve the diagnostic accuracy of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  10. Use of multivariate analysis to improve the accuracy of radionuclide angiography with stress in detecting coronary artery disease in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, P.S.; Bible, M.; Ellestad, M.H.; Berge, R.; Johnson, K.; Hayes, M.

    1983-01-01

    A multivariate analysis (MVA) system was derived retrospectively from a population of 76 males with coronary artery disease and 18 control subjects. Posterior probabilities were then derived from such a system prospectively in a new male population of 11 subjects with normal coronary arteries and hemodynamics and 63 patients with coronary artery disease. The sensitivity was 84% compared to that for change in ejection fraction (delta EF) greater than or equal to 5 criterion of 71% (p less than 0.01), the specificity was 91% compared to 73% for the delta EF greater than or equal to 5 criterion (p greater than 0.05), and the correct classification rate was 85% compared to 72% for the delta EF greater than or equal to 5 criterion (p less than 0.01). The significant variables were: change in EF with exercise, percent maximal heart rate, change in end-diastolic volume (delta EDV) with exercise, change in R wave, and exercise duration. Application of the multivariate approach to radionuclide imaging with stress, including both exercise and nuclear parameters, significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of the test and allowed for a probability statement concerning the likelihood of disease

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of triple-contrast multi-detector computed tomography for detection of penetrating gastrointestinal injury: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksobhavivat, Nitima [Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ratchathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Boscak, Alexis R.; Sliker, Clint W.; Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Archer-Arroyo, Krystal; Miller, Lisa A.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Alexander, Melvin T.; Mirvis, Stuart E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M.; Scalea, Thomas M. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Neither the performance of CT in diagnosing penetrating gastrointestinal injury nor its ability to discriminate patients requiring either observation or surgery has been determined. This was a prospective, single-institutional observational study of patients with penetrating injury to the torso who underwent CT. Based on CT signs, reviewers determined the presence of a gastrointestinal injury and the need for surgery or observation. The primary outcome measures were operative findings and clinical follow-up. CT results were compared with the primary outcome measures. Of one hundred and seventy-one patients (72 gunshot wounds, 99 stab wounds; age range, 18-57 years; median age, 28 years) with penetrating torso trauma who underwent CT, 45 % were followed by an operation and 55 % by clinical follow up. Thirty-five patients had a gastrointestinal injury at surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT for diagnosing a gastrointestinal injury for all patients were each 91 %, and for predicting the need for surgery, they were 94 %, 93 %, 93 %, respectively. Among the 3 % of patients who failed observation, 1 % had a gastrointestinal injury. CT is a useful technique to diagnose gastrointestinal injury following penetrating torso injury. CT can help discriminate patients requiring observation or surgery. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT and conventional angiography in detecting congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Fariborz; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Motevalli, Marzieh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Armand, Sandbad

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) is primarily used for coronary arteries. There are limited studies about the application of DSCT for congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of DSCT in the cardiac anomalies. The images of DSCTs and conventional angiographies of 36 patients (21 male; mean age: 8.5 month) with congenital heart diseases were reviewed and the parameters of diagnostic value of these methods were compared. Cardiac surgery was the gold standard. A total of 105 cardiac anomalies were diagnosed at surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of DSCT were 98.25%, 97.9%, 98.1%, 99.07%, and 98.2%, respectively. The corresponding values of angiography were 95.04%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 98.1%, and 98%, respectively. Only one atrial septal defect (ASD) and two patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were missed by DSCT. Angiography missed two ASD and two PDA. DSCT also provided important additional findings (n=35) about the intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs. DSCT is a highly accurate diagnostic modality for congenital heart diseases, obviating the need for invasive modalities. Beside its noninvasive nature, the advantage of DSCT over the angiography is its ability to provide detailed anatomical information about the heart, vessels, lungs and intraabdominal organs

  13. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs Fibrotest, Elastography and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality, but we lack serum markers to detect compensated disease. We compared the accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test (ELF), the FibroTest, liver stiffness measurements (made by transient elastography and 2......-dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal...... significantly from those of liver stiffness measurement in intention-to-diagnose analyses (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.90), but did differ in the per-protocol analysis (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.97) (P=.521 and .004 for comparison with ELF). Adding a serum marker to transient elastography...

  14. What if I get busted? Deception, choice and decision-making in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila Ewa; Skewes, Joshua; Agustus, Jennifer L Marchant

    2012-01-01

    Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned...... by an opponent outside the scanner about their knowledge of the content of a display. Importantly, questions were posed so that, in some conditions, it was possible to be deceptive, while in other conditions it was not. To simulate a realistic interaction, participants could be confronted about their claims...... findings suggest the decision to deceive is affected by the potential risk of social confrontation rather than the claim itself....

  15. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M

    2012-03-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one's personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance.

  16. Detection of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes of unknown origin: diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy with nodal size and central necrosis correlate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.-P.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chin, S-.C.; Lee, K.-W.; Hsueh, C.-J.; Juan, C.-J.; Kao, H.-W.; Huang, G.-S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the role of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-guided FNAB) in the diagnostic workup of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with palpable neck masses and without known primary cancer. The diagnostic accuracy of imaging morphologic criteria, including sizes and central necrosis for assessing suspicious malignant nodes, were also examined. This is a retrospective study of 426 patients with palpable neck masses from an outpatient department evaluated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or US. US-guided FNABs were performed in 102 patients with suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes at a single institution. Cytologically positive lymph nodes (n = 12) were further validated with excisional biopsy. Negative lymph nodes (n = 90) were either excised (n = 10) or followed up by imaging studies for at least one year (n = 80). The diagnostic accuracy of the FNABs along with the imaging findings of nodal sizes and presence of central necrosis, which were classified by a consensus of 2 radiologists, were assessed. Twelve malignant nodes were detected with US-guided FNAB with one false-positive and one false-negative result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for FNAB were 91.7%, 98.9%, and 98.0%. respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 66.7%, 30.0%, and 34.3% for size criterion and 75.0%, 83.3%, and 82.3% for central necrosis criterion. The size of cervical lymph node does not appear to be an important imaging criterion for assessing suspicious malignant lymph nodes, compared with the criterion of central necrosis. US-guided FNAB is highly specific and sensitive in the diagnostic workup of suspicious malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients without known primary cancers. (author)

  17. Accuracy of cystatin C for the detection of abnormal renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy: a systematic review using individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Birnie, Kate; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Jameson, Catherine; Skinner, Rod; Phillips, Bob

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to examine the utility of cystatin C for evaluation of glomerular function in children with cancer. Eligible studies evaluated the accuracy of cystatin C for detecting poor renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Authors of four studies shared IPD. We calculated the correlation between log cystatin C and GFR stratified by study and measure of cystatin C. We dichotomized the reference standard at GFR 80 ml/min/1.73m 2 and stratified cystatin C at 1 mg/l, to calculate sensitivity and specificity in each study and according to age group (0-4, 5-12, and ≥ 13 years). In sensitivity analyses, we investigated different GFR and cystatin C cut points. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of impaired renal function with log cystatin C and quantified diagnostic accuracy using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Six studies, which used different test and reference standard thresholds, suggested that cystatin C has the potential to monitor renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy. IPD data (504 samples, 209 children) showed that cystatin C has poor sensitivity (63%) and moderate specificity (89%), although use of a GFR cut point of C has better diagnostic accuracy than creatinine as a test for glomerular dysfunction in young people undergoing treatment for cancer. Diagnostic accuracy is not sufficient for it to replace current reference standards for predicting clinically relevant impairments that may alter dosing of important nephrotoxic agents.

  18. One-hour protocol stress myocardial scintigraphy. Prospective study of diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Junko; Miyamoto, Nobuhide; Onitsuka, Hisamitsu; Ikushima, Ippei; Unoki, Toshihide; Takenaga, Makoto; Koiwaya, Yasushi; Eto, Tanenao

    1999-01-01

    A one-hour protocol for stress myocardial scintigraphy using technetium-99m-tetrofosmin (Tc-tetrofosmin) was compared with coronary arteriography for the detection of coronary artery stenosis in 90 consecutive patients without prior myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure or vasospastic angina. Tc-tetrofosmin stress myocardial scintigraphy acquired a rest image 20 min after intravenous administration of Tc-tetrofosmin (185 MBq, 1/5 vial) using a three-head gamma camera collecting 20-sec views over 360 deg. The stress test using bicycle ergometer was performed and administration of Tc-tetrofosmin (740 MBq, 4/5 vial) was repeated at the peak stress point. The stress image was acquired 15 min after the second injection with 5-sec views over 360 deg. Coronary arteriography revealed the presence of significant coronary artery stenosis (>75%) in 56 vessels of 45 patients, including 35 patients with single-vessel disease, 5 with two-vessel disease, 2 with three-vessel disease, and 3 with left main trunk disease. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease by visual analysis were 91.1% and 77.8%, respectively, and by quantitative analyses (using bull's-eye method) were 95.6% and 91.1%, respectively. The individual stenotic vessel sensitivities in the right coronary artery, left anterior descending artery, and left circumflex artery were 84.6%, 90.9%, and 78.6%, respectively. The specificities were 97.3%, 95.9%, and 100.0%, respectively. These results suggest that stress myocardial scintigraphy using the present new protocol is a promising approach for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. (author)

  19. Accuracy of high-field intraoperative MRI in the detectability of residual tumor in glioma grade IV resections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Mager, Ann-Kathrin [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neurologie; Goetz, Claudia; Kremer, Paul [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Detsch, Oliver [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Theisgen, Hannah-Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Friese, Michael; Gottschalk, Joachim [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Schwindt, Wolfram [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2017-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity/specificity of tumor detection by T1 contrast enhancement in intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) in comparison to histopathological assessment as the gold standard in patients receiving surgical resection of grade IV glioblastoma. 68 patients with a primary or a recurrent glioblastoma scheduled for surgery including fluorescence guidance and neuronavigation were included (mean age: 59 years, 26 female, 42 male patients). The ioMRI after the first resection included transverse FLAIR, DWI, T2-FFE and T1 - 3 d FFE ± GD-DPTA. The second resection was performed whenever residual contrast-enhancing tissue was detected on ioMRI. Resected tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated (gold standard). Additionally, we evaluated the early postoperative MRI scan acquired within 48 h post-OP for remaining enhancing tissue and compared them with the ioMRI scan. In 43 patients ioMRI indicated residual tumorous tissue, which could be confirmed in the histological specimens of the second resection. In 16 (4 with recurrent, 12 with primary glioblastoma) cases, ioMRI revealed truly negative results without residual tumor and follow-up MRI confirmed complete resection. In 7 cases (3 with recurrent, 4 with primary glioblastoma) ioMRI revealed a suspicious result without tumorous tissue in the histopathological workup. In 2 (1 for each group) patients, residual tumorous tissue was detected in spite of negative ioMRI. IoMRI had a sensitivity of 95 % (94 % recurrent and 96 % for primary glioblastoma) and a specificity of 69.5 % (57 % and 75 %, respectively). The positive predictive value was 86 % (84 % for recurrent and 87 % for primary glioblastoma), and the negative predictive value was 88 % (80 % and 92 %, respectively). ioMRI is effective for detecting remaining tumorous tissue after glioma resection. However, scars and leakage of contrast agent can be misleading and limit specificity. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) presents with a high sensitivity for residual

  20. Accuracy of high-field intraoperative MRI in the detectability of residual tumor in glioma grade IV resections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Mager, Ann-Kathrin; Goetz, Claudia; Kremer, Paul; Detsch, Oliver; Theisgen, Hannah-Katharina; Friese, Michael; Gottschalk, Joachim; Schwindt, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity/specificity of tumor detection by T1 contrast enhancement in intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) in comparison to histopathological assessment as the gold standard in patients receiving surgical resection of grade IV glioblastoma. 68 patients with a primary or a recurrent glioblastoma scheduled for surgery including fluorescence guidance and neuronavigation were included (mean age: 59 years, 26 female, 42 male patients). The ioMRI after the first resection included transverse FLAIR, DWI, T2-FFE and T1 - 3 d FFE ± GD-DPTA. The second resection was performed whenever residual contrast-enhancing tissue was detected on ioMRI. Resected tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated (gold standard). Additionally, we evaluated the early postoperative MRI scan acquired within 48 h post-OP for remaining enhancing tissue and compared them with the ioMRI scan. In 43 patients ioMRI indicated residual tumorous tissue, which could be confirmed in the histological specimens of the second resection. In 16 (4 with recurrent, 12 with primary glioblastoma) cases, ioMRI revealed truly negative results without residual tumor and follow-up MRI confirmed complete resection. In 7 cases (3 with recurrent, 4 with primary glioblastoma) ioMRI revealed a suspicious result without tumorous tissue in the histopathological workup. In 2 (1 for each group) patients, residual tumorous tissue was detected in spite of negative ioMRI. IoMRI had a sensitivity of 95 % (94 % recurrent and 96 % for primary glioblastoma) and a specificity of 69.5 % (57 % and 75 %, respectively). The positive predictive value was 86 % (84 % for recurrent and 87 % for primary glioblastoma), and the negative predictive value was 88 % (80 % and 92 %, respectively). ioMRI is effective for detecting remaining tumorous tissue after glioma resection. However, scars and leakage of contrast agent can be misleading and limit specificity. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) presents with a high sensitivity for residual

  1. The application in detection the position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator of Varian linear accelerator with dynamic therapy log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changhu; Xu Liming; Teng Jianjian; Ge Wei; Zhang Jun; Ma Guangdong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explorer the application in detection the position accuracy of the multileaf collimator of Varian accelerator with dynamic therapy log files. Methods: A pre-designed MLC format files named PMLC for two Varian accelerators, the dynamic treatment log files were recorded 10 times on a different date, and be converted into the MLC format files named DMLC, compared with the original plan PMLC, so we can analysis two files for each leaf position deviation. In addition, we analysis the repeatability of MLC leaves position accuracy between 10 dynalog files of two accelerators. Results: No statistically significant difference between the average position of the 10 times leaf position of the two accelerators,their were 0.29 -0.29 and 0.29 -0.30 (z = -0.77, P=0.442). About 40%, 30%, 20% and 10% of the leaf position deviation was at ≤0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively. the maximum value was 0.5 mm. More than 86% of the leaf position are completely coincident between 10 dynamic treatment files of two accelerators. The rate of position deviation no more 0. 05 mm was 96. 6% and 97.3%, respectively. And the maximum value was 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Dynamic treatment log file is a splendid tool in testing the actual position of multi-leaf collimator. The multi-leaf collimator of two accelerators be detected are precise and stabilized. (authors)

  2. Accuracy of point-of-care serum creatinine devices for detecting patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Lomakin, Felipe; Tobar, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common event in hospitals, with reported incidences ranging from 1 to 30%. Patients with underlying kidney disease have an increased risk of developing CIN. Point-of-care (POC) creatinine devices are handheld devices capable of providing quantitative data on a patient's kidney function that could be useful in stratifying preventive measures. This overview aims to synthesize the current evidence on diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of POC creatinine devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Five databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies or clinical trials that evaluated the usefulness of POC devices in detecting patients at risk of CIN. Selected articles were critically appraised to assess their individual risk of bias by the use of standard criteria; 13 studies were found that addressed the diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility of POC creatinine devices. Most studies incurred a moderate to high risk of bias. Overall concordance between POC devices and reference standards (clinical laboratory procedures) was found to be moderate, with 95% limits of agreement often lying between -35.4 and +35.4 µmol/L (-0.4 and +0.4 mg/dL). Concordance was shown to decrease with worsening kidney function. Data on the clinical utility of these devices were limited, but a significant reduction in time to diagnosis was reported in two studies. Overall, POC creatinine devices showed a moderate concordance with standard clinical laboratory creatinine measurements. Several biases could have induced optimism in these estimations. Results obtained from these devices may be unreliable in cases of severe kidney failure. Randomized trials are needed to address the clinical utility of these devices.

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P 16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  4. The accuracy of the SONOBREAST statistical model in comparison to BI-RADS for the prediction of malignancy in solid breast nodules detected at ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulinelli, Regis R; Oliveira, Luis-Fernando P; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Soares, Leonardo R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy of SONOBREAST for the prediction of malignancy in solid breast nodules detected at ultrasonography with that of the BI-RADS system and to assess the agreement between these two methods. This prospective study included 274 women and evaluated 500 breast nodules detected at ultrasonography. The probability of malignancy was calculated based on the SONOBREAST model, available at www.sonobreast.com.br, and on the BI-RADS system, with results being compared with the anatomopathology report. The lesions were considered suspect in 171 cases (34.20%), according to both SONOBREAST and BI-RADS. Agreement between the methods was perfect, as shown by a Kappa coefficient of 1 (pBI-RADS proved identical insofar as sensitivity (95.40%), specificity (78.69%), positive predictive value (48.54%), negative predictive value (98.78%) and accuracy (81.60%) are concerned. With respect to the categorical variables (BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5), the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 94.41 for SONOBREAST (range 92.20-96.62) and 89.99 for BI-RADS (range 86.60-93.37). The accuracy of the SONOBREAST model is identical to that found with BI-RADS when the same parameters are used with respect to the cut-off point at which malignancy is suspected. Regarding the continuous probability of malignancy with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5, SONOBREAST permits a more precise and individualized evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of suspected recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Pal, Sujoy [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, New Delhi (India); Julka, Pramod Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, New Delhi (India); Thulkar, Sanjay [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma, suspected clinically or following conventional investigations. This was a retrospective study. Data from 180 patients (age 56.3 ± 10.4 years; 126 men, 54 women) with histopathologically proven oesophageal carcinoma (squamous cell 115, adenocarcinoma 59, neuroendocrine carcinoma 4, small cell 1, poorly differentiated 1) who had undergone 227 {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT studies for suspected recurrence were analysed. Recurrence was suspected clinically or following conventional investigations. PET/CT images were revaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians in consensus. Findings were grouped into local, nodal and distant recurrence. Results were compared to those from contrast-enhanced (CE) CT when available (109 patients). Clinical/imaging follow-up (minimum 6 months) with histopathology (when available) was taken as the reference standard. Of the 227 {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT studies,166 were positive and 61 were negative for recurrent disease. PET/CT showed local recurrence in 134, nodal recurrence in 115 and distant recurrence in 47, with more than one site of recurrence in 34. The PET/CT findings were true-positive in 153 studies, true-negative in 54, false-positive in 13 and false-negative in 7. The sensitivity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was 96 %, the specificity was 81 %, the positive and negative predictive values were 92 % and 89 %, respectively, and the accuracy was 91 %. PET/CT showed similar accuracy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and in those with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.181).{sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was more specific than CECT (67 % vs. 21 %; P < 0.0001). PET/CT was superior to CECT for the detection of nodal recurrence (P < 0.0001), but not local recurrence (P = 0.093) or distant metastases (P = 0.441). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT shows high accuracy in the detection of suspected recurrence in patients with oesophageal carcinoma. It is more specific than

  6. Accuracy of diagnosis criteria in patients with suspected diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and detection of 14-3-3 protein, France, 1992 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckeu, Laurene; Delasnerie-Lauprètre, Nicole; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Salomon, Dominique; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Duyckaerts, Charles; Seilhean, Danielle; Haïk, Stéphane; Hauw, Jean-Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic criteria of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rare and fatal transmissible nervous system disease with public health implications, are determined by clinical data, electroencephalogram (EEG), detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain magnetic resonance imaging and prion protein gene examination. The specificity of protein 14-3-3 has been questioned. We reviewed data from 1,572 autopsied patients collected over an 18-year period (1992-2009) and assessed whether and how 14-3-3 detection impacted the diagnosis of sporadic CJD in France, and whether this led to the misdiagnosis of treatable disorders. 14-3-3 detection was introduced into diagnostic criteria for CJD in 1998. Diagnostic accuracy decreased from 92% for the 1992-1997 period to 85% for the 1998-2009 period. This was associated with positive detections of 14-3-3 in cases with negative EEG and alternative diagnosis at autopsy. Potentially treatable diseases were found in 163 patients (10.5%). This study confirms the usefulness of the recent modification of diagnosis criteria by the addition of the results of CSF real-time quaking-induced conversion, a method based on prion seed-induced misfolding and aggregation of recombinant prion protein substrate that has proven to be a highly specific test for diagnosis of sporadic CJD.

  7. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, G.; Fawzi Matuk, R.; Venugopal, V.; Verde, F.; Magnuson, T.H.; Schweitzer, M.A.; Steele, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To search the literature for further evidence for the use of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the detection of suspected DVT and to re-evaluate the accuracy of MRV in the detection of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Materials and methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched. Study quality and the risk of bias were evaluated using the QUADAS 2. A random effects meta-analysis including subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The search resulted in 23 observational studies all from academic centres. Sixteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for MRV as a diagnostic non-invasive tool revealed a sensitivity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89% to 95%) and specificity of 96% (95% CI: 94% to 97%). The heterogeneity of the studies was high. Inconsistency (I2) for sensitivity and specificity was 80.7% and 77.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Further studies investigating the use of MRV in the detection of suspected DVT did not offer further evidence to support the replacement of ultrasound with MRV as the first-line investigation. However, MRV may offer an alternative tool in the detection/diagnosis of DVT for whom ultrasound is inadequate or not feasible (such as in the obese patient). -- Highlights: •We aimed to search the literature for evidence for the use of MRV in the detection of suspected DVT. •We questioned the use of MRV in special populations like the obese where contrast venography may not be feasible or safe. •MRV may not replace ultrasound as the first-line modality for DVT detection. •Consider MRV use in special populations like the obese where other diagnostic tools are not feasible. •Studies to compare MRV vs. ultrasound as a screening tool for DVT in the obese should be considered

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of the ROCHE Septifast PCR system for the rapid detection of blood pathogens in neonatal sepsis-A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julia; Paula, Helga; Mayr, Michaela; Kasper, David; Assadian, Ojan; Berger, Angelika; Rittenschober-Böhm, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains a major challenge in neonatology. Most molecular-based methods are not customized for neonatal requirements. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a modified multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of neonatal sepsis using small blood volumes. 212 episodes of suspected neonatal late onset sepsis were analyzed prospectively using the Roche SeptiFast® MGRADE PCR with a modified DNA extraction protocol and software-handling tool. Results were compared to blood culture, laboratory biomarkers and clinical signs of sepsis. Of 212 episodes, 85 (40.1%) were categorized as "not infected". Among these episodes, 1 was false positive by blood culture (1.2%) and 23 were false positive by PCR (27.1%). Of 51 (24.1%) episodes diagnosed as "culture proven sepsis", the same pathogen was detected by blood culture and PCR in 39 episodes (76.5%). In 8 episodes, more pathogens were detected by PCR compared to blood culture, and in 4 episodes the pathogen detected by blood culture was not found by PCR. One of these episodes was caused by Bacillus cereus, a pathogen not included in the PCR panel. In 76/212 (35.8%) episodes, clinical sepsis was diagnosed. Among these, PCR yielded positive results in 39.5% of episodes (30/76 episodes). For culture-positive sepsis, PCR showed a sensitivity of 90.2% (95%CI 86.2-94.2%) and a specificity of 72.9% (95%CI 67.0-79.0%). The Roche SeptiFast® MGRADE PCR using a modified DNA extraction protocol showed acceptable results for rapid detection of neonatal sepsis in addition to conventional blood culture. The benefit of rapid pathogen detection has to be balanced against the considerable risk of contamination, loss of information on antibiotic sensitivity pattern and increased costs.

  9. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 - 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 - 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures.

  10. Analysis of the accuracy and precision of the McMaster method in detection of the eggs of Toxocara and Trichuris species (Nematoda) in dog faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Osiński, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of McMaster method with Raynaud's modification in the detection of the eggs of the nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Trichuris ovis (Abildgaard, 1795) in faeces of dogs. Four variants of McMaster method were used for counting: in one grid, two grids, the whole McMaster chamber and flotation in the tube. One hundred sixty samples were prepared from dog faeces (20 repetitions for each egg quantity) containing 15, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 eggs of T. canis and T. ovis in 1 g of faeces. To compare the influence of kind of faeces on the results, samples of dog faeces were enriched at the same levels with the eggs of another nematode, Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782. In addition, 160 samples of pig faeces were prepared and enriched only with A. suum eggs in the same way. The highest limit of detection (the lowest level of eggs that were detected in at least 50% of repetitions) in all McMaster chamber variants were obtained for T. canis eggs (25-250 eggs/g faeces). In the variant with flotation in the tube, the highest limit of detection was obtained for T. ovis eggs (100 eggs/g). The best results of the limit of detection, sensitivity and the lowest coefficients of variation were obtained with the use of the whole McMaster chamber variant. There was no significant impact of properties of faeces on the obtained results. Multiplication factors for the whole chamber were calculated on the basis of the transformed equation of the regression line, illustrating the relationship between the number of detected eggs and that of the eggs added to the'sample. Multiplication factors calculated for T. canis and T. ovis eggs were higher than those expected using McMaster method with Raynaud modification.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of CBCT with Different Voxel Sizes and Intraoral Digital Radiography for Detection of Periapical Bone Lesions: An Ex-Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Sakhdari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT with different voxel sizes and intraoral digital radiography with photostimulable phosphor (PSP plate for detection of periapical (PA bone lesions.Materials and Methods: In this ex vivo diagnostic study, one-millimeter defects were created in the alveolar sockets of 15 bone blocks, each with two posterior teeth. A no-defect control group was also included. Digital PA radiographs with PSP plates and CBCT scans with 200, 250 and 300μ voxel sizes were obtained. Four observers evaluated the possibility of lesion detection using a 5-point scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predicative value (NPV were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane’s post hoc test. Kappa and weighted kappa statistics were applied to assess intraobserver and interobserver agreements.Results: Cochrane Q test showed no significant difference between PSP and CBCT imaging modalities in terms of kappa and weighted kappa statistics (P=0.675. The complete sensitivity and complete NPV for 200 and 250 μ voxel sizes were higher than those of 300 μ voxel size and digital radiography (P<0.001. No significant difference was noted in other parameters among other imaging modalities (P=0.403.Conclusions: The results showed that high-resolution CBCT scans had higher diagnostic accuracy than PSP digital radiography for detection of artificially created PA bone lesions. Voxel size (field of view must be taken into account to minimize patient radiation dose.Keywords: Diagnosis; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Radiography, Dental, Digital; Periapical Periodontitis

  12. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers...

  13. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves accuracy for detecting focal splenic involvement in children and adolescents with Hodgkin disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punwani, Shonit; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Cheung, King Kenneth; Skipper, Nicholas [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bell, Nichola; Humphries, Paul D. [University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Bainbridge, Alan [University College London, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M.; Hain, Sharon F.; Ben-Haim, Simona [University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Shankar, Ananth; Daw, Stephen [University College London Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Accurate assessment of splenic disease is important for staging Hodgkin lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess T2-weighted imaging with and without dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for evaluation of splenic Hodgkin disease. Thirty-one children with Hodgkin lymphoma underwent whole-body T2-weighted MRI with supplementary DCE splenic imaging, and whole-body PET-CT before and following chemotherapy. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians derived a PET-CT reference standard for splenic disease, augmented by follow-up imaging. Unaware of the PET-CT, two experienced radiologists independently evaluated MRI exercising a locked sequential read paradigm (T2-weighted then DCE review) and recorded the presence/absence of splenic disease at each stage. Performance of each radiologist was determined prior to and following review of DCE-MRI. Incorrect MRI findings were ascribed to reader (lesion present on MRI but missed by reader) or technical (lesion not present on MRI) error. Seven children had splenic disease. Sensitivity/specificity of both radiologists for the detection of splenic involvement using T2-weighted images alone was 57%/100% and increased to 100%/100% with DCE-MRI. There were three instances of technical error on T2-weighted imaging; all lesions were visible on DCE-MRI. T2-weighted imaging when complemented by DCE-MRI imaging may improve evaluation of Hodgkin disease splenic involvement. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI improves accuracy for detecting focal splenic involvement in children and adolescents with Hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punwani, Shonit; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; Cheung, King Kenneth; Skipper, Nicholas; Bell, Nichola; Humphries, Paul D.; Bainbridge, Alan; Groves, Ashley M.; Hain, Sharon F.; Ben-Haim, Simona; Shankar, Ananth; Daw, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of splenic disease is important for staging Hodgkin lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to assess T2-weighted imaging with and without dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI for evaluation of splenic Hodgkin disease. Thirty-one children with Hodgkin lymphoma underwent whole-body T2-weighted MRI with supplementary DCE splenic imaging, and whole-body PET-CT before and following chemotherapy. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians derived a PET-CT reference standard for splenic disease, augmented by follow-up imaging. Unaware of the PET-CT, two experienced radiologists independently evaluated MRI exercising a locked sequential read paradigm (T2-weighted then DCE review) and recorded the presence/absence of splenic disease at each stage. Performance of each radiologist was determined prior to and following review of DCE-MRI. Incorrect MRI findings were ascribed to reader (lesion present on MRI but missed by reader) or technical (lesion not present on MRI) error. Seven children had splenic disease. Sensitivity/specificity of both radiologists for the detection of splenic involvement using T2-weighted images alone was 57%/100% and increased to 100%/100% with DCE-MRI. There were three instances of technical error on T2-weighted imaging; all lesions were visible on DCE-MRI. T2-weighted imaging when complemented by DCE-MRI imaging may improve evaluation of Hodgkin disease splenic involvement. (orig.)

  16. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  17. Mad Men’s Deceptive (Critique Of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Robert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Mad Men’s relationship to creativity. Considering popular, industry-specific and scholarly understandings, it uses close readings of the show and its narratological techniques to demonstrate how these potentially contradictory concepts and practices of creativity overlap in the show’s fourth season. The points at which these understandings collide become sources of tension between characters and are marked by narrative gaps that conceal deceptive creativity. The conflicts centre on three primary debates: a the role of alcohol in the creative process, b industry-specific norms of creativity, and c the popular perception that creativity is about expression. Consequently, this article approaches questions about creativity using the show’s own partially elided debates and undermines widely-held romantic beliefs about the creative ‘type’ and the what exactly it means to sell creativity in a corporate setting.

  18. Deceptively Simple: Unpacking the Notion of “Sharing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Lampinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches social media by addressing the deceptively simple notion of “sharing.” While “sharing” is central to how activities taking place on social media get discussed, the word does not necessarily help us get our analytical work about social media done. It is at risk of turning into one of those words that mean little because we try to make them mean too many things at once. While it remains relevant to address and analyze discourses surrounding the notion of “sharing,” it is important to be critical about them. Sharing is not a monolith. Sharing is diverse. Sharing serves the economic interests of big corporations. Perhaps most importantly, referring to activities as “sharing” is political and value-laden.

  19. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to build a predictive model for detecting undiagnosed diabetes - ELSA-Brasil: accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, André Rodrigues; Roesler, Valter; Iochpe, Cirano; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i) parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii) automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times), to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii) error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv) generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. -These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy study of a factor VIII ELISA for detection of factor VIII antibodies in congenital and acquired haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Paul; Moore, Gary W; Platton, Sean; Maloney, James C; Palmer, Ben; Bowles, Louise; Pasi, K John; Rangarajan, Savita; Hart, Daniel P

    2015-10-01

    Antibody formation to factor VIII (FVIII) remains the greatest clinical and diagnostic challenge to the haemophilia-treating physician. Current guidance for testing for inhibitory FVIII antibodies (inhibitors) recommends the functional Nijmegen-Bethesda assay (NBA). A FVIII ELISA offers a complementary, immunological approach for FVIII antibody testing. It was the aim of this study to retrospectively evaluate the performance of a FVIII ELISA (index) for detection of FVIII antibodies, compared with the NBA (reference). All samples sent for routine FVIII antibody testing at two haemophilia Comprehensive Care Centres, were tested in parallel using the NBA and a solid-phase, indirect FVIII ELISA kit (Immucor). A total of 497 samples from 239 patients (severe haemophilia A=140, non-severe haemophilia A=85, acquired haemophilia A=14) were available for analysis. Sixty-three samples tested positive by the NBA (prevalence 12.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9-15.9 %), with a median inhibitor titre of 1.2 BU/ml (range 0.7-978.0). The FVIII ELISA demonstrated a specificity of 94.0% (95%CI, 91.3-96.0), sensitivity of 77.8% (95%CI, 65.5-87.3), negative predictive value of 96.7% (95%CI, 94.5-98.2), positive predictive value 65.3% (95%CI, 53.5-76.0), negative likelihood ratio 0.2 (95%CI, 0.1-0.4), positive likelihood ratio 13.0 (95%CI, 8.7-19.3) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 54.9 (95%CI, 27.0-112.0). Strong positive correlation (r=0.77, pNBA (log adjusted) and FVIII ELISA optical density. In conclusion, FVIII ELISA offers a simple, specific, surveillance method enabling batch testing of non-urgent samples for the presence of FVIII antibodies.

  1. The Accuracy of the Sysmex UF-1000i in Urine Bacterial Detection Compared With the Standard Urine Analysis and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Patrick; Anderson, Brian; Zacko, J Christopher; Taylor, Kirk; Donaldson, Keri

    2017-11-01

    - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis. One sample was used to inoculate a 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar plate using a 0.001-mL calibrated loop. The second sample was analyzed by urinalysis-associated microscopy. The media plates were investigated for growth after 18 to 24 hours of aerobic incubation at 37°C. The second sample was analyzed for bacteria and leukocytes with the Sysmex UF-1000i according to the manufacturer's guidelines. Three definitions for culture results, sensitivity, and specificity at different cutoff values were calculated for the UF-1000i. - The negative predictive value for any positive culture in the adult population included in the study was 95.5%, and the negative predictive value for positive cultures containing growth of 100 000 or more colony-forming units was 99.3% using the Sysmex UF-1000i. - Sysmex UF-1000i showed 98% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity with a 95.5% negative predictive value. Thus, a negative screen with the UF-1000i using defined thresholds for white blood cell counts and bacteria was likely to be a true negative, decreasing the need for presumptive antibiotics.

  2. Sensitivity and accuracy of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in the detection of coronary artery and myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesse, B.; Kroenert, H.; Rafflenbeul, D.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Loogen, F.; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1979-01-01

    169 patients (154 men, 15 women, mean age 49.5 years, range 27 to 64 years) were studied by means of 201-Thallium myocardial scintigraphy (201-Tl) and coronary angiography. According to the coronarangiogram, 130 patients had coronary artery disease (CAD): 53 a 1-vessel CAD, 29 a 2-vessel CAD, 48 a 3-vessel CAD. 39 patients had normal or less than 50% stenosed coronary arteries, but only 13 of these patients had also a normal ventriculogram, whereas 26 had an abnormal ventriculogram with local hypo-, a- or dyskinesia, diffuse hypokinesia, dilatation, or marked hypertrophy. The ramus interventicularis anterior (RIVA) was involved (stenosis of more than 50%) in 117 cases, the ramus circumflexus (R. circ.) in 70 cases, and the right coronary artery (RCA) in 67 cases. 201-Tl was abnormal in 98% of all 130 patients with CAD, in 100% of 93 patients with prior infarction, and in 95% of 37 patients without prior infarction. The sensitivity of the rest and/or exercise ECG in the same patients was only 79%, 88% and 57%, respectively. 201-Tl was abnormal in all 26 patients with a pathologic ventriculogram in spite of normal coronary arteries. 201-Tl and ECG were normal in only 9 of the 13 patients (=69%) with normal coronary arteries and normal ventriculogram. Myocardial biopsy, however, performed in 2 of the other 4 patients disclosed in part severe degenerative changes which can possibly explain the abnormal findings of 201-Tl and ECG. Significantly, i.e. more than 50% stenosed RIVA was correctly detected by 201-Tl in 98%, R. circ. in 71%, and RCA in 91% of the cases. The specificity of 201-Tl was limited by the great number of patients with a pathologic ventriculogram combined with normal coronary arteries. (orig.) [de

  3. Multi-wavelength spectrophotometric analysis for detection of xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid and accuracy for the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Ko, Nerissa; Grenache, David G

    2013-09-23

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was examined for bilirubin, an important indicator for diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A multi-wavelength (340, 415, and 460 nm) spectrophotometric assay was developed for the quantitative measurement of bilirubin in CSF, enabling the mathematical correction for absorbance of hemoglobin and proteins. Bilirubin and hemoglobin results were correlated to HPLC and a standard colorimetric assay, respectively. A subset of samples was sent for an absorbance reading at 450 nm following baseline correction. The multi-wavelength bilirubin assay was validated on 70 patients with confirmed SAH and 70 patients with neurologic symptoms who ruled out for SAH. The multi-wavelength spectrophometric assay demonstrated no interferences due to proteins (albumin) up to 30 g/l or oxyhemoglobin up to 260 mg/l. The assay limit of detection was 0.2 mg/l, linear to 20 mg/l, and CVs ranged from 1 to 6% at bilirubin concentrations of 0.84 and 2.1mg/l. The spectrophotometric assay correlated to HPLC and the colorimetric assay for bilirubin and hemoglobin, respectively. Results also correlated to the absorbance method (with removal of samples with high hemoglobin and proteins). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosis of SAH was 0.971 and 0.954 for the HPLC and spectrophotometric assay, respectively. At a cutoff of 0.2mg/l, the clinical specificity was 100% for both assays, and the clinical sensitivity was 94.3% and 88.6% for SAH for the HPLC and spectrophotometric asays, respectively. The multi-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is an objective alternative to visual inspection, HPLC, and absorbance for CSF bilirubin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresentation as to source or origin (e.g., “Colorado Blue Spruce,” “Arizona Cypress,” “Black Hills Spruce... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is...

  5. A Game-Theoretic Taxonomy and Survey of Defensive Deception for Cybersecurity and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlick, Jeffrey; Colbert, Edward; Zhu, Quanyan

    2017-01-01

    Cyber attacks on both databases and critical infrastructure have threatened public and private sectors. Meanwhile, ubiquitous tracking and wearable computing have infringed upon privacy. Advocates and engineers have recently proposed using defensive deception as a means to leverage the information asymmetry typically enjoyed by attackers as a tool for defenders. The term deception, however, has been employed broadly and with a variety of meanings. In this paper, we survey 24 articles from 200...

  6. Effects of Deceptive Advertising on Consumer Loyalty in Telecommunication Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to interrogate the effects of deceptive advertising on consumer loyalty in telecommunication industry of Pakistan. Four variables, Call Charges (CC), Network Coverage (NC), Network Quality (NQ) and Customer Service (CS) were used to measure deception in Telecom Ads and then its effect on consumer loyalty while the consumer preference is used as the proxy of consumer loyalty. 10,000 random individuals from telecom industry were selected to conclude the results. Testing...

  7. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings hig...

  8. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs FibroTest, Elastography, and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients With Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang; Detlefsen, Sönke; Antonsen, Steen; Krag, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality, but we lack serum markers to detect compensated disease. We compared the accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test (ELF), the FibroTest, liver stiffness measurements (made by transient elastography and 2-dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal alcohol rehabilitation, n = 128; 6% with advanced fibrosis) and secondary health care centers (hospital outpatient clinics, n = 161; 36% with advanced fibrosis) in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2013 through 2016. Biopsy-verified fibrosis stage was used as the reference standard. The primary aim was to validate ELF in detection of advanced fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease recruited from primary and secondary health care centers, using the literature-based cutoff value of 10.5. Secondary aims were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ELF for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis and to determine whether combinations of fibrosis markers increase diagnostic yield. The ELF identified patients with advanced liver fibrosis with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.89-0.96); findings did not differ significantly between patients from primary vs secondary care (P = .917). ELF more accurately identified patients with advanced liver fibrosis than indirect marker tests, but ELF and FibroTest had comparable diagnostic accuracies (AUROC of FibroTest, 0.90) (P = .209 for comparison with ELF). Results from the ELF and FibroTest did not differ significantly from those of liver stiffness measurement in intention-to-diagnose analyses (AUROC for transient elastography, 0.90), but did differ in the per-protocol analysis (AUROC for

  9. Chronotropic response to vasodilator-stress in patients submitted to myocardial perfusion imaging: impact on the accuracy in detecting coronary stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Coceani, Michele; Quaranta, Angela; Emdin, Michele; Liga, Riccardo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A lower heart rate response (HRR) during vasodilator MPI has been shown to have a relevant adverse prognostic impact. We sought to evaluate the interaction among individual HRR to vasodilator stress and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accuracy in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease (IHD). One hundred and sixty-five consecutive patients were submitted to vasodilator-stress MPI on a cardiac camera equipped with cadmium-zinc-thelluride detectors and coronary angiography. A coronary stenosis >70 % was considered significant. In every patient, the summed difference score (SDS) was computed from MPI images. Patients were categorized according to the tertiles of the distribution of individual HRR during dipyridamole: ''Group 1'' (HRR < 8 bpm; lowest tertile); ''Group 2'' (8 ≤ HRR ≤ 12 bpm; middle tertile); ''Group 3'' (HRR >12 bpm; highest tertile). Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was present in 102 (62 %) patients. In the overall population, MPI showed a significant accuracy (AUC: 0.81, 95 % CI 0.74-0.86; p < 0.001) in unmasking the presence of significant coronary stenosis. Interestingly, in patients with a blunted HRR during dipyridamole (''Group 1'') MPI showed a significantly lower sensitivity (68 %) in detecting CAD than in those with a higher HRR (''Group 3'') (91 %, p = 0.007), despite a preserved specificity (76 % vs 77 %, P=NS). Similarly, the correlation among CAD extent and post-stress LV functional stunning was limited to ''Group 3'' patients, while it disappeared in those with blunted HRR. In patients with suspected IHD, MPI sensitivity is strongly influenced by the magnitude of patient heart rate increase to the pharmacologic stressor, suggesting an interaction among blunted HRR and lower accuracy in unmasking CAD. (orig.)

  10. Accuracy of pulse oximetry in detection of oxygen saturation in patients admitted to the intensive care unit of heart surgery: comparison of finger, toe, forehead and earlobe probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Sohila; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Abdi, Alireza; Najafi, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Heart surgery patients are more at risk of poor peripheral perfusion, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement is regular care for continuous analysis of blood oxygen saturation in these patients. With regard to controversial studies on accuracy of the current pulse oximetry probes and lack of data related to patients undergoing heart surgery, the present study was conducted to determine accuracy of pulse oximetry probes of finger, toe, forehead and earlobe in detection of oxygen saturation in patients admitted to intensive care units for coronary artery bypass surgery. In this clinical trial, 67 patients were recruited based on convenience sampling method among those admitted to intensive care units for coronary artery bypass surgery. The SpO2 value was measured using finger, toe, forehead and earlobe probes and then compared with the standard value of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). Data were entered into STATA-11 software and analyzed using descriptive, inferential and Bland-Altman statistical analyses. Highest and lowest correlational mean values of SpO2 and SaO2 were related to finger and earlobe probes, respectively. The highest and lowest agreement of SpO2 and SaO2 were related to forehead and earlobe probes. The SpO2 of earlobe probes due to lesser mean difference, more limited confidence level and higher agreement ration with SaO2 resulted by arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis had higher accuracy. Thus, it is suggested to use earlobe probes in patients admitted to the intensive care unit for coronary artery bypass surgery. Registration of this trial protocol has been approved in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials at 2018-03-19 with reference IRCT20100913004736N22. "Retrospectively registered."

  11. Chronotropic response to vasodilator-stress in patients submitted to myocardial perfusion imaging: impact on the accuracy in detecting coronary stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Coceani, Michele; Quaranta, Angela; Emdin, Michele [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo [University Hospital of Pisa, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Department, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    A lower heart rate response (HRR) during vasodilator MPI has been shown to have a relevant adverse prognostic impact. We sought to evaluate the interaction among individual HRR to vasodilator stress and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accuracy in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease (IHD). One hundred and sixty-five consecutive patients were submitted to vasodilator-stress MPI on a cardiac camera equipped with cadmium-zinc-thelluride detectors and coronary angiography. A coronary stenosis >70 % was considered significant. In every patient, the summed difference score (SDS) was computed from MPI images. Patients were categorized according to the tertiles of the distribution of individual HRR during dipyridamole: ''Group 1'' (HRR < 8 bpm; lowest tertile); ''Group 2'' (8 ≤ HRR ≤ 12 bpm; middle tertile); ''Group 3'' (HRR >12 bpm; highest tertile). Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was present in 102 (62 %) patients. In the overall population, MPI showed a significant accuracy (AUC: 0.81, 95 % CI 0.74-0.86; p < 0.001) in unmasking the presence of significant coronary stenosis. Interestingly, in patients with a blunted HRR during dipyridamole (''Group 1'') MPI showed a significantly lower sensitivity (68 %) in detecting CAD than in those with a higher HRR (''Group 3'') (91 %, p = 0.007), despite a preserved specificity (76 % vs 77 %, P=NS). Similarly, the correlation among CAD extent and post-stress LV functional stunning was limited to ''Group 3'' patients, while it disappeared in those with blunted HRR. In patients with suspected IHD, MPI sensitivity is strongly influenced by the magnitude of patient heart rate increase to the pharmacologic stressor, suggesting an interaction among blunted HRR and lower accuracy in unmasking CAD. (orig.)

  12. Early clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma (cT1): Utility of CT in regional nodal metastasis detection and can the clinical accuracy be improved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L., E-mail: slbetancourt@mdanderson.org; Sabloff, Bradley, E-mail: bsabloff@mdanderson.org; Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org; Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org; Correa, Arlene M., E-mail: amcorrea@mdanderson.org; Maru, Dipen M., E-mail: dmaru@mdanderson.org; Ajani, Jaffer A., E-mail: jajani@mdanderson.org; Erasmus, Jeremy J., E-mail: jerasmus@mdanderson.org; Hofstetter, Wayne L., E-mail: whofstetter@mdanderson.org

    2017-03-15

    Introduction: Treatment of early esophageal cancer depends on the extent of the primary tumor and presence of regional lymph node metastasis.(RNM). Short axis diameter >10 mm is typically used to detect RNM. However, clinical determination of RNM is inaccurate and can result in inappropriate treatment. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a single linear measurement (short axis > 10 mm) of regional nodes on CT in predicting nodal metastasis, in patients with early esophageal cancer and whether using a mean diameter value (short axis + long axis/2) as well as nodal shape improves cN designation. Methods: CTs of 49 patients with cT1 adenocarcinoma treated with surgical resection alone were reviewed retrospectively. Regional nodes were considered positive for malignancy when round or ovoid and mean size >5 mm adjacent to the primary tumor and >7 mm when not adjacent. Results were compared with pN status after esophagectomy. Results: 18/49 patients had pN+ at resection. Using a single short axis diameter >10 mm on CT, nodal metastasis (cN) was positive in 7/49. Only 1 of these patients was pN+ at resection (sensitivity 5%, specificity 80%, accuracy 53%). Using mean size and morphologic criteria, cN was positive in 28/49. 11 of these patients were pN+ at resection (sensitivity 61%, specificity 45%, accuracy 51%). EUS with limited FNA of regional nodes resulted in 16/49 patients with pN+ being inappropriately designated as cN0. Conclusions: Evaluation of size, shape and location of regional lymph nodes on CT improves the sensitivity of cN determination compared with a short axis measurement alone in patients with cT1 esophageal cancer, although clinical utility is limited.

  13. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  14. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  15. Examining well-being, anxiety, and self-deception in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Sheridan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the combined influence of six positive psychology variables (optimism, hope, self-efficacy, grit, gratitude, and subjective life satisfaction, termed covitality, in relation to buffering individuals against anxiety symptoms. In addition, the influence of self-deception was examined to test whether this construct had an influence on the reporting of these positive psychology variables. A total of 268 individuals (203 females and 65 males with a mean age of 22.2 years (SD = 7.4 years from one Queensland university took part in the study. The participants completed an online questionnaire, which included a battery of positive psychological measures, plus a measure of anxiety and self-deception. The results indicated that the covitality constructs had a moderation effect on anxiety. In a regression analysis, the six covitality constructs explained an additional 24.5% of the variance in anxiety, after controlling for self-deception. Further analyses revealed that those higher in self-deception scored higher in self-efficacy and all positive covitality measures and lower in anxiety, than those lower in self-deception. These findings illustrate the importance of considering the role that self-deception might play in the reporting of positive psychology variables.

  16. Reaction Time of Motor Responses in Two-Stimulus Paradigms Involving Deception and Congruity with Varying Levels of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. C. Vendemia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deception research has focused on identifying peripheral nervous system markers while ignoring cognitive mechanisms underlying those markers. Cognitive theorists argue that the process of deception may involve such constructs as attentional capture, working memory load, or perceived incongruity with memory, while psychophysiologists argue for stimulus salience, arousal, and emotion. Three studies were conducted to assess reaction time (RT in relation to deception, response congruity, and preparedness to deceive. Similar to a semantic verification task, participants evaluated sentences that were either true or false, and then made truthful or deceptive evaluations of the sentence’s base truth-value. Findings indicate that deceptive responses have a longer RT than truthful responses, and that this relationship remains constant across response type and preparedness to deceive. The authors use these findings in preliminary support of a comprehensive cognitive model of deception.

  17. Does the accuracy of single reading with CAD (computer-aided detection) compare with that of double reading?: A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.L.; Blanks, R.G.; Moss, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine current evidence to determine whether the accuracy of single reading with computed-aided detection (CAD) compares with that of double reading. Methods: We performed a literature review to identify studies where both protocols had been investigated and compared. We identified eight studies that compared single reading with CAD against double reading, of which six reported on comparisons of both sensitivity and specificity. Results: Of the six studies identified, three showed no differences in either sensitivity or specificity. One showed single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity at the same specificity, another that single reading with CAD had a higher specificity at the same sensitivity. However, one study, in a real-life setting, showed that single reading with CAD had a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity. Conclusion: As the majority of the studies were not in a real-life setting, used test sets, lacked sufficient training in the use of CAD and simulated double reading (using a protocol of recall if one suggests), current evidence is therefore limited as to the accuracy, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of single reading with CAD in comparison with the most common practice in the UK of double reading using a protocol of consensus or arbitration

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot (IB) for the detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziprodromidou, I P; Apostolou, T

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot (IB) for detecting antibodies of Neospora caninum in dairy cows, in the absence of a gold standard. The study complies with STRADAS-paratuberculosis guidelines for reporting the accuracy of the test. We tried to apply Bayesian models that do not require conditional independence of the tests under evaluation, but as convergence problems appeared, we used Bayesian methodology, that does not assume conditional dependence of the tests. Informative prior probability distributions were constructed, based on scientific inputs regarding sensitivity and specificity of the IB test and the prevalence of disease in the studied populations. IB sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 98.8% and 91.3%, respectively, while the respective estimates for ELISA were 60% and 96.7%. A sensitivity analysis, where modified prior probability distributions concerning IB diagnostic accuracy applied, showed a limited effect in posterior assessments. We concluded that ELISA can be used to screen the bulk milk and secondly, IB can be used whenever needed.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the MMSE in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease in ethnically diverse highly educated individuals: an analysis of the NACC database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Cynthia C; Hobson, Valerie; Lucas, John A; Menon, Chloe V; Hall, James R; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2012-08-01

    To validate and extend the findings of a raised cut score of O'Bryant and colleagues (O'Bryant SE, Humphreys JD, Smith GE, et al. Detecting dementia with the mini-mental state examination in highly educated individuals. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(7):963-967.) for the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting cognitive dysfunction in a bilingual sample of highly educated ethnically diverse individuals. Archival data were reviewed from participants enrolled in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center minimum data set. Data on 7,093 individuals with 16 or more years of education were analyzed, including 2,337 cases with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease, 1,418 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 3,088 nondemented controls. Ethnic composition was characterized as follows: 6,296 Caucasians, 581 African Americans, 4 American Indians or Alaska natives, 2 native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders, 149 Asians, 43 "Other," and 18 of unknown origin. Diagnostic accuracy estimates (sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio) of Mini-Mental State Examination cut scores in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease were examined. A standard Mini-Mental State Examination cut score of 24 (≤23) yielded a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.98 in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease across ethnicities. A cut score of 27 (≤26) resulted in an improved balance of sensitivity and specificity (0.79 and 0.90, respectively). In the cognitively impaired group (mild cognitive impairment and probable and possible Alzheimer's disease), the standard cut score yielded a sensitivity of 0.38 and a specificity of 1.00 while raising the cut score to 27 resulted in an improved balance of 0.59 and 0.96 of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. These findings cross-validate our previous work and extend them to an ethnically diverse cohort. A higher cut score is needed to maximize diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination in individuals

  20. Rapid detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection in critical care using multipathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction technology: a diagnostic accuracy study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Geoffrey; Dunn, Graham; Chadwick, Paul; Blackwood, Bronagh; McAuley, Daniel; Perkins, Gavin D; McMullan, Ronan; Gates, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Young, Duncan; Carlson, Gordon L; Dark, Paul

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in the potential utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosing bloodstream infection by detecting pathogen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in blood samples within a few hours. SeptiFast (Roche Diagnostics GmBH, Mannheim, Germany) is a multipathogen probe-based system targeting ribosomal DNA sequences of bacteria and fungi. It detects and identifies the commonest pathogens causing bloodstream infection. As background to this study, we report a systematic review of Phase III diagnostic accuracy studies of SeptiFast, which reveals uncertainty about its likely clinical utility based on widespread evidence of deficiencies in study design and reporting with a high risk of bias. Determine the accuracy of SeptiFast real-time PCR for the detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection, against standard microbiological culture. Prospective multicentre Phase III clinical diagnostic accuracy study using the standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies criteria. Critical care departments within NHS hospitals in the north-west of England. Adult patients requiring blood culture (BC) when developing new signs of systemic inflammation. SeptiFast real-time PCR results at species/genus level compared with microbiological culture in association with independent adjudication of infection. Metrics of diagnostic accuracy were derived including sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values, with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Latent class analysis was used to explore the diagnostic performance of culture as a reference standard. Of 1006 new patient episodes of systemic inflammation in 853 patients, 922 (92%) met the inclusion criteria and provided sufficient information for analysis. Index test assay failure occurred on 69 (7%) occasions. Adult patients had been exposed to a median of 8 days (interquartile range 4-16 days) of hospital care, had high levels of organ support activities and recent

  1. Monitoring memory errors: the influence of the veracity of retrieved information on the accuracy of judgements of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K

    2011-11-01

    The current study examined the degree to which predictions of memory performance made immediately or at a delay are sensitive to confidently held memory illusions. Participants studied unrelated pairs of words and made judgements of learning (JOLs) for each item, either immediately or after a delay. Half of the unrelated pairs (deceptive items; e.g., nurse-dollar) had a semantically related competitor (e.g., doctor) that was easily accessible when given a test cue (e.g., nurse-do_ _ _r) and half had no semantically related competitor (control items; e.g., subject-dollar). Following the study phase, participants were administered a cued recall test. Results from Experiment 1 showed that memory performance was less accurate for deceptive compared with control items. In addition, delaying judgement improved the relative accuracy of JOLs for control items but not for deceptive items. Subsequent experiments explored the degree to which the relative accuracy of delayed JOLs for deceptive items improved as a result of a warning to ensure that retrieved memories were accurate (Experiment 2) and corrective feedback regarding the veracity of information retrieved prior to making a JOL (Experiment 3). In all, these data suggest that delayed JOLs may be largely insensitive to memory errors unless participants are provided with feedback regarding memory accuracy.

  2. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Chan, Maria F. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920 (United States); Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu [Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montréal, QC H1T 2M4 (Canada); Lowden, John [Indiana University Health - Goshen Hospital, Goshen, Indiana 46526 (United States); Hampton, Carnell [Levine Cancer Institute/Carolinas Medical Center, Concord, North Carolina 28025 (United States); Feygelman, Vladimir [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  3. New bone post-processing tools in forensic imaging: a multi-reader feasibility study to evaluate detection time and diagnostic accuracy in rib fracture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemser, Philip A; Pfleiderer, Michael; Heger, Anna; Tremper, Jan; Krauskopf, Astrid; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Yen, Kathrin; Simons, David

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this multi-reader feasibility study was to evaluate new post-processing CT imaging tools in rib fracture assessment of forensic cases by analyzing detection time and diagnostic accuracy. Thirty autopsy cases (20 with and 10 without rib fractures in autopsy) were randomly selected and included in this study. All cases received a native whole body CT scan prior to the autopsy procedure, which included dissection and careful evaluation of each rib. In addition to standard transverse sections (modality A), CT images were subjected to a reconstruction algorithm to compute axial labelling of the ribs (modality B) as well as "unfolding" visualizations of the rib cage (modality C, "eagle tool"). Three radiologists with different clinical and forensic experience who were blinded to autopsy results evaluated all cases in a random manner of modality and case. Rib fracture assessment of each reader was evaluated compared to autopsy and a CT consensus read as radiologic reference. A detailed evaluation of relevant test parameters revealed a better accordance to the CT consensus read as to the autopsy. Modality C was the significantly quickest rib fracture detection modality despite slightly reduced statistic test parameters compared to modalities A and B. Modern CT post-processing software is able to shorten reading time and to increase sensitivity and specificity compared to standard autopsy alone. The eagle tool as an easy to use tool is suited for an initial rib fracture screening prior to autopsy and can therefore be beneficial for forensic pathologists.

  4. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for detection of cancer risk in Barrett's esophagus: experimental and clinical validation of error removal by orthogonal subtraction for increasing accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Fearn, Tom; MacKenzie, Gary; Clark, Ben; Dunn, Jason M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Bown, Stephen G.; Lovat, Laurence B.

    2009-07-01

    Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) may be used to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer in Barrett's esophagus (BE). When spectra are measured in vivo by a hand-held optical probe, variability among replicated spectra from the same site can hinder the development of a diagnostic model for cancer risk. An experiment was carried out on excised tissue to investigate how two potential sources of this variability, pressure and angle, influence spectral variability, and the results were compared with the variations observed in spectra collected in vivo from patients with Barrett's esophagus. A statistical method called error removal by orthogonal subtraction (EROS) was applied to model and remove this measurement variability, which accounted for 96.6% of the variation in the spectra, from the in vivo data. Its removal allowed the construction of a diagnostic model with specificity improved from 67% to 82% (with sensitivity fixed at 90%). The improvement was maintained in predictions on an independent in vivo data set. EROS works well as an effective pretreatment for Barrett's in vivo data by identifying measurement variability and ameliorating its effect. The procedure reduces the complexity and increases the accuracy and interpretability of the model for classification and detection of cancer risk in Barrett's esophagus.

  5. DU weaponry: a view on facts and deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of literature research conducted by the author on the use of depleted uranium (DU) weaponry. The research was initiated during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 with an objective of searching for facts in the presence of massive deceptions staged by the huge propaganda machinery of DU weaponry use proponents. The U.S. made use of DU penetrators in the Persian Gulf war as well as in the Balkan wars both in Bosnia and Kosovo. Brief science and history backgrounds are provided including overviews of DU uses and abuses in these three wars. The U.S./NATO public pronouncements have been centered around the theme that there has been no proven link between DU and cancers. In the author's view, these types of carefully word engineered statements are motivated by possible compensation and cleanup claims rather than supported by hard data and sound science. Since underlying causes of so called Gulf and Balkan syndromes have not been found despite a decade elapsed since conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, the DU must continue to be a front-line suspect. From the standpoint of public health and safety, it is prudent and responsible to call for a moratorium. DU use in the Kosovo war, which was not sanctioned by the UN Security Council, was reckless in the extreme. (author)

  6. New sophistry: self-deception in the nursing academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    In this essay, I advance an argument against the expansion and acceptance of postmodern metaphysical antirealist ideologies in the development of nursing theory in North America. I suggest mystical theoretical explanations of care, the rejection of empirical epistemology, and a return to divinity in nursing represent an intellectual dead end, as these ideas do little to help resolve real-world health issues and also negate the need for the academic discrimination of bad ideas. I examine some of the philosophical foundations of nursing theory and deconstruct some of the more preternatural theories that have become established as the dominant conventional wisdom in the academy. It is argued that this can be characterized as a form of self-deception, and overall has had a negative impact on advancement of the nursing profession and public health care. Reasons behind the widespread acceptance of these irrational theoretical stances in nursing and the ongoing support for mystical therapeutic interventions are explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  8. Deception and Manipulation: the arms of Leishmania, a successful parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eCecílio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85-90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host-parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system.

  9. Effects of Disfluency in Online Interpretation of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Jia E; Rohde, Hannah; Corley, Martin

    2017-05-01

    A speaker's manner of delivery of an utterance can affect a listener's pragmatic interpretation of the message. Disfluencies (such as filled pauses) influence a listener's off-line assessment of whether the speaker is truthful or deceptive. Do listeners also form this assessment during the moment-by-moment processing of the linguistic message? Here we present two experiments that examined listeners' judgments of whether a speaker was indicating the true location of the prize in a game during fluent and disfluent utterances. Participants' eye and mouse movements were biased toward the location named by the speaker during fluent utterances, whereas the opposite bias was observed during disfluent utterances. This difference emerged rapidly after the onset of the critical noun. Participants were similarly sensitive to disfluencies at the start of the utterance (Experiment 1) and in the middle (Experiment 2). Our findings support recent research showing that listeners integrate pragmatic information alongside semantic content during the earliest moments of language processing. Unlike prior work which has focused on pragmatic effects in the interpretation of the literal message, here we highlight disfluency's role in guiding a listener to an alternative non-literal message. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P

    1998-02-15

    Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.

  12. Stimulating the Right Temporoparietal Junction with tDCS Decreases Deception in Moral Hypocrisy and Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-centered and other-regarding concerns play important roles in decisions of deception. To investigate how these two motivations affect deception in fairness related moral hypocrisy, we modulated the brain activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ, the key region for decision making involved in self-centered and other-regarding concerns. After receiving brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, participants finished a modified dictator game. In the game, they played as proposers to make allocations between themselves and recipients and had a chance to deceive by misreporting their totals for allocations. Results show that deception in moral hypocrisy was decreased after anodal stimulation than sham and cathodal stimulation, only when participants know that their reported totals (appearing fair would be revealed to recipients rather than being unrevealed. Anodal stimulation also increased offers to recipients than cathodal stimulation regardless of the revelation of reported totals. These findings suggest that enhancing the activity of rTPJ decreased deception caused by impression management rather than self-deception in moral hypocrisy and unfairness through facilitating other-regarding concerns and weakening non-material self-centered motivations. They provide causal evidence for the role of rTPJ in both other-regarding concerns and non-material self-centered motivations, shedding light on the way to decrease moral hypocrisy.

  13. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Bendia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar “open-air” laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  15. Gotcha! Findings from an exploratory investigation on the dangers of using deceptive practices in the mail-order business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examines the impact of some Belgian mail-order companies' deceptive practices - specifically, the use of gifts - on long-term relationships with their customers. The results support the premise that the use of deceptive gifts first elicits negative surprise and,

  16. 17 CFR 240.10b-3 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. 240.10b-3 Section 240.10b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Contrivances § 240.10b-3 Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices by brokers or dealers. (a) It shall be unlawful for any broker or dealer, directly or indirectly, by the use of any means or...

  17. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chisen; Chen Granhum; Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Peng Shihnen; Huang Chihkuen; Poon Sekkwong

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14 C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14 C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14 C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14 CO 2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14 C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14 CO 2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14 C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14 C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14 C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  18. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Authority, Autonomy, and Deception: Evaluating the Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Adolescent Deceit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew; Roded, Alona D; Turiel, Elliot

    2017-12-01

    This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, M age  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships. Judgments also differed by domain of the action (personal, prudential, or conventional). Participants were least accepting of parental directives, and most accepting of deception about personal activities. Findings indicate that adolescents value honesty and parental authority, but sometimes give priority to concerns with autonomy and mutuality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  20. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  1. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  2. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  3. Detecting Deception in the Military Infosphere: Improving and Integrating Human Detection Capabilities with Automated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-25

    the coders. Figure 1 la shows the basic Analyzer screen before any specific template is selected. Eft , *NN __ N O... ............... .. ]. . iiii...eyes and comers of the mouth, and reductions in gesturing or other gross body movements like foot tapping . D-DIMS captures facial and gross body

  4. Accuracy of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Detecting Acute Kidney Injury after Urogenital Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya MIHÁLY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the accuracy of NGAL in detecting acute kidney injury (AKI after urogenital robotic surgery in general anesthesia. Methods: A prospective longitudinal observational study, which included patients scheduled for elective robotic surgery under general anesthesia. The serum and urine NGAL at induction, 6 hours and 12 hours were determined. Serum creatinine was measured preoperatively and daily 4 days postoperatively. AKI was defined as the absolute growth of serum creatinine by 0.3 mg/dl over baseline within 48 hours postoperatively. Results: 24 patients were enrolled in the study. AKI occurred in 38% of patients. Serum NGAL increased significantly at 6 hours and 12h, compared to baseline, with a higher increase in the group of patents without AKI. There were no significant results for urine NGAL. A link was observed between the values of serum NGAL, with associated significance p<0.0001. The correlations between urine NGAL were not significant. The predictive value of NGAL, analyzed by cross-tabulation, OR was 3 for baseline value and 5.33 for the values measured at 6 hours and 12 hours, but with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The modifications of the NGAL levels, measured at 6 hours and 12 hours from the induction of anesthesia, were significant with more importance at 6 hours and in patients without AKI. Serum NGAL had no predictive value for AKI, but the risk to develop AKI was 3 times higher for baseline determination and 5 times at 6 and 12 hours.

  5. Response-only method for damage detection of beam-like structures using high accuracy frequencies with auxiliary mass spatial probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuncong; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde; Ding, Kang

    2008-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach based on auxiliary mass spatial probing using spectral centre correction method (SCCM), to provide a simple solution for damage detection by just using the response time history of beam-like structures. The natural frequencies of a damaged beam with a traversing auxiliary mass change due to change in the inertia of the beam as the auxiliary mass is traversed along the beam, as well as the point-to-point variations in the flexibility of the beam. Therefore the auxiliary mass can enhance the effects of the crack on the dynamics of the beam and, therefore, facilitate the identification and location of damage in the beam. That is, the auxiliary mass can be used to probe the dynamic characteristic of the beam by traversing the mass from one end of the beam to the other. However, it is impossible to obtain accurate modal frequencies by the direct operation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the response data of the structure because the frequency spectrum can be only calculated from limited sampled time data which results in the well-known leakage effect. SCCM is identical to the energy centrobaric correction method (ECCM) which is a practical and effective method used in rotating mechanical fault diagnosis and which resolves the shortcoming of FFT and can provide high accuracy estimate of frequency, amplitude and phase. In the present work, the modal responses of damaged simply supported beams with auxiliary mass are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The graphical plots of the natural frequencies calculated by SCCM versus axial location of auxiliary mass are obtained. However, it is difficult to locate the crack directly from the curve of natural frequencies. A simple and fast method, the derivatives of natural frequency curve, is proposed in the paper which can provide crack information for damage detection of beam-like structures. The efficiency and practicability of the proposed method is illustrated via numerical

  6. "Anterior convergent" chest probing in rapid ultrasound transducer positioning versus formal chest ultrasonography to detect pneumothorax during the primary survey of hospital trauma patients: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Behrad; Haji, Houman Seyedjavady

    2015-01-01

    Occult pneumothorax represents a diagnostic pitfall during the primary survey of trauma patients, particularly if these patients require early positive pressure ventilation. This study investigated the accuracy of our proposed rapid model of ultrasound transducer positioning during the primary survey of trauma patients after their arrival at the hospital. This diagnostic trial was conducted over 12 months and was based on the results of 84 ultrasound (US) exams performed on patients with severe multiple trauma. Our index test (US) was used to detect pneumothorax in four pre-defined locations on the anterior of each hemi-thorax using the "Anterior Convergent" approach, and its performance was limited to the primary survey. Consecutively, patients underwent chest-computed tomography (CT) with or without chest radiography. The diagnostic findings of both chest radiography and chest ultrasounds were compared to the gold-standard test (CT). The diagnostic sensitivity was 78 % for US and 36.4 % for chest radiography (p chest radiography (not significant); the positive predictive values were 74 % for US and 80 % for chest radiography (not significant); the negative predictive values were 94 % for US and 87 % for chest radiography (not significant); the positive likelihood ratio was 10 for US and 18 for chest radiography (p = 0.007); and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.25 for US and 0.65 for chest radiography (p = 0.001). The mean required time for performing the new method was 64 ± 10 s. An absence of the expected diffused dynamic view among ultrasound images obtained from patients with pneumothorax was also observed. We designated this phenomenon "Gestalt Lung Recession." "Anterior convergent" chest US probing represents a brief but efficient model that provides clinicians a safe and accurate exam and adequate resuscitation during critical minutes of the primary survey without interrupting other medical staff activities taking place around the

  7. How do incentives lead to deception in advisors-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMackinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory. In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: Self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: Self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: When accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information, and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information. Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients self-interested, but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing—a tendency which even increased with

  8. How do incentives lead to deception in advisor-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors' motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor's self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients "self-interested," but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing - a tendency which even increased with high

  9. How Do Incentives Lead to Deception in Advisor–Client Interactions? Explicit and Implicit Strategies of Self-Interested Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients “self-interested,” but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing – a tendency which even increased with high

  10. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  11. The diagnostic accuracy of 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging for detecting root avulsions in traumatic adult brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie G; Itte, Vinay; Rankine, James J; Ridgway, John P; Bourke, Grainne

    2018-03-01

    Identification of root avulsions is of critical importance in traumatic brachial plexus injuries because it alters the reconstruction and prognosis. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging is gaining popularity, but there is limited and conflicting data on its diagnostic accuracy for root avulsion. This cohort study describes consecutive patients requiring brachial plexus exploration following trauma between 2008 and 2016. The index test was magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla and the reference test was operative exploration of the supraclavicular plexus. Complete data from 29 males was available. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for root avulsion(s) of C5-T1 was 79%. The diagnostic accuracy of a pseudomeningocoele as a surrogate marker of root avulsion(s) of C5-T1 was 68%. We conclude that pseudomeningocoles were not a reliable sign of root avulsion and magnetic resonance imaging has modest diagnostic accuracy for root avulsions in the context of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries. III.

  12. On Lying and Being Lied to: A Linguistic Analysis of Deception in Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Lauren E.; Goorha, Saurabh; Woodworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated changes in both the liar's and the conversational partner's linguistic style across truthful and deceptive dyadic communication in a synchronous text-based setting. An analysis of 242 transcripts revealed that liars produced more words, more sense-based words (e.g., seeing, touching), and used fewer self-oriented but more…

  13. By Force or by Fraud: Optimizing U.S. Information Strategy With Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WITH DECEPTION Ryan Q. Flaherty Major, United States Army B.S., Sacred Heart University, 2001 M.B.A., Sacred Heart University, 2004...to hide their religious agenda of establishing an Islamic Republic under the cloak of Lebanese nationalism.163 B. UNITY OF EFFORT State Unity of

  14. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  15. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD)…

  16. Prokaryotic communities and operating metabolisms in the surface and the permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor

    In this study we examined the microbial community composition and operating metabolisms on the surface and in the permafrost of Deception Island, (Antarctica) with an on site antibody microarray biosensor. Samples (down to a depth of 4.2m) were analysed with LDChip300 (Life Detector Chip), an

  17. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of... are available, when such discounts or reductions are not specific in the lawful tariffs of the air...

  18. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  19. 17 CFR 240.10b-5 - Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fraud or deceit upon any person, in connection with the purchase or sale of any security. (Sec. 10; 48... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment of manipulative and deceptive devices. 240.10b-5 Section 240.10b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  20. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  1. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  2. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Maria J; Winther, Gudrun; Tuni, Cristina; Toft, Søren; Bilde, Trine

    2011-11-14

    In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  3. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including that...

  4. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  5. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that mainta