Sample records for deceased donor grafts

  1. The use of contrast media in deceased kidney donors does not affect initial graft function or graft survival. (United States)

    Vigneau, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Godier, A; Chalem, Y; El Metaoua, S; Rondeau, E; Tuppin, P; Bonnet, F


    Patients receiving cadaveric kidney transplants often experience delayed graft function. As iodinated contrast media injection (ICMI), necessary for cerebral angiography, which is often used to diagnose brain death, can be nephrotoxic, we compared renal function recovery (RFR) and 1-year and long-term graft survival according to the method used to diagnose brain death. Data from 9921 cadaveric kidneys, transplanted between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2003, were retrieved from the French National Registry for organ donation. We defined RFR as the number of days for the recipient to reach a plasma creatinine less than 250 mumol/l, and/or a 24-h urine output greater than 1000 ml. RFR and 1-year and long-term graft survival were compared between four different donor groups (according to ICMI and diabetes mellitus). A total of 41.5% of deceased donors received ICMI before organ procurement and 1.95% of them were diabetic. History of ICMI or diabetes in the donor did not influence RFR or 1-year graft survival. Long-term graft survival was decreased in the group of patients transplanted with a diabetic graft as compared to patients transplanted with a non-diabetic graft (P=0.001). History of ICMI in the donor did not affect long-term graft survival in the non-diabetic donor group (P=0.2); however, in the diabetic group, ICMI tended to decrease long-term graft survival (P=0.056). ICMI did not affect RFR or graft survival in non-diabetic deceased donors. However, its use in diabetic deceased donors requires further study.

  2. Safety and usefulness of warm dissection technique during liver graft retrieval from deceased donors. (United States)

    Jung, D-H; Hwang, S; Ahn, C-S; Kim, K-H; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Park, G C; Lee, S-G


    For deceased-donor liver graft retrieval, the warm dissection technique of hilar dissection before perfusion had been the standard procedure in the early period of liver transplantation. Thereafter, the cold dissection technique of in situ flushing and hilar dissection after perfusion has been preferred in many transplantation centers for rapid procurement of multiple organs. This study intended to assess the safety and usefulness of the warm dissection technique used in deceased-donor liver transplantation. This study analyzed a single surgeon's experience of the warm dissection technique for 165 cases of liver graft retrieval, regarding the prolongation of retrieval operation time, retrieval-associated graft injury, and recipient outcomes. An additional 20 to 40 minutes was required for warm dissection. The incidence of retrieval-associated graft injury was 13 (7.9%), in which hepatic parenchymal injury was detected in 7 (capsular tear in 6 and subcapsular hematoma in 1) and vascular injury in 6 (celiac axis injury in 5 and common hepatic artery injury in 1). There was no other episode of injury at the branch artery, vena cava, portal vein, and bile duct. There was no significant difference of 1-year graft survival rates between liver grafts with and without graft injury (83% vs 83.3%, P = .73). When the vital signs of deceased donor are stable, the warm dissection technique may be helpful to decrease the cold ischemic preservation time because the risk of graft injury is acceptably low and it provides more time for recipient preparation, thus giving potential advantages for marginal liver grafts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok


    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  4. Deceased donor liver transplantation in infants and small children: are partial grafts riskier than whole organs? (United States)

    Cauley, Ryan P; Vakili, Khashayar; Potanos, Kristina; Fullington, Nora; Graham, Dionne A; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Kim, Heung Bae


    Infants have the highest wait-list mortality of all liver transplant candidates. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young children may be at increased risk when they receive partial grafts from adult and adolescent deceased donors (DDs), with few size-matched organs available, these grafts have increasingly been used to expand the pediatric donor pool. We aimed to determine the current adjusted risks of graft failure and mortality in young pediatric recipients of partial DD livers and to determine whether these risks have changed over time. We analyzed 2683 first-time recipients of DD livers alone under the age of 24 months in the United Network for Organ Sharing database (1995-2010), which included 1118 partial DD livers and 1565 whole DD organs. Transplant factors associated with graft loss in bivariate analyses (P organs in 2006-2010 [hazard ratio (HR) for graft failure = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.56-1.18; HR for mortality = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.66-1.71]. In conclusion, partial DD liver transplantation has become less risky over time and now has outcomes comparable to those of whole liver transplantation for infants and young children. This study supports the use of partial DD liver grafts in young children in an attempt to significantly increase the pediatric organ pool.

  5. Decrease in 1-year Kidney Graft Size Predicts Inferior Outcomes After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Černe, Senka; Arnol, Miha; Kandus, Aljoša; Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka


    Longest bipolar length of the kidney graft is routinely measured for ultrasonographic assessment of graft size (GS), although the value of the graft length remains unclear. In a single-center, observational study involving 319 deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients, we assessed variations in absolute and adjusted GS (corrected for body surface area) between 1 and 12 months after transplantation ([INCREMENT]GS1m→12m). We tested whether variations in GS during the first year were predictive of the composite outcome of a reduction of 50% or more in the estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage graft failure. At 1 year after transplantation, 121 patients (38%) had a decrease in GS ([INCREMENT]GS1m→12m decrease in GS reached the composite outcome as compared with 12 patients with an increase in GS (34% and 6%, respectively; P decrease in GS during the first year after transplantation (hazard ratio, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.35-8.81; P decrease in kidney GS during the first year after transplantation, as compared with an increase in GS, is a powerful predictor of subsequent graft dysfunction or end-stage graft failure.

  6. Acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation using living donor versus deceased donor grafts: A propensity score-matched analysis. (United States)

    Hilmi, Ibtesam A; Damian, Daniela; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Sakai, Tetsuro; Donaldson, Joseph; Winger, Daniel G; Kellum, John A


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). Few studies investigating the incidence and risk factors for AKI after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been published. LDLT recipients have a lower risk for post-LT AKI than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) recipients because of higher quality liver grafts. We retrospectively reviewed LDLTs and DDLTs performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2011. AKI was defined as a 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline (preoperative) values within 48 hours. One hundred LDLT and 424 DDLT recipients were included in the propensity score matching logistic model on the basis of age, sex, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, Child-Pugh score, pretransplant SCr, and preexisting diabetes mellitus. Eighty-six pairs were created after 1-to-1 propensity matching. The binary outcome of AKI was analyzed using mixed effects logistic regression, incorporating the main exposure of interest (LDLT versus DDLT) with the aforementioned matching criteria and postreperfusion syndrome, number of units of packed red blood cells, and donor age as fixed effects. In the corresponding matched data set, the incidence of AKI at 72 hours was 23.3% in the LDLT group, significantly lower than the 44.2% in the DDLT group (P = 0.004). Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression showed that living donor liver allografts were significantly associated with reduced odds of AKI at 72 hours after LT (P = 0.047; odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.096-0.984). The matched patients had lower body weights, better preserved liver functions, and more stable intraoperative hemodynamic parameters. The donors were also younger for the matched patients than for the unmatched patients. In conclusion, receiving a graft from a living donor has a protective effect against early post-LT AKI.

  7. H-Y Antigen Incompatibility Not Associated with Adverse Immunologic Graft Outcomes: Deceased Donor Pair Analysis of the OPTN Database

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    Douglas Scott Keith


    Full Text Available Background. H-Y antigen incompatibility adversely impacts bone marrow transplants however, the relevance of these antigens in kidney transplantation is uncertain. Three previous retrospective studies of kidney transplant databases have produced conflicting results. Methods. This study analyzed the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database between 1997 and 2009 using male deceased donor kidney transplant pairs in which the recipient genders were discordant. Death censored graft survival at six months, five, and ten years, treated acute rejection at six months and one year, and rates of graft failure by cause were the primary endpoints analyzed. Results. Death censored graft survival at six months was significantly worse for female recipients. Analysis of the causes of graft failure at six months revealed that the difference in death censored graft survival was due primarily to nonimmunologic graft failures. The adjusted and unadjusted death censored graft survivals at five and ten years were similar between the two genders as were the rates of immunologic graft failure. No difference in the rates of treated acute rejection at six months and one year was seen between the two genders. Conclusions. Male donor to female recipient discordance had no discernable effect on immunologically mediated kidney graft outcomes in the era of modern immunosuppression.

  8. Influence of Deceased Donor and Pretransplant Recipient Parameters on Early Overall Kidney Graft-Survival in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Ludwig Fischer-Fröhlich


    Full Text Available Background. Scarcity of grafts for kidney transplantation (KTX caused an increased consideration of deceased donors with substantial risk factors. There is no agreement on which ones are detrimental for overall graft-survival. Therefore, we investigated in a nationwide multicentre study the impact of donor and recipient related risks known before KTX on graft-survival based on the original data used for allocation and graft acceptance. Methods. A nationwide deidentified multicenter study-database was created of data concerning kidneys donated and transplanted in Germany between 2006 and 2008 as provided by the national organ procurement organization (Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation and BQS Institute. Multiple Cox regression (significance level 5%, hazard ratio [95% CI] was conducted (n=4411, isolated KTX. Results. Risk factors associated with graft-survival were donor age (1.020 [1.013–1.027] per year, donor size (0.985 [0.977–0.993] per cm, donor’s creatinine at admission (1.002 [1.001–1.004] per µmol/L, donor treatment with catecholamine (0.757 [0.635–0.901], and reduced graft-quality at procurement (1.549 [1.217–1.973], as well as recipient age (1.012 [1.003–1.021] per year, actual panel reactive antibodies (1.007 [1.002–1.011] per percent, retransplantation (1.850 [1.484–2.306], recipient’s cardiovascular comorbidity (1.436 [1.212–1.701], and use of IL2-receptor antibodies for induction (0.741 [0.619–0.887]. Conclusion. Some donor characteristics persist to impact graft-survival (e.g., age while the effect of others could be mitigated by elaborate donor-recipient match and care.

  9. Low C4 gene copy numbers are associated with superior graft survival in patients transplanted with a deceased donor kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jakob T; Schejbel, Lone; Madsen, Hans O


    Complement C4 is a central component of the classical and the lectin pathways of the complement system. The C4 protein exists as two isotypes C4A and C4B encoded by the C4A and C4B genes, both of which are found with varying copy numbers. Deposition of C4 has been implicated in kidney graft...... rejection, but a relationship between graft survival and serum C4 concentration as well as C4 genetic variation has not been established. We evaluated this using a prospective study design of 676 kidney transplant patients and 211 healthy individuals as controls. Increasing C4 gene copy numbers...... significantly correlated with the C4 serum concentration in both patients and controls. Patients with less than four total copies of C4 genes transplanted with a deceased donor kidney experienced a superior 5-year graft survival (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.84). No significant association...

  10. Impact of immunosuppression treatment on the improvement in graft survival after deceased donor renal transplantation: a long-term cohort study. (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Rodríguez, Manuel A; Gutiérrez, Cristina; López, Verónica; Baena, Víctor; Hernández, Domingo


    We analyzed graft half-life and attrition rates in 1045 adult deceased donor kidney transplants from 1986-2001, with follow-up to 2011, grouped in two periods (1986-95 vs. 1996-01) according to immunosuppression. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significant increase in graft survival during 1996-2001. The uncensored real graft half-life was 10.25 years in 1986-95 and the actuarial was 14.58 years in 1996-2001 (P<0.001). The attrition rates showed a significantly greater graft loss in 1986-95, even excluding the first year from the analysis. The decline in renal function was significantly less pronounced in 1996-2001, indicating better preservation of renal function, despite the increase in donor age and stroke as the cause of donor death. The parsimonious Cox multivariate model showed donor age, acute rejection, panel reactive antibody, cold ischemia time and delayed graft function were significantly associated with a higher risk of graft loss. In contrast, the risk of graft loss fell by 21% in 1996-2001 compared with 1986-95. A similar reduction (25%) was observed when MMF treatment was entered into the multivariate model instead of study period. Long-term graft survival improved significantly in 1996-2001 compared to 1986-1995 despite older donor age. Modern immunosuppression could have contributed to the improved kidney transplant outcome.

  11. The Effect of Osmotherapy and Tight Control of Acidosis on Early Graft Function among Deceased-Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Etezadi, F.; Najafi Abrandabadi, A. H.; Motaharinia, J.; Mojtahedzadeh, M.; Pourfakhr, P.; Khajavi, M. R.; Gooran, S.; Shariat Moharari, R.; Dehghani, S.


    Background: Reperfusion injury and the acid-base status of the transplant are important factors affecting post-transplantation graft function. Objective: We hypothesized that infusing hypertonic saline (HS) or tight control of acid-base status of the blood rushing through renal graft using sodium bicarbonate may have beneficial effects on early graft function. Methods: Candidates for deceased-donor kidney transplant were randomized into three groups. HS group (n=33) received 50 mL/kg normal saline (NS) titrated during operation plus 4 mL/kg of 5% HS just within graft reperfusion phase; bicarbonate group (n=37) was administered 60 mL/kg NS while their metabolic acidosis (base excess ≤5 mEq/L) was tightly corrected every 30 min with sodium bicarbonate; and a control group (n=36) that received 60 mL/kg normal saline while they were administered sodium bicarbonate only, if they encountered severe metabolic acidosis (base excess ≤15 mEq/L). The primary outcome was defined as early post-operative renal function evaluated based on serial serum creatinine levels. The study was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2013122815841N19). Results: Post-operative early graft function improved significantly during the first 3 days in the intervention groups (pcontrol of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate infusion improve early renal function during renal transplant surgery.

  12. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury. (United States)

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S


    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  13. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

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    Kumar Meena


    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  14. Left versus right deceased donor renal allograft outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Paul J


    It has been suggested that the left kidney is easier to transplant than the right kidney because of the longer length of the left renal vein, facilitating the formation of the venous anastomosis. There are conflicting reports of differing renal allograft outcomes based on the side of donor kidney transplanted (left or right).We sought to determine the effect of side of donor kidney on early and late allograft outcome in our renal transplant population. We performed a retrospective analysis of transplanted left-right deceased donor kidney pairs in Ireland between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. We used a time to death-censored graft failure approach for long-term allograft survival and also examined serum creatinine at different time points post-transplantation. All outcomes were included from day of transplant onwards. A total of 646 transplants were performed from 323 donors. The incidence of delayed graft function was 16.1% in both groups and there was no significant difference in acute rejection episodes or serum creatinine from 1 month to 8 years post-transplantation.There were 47 death-censored allograft failures in the left-sided group compared to 57 in the right-sided group (P = 0.24). These observations show no difference in renal transplant outcome between the recipients of left- and right-sided deceased donor kidneys.

  15. Deceased donor renal transplantation: A single center experience (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, N.; Dineshkumar, T.; Dhanapriya, J.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Srinivasa Prasad, N. D.; Thirumalvalavan, K.; Murugananth, S.; Kawaskar, K.


    Deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRT) constitutes less than 5% of all kidney transplantats in India. A retrospective analysis of 173 deceased donor renal transplants performed in a public funded government hospital was done. Mean age of the recipients was 36 years (male:female ratio 2.4:1), and that of the donors was 32.3 years (male:female ratio 6:1). The cold ischemic time was 340 ± 170 minutes. Mean follow-up period was 36 months. Forty one patients died, 75% of them in the first post – transplant year. Sepsis and cardiovascular disease were the most common causes of death. Twenty two percent had acute rejection. There was no significant difference in the incidence in the rate of acute rejection, bacterial, fungal infections and death rate between the cohorts of induction and non induction immunosuppression. The patient and death censored graft survival at 1 year were 80 and 82.6% and at 5 years were 76 and 80% respectively. PMID:28182043

  16. Transplantation of organs from deceased donors with meningitis and encephalitis: a UK registry analysis. (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Summers, Dominic M; Watson, Christopher J E; Bradley, J Andrew; Neuberger, James


    Deceased organ donors, where the cause of death is meningitis or encephalitis, are a potential concern because of the risks of transmission of a potentially fatal infection to recipients. Using the UK Transplant Registry, a retrospective cohort analysis of deceased organ donors in the UK was undertaken to better understand the extent to which organs from deceased donors with meningitis and/or encephalitis (M/E) (of both known and unknown cause) have been used for transplantation, and to determine the associated recipient outcomes. Between 2003 and 2015, 258 deceased donors with M/E were identified and the causative agent was known in 188 (72.9%). These donors provided 899 solid organs for transplantation (455 kidneys and 444 other organs). The only recorded case of disease transmission was from a donor with encephalitis of unknown cause at time of transplantation who transmitted a fatal nematode infection to 2 kidney transplant recipients. A further 3 patients (2 liver and 1 heart recipient) died within 30 days of transplantation from a neurological cause (cerebrovascular accident) with no suggestion of disease transmission. Overall, patient and graft survival in recipients of organs from donors with M/E were similar to those for all other types of deceased organ donor. Donors dying with M/E represent a valuable source of organs for transplantation. The risk of disease transmission is low but, where the causative agent is unknown, caution is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs. (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah


    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  18. Perioperative Desensitization Improves Outcomes Among Crossmatch Positive Recipients of Deceased Donor Renal Transplants. (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; King, Anne; Kumar, Dhiren; Behnke, Martha; McDougan, Felecia; Kimball, Pamela M


    Graft failure due to chronic rejection is greater among renal transplant patients with donor-specific antibody (DSA) than among DSA-free patients. For patients dependent on deceased donor transplantation, preoperative desensitization to eliminate DSAs may be impractical. We speculated that perioperative desensitization might eliminate preexisting DSAs and prevent de novo DSAs and improve graft outcomes. We report that brief perioperative desensitization using either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis/IVIG (PP/IVIG) treatment improves clinical outcomes among patients with positive crossmatches. Immediately following deceased donor transplantation, 235 renal recipients were assigned points for PRA and flow crossmatches (FCXM): delayed graft function (DGF) ≤ 1 point received standard therapy; 2 points received high-dose IVIG; and ≥3 points received PP/IVIG. The DSAs were serially monitored by single antigen bead luminex for 1 year. Five-year clinical outcomes were determined from the chart review. All desensitized patients had preoperatively positive FCXM with DSA. Rejection was more common (P desensitized than nonsensitized groups. However, overall graft survivals were similar between the groups (P = not significant) and superior to historic untreated patients (P 90% in all desensitizated patients with DSA elimination as well as PP/IVIG patients with residual DSA. In contrast, IVIG patients with persistent DSA had poorer graft survival (45%, P desensitization improved overall graft survival of sensitized patients compared to historic untreated patients. Plasmapheresis/IVIG had greater impact on DSA eradication and graft survival than IVIG alone. © 2016, NATCO.

  19. Long-term outcome of intensive initial immunosuppression protocol in pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olaitan, Oyedolamu K


    To report the long-term outcome of deceased donor kidney transplantation in children with emphasis on the use of an intensive initial immunosuppression protocol using R-ATG as antibody induction. Between January 1991 and December 1997, 82 deceased donor kidney transplantations were performed in 75 pediatric recipients. Mean recipient age at transplantation was 12.9 yr and the mean follow-up period was 12.6 yr. All patients received quadruple immunosuppression with steroid, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and antibody induction using R-ATG-Fresenius. Actual one, five, and 10 yr patient survival rates were 99%, 97%, and 94%, respectively; only one patient (1.2%) developed PTLD. Actual one, five, and 10 yr overall graft survival rates were 84%, 71%, and 50%, respectively; there were five cases (6%) of graft thrombosis and the actual immunological graft survival rates were 91%, 78%, and 63% at one, five, and 10 yr, respectively. The use of an intensive initial immunosuppression protocol with R-ATG as antibody induction is safe and effective in pediatric recipients of deceased donor kidneys with excellent immunological graft survival without an increase in PTLD or other neoplasms over a minimum 10-yr follow up.

  20. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William


    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...

  1. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation


    Reese, Peter P; Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra


    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-...

  2. Living-donor vs deceased-donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa; Akamatsu; Yasuhiko; Sugawara; Norihiro; Kokudo


    With the increasing prevalence of living-donor liver transplantation(LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC),some authors have reported a potential increase in the HCC recurrence rates among LDLT recipients compared to deceased-donor liver transplantation(DDLT) recipients.The aim of this review is to encompass current opinions and clinical reports regarding differences in the outcome,especially the recurrence of HCC,between LDLT and DDLT.While some studies report impaired recurrence- free survival and increased recurrence rates among LDLT recipients,others,including large database studies,report comparable recurrence- free survival and recurrence rates between LDLT and DDLT.Studies supporting the increased recurrence in LDLT have linked graft regeneration to tumor progression,but we found no association between graft regeneration/initial graft volume and tumor recurrence among our 125 consecutive LDLTs for HCC cases.In the absence of a prospective study regarding the use of LDLT vs DDLT for HCC patients,there is no evidence to support the higher HCC recurrence after LDLT than DDLT,and LDLT remains a reasonable treatment option for HCC patients with cirrhosis.

  3. Liver transplantation using organs from deceased organ donors: a single organ transplant center experience. (United States)

    Han, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Lin-Wei; Hu, An-Bin; Tai, Qiang; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; He, Xiao-Shun


    In 2011, a pilot program for deceased organ donation was initiated in China. We describe the first successful series of liver transplants in the pilot program. From July 2011 to August 2012, our center performed 26 liver transplants from a pool of 29 deceased donors. All organ donation and allograft procurement were conducted according to the national protocol. The clinical data of donors and recipients were collected and summarized retrospectively. Among the 29 donors, 24 were China Category II donors (organ donation after cardiac death), and five were China Category III donors (organ donation after brain death followed by cardiac death). The recipients were mainly the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The one-year patient survival rate was 80.8% with a median follow-up of 422 (2-696) days. Among the five mortalities during the follow-up, three died of tumor recurrence. In terms of post-transplant complications, 9 recipients (34.6%) experienced early allograft dysfunction, 1 (3.8%) had non-anastomotic biliary stricture, and 1 (3.8%) was complicated with hepatic arterial thrombosis. None of these complications resulted in patient death. Notably, primary non-function was not observed in any of the grafts. With careful donor selection, liver transplant from deceased donors can be performed safely and plays a critical role in overcoming the extreme organ shortage in China.

  4. Geographic determinants of access to pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Reese, Peter P; Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra


    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005-2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; Preference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; Ppediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity.

  5. Logistical Factors Influencing Cold Ischemia Times in Deceased Donor Kidney Transplants. (United States)

    Shrestha, Sussie; Bradbury, Lisa; Boal, Matthew; Blackmur, James P; Watson, Christopher J E; Taylor, Craig J; Forsythe, John L R; Johnson, Rachel; Marson, Lorna P


    Prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) is associated with a significant risk of short- and long-term graft failure in deceased donor kidney transplants across the world. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to determine the importance of logistical factors on CIT. Data on 1763 transplants were collected prospectively over 14 months from personnel in 16 transplant centers, 19 histocompatibility and immunogenetics laboratories, transport providers, and National Health Service Blood and Transplant. The overall mean CIT was 13.8 hours, with significant center variation (P theater access contributes significantly to increased CIT. This study identifies logistical factors relating to donor, transport, crossmatching, recipient, and theater that impact significantly on CIT in deceased donor renal transplantation, some of which are modifiable; attention should be focussed on addressing all of these.

  6. Remote ischaemic conditioning on recipients of deceased renal transplants, effect on immediate and extended kidney graft function : a multicentre, randomised controlled trial protocol (CONTEXT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krogstrup, Nicoline V; Oltean, Mihai; Bibby, Bo M; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J; Dor, Frank J M F; Birn, Henrik; Jespersen, Bente


    Introduction: Delayed graft function due to ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a frequent complication in deceased donor renal transplantation. Experimental evidence indicates that remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) provides systemic protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in various tissues.

  7. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

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    Gore Madhuri


    Full Text Available Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM medical college and hospital on 24 th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country.

  8. Transplantation of a 2-year-old deceased-donor liver to a 61-year-old male recipient. (United States)

    Dai, Wing Chiu; Sharr, William W; Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau


    The suitable size of a graft is a key element in the success of liver transplantation. A small-for-size liver graft is very likely to sustain a significant degree of injury as a result of ischemia, preservation, reperfusion, and rejection. Usually, small-for-size grafts are a concern in living-donor liver transplantation rather than in deceased-donor liver transplantation. Here, we describe the successful transplantation of a liver from a 2-year-old deceased donor to a 61-year-old male recipient who suffered from liver failure related to hepatitis B. No report of successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with discrepancies between donor and recipient age and size to such an extent has been found in the literature. Despite unusually large discrepancies, with effort in minimizing the ischemic time, revised surgical techniques, and strong regenerative power of the "young" graft, the old patient's liver function gradually returned to normal. This again proves that the definition of a "suitable graft" evolves with time and experience.

  9. Screening of deceased organ donors: no easy answers. (United States)

    Huang, Robert C; Fishman, Jay A


    Transmission of infection to recipients of solid organs is uncommon but well documented. Improved technologies for the diagnosis of infectious diseases suggest possible changes to paradigms used in the screening of organ donors to prevent disease transmission with transplantation. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. By contrast, these assays often lack the performance characteristics required for screening of deceased organ donors. This challenge is apparent with the analysis of assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and -II in low-risk populations. Changing epidemiologic patterns associated with the spread of novel pathogens or altered patterns of immigration will necessitate flexibility in the "list" of potential pathogens. Individual benefits from transplantation generally outweigh the risk of transmission of infection. However, this favorable experience will not obviate the need to continuously improve screening practices.

  10. Outcome of deceased donor renal transplantation - A single-center experience from developing country

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    Himanshu V Patel


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation (RTx is considered as the best therapeutic modality for patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Dearth of donor kidneys is a major problem everywhere, and deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRTx is seen as at least a partial solution. Even so, DDRTx accounts for only less than 4% of RTx in India. We report our 6-year single-center experience on DDRTx vis-à-vis patient/graft survival, graft function in terms of serum creatinine (SCr, rejection episodes, and delayed graft function (DGF. Between January 2005 and March 2011, 236 DDRTx were performed. Majority of the donors were those with brain death due to road traffic/cerebrovascular accidents. The commonest recipient diseases leading to ESRD were chronic glomerulonephritis (42.8%, diabetes (12.7%, and hypertension (10.6%. Mean recipient age was 36.2 ± 14.2 years; 162 were males and 74 were females. Mean donor age was 45.3 ± 17.13 years; 144 were males and 92 were females. Mean dialysis duration pre-transplantation was 18.5 ± 2.5 months. All recipients received single-dose rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin induction and steroids, calcinueurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil/azathioprine for maintenance immunosuppression. Delayed graft function was observed in 29.6% patients and 22% had biopsy-proven acute rejection. Over the mean follow-up of 2.18 ± 1.75 years, patient and graft survival rates were 74.57% and 86.8%, respectively, with mean SCr of 1.42 ± 0.66 mg%. DDRTx achieves acceptable graft function with patient/graft survival, encouraging the use of this approach in view of organ shortage.

  11. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers. (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L


    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostate cancer in deceased organ donors: a review. (United States)

    Doerfler, Arnaud; Tillou, Xavier; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Orczyk, Clément; Bensadoun, Henri


    To estimate the risk of prostate cancer transmission in relation with organ procurement. A literature search from the Medline database using the following keywords-transplantation, prostate cancer, organ procurement, donor transmitted malignancies, disease transmission, staging, evaluation, and PSA-was conducted to select 16 articles written in English and French over the last 15 years. The incidence of prostate cancer in deceased organ donors (DOD) has been estimated to be between 3% and 18.5%. There were more than 120 solid-organ transplantations performed with organs coming from DOD with a proven prostate cancer without any case of cancer transmission or death related to malignancy and only 1 case of transmission by the donor after a heart transplant has been described. Transmission of prostate cancer by a transplanted organ seems incidental. When PSA is measured, it should be suspected only if the value is beyond 20 ng/ml and in all cases, should be interpreted taking digital rectal examination (DRE) into account. Organs from a DOD with a DRE proving a T3-T4 prostate cancer should not be procured. Suspect iliac lymph nodes during the preparation of the vessels for cannulation must lead to the discontinuation of the procurement or a histological analysis. © 2013.

  13. Lobar lung transplantation from deceased donors: A systematic review (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M; Chahla, Mayy; Bolukbas, Servet; Blevins, Amy; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Stanzi, Alessia; Inci, Ilhan; Marasco, Silvana; Shigemura, Norihisa; Aigner, Clemens; Deuse, Tobias


    AIM To systematically review reports on deceased-donor-lobar lung transplantation (ddLLTx) and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient predicted-total lung-capacity (pTLC) ratio. METHODS We set out to systematically review reports on ddLLTx and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient pTLC ratio and to summarize reported one-year survival data of ddLLTx and conventional-LTx. We searched in PubMed, CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via Wiley (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects via Wiley (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley (CENTRAL), Scopus (which includes EMBASE abstracts), and Web of Science for original reports on ddLLTx. RESULTS Nine observational cohort studies reporting on 301 ddLLTx met our inclusion criteria for systematic review of size matching, and eight for describing one-year-survival. The ddLLTx-group was often characterized by high acuity; however there was heterogeneity in transplant indications and pre-operative characteristics between studies. Data to calculate the pTLC ratio was available for 242 ddLLTx (80%). The mean pTLCratio before lobar resection was 1.25 ± 0.3 and the transplanted pTLCratio after lobar resection was 0.76 ± 0.2. One-year survival in the ddLLTx-group ranged from 50%-100%, compared to 72%-88% in the conventional-LTx group. In the largest study ddLLTx (n = 138) was associated with a lower one-year-survival compared to conventional-LTx (n = 539) (65.1% vs 84.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Further investigations of optimal donor-to-recipient size matching parameters for ddLLTx could improve outcomes of this important surgical option. PMID:28280698

  14. Deceased donor kidney transplantation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A single-center experience

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    Vivek B Kute


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation (RTx has become the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, the most common genetic kidney disease. Because of the inheritable nature of this disease, live related donors might be avoided due to the fear of future appearance of polycystic disease. This retrospective singlecenter study was undertaken to evaluate patient/graft survival function vis-a-vis serum creatinine (SCr, rejection episodes and mortality in ADPKD vs matched control patients. Between 2000 and 2009, 18 (7.4% deceased donor renal transplant (DDRTx were performed for ESRD due to ADPKD. Diagnosis of ADPKD was established by family history and ultrasound. An individualized approach was applied for the need of pre-transplant nephrectomy. All recipients received rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin induction and maintenance triple immunosuppression. Delayed graft function was observed in 33% patients, and 16% had biopsy-proven acute rejection. Over mean follow-up of 4.67 ± 2.2 years, patient and graft survival rates were 72.22% and 83.33%, with mean SCr (mg/dL of 1.44 ± 0.54, 1.78 ± 0.42 and 2.2 ± 0.6 at 1, 5 and 10 years. Overall, 44.4% (n-8 underwent pre-transplant nephrectomy. Infection and cardio/cerebrovascular events were the main causes of death. Patient, graft survival and acute rejection were similar between ADPKD and control group. DDRTx in ADPKD has acceptable patient and graft survival. Because of the inheritable nature of the disease, and unavailability of genetic linkage analysis as a routine, DDRTx is a viable option to avoid using unrelated donors.

  15. Comparative study between kidney transplantation with deceased donor expanded criteria and donor standard criteria in a single center in Brazil. (United States)

    Mota, Luana Soriano; Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa de; Pinheiro, Francisco Martho Leal; Santos, Larissa Costa de Oliveira; Nóbrega, Danilo Gonçalves; Fernandes, Paula Fbc; Costa, Alda Angélica de Melo; Silva, Sônia Leite da


    Kidney transplants with expanded criteria donor have been associated with improved patient survival compared to those who remain on dialysis. To compare renal function and survival of the kidney graft of deceased donor with expanded criteria and standard criteria over a year in a single transplant center. 255 kidney transplant recipients with deceased donor were included in the study between the years 2011 to 2013 and they were separated into two groups according to the type of donor (expanded criteria donor - ECD - and standard criteria donor - SCD). 231 deceased donor transplants (90.6%) were performed with standard criteria donor (SCD) and 24 (9.4%) with expanded criteria donor (ECD). There was no difference in the prevalence of delayed graft function - DGF - (62.9% vs. 70.8%; p = 0.44). Expanded criteria donor group had lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the end of the 1st year (56.8 ± 26.9 vs. 76.9 ± 23.7; p = 0.001). Patient survival was significantly lower in the ECD group, but the graft survival was not different after death-censored analysis. The ECD group was associated with significantly lower levels of GFR during the first year of transplant and a lower patient survival at the 1st year when compared to the SCD. A aceitação dos rins com critério expandido de doação tem sido associada com melhor sobrevida do paciente em comparação àqueles que permanecem em terapia dialítica. Comparar a função renal e a sobrevida do enxerto renal de doador falecido critério expandido com os de doador falecido critério padrão ao longo de um ano em um único centro de transplantes. Foram incluídos 255 receptores de transplante renal com doador falecido, realizados entre os anos de 2011 a 2013, sendo divididos em dois grupos segundo o tipo de doador (critério expandido - DCE - ou padrão -DCP). Foram avaliados 231 receptores com doador critério ideal (90,6%) e 24 com doador critério expandido (9,4%). Não houve diferença na prevalência de fun

  16. Deceased-Donor Apolipoprotein L1 Renal-Risk Variants Have Minimal Effects on Liver Transplant Outcomes.

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    Casey R Dorr

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1 G1 and G2 renal-risk variants, common in populations with recent African ancestry, are strongly associated with non-diabetic nephropathy, end-stage kidney disease, and shorter allograft survival in deceased-donor kidneys (autosomal recessive inheritance. Circulating APOL1 protein is synthesized primarily in the liver and hydrodynamic gene delivery of APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants has caused hepatic necrosis in a murine model.To evaluate the impact of these variants in liver transplantation, this multicenter study investigated the association of APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles in deceased African American liver donors with allograft survival. Transplant recipients were followed for liver allograft survival using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients.Of the 639 liver donors evaluated, 247 had no APOL1 risk allele, 300 had 1 risk allele, and 92 had 2 risk alleles. Graft failure assessed at 15 days, 6 months, 1 year and total was not significantly associated with donor APOL1 genotype (p-values = 0.25, 0.19, 0.67 and 0.89, respectively.In contrast to kidney transplantation, deceased-donor APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants do not significantly impact outcomes in liver transplantation.

  17. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic]. (United States)

    Pokorná, E


    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  18. Deceased donor kidney transplantation in the United States from 1988 to 2011: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS registry. (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Everly, Matthew J


    In the United States, over 170,000 first solitary deceased donor kidney transplants were reported to the United Network of Organ Sharing registry from 1988 to 2011. The composition of transplant recipients has changed over time. There were notable increases in older patients (31% to 64.5%), non-Caucasian patients (36% to 58%), obese patients (body mass index over 35: 11% to 37%), type II diabetes patients (1% to 28%), and patients with hypertension (17% to 31%). Death with functioning graft was a very important factor in analyzing kidney graft survival. The death-censored graft survival rate could more accurately reflect the relationships between risk factors and survival of kidney grafts. Younger patients, especially those younger than 35, had worse graft survival. Patients with diabetes as the primary disease showed poor graft survival, but the effect was not obvious compared to the majority of other primary diseases. Diabetes, either type I or type II, was a main contributor to patient death. There was notable progress in short-term graft survival over time. Long-term graft survival is still a problem. However, 5-year death-censored graft survival in patients who have survived longer than 1 year has improved by 7.9% from 1993 to today. Delayed graft function could impact both short- and long-term graft survival. Human leukocyte antigen compatibility was a main factor of graft survival. Zero mismatch patients have an 18% better 20-year death-censored graft survival than those with 6 antigen mismatches. Panel reactive antibody (PRA) is also an important factor to graft survival. PRA class I and class II has been reported to UNOS since 2004. PRA class II was slightly more related to graft survival compared to PRA class I.

  19. The impact of living-unrelated transplant on establishing deceased-donor liver program in Syria. (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam


    Liver transplant is the criterion standard for patients with end-stage liver disease. Yet there is no liver transplant in Syria. Traveling abroad for a liver transplant is a luxury few Syrians can afford. There is currently an on-going debate whether to start a liver transplant program using living or deceased donors. In 2003, a new law was enacted, authorizing the use of organs from volunteer strangers and deceased donors. Despite the positive aspects of this law (allowing unrelated donors to increase the number of transplants in the country); the negative aspects also were obvious. The poor used the law to sell their organs to the rich, and this model is in violation of the Istanbul Declaration. To better document transplant communities' perceptions on organ donation, an e-mail survey was sent to a nationally representative sample of physicians (n = 115) that showed that 58% of respondents did not support the start of liver transplant from live donors, as they fear a considerable risk for the donor and the recipient. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe that unrelated kidney donation has contributed to tarnishing the reputation of transplant, and 56% believe that a deceased-donor program can run in parallel with unrelated organ donations. The interest in deceased-donor program has been affected negatively by the systematic approach of using poor persons as the source of the organ. This lack of interest has affected starting a liver program that relies on deceased donors; especially the need for kidneys is more than livers. Health authorities in Syria were inclined to initiate a liver transplant program from live donors, despite the risks of serious morbidities and mortality. In conclusion then, paid kidney donation in actual effect is actually a hindrance to establishing a deceased-donor liver program.

  20. Extraction Time of Kidneys From Deceased Donors and Impact on Outcomes. (United States)

    Osband, A J; James, N T; Segev, D L


    Cold ischemia time (from flush to out-of-ice) and warm ischemia time (from out-of-ice to reperfusion) are known to impact delayed graft function (DGF) rates and long-term allograft survival following deceased donor kidney transplantation. We propose an additional ischemia time, extraction time, beginning with aortic cross-clamp and perfusion/cooling of the kidneys, and ending with removal of the kidneys and placement on ice on the backtable. During this time the kidneys rewarm, suffering an additional ischemic insult, which may impair transplant function. We measured extraction times of 576 kidneys recovered and transplanted locally between January 2006 and December 2008, then linked to Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) data for outcomes. Extraction time ranged from 14 to 123 min, with a mean of 44.7 min. In SRTR-adjusted analyses, longer extraction time and DGF were statistically associated (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19 per 5 min beyond 60 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.39, p = 0.03). Up to 60 min of extraction time, DGF incidence was 27.8%; by 120 min it doubled to nearly 60%. Although not statistically significant (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.96-1.49, p = 0.11), primary nonfunction rate also rose dramatically to nearly 20% by 120 min extraction time. Extraction time is a novel and important factor to consider when evaluating a deceased donor kidney offer and when strategizing personnel for kidney recovery.

  1. Perioperative bacterial infections in deceased donor and living donor liver transplant recipients. (United States)

    Varghese, Joy; Gomathy, Narasimhan; Rajashekhar, Perumalla; Venugopal, Kota; Olithselvan, Arikichenin; Vivekanandan, Shanmugam; Naresh, Shanmugam; Sujatha, Chandrasekaran; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed


    Deceased donor (DDLT) and living donor (LDLT) liver transplant (LT) is in vogue in several centers in India. Most centers are resorting to LDLT as a preferred surgery due to shortage of deceased donor liver. The risk of infection and its effect on survival in both groups of recipients from the Indian subcontinent are not known. The study was conducted to compare the bacterial infection rates among LDLT and DDLT recipients and their impact on survival at a tertiary referral center. Retrospective data on 67 LT recipients were reviewed. Data on pre-, per-, and postoperative bacterial infection rates and the common isolates were obtained. Thirty-five patients had LDLT and 32 had DDLT. The prevalence of pre-operative bacterial infection and the isolates was similar in both groups. The perioperative bacterial infection rates were significantly higher in DDLT recipients (P urinary tract followed by bloodstream infection. The common bacterial isolates in either transplant were Klebsiella followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria. Six patients (four LDLT; two DDLT) were treated for tuberculosis. Among the risk factors, cold ischemic time, and duration of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly higher for DDLT (p < 0.01). The death rates were not significantly different in the two groups. However, the odds for death were significantly high at 26.8 (p < 0.05) for postoperative bacterial infection and 1.8 (p < 0.001) for past alcohol. Liver transplant recipients are at high-risk for bacterial infection irrespective of type of transplant, more so in DDLT.

  2. Inferior early posttransplant outcomes for recipients of right versus left deceased donor kidneys: an ANZDATA registry analysis. (United States)

    Vacher-Coponat, H; McDonald, S; Clayton, P; Loundou, A; Allen, R D M; Chadban, S J


    Anatomical differences between right and left kidneys could influence transplant outcome. We compared graft function and survival for left and right kidney recipients transplanted from the same deceased organ donor. Adult recipients of 4900 single kidneys procured from 2450 heart beating deceased donors in Australia and New Zealand from 1995 to 2009 were included in a paired analysis. Right kidneys were associated with more delayed graft function (DGF) (25 vs. 21% for left kidneys, p kidneys (89.1 vs. 91.1% for left kidneys, p = 0.001), primarily attributed to surgical complications (66 versus 35 failures for left kidneys). Beyond the first posttransplant year, kidney side was not associated with eGFR, graft or patient survival. Receipt of a right kidney is a risk factor for inferior outcomes in the first year after transplantation. A higher incidence of surgical complications suggests the shorter right renal vein may be contributory. The higher susceptibility of right kidneys to injury should be considered in organ allocation.

  3. Clinical outcomes for Saudi and Egyptian patients receiving deceased donor liver transplantation in China. (United States)

    Allam, N; Al Saghier, M; El Sheikh, Y; Al Sofayan, M; Khalaf, H; Al Sebayel, M; Helmy, A; Kamel, Y; Aljedai, A; Abdel-Dayem, H; Kenetman, N M; Al Saghier, A; Al Hamoudi, W; Abdo, A A


    Long waiting list times in liver transplant programs in Saudi Arabia and unavailability of deceased donor transplantation in Egypt have led several patients to seek transplantation in China. All patients who received transplants in China and followed in three centers from January 2003-January 2007 were included. All patients' charts were reviewed. Mortality and morbidity were compared to those transplanted in King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSH&RC) during the same period. Seventy-four adult patients were included (46 Saudi nationals; 28 Egyptians). One-year and 3-year cumulative patient survival rates were 83% and 62%, respectively compared to 92% and 84% in KFSH&RC. One-year and 3-year cumulative graft survival rates were 81% and 59%, respectively compared to 90% and 84% in KFSH&RC. Compared to KFSH&RC, the incidence of complications was significantly higher especially biliary complications, sepsis, metastasis and acquired HBV infection posttransplant. Requirements of postoperative interventions and hospital admissions were also significantly greater. Our data show high mortality and morbidity rates in Saudi and Egyptian patients receiving transplants in China. This could be related to more liberal selection criteria, use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors or possibly more limited posttransplant care.

  4. Dynamic renal scintigraphic estimation of deceased donor kidneys in a rat model

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    Huseyin Aydin Mitil


    Full Text Available At present a large number of the renal transplantations are being performed from the deceased donors. The success of these transplantations depends on the viability of the deceased donor kidneys. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of scintigraphic estimation of function of deceased donor kidneys by comparing the histopathologic and scintigraphic findings. Ten rats were included in the study (2–3 months old, 250–300 g, all male. Control scintigraphy was performed to all the rats by injection of 37 MBq Tc-99m DTPA from the tail vein in a dynamic manner. Brain death of the rats was achieved by inflation of a Fogartys catheter in the cranial cavity. Immediately, after brain death confirmation, dynamic renal scintigraphy was performed with the same parameters of control scintigraphy. In the comparison of scintigraphies obtained in the before and just after brain death period, there was impairment of tubular functions, concentration and excretion functions in the postbrain death period. In the immediate postbrain death period, there was a significant elevation in the glomerular filtration rate and time to maximum concentration values. In the histopathological evaluation of the kidney samples in the postbrain death period, there were definitive findings of tubular impairment. Dynamic renal scintigraphy also demonstrated definite impairment of tubular system and tubular functions in the deceased donor kidneys. This could explain the reason of the increased frequency of acute tubular necrosis seen among deceased donor kidneys.

  5. Effect of corticosteroid administration on neurologically deceased organ donors and transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    D'Aragon, Frédérick; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Agarwal, Arnav; Frenette, Anne-Julie; Lamontagne, Francois; Guyatt, Gordon; Dhanani, Sonny; Meade, Maureen O


    This review investigates the impact of corticosteroids on donation rates and transplant outcomes in light of findings from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and to highlight the sources of uncertainty in this unresolved donor management issue. We searched electronic databases, trial registries and conference proceedings for RCTs evaluating corticosteroid therapy in neurologically deceased donors. Independent reviewers assessed eligibility, evaluated risk of bias and abstracted data, including donor haemodynamic data, number of organs recovered and transplant outcomes. Where possible, we pooled results. For each outcome, we assessed the overall quality of evidence using The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Eleven RCTs with different corticosteroid regimens were included. Most trials assessed a once-daily infusion of methylprednisolone. Aside from one study showing improved liver graft function, no individual study or pooled analysis showed benefit of corticosteroids for any outcome: vasopressor use (three trials; relative risk (RR) 0.96; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.05), multiple organs recovered (two trials; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11), acute graft rejection (three trials; RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.39) or graft dysfunction (eight trials; RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.24). Two trials investigated adverse effects and found similar rates between groups. Quality of evidence was moderate or low for all outcomes. Current clinical trials are limited in numbers and size to identify benefits or harms of corticosteroid therapy for deceased organ donors. In the face of these results, administering or withholding steroids both appear reasonable courses of action. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

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    Nalesnik MA


    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  7. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia? (United States)

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver


    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia.

  8. How deceased donor transplantation is impacting a decline in commercial transplantation-the Tamil Nadu experience. (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram N V; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Daniel, Dolly; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shroff, Sunil; Reddy, Yogesh


    India with a population of 1.2 billion has a renal transplantation rate of 3.25 per million population. The major cause of chronic kidney disease is hypertension and diabetes. The crude and age-adjusted incidence rates of end-stage renal disease are estimated to be 151 and 232 per million population, respectively, in India. There was a remarkable lack of knowledge in the public about deceased organ donation until a decade ago. However, the role played by the media and nongovernmental organizations in partnership with the government has emphasized and implemented deceased donor transplantation in certain states in India-to mention particularly, the Tamil Nadu model. In the last 2 years, deceased organ donation has reached 1.3 per million population in Tamil Nadu, thereby effectively eliminating commercial transplantation. There is no religious bar for organ donation. A central transplant coordinator appointed by the government oversees legitimate and transparent allocation of deceased organs both in the public and private facilities as per the transplant waiting list. This model also takes care of the poor sections of society by conducting donation and transplantation through government-run public facilities free of cost. In the last 2 years, deceased donor transplantation has been performed through this network procuring organs such as the heart, heart valves, lung, liver, kidneys, cornea, and skin. The infrastructural lack of immunological surveillance-including donor-specific antibody monitoring, human leukocyte antigen typing, and panel reactive antibody except in a few tertiary care centers-prevents allocation according to the immunological status of the recipient. This private-public partnership promoting deceased donor transplantation has effectively eliminated commercialization in transplantation in the state of Tamil Nadu with a population of 72 million which is a model for other regions of South Asia and developing countries.

  9. A Framework for Conducting Deceased Donor Research in the United States. (United States)

    Glazier, Alexandra K; Heffernan, Kate Gallin; Rodrigue, James R


    There are a number of regulatory barriers both perceived and real that have hampered widespread clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation. This article sets forth a framework clarifying the existing legal requirements and their application to the conduct of research on deceased donors and donor organs within the United States. Recommendations are focused on resolving some of the ambiguity surrounding deceased donor authorization for research, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and the role of institutional review board oversight. The successful conduct of clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation requires an understanding of these regulatory nuances as well as identification of important ethical principles to consider. Facilitation of these concepts will ultimately provide support for innovative research designed to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Further work identifying the optimal infrastructure for overview of clinical research in the field should be given priority.

  10. Successful renal transplantation from a brain-dead deceased donor with head injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and deranged renal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Ghuge


    Full Text Available Deceased donors (DDs with the brain death due to head injury are the major source of organs for transplantation. The incidence of post-head injury disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC ranges from 24% to 50%. Many centers do not accept organs from donors with DIC due to increased risk of primary graft non-function and/or high chances of morbidity/mortality. We performed two successful renal transplants from a DD with head injury with DIC and deranged renal function. One of the recipients developed transient thrombocytopenia, but there was no evidence of DIC or delayed graft functions in either of the recipients. Over a follow-up of 1 month, both are doing well with stable graft function and hematological profile. Thus, a carefully selected DD with severe DIC even with deranged renal function is not a contraindication for organ donation if other risk factors for primary non-function are excluded. This approach will also help in overcoming organ shortage.

  11. APOL1 genotype and kidney transplantation outcomes from deceased African American donors (United States)

    Freedman, Barry I.; Pastan, Stephen O.; Israni, Ajay K.; Schladt, David; Julian, Bruce A.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Hauptfeld, Vera; Bray, Robert A.; Gebel, Howard M.; Kirk, Allan D.; Gaston, Robert S.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Farney, Alan C.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Stratta, Robert J.; Mohan, Sumit; Ma, Lijun; Langefeld, Carl D.; Bowden, Donald W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Brown, W. Mark; Divers, Jasmin


    Background Two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk variants in donors and African American (AA) recipient race are associated with worse allograft survival in deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) from AA donors. To detect other factors impacting allograft survival from deceased AA kidney donors, APOL1 renal-risk variants were genotyped in additional AA kidney donors. Methods APOL1 genotypes were linked to outcomes in 478 newly analyzed DDKTs in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariate analyses accounting for recipient age, sex, race, panel reactive antibody level, HLA match, cold ischemia time, donor age, and expanded-criteria donation were performed. These 478 transplantations and 675 DDKTs from a prior report were jointly analyzed. Results Fully-adjusted analyses limited to the new 478 DDKTs replicated shorter renal allograft survival in recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys (HR 2.00; p=0.03). Combined analysis of 1153 DDKTs from AA donors revealed donor APOL1 high-risk genotype (HR 2.05; p=3×10−4), older donor age (HR 1.18; p=0.05), and younger recipient age (HR 0.70; p=0.001) adversely impacted allograft survival. Although prolonged allograft survival was seen in many recipients of APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant kidneys, follow-up serum creatinine concentrations were higher than in recipients of zero/one APOL1-renal-risk variant kidneys. A competing risk analysis revealed that APOL1 impacted renal allograft survival, but not recipient survival. Interactions between donor age and APOL1 genotype on renal allograft survival were non-significant. Conclusions Shorter renal allograft survival is reproducibly observed after DDKT from APOL1-two-renal-risk-variant donors. Younger recipient age and older donor age have independent adverse effects on renal allograft survival. PMID:26566060

  12. Combined Kidney-Liver, Heart-Liver, and Kidney-Pancreas Transplantations from a Single Deceased Donor

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    Matteo Ravaioli


    Full Text Available Splitting the liver for two adults to increase the donor pool is still a debated issue, especially for combined organ transplantation. We described a case of liver-splitting procedure for two adults, which was successful even in the presence of combined organ transplantation. Three adult combined organ transplantations from one deceased donor were performed, with, use of split liver grafts in two patients: a combined heart-right split liver, a left kidney-left split liver, and a right kidney-pancreas transplantation. Despite a not perfect match between the graft type and recipient, the prevention of small-for-size syndrome by ligature of the splenic artery, and/or hemiportocaval shunt in the patient receiving the left split liver, and the maximal reduction of ischemia time were the main factors contributing to the success of the procedure. This is the first report of combined heart and split liver in two adults which may suggest new strategies for organ transplantations.

  13. New strategies for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors. (United States)

    Wohlfahrtova, Mariana; Viklicky, Ondrej


    The increased demand for kidney transplantation and organ shortage resulted in the increased use of kidneys from suboptimal donors. Therefore, identification of kidneys that can be accepted without significantly compromising the outcome of allograft or recipient has become critical. A robust assessment of organ quality is of particular importance especially in kidneys from elderly donors in whom morphological and functional changes associated with aging and diseases are obvious. A number of predictive tools have been developed to help with evaluating the suitability of a deceased-donor kidney for transplantation. Among those, Kidney Donor Profile Index and zero hour graft biopsy in elderly donors have been already implemented in several transplant programs. This review captures the recent literature on this subject and discusses approaches for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors.

  14. Prognostic utility of preimplantation kidney biopsy from deceased older donors in first year post-transplant renal function. (United States)

    Amenábar, Juan J; Camacho, Jhon A; Gómez-Larrambe, Nerea; Visus, Teresa; Pijoan, José I; González del Tánago, Jaime; Zárraga, Sofía; García-Olaverri, Jorge; Gaínza, Francisco J


    Preimplantation renal biopsy provides potentially valuable information about post-transplant renal function. To assess the prognostic value of preimplantation kidney biopsy from older donors in determining 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate MDRD-4 (eGFR). We evaluated a cohort of 124 renal transplant recipients from deceased donors ≥60 years old, performed at our center between March 2008 and May 2012. Biopsies were assessed by applying the score proposed by O'Valle et al. The overall score was stratified into 3 levels: 0-3, 4-5 and 6-8 points. Kidneys scoring > 8 points were discarded. A total of 77% of the donors were ≥70 years. One year post-transplant, mean eGFR (SD) was lower in transplant recipients with 6-8 points (38.5 [14.1] mL/min/1.73m(2)) than in the group scoring 4-5 points (46.3 [15.7] [p=0.03]) and the group scoring 0-3 (49.6 [12.5] [P=.04]). Seven patients (19%) had eGFR renal biopsy were associated with a worse 1-year post-transplant eGFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection were significant risk factors for 1-year post-transplant low eGFR. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishing a deceased donor program in north Indian region: lessons learnt. (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek; Chandra, Abhijit; Rahul; Singh, Manmeet; Shrivastava, Peeyush Kumar; Singhai, Atin; Ojha, Bal Krishna; Chandra, Girish; Khan, Mohammed Parvez; Pandey, Sant; Kant, Ravi


    Living-related donors are the source of almost all organ transplants in India. However, these donations fall far short of current needs, and there remains a huge disparity between demand and supply of organs. In the last five yr, a consistent increase in deceased donor transplant activity has been observed in some southern Indian states. This report describes our experience of establishing a new deceased donor program in the state of Uttar Pradesh in north India. We describe our experience on counseling families of all brain-dead patients admitted to our center from October 2013 to September 2014 and data on retrieving and transplanting organs. A total of 99 brain-dead patients were identified, of which 67 were medically eligible as donors. Fourteen patients developed cardiac arrest before the counseling could begin. Only eight families agreed for multi-organ donation. Lack of consensus among the family members, mistrust of the medical system, fear of mutilation of the body, and delay in the funeral were identified as the main reasons behind negative consent. Conversely, mass media campaign, proper ICU care of brain-dead patients, rapport with the family and streamlining all medico legal processes were associated with positive consent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Outcomes in the highest panel reactive antibody recipients of deceased donor kidneys under the new kidney allocation system. (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Redfield, Robert R; Astor, Brad C; Djamali, Arjang; Kaufman, Dixon B; Mandelbrot, Didier A


    Since the institution of the new kidney allocation system in December 2014, kidney transplant candidates with the highest calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) of 99-100 have been transplanted at much higher rates. However, concerns have been raised that outcomes in these patients might be impaired due to higher immunological risk and longer cold ischemia times resulting from long-distance sharing of kidneys. Here, we compare outcomes at the University of Wisconsin between study patients with cPRA 99-100 and all other recipients of deceased donor kidneys transplanted between 12/04/2014 and 12/31/2015. All patients had at least 6 months post-transplant follow-up. The mean follow-up was 13.9±3 months in cPRA ≥99% and 12.3±3.5 months in cPRA ≤98%. There was a total of 152 transplants, 25 study patients, and 127 controls. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in delayed graft function, rejection, kidney function, graft and patient survival, or infections. We conclude that transplanting the most highly sensitized patients with kidneys shared outside their local donation service areas is associated with excellent short-term outcomes that are comparable to controls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Import kidney transplants from nonmandatory share deceased donors: characteristics, distribution and outcomes. (United States)

    Kayler, L K; Sokolich, J; Magliocca, J; Schold, J D


    Outcomes of locally rejected kidneys transplanted at other centers (import KTX) are unknown. SRTR data from 2000 to 2009 of deceased-donor KTXs excluding 0-mismatch, paybacks, and other mandatory shares were compared by location of KTX at local (n = 48,165), regional (n = 4428) or national (n = 4104) centers using multivariable regression models. Compared to nonmandatory share local transplants, import KTX were associated with significantly higher overall risks of patient death (regional aHR 1.15, p centers are not improved compared to pre-DonorNet; and, those of national centers are significantly prolonged. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Nephrologists' perspectives on waitlisting and allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplant. (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten; Wong, Germaine; Cass, Alan; Jan, Stephen; Irving, Michelle; Craig, Jonathan C


    Deceased donor kidneys are a scarce resource and there is debate about how to maximize the benefit from each donated kidney while ensuring equity of access to transplants. Allocation of kidneys to waitlisted patients is determined by a computer algorithm, but the decision to waitlist patients or accept the kidneys offered is largely at the discretion of nephrologists. This study aims to elicit nephrologists' perspectives on waitlisting patients for kidney transplant and the allocation of deceased kidneys. We conducted semistructured face-to-face interviews with adult and pediatric nephrologists from 15 Australian nephrology or transplant centers. Transcripts were analyzed for descriptive and analytical themes. 25 nephrologists participated. 5 major themes on waitlisting and deceased donor kidney allocation were identified: patient advocacy (championing their own patients, empowering patients, giving hope, individualizing judgments, patient preferences, and limited autonomy), professional and moral integrity (transparency, avoiding value judgments, and eliminating bias), protecting center reputation (gatekeeping), achieving equity (uniformity, avoiding discrimination, and fairness for specific populations), and maximizing societal benefit (prioritizing best use of kidney, resource implications, favoring social contribution, and improving efficiency of the allocation process). In making individual patient assessments, estimates about outcomes for a patient had to be resolved with whether it was reasonable from a broader societal perspective. Nephrologists expressed their primary responsibility in terms of giving their own patients access to a transplant and upholding professional integrity by maintaining transparency and avoiding value judgments and bias. However, nephrologists perceived an obligation to protect their center's reputation through the selection of "good" patients, and this caused some frustration. Despite having personal preferences for optimizing the

  19. Decision making around living and deceased donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study exploring the importance of expected relationship changes

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    de Groot Ingrid B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exist on the impact of living kidney donation on the donor-recipient relationship. Purpose of this study was to explore motivations to donate or accept a (living donor kidney, whether expected relationship changes influence decision making and whether relationship changes are actually experienced. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups in 47 of 114 invited individuals (41%, asking retrospectively about motivations and decision making around transplantation. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the focus group transcripts. Results Most deceased donor kidney recipients had a potential living donor available which they refused or did not want. They mostly waited for a deceased donor because of concern for the donor’s health (75%. They more often expected negative relationship changes than living donor kidney recipients (75% vs. 27%, p = 0.01 who also expected positive changes. Living donor kidney recipients mostly accepted the kidney to improve their own quality of life (47%. Donors mostly donated a kidney because transplantation would make the recipient less dependent (25%. After transplantation both positive and negative relationship changes are experienced. Conclusion Expected relationship changes and concerns about the donor’s health lead some kidney patients to wait for a deceased donor, despite having a potential living donor available. Further research is needed to assess whether this concerns a selected group.

  20. New Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Living Donor versus Deceased Donor Liver Transplant Recipients: Analysis of the UNOS/OPTN Database

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    Anitha D. Yadav


    Full Text Available New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT occurs less frequently in living donor liver transplant (LDLT recipients than in deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT recipients. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and predictive factors for NODAT in LDLT versus DDLT recipients. The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database was reviewed from 2004 to 2010, and 902 LDLT and 19,582 DDLT nondiabetic recipients were included. The overall incidence of NODAT was 12.2% at 1 year after liver transplantation. At 1, 3, and 5 years after transplant, the incidence of NODAT in LDLT recipients was 7.4, 2.1, and 2.6%, respectively, compared to 12.5, 3.4, and 1.9%, respectively, in DDLT recipients. LDLT recipients have a lower risk of NODAT compared to DDLT recipients (hazard ratio = 0.63 (0.52–0.75, P<0.001. Predictors for NODAT in LDLT recipients were hepatitis C (HCV and treated acute cellular rejection (ACR. Risk factors in DDLT recipients were recipient male gender, recipient age, body mass index, donor age, donor diabetes, HCV, and treated ACR. LDLT recipients have a lower incidence and fewer risk factors for NODAT compared to DDLT recipients. Early identification of risk factors will assist timely clinical interventions to prevent NODAT complications.

  1. Prevalence of infection in kidney transplantation from living versus deceased donor: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Mônica Taminato


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To verify if the type of donor is a risk factor for infection in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Systematic Review of Literature with Meta-analysis with searches conducted in the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO and CINAHL. RESULTS We selected 198 studies and included four observational studies describing infections among patients distinguishing the type of donor. Through meta-analysis, it was shown that in patients undergoing deceased donor transplant, the outcome infection was 2.65 higher, than those who received an organ from a living donor. CONCLUSION The study showed that deceased kidney donor recipients are at an increased risk for developing infections and so the need for establishing and enforcing protocols from proper management of ischemic time to the prevention and control of infection in this population emerges.

  2. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Donor Management Research: Improvements in... management practices, but further investigation is needed. Upon review of research possibilities being... management study to be accomplished by contract or targeted research questions that will be incorporated into...

  3. Deceased Donor Organs: What Can Be Done to Raise Donation Rates Using Evidence From Malaysia? (United States)

    Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S


    Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. The weekend effect alters the procurement and discard rates of deceased donor kidneys in the United States. (United States)

    Mohan, Sumit; Foley, Karl; Chiles, Mariana C; Dube, Geoffrey K; Patzer, Rachel E; Pastan, Stephen O; Crew, R John; Cohen, David J; Ratner, Lloyd E


    Factors contributing to the high rate of discard among deceased donor kidneys remain poorly understood and the influence of resource limitations of weekends on kidney transplantation is unknown. To quantify this we used data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and assembled a retrospective cohort of 181,799 deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplantation from 2000-2013. We identified the impact of the day of the week on the procurement and subsequent utilization or discard of deceased donor kidneys in the United States, as well as report the geographic variation of the impact of weekends on transplantation. Compared with weekday kidneys, organs procured on weekends were significantly more likely to be discarded than transplanted (odds ratio: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.19), even after adjusting for organ quality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.17). Weekend discards were of a significantly higher quality than weekday discards (Kidney Donor Profile Index: 76.5% vs. 77.3%). Considerable geographic variation was noted in the proportion of transplants that occurred over the weekend. Kidneys available for transplant over the weekend were significantly more likely to be used at larger transplant centers, be shared without payback, and experienced shorter cold ischemia times. Thus, factors other than kidney quality are contributing to the discard of deceased donor kidneys, particularly during weekends. Policy prescriptions, administrative or organizational solutions within transplant programs may potentially mitigate against the recent increase in kidney discards.

  5. Effect of a legal initiative on deceased- and living-donor kidney transplantation in Israel. (United States)

    Ashkenazi, T; Rahamimov, R; Elhalel, M D; Cohen, J; Mor, E


    The severe organ shortage in Israel has prompted many patients to undergo kidney transplantation abroad. In May 2008, the Israeli Knesset approved the Israel Transplant Law prohibiting organ trade and disallowing health insurers to reimburse the cost of illegal transplantation abroad. The aim of this study was to assess the initial effect of the law on kidney transplantations inside and outside the country. The number of kidney transplantations performed inside and outside Israel was compared between the 3-year periods before and after implementation of the transplant law (2006-2008 and 2009-2011). Further analysis compared the number of deceased-donor and live-donor transplantations performed in Israel during the same periods. The results showed that the number of transplants performed abroad dropped significantly, from a median of 143 per year during 2006-2008 to Israel Transplant Law has dramatically affected kidney transplantation practices in Israel by reducing transplantation tourism and increasing living-donor kidney transplantations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A registry analysis of damage to the deceased donor pancreas during procurement. (United States)

    Ausania, F; Drage, M; Manas, D; Callaghan, C J


    Surgical injury to the pancreas is thought to occur commonly during procurement. The UK Transplant Registry was analyzed to determine the frequency of pancreatic injuries, identify factors associated with damage, and assess the impact of injuries on graft survival. Twelve hundred ninety-six pancreata were procured from donation after brain death donors, with 314 (19.5%) from donation after circulatory death donors. More than 50% of recovered pancreata had at least one injury, most commonly a short portal vein (21.5%). Liver donation, procurement team origin, hepatic artery (HA) arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and increasing donor BMI were associated with increased rates of pancreas damage on univariate analyses; on multivariate analysis only the presence of an HA from the SMA remained significant (p = 0.02). Six hundred forty solid organ pancreas transplants were performed; 238 had some form of damage. Overall, there was no difference in graft survival between damaged and undamaged organs (p = 0.28); however, graft loss was significantly more frequent in pancreata with arterial damage (p = 0.04) and in those with parenchymal damage (p = 0.05). Damage to the pancreas during organ recovery is more common than other organs, and meticulous surgical technique and awareness of damage risk factors are essential to reduce rates of procurement-related injuries. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Clinical importance of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava in organ procurement surgery from a deceased donor: two case reports. (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyeong; Jun, Kang-Woong; Moon, In-Sung; Kim, Ji-Il


    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare but important problems in living donors for kidney transplantation, especially in cases of a short left renal vein and accompanying vascular and urological anatomic variations. However, the clinical impacts of IVC anomalies in deceased donors have yet to be reported. The unexpected presence of an IVC in an unusual position poses challenges to surgeons and increases the risk of bleeding during organ removal. Accompanying vascular variations can cause unexpected bleeding and injury and therefore technical complications in procurement and subsequent implantation. During cold perfusion, inadequate venous drainage or insufficient cooling can induce graft damage. Our cases highlight the need for all transplant surgeons to confirm the anatomy of the aorta, IVC, and major vessels early in the surgical procedure and, should an anomaly be detected, know how to manage the problem.

  8. Socioeconomic deprivation and barriers to live-donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tomson, Charles R V; Owen-Smith, Amanda


    Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation. A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews. A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy. Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory. Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor. Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both patients and clinical teams to increase empowerment and ensure shared

  9. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok


    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  10. State of deceased donor transplantation in India: A model for developing countries around the world. (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Shroff, Sunil; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Yuvaraj, Anand; Nair, Sanjeev; Sundarrajan, Saravanan


    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) resources are scarce in India, with wide urban-rural and interstate disparities. The burden of end-stage renal disease is expected to increase further due to increasing prevalence of risk factors like diabetes mellitus. Renal transplantation, the best RRT modality, is increasing in popularity, due to improvements made in public education, the deceased donor transplantation (DDT) programme and the availability of free and affordable transplant services in government hospitals and certain non-governmental philanthropic organizations. There are about 120000 haemodialysis patients and 10000 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients in India, the majority of them waiting for a donor kidney. Shortage of organs, lack of transplant facilities and high cost of transplant in private facilities are major barriers for renal transplantation in India. The DDT rate in India is now 0.34 per million population, among the lowest in the world. Infrastructural development in its infancy and road traffic rules not being strictly implemented by the authorities, have led to road traffic accidents being very common in urban and rural India. Many patients are declared brain dead on arrival and can serve as potential organ donors. The DDT programme in the state of Tamil Nadu has met with considerable success and has brought down the incidence of organ trade. Government hospitals in Tamil Nadu, with a population of 72 million, provide free transplantation facilities for the underprivileged. Public private partnership has played an important role in improving organ procurement rates, with the help of trained transplant coordinators in government hospitals. The DDT programmes in the southern states of India (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry) are advancing rapidly with mutual sharing due to public private partnership providing vital organs to needy patients. Various health insurance programmes rolled out by the governments in the southern states are effective in

  11. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members. (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L


    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Successful Lung Transplantation Using a Deceased Donor Mechanically Ventilated for Ten Months. (United States)

    Tanaka, Shin; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Motomu; Oto, Takahiro


    A successful outcome after lung transplant was achieved using lungs donated from a teenage boy who underwent prolonged mechanical ventilation. The donor experienced hypoxic brain damage and was declared brain dead 324 days after tracheal intubation. At the time of referral, the donor's lungs revealed diffuse radiologic infiltration and atelectasis but excellent function, with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 450. The lungs were transplanted to a 10-year-old girl with bronchiolitis obliterans. She developed grade 2 primary graft dysfunction, but recovered quickly. She is doing well and has not experienced any other critical adverse events 12 months after lung transplantation. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Excellent outcomes of liver transplantation using severely steatotic grafts from brain-dead donors. (United States)

    Wong, Tiffany C L; Fung, James Y Y; Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Chan, Albert C Y; Sharr, William W; Dai, Wing Chiu; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau


    Liver grafts with macrovesicular steatosis of > 60% are considered unsuitable for deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) because of the unacceptably high risk of primary nonfunction (PNF) and graft loss. This study reports our experience in using such grafts from brain-dead donors. Prospectively collected data of DDLT recipient outcomes from 1991 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Macrovesicular steatosis > 60% at postperfusion graft biopsy was defined as severe steatosis. In total, 373 patients underwent DDLT. Nineteen patients received severely steatotic grafts (ie, macrovesicular steatosis > 60%), and 354 patients had grafts with ≤ 60% steatosis (control group). Baseline demographics were comparable except that recipient age was older in the severe steatosis group (51 versus 55 years; P = 0.03). Median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 20 in the severe steatosis group and 22 in the control group. Cold ischemia time (CIT) was 384 minutes in the severe steatosis group and 397.5 minutes in the control group (P = 0.66). The 2 groups were similar in duration of stay in the hospital and in the intensive care unit. Risk of early allograft dysfunction (0/19 [0%] versus 1/354 [0.3%]; P>0.99) and 30-day mortality (0/19 [0%] versus 11/354 [3.1%]; P = 0.93) were also similar between groups. No patient developed PNF. The 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates in the severe steatosis group were both 94.7%. The corresponding rates in the control group were 91.8% and 85.8% (P = 0.55). The use of severely steatotic liver grafts from low-risk donors was safe, and excellent outcomes were achieved; however, these grafts should be used with caution, especially in patients with high MELD score. Keeping a short CIT was crucial for the successful use of such grafts in liver transplantation.

  14. Renal Transplantation Using Stone-bearing Deceased Donor Kidneys-Experience of a Transplant Center in China. (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Bao; Zhao, Liang; Han, Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Jian; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Chang-Xi


    To evaluate the outcomes of transplantation of deceased donor stone-bearing kidneys. A total of 32 patients who received renal transplantation at our center from July 2011 to June 2016 were included. Eight recipients received kidneys with incidental renal stone(s) (stone group). Twenty-four recipients received kidneys without renal stones (non-stone group). The transplantation outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. There was 1 case of postoperative urinary tract infection in the stone group, and 2 cases in the non-stone group. No ureteral obstruction or hydronephrosis occurred in either group. No significant difference was found in the incidence of complications, serum creatinine level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate between the groups (all, P >.05). No deaths occurred in either group during the follow-up period. One recipient had postoperative calculi recurrence, and 4 recipients had residual calculi before transplantation. However, these patients had no symptomatic nephrolithiasis or obstruction, and their renal functions were normal. Transplantation of deceased donor stone-bearing kidneys can achieve comparable outcomes of deceased donor non-stone-bearing kidneys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus via Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation Confirmed by Whole Genome Sequencing (United States)

    Altman, D. R.; Sebra, R.; Hand, J.; Attie, O.; Deikus, G.; Carpini, K. W. D.; Patel, G.; Rana, M.; Arvelakis, A.; Grewal, P.; Dutta, J.; Rose, H.; Shopsin, B.; Daefler, S.; Schadt, E.; Kasarskis, A.; van Bakel, H.; Bashir, A.; Huprikar, S.


    Donor-derived bacterial infection is a recognized complication of solid organ transplantation (SOT). The present report describes the clinical details and successful outcome in a liver transplant recipient despite transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a deceased donor with MRSA endocarditis and bacteremia. We further describe whole genome sequencing (WGS) and complete de novo assembly of the donor and recipient MRSA isolate genomes, which confirms that both isolates are genetically 100% identical. We propose that similar application of WGS techniques to future investigations of donor bacterial transmission would strengthen the definition of proven bacterial transmission in SOT, particularly in the presence of highly clonal bacteria such as MRSA. WGS will further improve our understanding of the epidemiology of bacterial transmission in SOT and the risk of adverse patient outcomes when it occurs. PMID:25250641

  16. A multicenter study of 30 days complications after deceased donor liver transplantation in the model for end-stage liver disease score era. (United States)

    Parikh, Anup; Washburn, Kenneth W; Matsuoka, Lea; Pandit, Urvashi; Kim, Jennifer E; Almeda, Jose; Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Halff, Glenn; Genyk, Yuri; Holland, Bart; Wilson, Dorian J; Sher, Linda; Koneru, Baburao


    Knowledge of risk factors for posttransplant complications is likely to improve patient outcomes. Few large studies of all early postoperative complications after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) exist. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective, cohort study of 30-day complications, their risk factors, and the impact on outcomes after DDLT. Three centers contributed data for 450 DDLTs performed from January 2005 through December 2009. Data included donor, recipient, transplant, and outcome variables. All 30-day postoperative complications were graded by the Clavien-Dindo system. Complications per patient and severe (≥ grade III) complications were primary outcomes. Death within 30 days, complication occurrence, length of stay (LOS), and graft and patient survival were secondary outcomes. Multivariate associations of risk factors with complications and complications with LOS, graft survival, and patient survival were examined. Mean number of complications/patient was 3.3 ± 3.9. At least 1 complication occurred in 79.3%, and severe complications occurred in 62.8% of recipients. Mean LOS was 16.2 ± 22.9 days. Graft and patient survival rates were 84% and 86%, respectively, at 1 year and 74% and 76%, respectively, at 3 years. Hospitalization, critical care, ventilatory support, and renal replacement therapy before transplant and transfusions during transplant were the significant predictors of complications (not the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score). Both number and severity of complications had a significant impact on LOS and graft and patient survival. Structured reporting of risk-adjusted complications rates after DDLT is likely to improve patient care and transplant center benchmarking. Despite the accomplished reductions in transfusions during DDLT, opportunities exist for further reductions. With increasing transplantation of sicker patients, reduction in complications would require multidisciplinary efforts and institutional commitment


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Skvortsov


    Full Text Available Aim. The global shortage of deceased organ donors caused increasing interest to the transplant program based on the use of organs from the donors with sudden irreversible cardiac arrest, or asystolic donors (DCD. Ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of cardiac arrest remains a key problem that limits the use of organs from DCD. Our clinical study was intended to determine the acceptability of renal transplants derived from the DCD using extracorporeal perfusion in situ after 60 minutes of asystole. Materials and methods. In 2009–2014, St. Petersburg Organ Procurement Organization (OPO obtained kidneys from 29 DCD with critically expanded warm ischemic time (WIT. The design of this study was approved by the Scientifi c Board and Ethics Committee of the State Research Institute for Emergency Medicine (Decision 7/0615/09. Initially, no one of died patients was considered as potential organ donors. In case of failed advanced CPR the death of a patient was declared initiating the protocol of subnormothermic extracorporeal abdominal perfusion with ECMO, thrombolytics (strepokinase 1.5 mln U, and LD. The procedures were established by the authorized OPO team which arrived with perfusion equipment in 30–40 minutes after declaration of donors’ death. Mean WIT was 58.1 (19.39 minutes (Mean (SD. Resuscitated grafts were transplanted into 58 recipients. The outcomes of transplantation of resuscitated kidneys were compared to those of 112 KTx from 115 brain death donors (BDDs. Results. Immediate functioning of kidney grafts was observed in 28 (48.3% of 58 recipients. There were 4 cases of primary graft non-function. By the end of the fi rst post-transplant year there was an acute rejection rate of 12.1% (9 episodes of rejection in the DCD group vs. 23.2% (26 episodes of rejection in the BDD group (p < 0.05. The actuarial 5-year graft survival rate was 82.8% (n = 48 in DCD group, and 87.5% (n = 98 in BDD group (p > 0.05. Creatinine levels at the end

  18. Second Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Primary Graft Failure (United States)

    Schriber, Jeffrey; Agovi, Manza-A.; Ho, Vincent; Ballen, Karen K.; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Gupta, Vikas; Maziarz, Richard T.; Hale, Gregory A.; Litzow, Mark R.; Logan, Brent; Bornhauser, Martin; Giller, Roger H.; Isola, Luis; Marks, David I.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Pasquini, Marcelo C.


    Failure to engraft donor cells is a devastating complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We describe the results of 122 patients reported to the National Marrow Donor Program between 1990 and 2005, who received a second unrelated donor HCT after failing to achieve an absolute neutrophil count of ≥ 500/ μL without recurrent disease. Patients were transplanted for leukemia (n=83), myelodysplastic disorders (n=16), severe aplastic anemia (n=20) and other diseases (n=3). The median age was 29 years. Twenty-four patients received second grafts from a different unrelated donor. Among 98 patients who received a second graft from the same donor, 28 received products that were previously collected and cryopreserved for the first transplantation. One-year overall survival after second transplant was 11% with 10 patients alive at last follow up. We observed no differences between patients who received grafts from the same or different donors, or in those who received fresh or cryopreserved product. The outcomes after a second allogeneic HCT for primary graft failure are dismal. Identifying risk factors for primary graft failure can decrease the incidence of this complication. Further studies are needed to test whether early recognition and hastened procurement of alternative grafts can improve transplant outcomes for primary graft failure. PMID:20172038

  19. Living donor liver transplantation using dual grafts:Ultrasonographic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To evaluate the dual-graft living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with ultrasonography, with special emphasis on the postoperative complications. METHODS: From January 2002 to August 2007, 110 adult-to-adult LDLTs were performed in West China Hos- pital of Sichuan University. Among them, dual-graft implantations were performed in six patients. Sonographic findings of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: All the six recipients survived the dual-graft adult-to-adult LDLT surgery. All h...

  20. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

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    Karla Lais Pêgas


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  1. The Impact of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury on Liver Allografts from Deceased after Cardiac Death versus Deceased after Brain Death Donors.

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    Jin Xu

    Full Text Available The shortage of organs for transplantation has led to increased use of organs procured from donors after cardiac death (DCD. The effects of cardiac death on the liver remain poorly understood, however. Using livers obtained from DCD versus donors after brain death (DBD, we aimed to understand how ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury alters expression of pro-inflammatory markers ceramides and influences graft leukocyte infiltration.Hepatocyte inflammation, as assessed by ceramide expression, was evaluated in DCD (n = 13 and DBD (n = 10 livers. Allograft expression of inflammatory and cell death markers, and allograft leukocyte infiltration were evaluated from a contemporaneous independent cohort of DCD (n = 22 and DBD (n = 13 livers.When examining the differences between transplant stages in each group, C18, C20, C24 ceramides showed significant difference in DBD (p<0.05 and C22 ceramide (p<0.05 were more pronounced for DCD. C18 ceramide is correlated to bilirubin, INR, and creatinine after transplant in DCD. Prior to transplantation, DCD livers have reduced leukocyte infiltration compared to DBD allografts. Following reperfusion, the neutrophil infiltration and platelet deposition was less prevalent in DCD grafts while cell death and recipients levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST of DCD allografts had significantly increased.These data suggest that I/R injury generate necrosis in the absence of a strong inflammatory response in DCD livers with an appreciable effect on early graft function. The long-term consequences of increased inflammation in DBD and increased cell death in DCD allografts are unknown and warrant further investigation.

  2. Organ Procurement from Deceased Donors and its Impact on Organ Transplantation in Iran during the First Ten Years of Cadaveric Transplantation. (United States)

    Kazemeyni, S M; Aghighi, M


    The Act of transplantation from deceased and dead-brain donors was ratified in the parliament in 2000. In the subsequent two years, few number of organs were procured from dead-brain patients and transplanted. Later on, a national network was established for organ procurement; units for recognizing brain death were established in Tehran and some other cities to provide the necessary infrastructure for organ transplantation from deceased and dead-brain donors. In this report, we described the outcome of organ procurement from deceased and dead-brain donors after 10 years of its establishment in Iran. To do so, we collected data from some relevant published articles and also reports of the Ministry of Health released between 2001 and 2010. By the year 2010, 3673 organs were harvested from deceased donors and transplanted. The rate of liver transplantation has increased rapidly from 16 cases in 2001 to 280 cases in 2010-almost 18 times. There were 554 cadaveric kidney transplantation in 2010; it comprised 19% of total kidney transplantations that is almost 8 times that in 2001. Over the study period, organ procurement has increased by 6-fold. The rate of organ procurement from deceased and dead-brain donors has increased dramatically over the studied period. Considering the existing potentials for this scheme of organ procurement, it seems that improving the Iranian Network for Transplant Organ Procurement will lead to better results.

  3. A managed protocol for treatment of deceased potential donors reduces the incidence of cardiac arrest before organ explant (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Cordeiro, Rodrigo de Brito; Horner, Marina Borges W.; de Oliveira, Thamy Pellizzaro; Duarte, Robson; Sperotto, Geonice; da Silveira, Georgiana; Caldeira, Milton; Coll, Elisabeth; Yus-Teruel, Santiago


    Objective To assess the effect of the application of a managed protocol for the maintenance care of deceased potential multiple organ donors at two hospitals. Methods A before (Phase 1)/after (Phase 2) study conducted at two general hospitals, which included consecutively potential donors admitted to two intensive care units. In Phase 1 (16 months), the data were collected retrospectively, and the maintenance care measures of the potential donors were instituted by the intensivists. In Phase 2 (12 months), the data collection was prospective, and a managed protocol was used for maintenance care. The two phases were compared in terms of their demographic variables, physiological variables at diagnosis of brain death and the end of the process, time to performance of brain death confirmatory test and end of the process, adherence to bundles of maintenance care essential measures, losses due to cardiac arrest, family refusal, contraindications, and the conversion rate of potential into actual donors. Student's t- and chi-square tests were used, and p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results A total of 42 potential donors were identified (18 in Phase 1 and 24 in Phase 2). The time interval between the first clinical assessment and the recovery decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 35.0±15.5 hours versus Phase 2: 24.6±6.2 hours; p = 0.023). Adherence increased to 10 out of the 19 essential items of maintenance care, and losses due to cardiac arrest also decreased in Phase 2 (Phase 1: 27.8 versus 0% in Phase 2; p = 0.006), while the convertion rate increased (Phase 1: 44.4 versus 75% in Phase 2; p = 0.044). The losses due to family refusal and medical contraindication did not vary. Conclusion The adoption of a managed protocol focused on the application of essential measures for the care of potential deceased donors might reduce the loss of potential donors due to cardiac arrest. PMID:23917929

  4. Patients seeking liver transplant turn to China: outcomes of 15 Egyptian patients who went to China for a deceased-donor liver transplant. (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hesham M; Salama, Ibrahim; Salaa, Ibrahim; Soliman, Sayed; Gameel, Khaled; Gabal, Ashraf Abo; El Ella, Khaled Abo; Helmy, Amr


    Increasing numbers of Egyptians with end-stage liver disease seek liver transplants in China because of lower costs and shorter wait times.We evaluated outcomes of Egyptian patients who underwent liver transplants in China and address ethical concerns. Fifteen Egyptian patients (11 men, 4 women; mean age, 52 years) who underwent liver transplants in China were included. Preoperative data before traveling to China, reports from China, and follow-up data upon return were reviewed. Indications included hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis (n=9), hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=4), and hepatitis-B-related liver cirrhosis (n=2). Nine patients were evaluated for living-related liver transplant but none of their potential donors was suitable. Three patients had advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and were not accepted for living-related liver transplant by any Egyptian center. Two patients had no living-related donor. One patient refused a living-related liver transplant in Egypt and elected to get a whole liver graft from China. Overall survival rate was 80.0% at 6 months and 73.3% at 12 months. There were 4 deaths; 2 occurred in China. Of the 11 surviving patients, 9 (82%) developed complications. Nineteen complications were seen in the 13 patients who were managed after returning from China. Major complications necessitating prolonged hospitalizations occurred in 4 patients. Two patients required further laparotomy. Although deceased-donor liver transplant in China could be an option for Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease, patients and clinicians should be aware of potential outcomes and related ethical issues.

  5. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor. (United States)

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L


    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  6. Resolution of severe graft steatosis following dual-graft living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Moon, DeokBog; Lee, SungGyu; Hwang, Shin; Kim, KiHun; Ahn, ChulSoo; Park, KwangMin; Ha, TaeYong; Song, GiWon


    Although severely steatotic liver grafts are not suitable for transplantation, they have been used when other, more optimal donors were not available, especially for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using two liver grafts. Here we present two cases of dual-graft LDLT in which the recipients showed rapid and complete clearing of fat from livers with previously severe steatosis. In the first case, two left lateral segment grafts were used, one of which was 70% steatotic. Preoperative and posttransplant two-week liver-to-spleen computed tomography-value (L/S) ratios were 0.48 and 1.25, respectively. A liver biopsy taken two weeks after transplantation showed that the fatty changes had almost disappeared. The second case used one left lobe and one left lateral segment graft, the latter of which was 80% steatotic. Preoperative and two-week L/S ratio were 0.58 and 1.34, respectively, and a liver biopsy taken two weeks after transplantation showed less than 3% steatosis. The two donors of the severely steatotic liver grafts recovered uneventfully. These findings show that the fat content of the liver grafts was rapidly removed after transplantation. This observation is helpful in understanding the recovery sequences following transplantation of steatotic liver grafts, as well as expanding the acceptability of steatotic liver grafts.

  7. Measures for increasing the safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jiang-Wen Liu; Zhi-Gang Deng; Hong Wu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Ji-Chun Zhao; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Yu-Kui Ma


    BACKGROUND:The safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be the primary consideration. The aim of this study was to report our experience in increasing the safety of donors in LDLTs using right lobe grafts. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 37 living donors of right lobe grafts from January 2002 to March 2006. The measures for increasing the safety of donors in LDLT included carefully selected donors, preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, angiography and computed tomography; and necessary intraoperative cholangiography and ultrasonography. Right lobe grafts were obtained using an ultrasonic dissector without inlfow vascular occlusion on the right side of the middle hepatic vein. The standard liver volume and the ratio of left lobe volume to standard liver volume were calculated. RESULTS:There was no donor mortality in our group. Postoperative complications only included bile leakage (1 donor), biliary stricture (1) and portal vein thrombosis (1). All donors recovered well and resumed their previous occupations. In recipients, complications included acute rejection (2 patients), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), bile leakage (1), intestinal bleeding (1), left subphrenic abscess (1) and pulmonary infection (1). The mortality rate of recipients was 5.4% (2/37); one recipient with pulmonary infection died from multiple organ failure and another from occurrence of primary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The ifrst consideration in adult-to-adult LDLT is the safety of donors. The donation of a right lobe graft is safe for adults if the remnant hepatic vasculature and bile duct are ensured, and the volume of the remnant liver exceeds 35% of the total liver volume.

  8. Quality of life after liver transplantation with old donor graft

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    Maria José Nascimento Flor


    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the quality of life of liver transplant patients who received liver from donor aged ≤60 or >60 years old. Methods: a prospective study with a sample of 141 recipients from liver donors aged equal to or less than 60 years and recipients of elderly donor liver, in a reference center. Authors used a tool for identification and the Short Form-36. The Student-t and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for comparison between groups. Results: there were higher levels of quality of life with a statistically significant difference: Group A in social aspect (p=0.02 and Group B >50 months of transplantation (p=0.05 in physical component summary. Conclusion: the quality of life of liver receptors from older donor livers was similar to those who received a graft from younger donors in most dimensions. Transplanting time had a positive impact on the quality of life of elderly recipients.

  9. Genomic confirmation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus transmission from deceased donor to liver transplant recipient. (United States)

    Bashir, Ali; Attie, Oliver; Sullivan, Mitchell; Sebra, Robert; Singh, Kavindra V; Altman, Deena; Pak, Theodore; Dutta, Jayeeta; Chacko, Kieran; Webster, Elizabeth; Lewis, Martha; Hamula, Camille; Delli Carpini, Kristin W; Murray, Barbara E; Kasarskis, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; Huprikar, Shirish


    In a liver transplant recipient with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surgical site and bloodstream infection, a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing identified that donor and recipient VRE isolates were highly similar when compared to time-matched hospital isolates. Comparison of de novo assembled isolate genomes was highly suggestive of transplant transmission rather than hospital-acquired transmission and also identified subtle internal rearrangements between donor and recipient missed by other genomic approaches. Given the improved resolution, whole-genome assembly of pathogen genomes is likely to become an essential tool for investigation of potential organ transplant transmissions.

  10. Transpondo limites com doadores falecidos: transplantes bem-sucedidos com rins de doador com creatinina sérica igual a 13,1 mg/dL Overcoming limits with deceased donors: successful renal transplantations from a donor with serum creatinine of 13.1 mg/dL

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    Rodrigo Klein


    Full Text Available Doadores falecidos não limítrofes com insuficiência renal aguda podem ser uma opção segura para aumentar a oferta de rins para transplante. A avaliação histológica é fundamental para o estabelecimento do prognóstico funcional desses enxertos. Dois transplantes renais foram realizados com rins provenientes de um doador falecido jovem com insuficiência renal aguda severa sem comprometimento estrutural do parênquima renal. Ambos os enxertos apresentaram atraso de funcionamento no período pós-operatório, embora um deles com boa diurese inicial não tenha necessitado diálise. Função renal adequada foi observada a partir do 30º dia após o transplante. A insuficiência renal aguda severa no doador falecido não é fator de risco independente para a evolução em curto prazo do enxerto renal e não deve ser considerada contra-indicação absoluta para a realização do transplante.Non-expanded deceased donors with acute kidney failure can be a safe option to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation. Histological evaluation is fundamental to establish the functional prognosis of those grafts. Two kidney transplantations were performed from a young deceased donor with severe acute kidney failure and no structural change in the renal parenchyma. Both patients had postoperative delayed graft function, but one of them, who had good initial urinary volume, required no dialysis. Adequate renal function was present at day 30 after transplantation. Severe acute kidney failure in deceased donors is not an independent risk factor for short-term outcome of renal graft and should not be considered an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  11. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests. (United States)

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima


    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama(®), Bio-Rad(®), Biomerieux(®), DiaSorin(®), Acon Biotech(®) and Biokit(®)), three CLIA (Abbott(®), Siemens(®), Diasorin(®)) and one ECLIA (Roche(®)) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test, the Tigris System(®) Procleix Ultrio Assay(®) and the Bio-Manguinhos(®) HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott(®) and Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  12. The Occurrence of Primary Hepatic Adenoma in Deceased Donor Renal Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tso Liao


    Full Text Available Main findings: We reported a case of new-onset, multi-focal hepatic adenoma in an 18 year-old man with no classic risk factors occurring forty months after a renal transplant from a cadaver donor. Histopathology of the adenoma was examined and genotype and phenotype were also analyzed. Histopathologic examination of the adenoma showed no malignancy. Genotype and phenotype analysis revealed no HNF1α or β-catenin gene mutations and no inflammatory infiltration. The patient was well and disease-free postoperatively. Case hypothesis: Hepatic adenoma occurs mostly in those taking oral contraceptives or androgenic-anabolic steroids or in those with hereditary diseases. Hepatic adenoma in a renal transplant recipient is rare and has only been reported in one case with glycogen storage disease type Ia. Immunosuppressive treatment might have contributed to the development of the neoplasm. Promising future implications: Although malignant change occurs most often in β-catenin gene mutation hepatic adenoma, surgical resection of the adenoma in a patient under immunosuppressive therapy should be considered in order to avoid the possibility of malignant transformation or hemorrhagic rupture.

  13. Regeneration and outcome of dual grafts in living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Hsun; Chen, Tai-Yi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan


    In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the essential aims are to provide an adequate graft volume to the recipient and to keep a sufficient remnant liver volume in the donor. In some instances, these aims cannot be met by a single donor and LDLT using dual grafts from two donors is a good solution. From 2002 to 2009, five recipients in our hospital received dual graft LDLT. Two recipients received one right lobe and one left lobe grafts; the other three received two left lobe grafts. The mean final liver regeneration rate was 91.2%. Left lobe graft atrophy in the long term was observed in recipients who received a right and a left lobe grafts. The initial bigger volume graft in all recipients was noted to have better regeneration than the smaller volume grafts. Portal flow and bilateral grafts volume size discrepancy were considered as two major factors influencing graft regeneration in this study. We also noted that the initial graft volume correlated with portal flow in the separate grafts and finally contribute to individual graft regeneration. Because of compensatory hypertrophy of the other graft, recipients who experienced atrophy of one graft did not show signs of liver dysfunction.

  14. The experiences of adults who are on dialysis and waiting for a renal transplant from a deceased donor: a systematic review. (United States)

    Burns, Tania; Fernandez, Ritin; Stephens, Moira


    Kidney transplantation has been recognized as the best renal replacement therapy option for people with end stage renal disease. With an estimated 170,000 people waiting for a kidney transplant around the world and a limited supply of donor organs, the waiting time is often prolonged for many years. The aim of this review was to examine the existing evidence of patients' experiences of living on dialysis and waiting for a renal transplant from a deceased donor. This review considered studies that included adult patients aged 18 years and over who had been on dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) for up to 15 years and who were waiting for a renal transplant from a deceased donor. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest: The phenomena of interest were the experiences of adults waiting for a renal transplant from a deceased donor and more specifically, the impact of waiting on their lifestyle and day to day living. Types of studies: This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. Types of outcomes: This review considered studies that included the experiences of people who were waiting on dialysis for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies through electronic databases, reference list searches and the World Wide Web. Extensive searches were undertaken of the CINAHL, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo databases of published literature, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library, OpenGrey and the New York Academy of Medicine databases of unpublished literature. Each study was assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument checklist. Disagreements between the reviewers were resolved

  15. Bioengineered Corneas Grafted as Alternatives to Human Donor Corneas in Three High‐Risk Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buznyk, Oleksiy; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya; Islam, M. Mirazul; Iakymenko, Stanislav; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May


    .... In this early observational study, we grafted bioengineered corneal implants made from recombinant human collagen and synthetic phosphorylcholine polymer into three patients for whom donor cornea...

  16. "Single Oval Ostium Technique" using Polytetrafluoroethylene Graft for Outflow Reconstruction in Right Liver Grafts with venous Anomalies in Living Donor Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Thorat, Ashok; Jeng, Long-Bin; Li, Ping-Chun; Li, Ming-Li; Yang, Horng-Ren; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Te-Hung; Hsu, Shih-Chao


    Right lobe living donor liver transplantation form a major source of liver allografts in Asia because of the scarcity of deceased donation. However, the transplant surgeons often face challenges while managing right lobe liver allografts due to variations in vascular anatomy. Such variations have led the transplant team to adopt modifications in existing techniques of inflow and outflow reconstruction. One of such variations is presence of multiple draining inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs). This hepatic venous anomaly pose a lot of technical difficulties in the outflow reconstruction as second and/or third anastomosis to inferior vena cava is not always possible in limited retrohepatic space. Herein, we describe the "Single oval ostium technique" using dual synthetic vascular grafts ensuring a common outflow channel for all the hepatic veins.

  17. Effect of donor age on graft function and long-term survival of recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Wen-Tao Jiang; Yong-Lin Deng; Cheng Pan; Zhong-Yang Shen


    BACKGROUND: Donor shortage is the biggest obstacle in organ transplantation. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been considered as a valuable approach to short-ening waiting time. The objectives of this study were to inves-tigate the feasibility of utilizing donors older than 50 years in LDLT and to evaluate the graft function and recipient survival. METHODS: All LDLT cases (n=159) were divided into the older (donor age ≥50 years, n=10) and younger (donor age RESULTS: The median donor age was 58.5 (52.5-60.0) years in the older donor group and 25.0 (23.0-32.0) in the younger do-nor group. There was no significant difference in cold ischemic time, anhepatic phase and operation time between the older and younger donor groups (P>0.05). However, the volume of red blood cell transfused in operation was greater in the older donor group than in the younger donor group (1900 vs 1200 mL, P=0.023). The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates were 90%, 80% and 80% for the older donor group, and 92%, 87%and 87% for the younger donor group, respectively (P=0.459). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 90% and 90%for recipients with older grafts, and 93%, 87% and 87% for those with younger grafts, respectively (P=0.811). CONCLUSION: It is safe for a LDLT recipient to receive liver from donors older than 50 years, and there is no significant adverse effect on graft function and long-term patients' survival.

  18. Volumetry-based selection of right posterior sector grafts for adult living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Wan; Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Hee-Jung; Park, Yong-Keun; Lee, Kwangil; Kim, Myung-Wook


    To determine the feasibility of volumetric criteria without anatomic exclusion for the selection of right posterior sector (RPS) grafts for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we reviewed and compared our transplant data for RPS grafts and right lobe (RL) grafts. Between January 2008 and September 2010, adult-to-adult LDLT was performed 65 times at our institute; 13 of the procedures (20%) were performed with RPS grafts [the posterior sector (PS) group], and 39 (60%) were performed with RL grafts (the RL group). The volumetry of the 13 RPS donor livers showed that the RPS volume was 39.8% ± 7.6% of the total liver volume. Ten of the 13 donors had to donate RPS grafts because the left liver volume was inadequate. All donor procedures were performed successfully, and all donors recovered from hepatectomy. However, longer operative times were required for the procurement of RPS grafts versus RL grafts (418 ± 40 versus 345 ± 48 minutes, P liver function was smoother for the donors of the PS group versus the donors of the RL group. The RPS grafts had significantly smaller hepatic artery and bile duct openings than the RL grafts. All recipients with RPS grafts survived LDLT. No recipients experienced vascular graft complications or small-for-size graft dysfunction. There were no significant differences in the incidence of posttransplant complications between the donors and recipients of the PS and RL groups. The 3-year graft survival rates were favorable in both groups (100% in the PS group versus 91% in the RL group). In conclusion, the selection of RPS grafts by volume criteria is a feasible strategy for an adult-to-adult LDLT program.

  19. Decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients of donors with positive blood cultures: a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing dataset. (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Vilchez, Valery; Mei, Xiaonan; Shah, Malay B; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan; Gedaly, Roberto


    Liver transplantation using blood culture positive donors (BCPD) has allowed a significant expansion of the donor pool. We aimed to characterize BCPD and assess the outcomes of BCPD liver transplant recipients. We retrieved data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry on all adults who underwent primary, single-organ deceased-donor liver transplantation in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Patients were classified into two cohorts: the BCPD cohort and the non-BCPD cohort. One-year graft and patient survival were compared between cohorts using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. A total of 28 961 patients were included. There were 2316 (8.0%) recipients of BCPD. BCPD were more likely to be older, female, black, diabetic, hypertensive, and obese compared to non-BCPD. Graft survival was significantly lower in BCPD recipients compared to non-BCPD recipients (Kaplan-Meier, 0.85 vs. 0.87; P = 0.009). Results remained significant in propensity-matched analysis (P = 0.038). BCPD was independently associated with decreased graft survival (adjusted HR; 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20; P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in patient survival between study groups. BCPD was associated with decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients. Studies are needed to identify subgroups of BCPD with the highest risk of graft failure and characterize the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. Living donor liver transplantation using dual grafts: Experience and lessons learned from cases worldwide. (United States)

    Xu, Yinzhe; Chen, Hao; Yeh, Heidi; Wang, Hongguang; Leng, Jianjun; Dong, Jiahong


    In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), insufficient graft volume could result in small-for-size syndrome in recipients, whereas major liver donation predisposes the donor to a high risk of posthepatectomy liver failure. Dual graft LDLT is therefore introduced to obtain combined graft sufficiency. To date, 367 patients have been reported worldwide. We reviewed all the relevant literature, with a special focus on 43 case reports containing enough data to extract and analyze. A simple decision-making algorithm was developed. Dual graft LDLT is indicated when (1) a single donation is unacceptable due to graft-to-recipient size mismatch; (2) the future liver remnant is insufficient in the single donor after major resection; or (3) there is a significant underlying disorder or anatomical variation within the donor liver. The outcome of dual graft LDLT is reported to be comparable with that of single donor LDLT. Unilateral graft atrophy was found in 7 of the 43 patients, predominantly in the right-sided, heterotopic and initially smaller grafts. Technically, the heterotopic implantation and complex vascular reconstruction are the most demanding. Elaborate surgical planning and modification are needed. Ethical concerns about involving a second living donor need to be addressed. In conclusion, dual graft LDLT should be prudently performed in select cases by surgeons of proven expertise when single donation is unacceptable and a second living donor is available. The decision-making criteria need to be standardized. More surgical modification and clinical research are needed.

  1. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study (United States)

    Baldwin, Matthew R; Peterson, Eric R; Easthausen, Imaani; Quintanilla, Isaac; Colago, Eric; Sonett, Joshua R.; D’Ovidio, Frank; Costa, Joseph; Diamond, Joshua M; Christie, Jason D; Arcasoy, Selim M; Lederer, David J


    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8,860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction. The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18–64 years, but severely ill recipients (LAS > 47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56–64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.01–1.50 and adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.47–3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of primary graft dysfunction. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56–64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS, and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. PMID:24034167

  2. Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using extended right lobe grafts


    Lo, CM; Fan, ST; Wei, WI; Lai, CL; Ng, IOL; Wong, J.; Uu, CL; Lo, RJW; Chan, JKF; Fung, A


    Objective: The authors report their experience with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using extended right lobe grafts for adult patients under high-urgency situations. Summary Background Data: The efficacy of LDLT in the treatment of children has been established. The major limitation of adult-to-adult LDLT is the adequacy of the graft size. A left lobe graft from a relatively small volunteer donor will not meet the metabolic demand of a larger recipient. Methods: From May 1996 to No...

  3. Gene Expression Profile in Delay Graft Function: Inflammatory Markers Are Associated with Recipient and Donor Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Guerrieri


    Full Text Available Background. Delayed graft function (DGF remains an important problem after kidney transplantation and reduced long-term graft survival of the transplanted organ. The aim of the present study was to determine if the development of DGF was associated with a specific pattern of inflammatory gene expression in expanded criteria of deceased donor kidney transplantation. Also, we explored the presence of correlations between DGF risk factors and the profile that was found. Methods. Seven days after kidney transplant, a cDNA microarray was performed on biopsies of graft from patients with and without DGF. Data was confirmed by real-time PCR. Correlations were performed between inflammatory gene expression and clinical risk factors. Results. From a total of 84 genes analyzed, 58 genes were upregulated while only 1 gene was downregulated in patients with DGF compared with no DGF (P=0.01. The most relevant genes fold changes observed was IFNA1, IL-10, IL-1F7, IL-1R1, HMOX-1, and TGF-β. The results were confirmed for IFNA1, IL-1R1, HMOX-1 and TGF-β. A correlation was observed between TGF-β, donor age, and preablation creatinine, but not body mass index (BMI. Also, TGF-β showed an association with recipient age, while IFNA1 correlated with recipient BMI. Furthermore, TGF-β, IFNA1 and HMOX-1 correlated with several posttransplant kidney function markers, such as diuresis, ultrasound Doppler, and glycemia. Conclusions. Overall, the present study shows that DGF is associated with inflammatory markers, which are correlated with donor and recipient DGF risk factors.

  4. Cavo-caval intervention stent insertion after deceased-donor liver transplantation using side-to-side piggyback technique: report of a case. (United States)

    Kim, In-Gyu; Kim, Byung Seup; Jeon, Jang Yong; Kwon, Jae Woo; Kim, Joo Seop; Kim, Doo Jin; Jung, Jae Pil; Chon, Seong Eun; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Eui Yong; Kim, Min-Jeong; Lee, Kwanseop


    Liver transplantation with preservation of the recipient vena cava (piggyback technique) has been performed as an alternative to the conventional method. Outflow disturbance or obstruction of the vena cava in the early period after liver transplantation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We used side-to-side cavo-caval anastomosis (modified piggyback technique) in a deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for venous outflow reconstruction. On postoperative day 9, the patient developed abdominal discomfort, and abnormal liver function showing serum total bilirubin of 6.2 mg/dl and serum AST/ALT of 297/597 IU/L. Doppler ultrasound showed mono-phasic wave forms of the hepatic vein. Computed tomography showed focal narrowing of 9.5 mm×12 mm in diameter at the cavo-caval anastomosis site. Liver biopsy was showed that there was no evidence of acute allograft rejection. Direct venogram showed stenosis of the cavo-caval anastomosis with a pressure gradient of 12 mmHg. An interventional stent was inserted in the stenotic site of the inferior vena cava, and the pressure gradient decreased to 2 mmHg. He was discharged from hospital on postoperative day 23 without any other complications. Herein we report a case of deceased-donor liver transplantation using the modified piggyback technique, who received an inferior vena cava stent due to stricture of the reconstructed orifice of the vena cava.

  5. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80 Years. (United States)

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Méndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Suárez, Y F


    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts.

  6. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  7. Donor-specific anti-HLA Abs and graft failure in matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Ciurea, Stefan O; Thall, Peter F; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Sa A; Hu, Ying; Cano, Pedro; Aung, Fleur; Rondon, Gabriela; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Korbling, Martin; Shpall, Elizabeth J; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard E; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo


    Anti-HLA donor-specific Abs (DSAs) have been reported to be associated with graft failure in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, their role in the development of graft failure in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesize that DSAs against a mismatched HLA-DPB1 locus is associated with graft failure in this setting. The presence of anti-HLA Abs before transplantation was determined prospectively in 592 MUD transplantation recipients using mixed-screen beads in a solid-phase fluorescent assay. DSA identification was performed using single-Ag beads containing the corresponding donor's HLA-mismatched Ags. Anti-HLA Abs were detected in 116 patients (19.6%), including 20 patients (3.4%) with anti-DPB1 Abs. Overall, graft failure occurred in 19 of 592 patients (3.2%), including 16 of 584 (2.7%) patients without anti-HLA Abs compared with 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with DSA (P = .0014). In multivariate analysis, DSAs were the only factor highly associated with graft failure (P = .0001; odds ratio = 21.3). Anti-HLA allosensitization was higher overall in women than in men (30.8% vs 12.1%; P < .0001) and higher in women with 1 (P = .008) and 2 or more pregnancies (P = .0003) than in men. We conclude that the presence of anti-DPB1 DSAs is associated with graft failure in MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  8. Reducing the thickness of left lateral segment grafts in neonatal living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Shigeta, Takanobu; Uchida, Hajime; Hamano, Ikumi; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kitajima, Toshihiro; Fukuda, Akinari; Rela, Mohamed


    Liver transplantation is now an established treatment for children with end-stage liver disease. Left lateral segment (LLS) grafts are most commonly used in split and living donor liver transplantation in children. In very small children, LLS grafts can be too large, and further nonanatomical reduction has recently been introduced to mitigate the problem of large-for-size grafts. However, the implantation of LLS grafts can be a problem in infants and very small children because of the thickness of the grafts, and these techniques do not address problems related to thickness. We herein describe a technique for reducing the thickness of living donor left lateral grafts and successful transplantation in a 2.8-kg infant with acute liver failure.

  9. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation


    Hrydziuszko, Olga; Perera, M. Thamara P. R; Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A; Richards, Douglas A.; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F; Viant, Mark R.


    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27...

  10. Pre-transplant dialysis modality does not influence short- or long-term outcome in kidney transplant recipients: analysis of paired kidneys from the same deceased donor. (United States)

    Dipalma, Teresa; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Praga, Manuel; Polanco, Natalia; González, Esther; Gutiérrez-Solis, Elena; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Andrés, Amado


    Previous studies have reported contradictory results regarding the effect of pre-transplant dialysis modality on the outcomes after kidney transplantation (KT). To minimize the confounding effect of donor-related variables, we performed a donor-matched retrospective comparison of 160 patients that received only one modality of pre-transplant dialysis (peritoneal dialysis [PD] and hemodialysis [HD] in 80 patients each) and that subsequently underwent KT at our center between January 1990 and December 2007. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between pre-transplant dialysis modality and primary study outcomes (death-censored graft survival and patient survival). To control for imbalances in recipient-related baseline characteristics, we performed additional adjustments for the propensity score (PS) for receiving pre-transplant PD (versus HD). There were no significant differences according to pre-transplant dialysis modality in death-censored graft survival (PS-adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.25-1.68) or patient survival (aHR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.13-2.68). There were no differences in 10-year graft function or in the incidence of post-transplant complications either, except for a higher risk of lymphocele in patients undergoing PD (odds ratio: 4.31; 95% CI: 1.15-16.21). In conclusion, pre-transplant dialysis modality in KT recipients does not impact short- or long-term graft outcomes or patient survival.

  11. DCD lung donation : donor criteria, procedural criteria, pulmonary graft function validation, and preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel E.; van Raemdonck, Dirk; Akhtar, Mohammed Zeeshan; Neyrinck, Arne; de Antonio, David Gomez; Varela, Andreas; Dark, John


    In an era where there is a shortage of lungs for transplantation is increased utilization of lungs from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. We review the reports of 11 controlled and 1 uncontrolled DCD programs focusing on donor criteria, procedural criteria, graft assessment, and preserv

  12. Survival of cadaveric renal transplant grafts from young donors and in young recipients. (United States)

    Arbus, G S; Rochon, J; Thompson, D


    Evidence from multicenter registries has suggested that cadaveric renal graft survival is poorer when either the recipient or the donor is very young. We therefore analyzed our results from a single pediatric center. There was a significant correlation between greater recipient age and improved cadaveric graft (P = 0.002) and patient (P = 0.0009) survival. The age of the donor also appeared important, particularly in very young children, but became less so as donor age rose. Forty-four percent of recipients under 3 years old who received cadaveric kidneys from donors less than 4 years old lost their grafts as a result of renal thrombosis, ischemia, or technical problems, compared with only 3% of recipients over 9 years of age, whose grafts came from donors who were also over 9 years. The 1-year first cadaveric graft survival rates for these two age groups were 33% and 82% respectively. Our experience confirms the poor findings reported in very young recipients and with very young donors.

  13. Quantification of degree of steatosis in extended criteria donor grafts with standardized histologic techniques: implications for graft survival. (United States)

    Frongillo, F; Avolio, A W; Nure, E; Mulè, A; Pepe, G; Magalini, S C; Agnes, S


    The gap between the availability of livers from organ donors and the increased demand has led many centers to apply strategies to reduce this deficit. Splitting of cadaveric organs for use in 2 recipients; domino transplantation; and organs from living donors, non-heart-beating donors, and extended-criteria donors (ECDs) are all currently used in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fatty changes in the donor liver are a risk factor for poor function after OLT; however, the presence of steatosis, frequently present in livers from ECDs, does not exclude the use of these organs. Since January 2000 at our institution, we observed 39 steatotic grafts that were stratified istologically as follows: low steatosis, 5% to 15%; mild steatosis, 16% to 30%; moderate steatosis, 31% to 60%; and severe steatosis (>60%). Histologic techniques can enable identification of the type of fatty change as macrovesicular and microvesicular. These alterations have different effects on primary nonfunction and primary dysfunction. Fifteen grafts, all with severe or moderate, macrovesicular changes were discarded. Twenty-four fatty grafts with low to moderate steatosis were utilized for transplant. Sections from 2 liver biopsies (1 wedge in the left lobe and 1 needle in the right lobe) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, Gomori reticulin, and oil red O. The OLT was performed only in patients with a MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score lower than 27. The rate of primary dysfunction was 12.5%, and of primary nonfunction 8.4%. The 6-month graft survival for all fatty livers was 80%. We encourage the careful use of grafts with low to moderate steatosis in recipients without additional risks.

  14. Predictive factors of early graft loss in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Camargo Pinheiro Alves


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Living donor liver transplantation has become an alternative to reduce the lack of organ donation. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predictive of early graft loss in the first 3 months after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Seventy-eight adults submitted to living donor liver transplantation were divided into group I with 62 (79.5% patients with graft survival longer than 3 months, and group II with 16 (20.5% patients who died and/or showed graft failure within 3 months after liver transplantation. The variables analyzed were gender, age, etiology of liver disease, Child-Pugh classification, model of end-stage liver disease (MELD score, pretransplantation serum sodium level, and graft weight-to-recipient body weight (GRBW ratio. The GRBW ratio was categorized into 18. The chi-square test, Student t-test and uni- and multivariate analysis were used for the evaluation of risk factors for early graft loss. RESULTS: MELD score 135 mEq/L (P = 0.03 were higher in group II than in group I. In the multivariate analysis MELD scores > 18 (P18 and GRBW < 0.8 ratios are associated with higher probability of graft failure after living donor liver transplantation.

  15. The role of hormone replacement therapy in the intensive care management of deceased organ donors: a primer for nurses. (United States)

    Smetana, Keaton S; Kimmons, Lauren A; Jones, G Morgan


    Donation after brain death remains the primary contributor to the supply of organs available for transplantation in the United States. After brain death, both a surge of catecholamines and a dysregulation of the neurohormonal axis may result in hypotension, decreased organ perfusion, and reduced viability of organs to be transplanted. Hormone replacement therapy is widely used to maintain organ perfusion and has been shown to increase the number of organs procured. This article reviews the literature and mechanisms supporting the use of hormone replacement therapy in brain-dead organ donors and provides clinicians with information regarding the administration, monitoring, and preparation of thyroid hormone, arginine vasopressin, and corticosteroids.

  16. Carbon monoxide inhalation ameliorates conditions of lung grafts from rat brain death donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hua-cheng; DING Wen-gang; CUI Xiao-guang; PAN Peng; ZHANG Bing; LI Wen-zhi


    Background Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the scarcity of donors. Brain death (BD) donors are major source of lung transplantation. Whereas BD process induces acute lung injury and aggravates lung ischemia reperfusion injury. Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation at 50-500 parts per million (ppm) can ameliorate lung injury in several models. We examined in rats whether CO inhalation in BD donor would show favorable effects on lung grafts.Methods Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. In sham group, donor rats received insertion of a balloon catheter into the cranial cavity, but the balloon was not inflated. In BD-only group, donor rats were ventilated with 40% oxygen after BD confirmation. In BD+CO250 and BD+CO500 groups, donor rats inhaled, after BD confirmation, 250 ppm or 500 ppm CO for 120 minutes prior to lung procurement, and orthotopic lung transplantation was performed. The rats were sacrificed 120 minutes after the lung transplantation by exsanguination, and their blood and lung graft samples were obtained. A total of 8 rats fulfilling the criteria were included in each group.Results The inhalation decreased the severity of lung injury in grafts from BD donors checked by histological examination. CO pretreatment reversed the aggravation of PaO2/FiO2 in recipients from BD donors. The CO inhalation down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) along with the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in recipient serum, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase in grafts tissue. The inhalation significantly decreased cell apoptosis in lung grafts, inhibiting mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 in lung grafts. Further, the inhalation activated phosphorylation of p38 expression and inhibited phosphorylation of anti-extraceUular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression in lung grafts. The effects of CO at 500 ppm were greater than those at 250 ppm.Conclusions CO exerts

  17. Outcomes of liver transplantation with liver grafts from pediatric donors used in adult recipients. (United States)

    Croome, Kristopher P; Lee, David D; Burns, Justin M; Saucedo-Crespo, Hector; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin


    Although there is an agreement that liver grafts from pediatric donors (PDs) should ideally be used for pediatric patients, there remain situations when these grafts are turned down for pediatric recipients and are then offered to adult recipients. The present study aimed to investigate the outcomes of using these grafts for liver transplantation (LT) in adult patients. Data from all patients undergoing LT between 2002 and 2014 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Analysis and Research file. Adult recipients undergoing LT were divided into 2 groups: those receiving a pediatric liver graft (pediatric-to-adult group) and those receiving a liver graft from adult donors (adult-to-adult group). A separate subgroup analysis comparing the PDs used for adult recipients and those used for pediatric recipients was also performed. Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between pediatric-to-adult and adult-to-adult groups (P = 0.08 and P = 0.21, respectively). Hepatic artery thrombosis as the cause for graft loss was higher in the pediatric-to-adult group (3.6%) than the adult-to-adult group (1.9%; P graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) graft loss rate than those with a GRWR ≥ 0.8 (39% versus 9%; P graft survival can be achieved with the use of pediatric liver grafts in adult recipients, when these grafts have been determined to be inappropriate for usage in the pediatric population. Liver Transplantation 22 1099-1106 2016 AASLD.

  18. Catastrophic Thermal Corneoscleral Injury Treated with Transplantation of Donor Scleral Graft

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    Satoru Kase


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to report a patient with senile cataract developing severe thermal corneoscleral injury during phacoemulsification, which was treated with a donor scleral graft. Case: Severe thermal corneoscleral injury occurred during phacoemulsification in the right eye of a 74-year-old male. His medical history was prostate hypertrophy. Visual acuity was hand motion and the intraocular pressure was 3 mm Hg OD. There was heavy corneal stromal opacity with intraocular fluid leakage. The patient underwent transplantation of a donor scleral graft to the burn site. Histologically, the injured sclera showed coagulation necrosis without inflammatory cell infiltration. An intraocular lens was eventually fixed in the ciliary sulcus 7 months later. His visual acuity remains at 2/20 OD. Conclusions: Transplantation of the donor scleral grafts is useful to close the wound in catastrophic thermal injury.

  19. Optimizing utilization of kidneys from deceased donors over 60 years: five-year outcomes after implementation of a combined clinical and histological allocation algorithm. (United States)

    Pierobon, Elisa Sefora; Sefora, Pierobon Elisa; Sandrini, Silvio; Silvio, Sandrini; De Fazio, Nicola; Nicola, De Fazio; Rossini, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Rossini; Fontana, Iris; Iris, Fontana; Boschiero, Luigino; Luigino, Boschiero; Gropuzzo, Maria; Maria, Gropuzzo; Gotti, Eliana; Eliana, Gotti; Donati, Donato; Donato, Donati; Minetti, Enrico; Enrico, Minetti; Gandolfo, Maria Teresa; Teresa, Gandolfo Maria; Brunello, Anna; Anna, Brunello; Libetta, Carmelo; Carmelo, Libetta; Secchi, Antonio; Antonio, Secchi; Chiaramonte, Stefano; Stefano, Chiaramonte; Rigotti, Paolo; Paolo, Rigotti


    This 5 year observational multicentre study conducted in the Nord Italian Transplant programme area evaluated outcomes in patients receiving kidneys from donors over 60 years allocated according to a combined clinical and histological algorithm. Low-risk donors 60-69 years without risk factors were allocated to single kidney transplant (LR-SKT) based on clinical criteria. Biopsy was performed in donors over 70 years or 60-69 years with risk factors, allocated to Single (HR-SKT) or Dual kidney transplant (HR-DKT) according to the severity of histological damage. Forty HR-DKTs, 41 HR-SKTs and 234 LR-SKTs were evaluated. Baseline differences generally reflected stratification and allocation criteria. Patient and graft (death censored) survival were 90% and 92% for HR-DKT, 85% and 89% for HR-SKT, 88% and 87% for LR-SKT. The algorithm appeared user-friendly in daily practice and was safe and efficient, as demonstrated by satisfactory outcomes in all groups at 5 years. Clinical criteria performed well in low-risk donors. The excellent outcomes observed in DKTs call for fine-tuning of cut-off scores for allocation to DKT or SKT in high-risk patients.

  20. Escalating doses of donor lymphocytes for incipient graft rejection following SCT for thalassemia. (United States)

    Frugnoli, I; Cappelli, B; Chiesa, R; Biral, E; Noè, A; Evangelio, C; Fossati, M; Napolitano, S; Ciceri, F; Roncarolo, M G; Marktel, S


    Mixed chimerism (MC) and secondary graft failure are frequent events following SCT for thalassemia. There is limited information regarding the outcome of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to prevent rejection, mainly from case reports describing only successful cases. We describe a series of seven children affected by beta-thalassemia treated with escalating doses of DLI for level 2-3 MC (donor<90%) following myeloablative SCT from a matched family donor. The infusions were safe and no acute or chronic GVHD were documented; five patients experienced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia resolving spontaneously. DLI was successful in converting to full donor chimerism two patients stratified in the low-risk class (Pesaro class II). Conversely, for five high-risk patients, DLI was not effective in preventing secondary graft failure. This limited series suggests that escalating doses of DLI are safe in thalassemia patients post myeloablative therapy but efficacy may be jeopardized by rapidly growing anti-donor alloimmunity in high-risk patients. We suggest giving escalating doses of donor T cells to attempt a graft-versus-thalassemia as soon as level 2-3 MC is detected.

  1. Assessing Donor Site Complications of Iliac Crest Bone Graft in Treatment of Scaphoid Nonunion

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    Davod Jafari


    Full Text Available Background Bone grafting is a common surgical technique to augment bone regeneration in orthopedic surgery. Autologous bone graft harvesting is the reliable treatment option and iliac crest is the most common harvesting site for healing bone fractures. However, the results of iliac crest bone graft harvesting are associated with morbidity and a number of complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess donor site complications of scaphoid nonunion, to find clinical outcomes and the impact of iliac crest bone graft on age, gender, pain, numbness, itching, nerve injury and scar appearance of patients. Methods In a prospective review of 61 cases of iliac crest bone graft procedures at the Shafa hospital from 2013 to 2014, complications including pain, infection, hematoma, stress fracture, hypertrophic scars, numbness area and itching were assessed clinically. Results Pain identified as the most common complication. The most common complications following postoperative pain at the donor site that reduced after six weeks were: numbness 3.27%, unsatisfactory scar appearance 3.27% and itching discomfort 1.63%. Conclusions Harvesting of iliac crest bone graft can be the ideal way to prepare graft procedures required surgery scaphoid nonunion fractures with minimal complications. Nevertheless, with an adequate preoperative planning and appropriate surgical technique, the prevalence of these complications can be reduced.

  2. Critical progressive small-graft injury caused by intrasinusoidal pressure elevation following living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Kaneko, T; Hirota, M; Nagasaka, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, S; Takeda, S; Kiuchi, T; Nakao, A


    In adult-to-adult living liver transplantation, small-for-size graft syndrome sometimes occurs. The relationship between the hemodynamic changes and histologic findings has not been studied in patients with failure of small-for-size grafts. We analyzed the relationship between the postoperative hemodynamic changes and pathologic findings in patients with small-for-size grafts that ended in graft failure. From March 1999 to December 2002, adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation with small-size grafts (graft volume/standard liver volume less than 40%) was performed in eight patients. Three patients died from graft failure caused by overperfusion, which was diagnosed from pathologic findings. We analyzed the relation between hepatic hemodynamic parameters, such as portal venous blood velocity or splenic arterial pulsatility index, and histologic changes in patients with graft failure. Severe portal hyperperfusion (90 cm/sec at the umbilical portion) was observed on postoperative day 1. Among patients with graft failure, critical hemodynamic changes, such as sudden onset of extremely deteriorated portal venous blood flow, occurred during the early postoperative period (postoperative day 5, 3, 6, respectively). Histologic examination revealed vacuolar changes in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, and submassive necrosis indicated intrasinusoidal pressure elevation. These changes were not observed in the biopsy obtained soon after reperfusion. In conclusion, critically decreased vascular beds may cause intrasinusoidal pressure elevation and sinusoidal circulatory disturbances.

  3. Safety of small-for-size grafts in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe. (United States)

    Moon, Ju Ik; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Jung, Gum O; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Jong Man; Shin, Milljae; Kim, Sung-Joo; Lee, Suk-Koo


    The problem of graft size is one of the critical factors limiting the expansion of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We compared the outcome of LDLT recipients who received grafts with a graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) or = 0.8%, and we analyzed the risk factors affecting graft survival after small-for-size grafts (SFSGs) were used. Between June 1997 and April 2008, 427 patients underwent LDLT with right lobe grafts at the Department of Surgery of Samsung Medical Center. Recipients were divided into 2 groups: group A with a GRWR or = 0.8% (n = 392). We retrospectively evaluated the recipient factors, donor factors, and operative factors through the medical records. Small-for-size dysfunction (SFSD) occurred in 2 of 35 patients (5.7%) in group A and in 14 of 392 patients (3.6%) in group B (P = 0.368). Graft survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were not different between the 2 groups (87.8%, 83.4%, and 74.1% versus 90.7%, 84.5%, and 79.4%, P = 0.852). However, when we analyzed risk factors within group A, donor age and middle hepatic vein tributary drainage were significant risk factors for graft survival according to univariate analysis (P = 0.042 and P = 0.038, respectively). Donor age was the only significant risk factor for poor graft survival according to multivariate analysis. The graft survival rates of recipients without SFSD tended to be higher than those of recipients with SFSD (85.3% versus 50.0%, P = 0.074). The graft survival rates of recipients with grafts from donors grafts from donors > or = 44 years old (92.2% versus 53.6%, P = 0.005). In conclusion, an SFSG (GRWR graft from a donor younger than 44 years.

  4. The evaluation of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in cardiac deceased donor liver transplant patients in China. (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyi; He, J J; Liu, X Y; Lin, Bingyi; Zhang, Lin; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Shusen


    The management of liver receivers requires intense immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a common immunosuppressant but frequently suffer dose reduction for gastrointestinal adverse reactions (GI). Hence, the enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is introduced as a substitute for MMF to reduce GI. The study was designed to investigate the efficacy, safety and exposure equation of EC-MPS in liver transplant patients in China. Ninety-two liver receivers who administered EC-MPS or MMF as a primary immunosuppressant were enrolled in this single-center study and divided into MMF group and EC-MPC group, respectively. Efficacy and safety of EC-MPS were compared with MMF. The MPA exposure was measured at time 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 h after mean 4.5 days of EC-MPS treatment. An equation of limited time points for estimating serum MPA exposure of EC-MPS was established using multiple stepwise regression model. Data show an interpatient variation in MPA AUC, Cmax and Tmax. After a first dose of EC-MPS, the mean value of serum AUC0-12 h was 20.68 mg/L (SD 8.94, range 8.1-46.3). Cmax was 9.7 mg/L (SD 6.48, range 2.7-16.3); Tmax was 1.90 h (SD 0.97, range 0.5-4). The best equation for estimating the AUC was 6.0 1 4 + 0.946C2 + 0.606C3 + 1.154C4 + 2.479C6 + 5.07C12. Comparing with MMF, EC-MPS not only effectively maintained immunosuppression, but also had similar incidences of infection, renal dysfunction and hematological disorders. However, EC-MPS markedly improved GI, the incidence of GI was half of the MMF group. This analysis presented that EC-MPS is an effective and safe immunosuppressant as similar as MMF. The conversion of MMF to EC-MPS could be administered.

  5. Late quadriceps tendon rupture at the donor site following cruciate ligament reconstruction using central quadriceps tendon graft. (United States)

    Pandey, Vivek; Madi, Sandesh; Joseph, Amy; Acharya, Kiran


    Central quadriceps tendon (CQT) graft has been successfully used as a viable autograft option in cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee. The prime emphasis in the majority of the literature is given to surgical details of quadriceps graft harvesting and outcome of cruciate ligament reconstruction. There is less discussion about donor site morbidity in CQT graft, and it is less frequent as compared to that in bone patellar tendon bone graft. We report an extremely unusual case of late quadriceps tendon rupture at the donor site following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using CQT graft.

  6. Liver grafts for transplantation from donors with diabetes: an analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database. (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Hu, Zhenhua; Lo, Chung Mau; Wang, Weilin


    Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) have worse survival than those without DM after liver transplantation. However, the effect of liver grafts from DM donors on the post-transplantation survival of recipients is unclear. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (2004-2008), 25,413 patients were assessed. Among them, 2,469 recipients received grafts from donors with DM. The demographics and outcome of patients were assessed. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analyses. Recipients from DM donors experienced worse graft survival than recipients from non-DM donors (one-year survival: 81% versus 85%, and five-year survival: 67% versus 74%, PGraft survival was significantly lower for recipients from DM donors with DM duration >5 years (Pgraft survival (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19). The effect of DM donors was more pronounced on certain underlying liver diseases of recipients. Increases in the risk of graft loss were noted among recipients from DM donors with hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection, whereas those without HCV experienced similar outcomes compared with recipients from non-DM donors. These data suggest that recipients from DM donors experience significantly worse patient survival after liver transplantation. However, in patients without HCV infection, using DM donors was not independently associated with worse post-transplantation graft survival. Matching these DM donors to recipients without HCV may be safe.

  7. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors. (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz


    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  8. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

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    O'Donoghue, J M


    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  9. Grafting of a single donor myofibre promotes hypertrophy in dystrophic mouse muscle.

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    Luisa Boldrin

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment.

  10. Grafting of a Single Donor Myofibre Promotes Hypertrophy in Dystrophic Mouse Muscle (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer E.


    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment. PMID:23349935

  11. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature. (United States)

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro


    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented.

  12. Usability of ringed polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for middle hepatic vein reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Park, Gil-Chun; Jung, Sung-Won; Yoon, Sam-Youl; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Park, Chun-Soo; Park, Yo-Han; Park, Hyeong-Woo; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Lee, Sung-Gyu


    Large vein allografts are suitable for middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction, but their supply is often limited. Although polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts are unlimitedly available, their long-term patency is relatively poor. We intended to enhance the clinical usability of PTFE grafts for MHV reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Two sequential studies were performed. First, PTFE grafts were implanted as inferior vena cava replacements into dogs. Second, in a 1-year prospective clinical trial of 262 adults undergoing LDLT with a modified right lobe, MHV reconstruction with PTFE grafts was compared with other types of reconstruction, and the outcomes were evaluated. In the animal study, PTFE grafts induced strong inflammatory reactions and luminal thrombus formation, but the endothelial lining was well developed. In the clinical study, the reconstruction techniques were revised to make a composite PTFE graft with an artery patch on the basis of the results of the animal study. MHVs were reconstructed with cryopreserved iliac veins (n = 122), iliac arteries (n = 43), aortas (n = 13), and PTFE (n = 84), and these reconstructions yielded 6-month patency rates of 75.3%, 35.2%, 92.3%, and 76.6%, respectively. The overall 6-month patency rates for the iliac vein and PTFE grafts were similar (P = 0.92), but the 6-month patency rates with vein segment 5 were 51.0% and 34.7%, respectively (P = 0.001). The overall graft and patient survival rates did not differ among these 4 groups. In conclusion, ringed PTFE grafts combined with small vessel patches showed high patency rates comparable to those of iliac vein grafts; thus, they can be used for MHV reconstruction when other sizable vessel allografts are not available.

  13. Liver graft regeneration in right lobe adult living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Cheng, Y-F; Huang, T-L; Chen, T-Y; Tsang, L L-C; Ou, H-Y; Yu, C-Y; Concejero, A; Wang, C-C; Wang, S-H; Lin, T-S; Liu, Y-W; Yang, C-H; Yong, C-C; Chiu, K-W; Jawan, B; Eng, H-L; Chen, C-L


    Optimal portal flow is one of the essentials in adequate liver function, graft regeneration and outcome of the graft after right lobe adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). The relations among factors that cause sufficient liver graft regeneration are still unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential predisposing factors that encourage liver graft regeneration after ALDLT. The study population consisted of right lobe ALDLT recipients from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan. The records, preoperative images, postoperative Doppler ultrasound evaluation and computed tomography studies performed 6 months after transplant were reviewed. The volume of the graft 6 months after transplant divided by the standard liver volume was calculated as the regeneration ratio. The predisposing risk factors were compiled from statistical analyses and included age, recipient body weight, native liver disease, spleen size before transplant, patency of the hepatic venous graft, graft weight-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR), posttransplant portal flow, vascular and biliary complications and rejection. One hundred forty-five recipients were enrolled in this study. The liver graft regeneration ratio was 91.2 +/- 12.6% (range, 58-151). The size of the spleen (p = 0.00015), total portal flow and GRWR (p = 0.005) were linearly correlated with the regeneration rate. Patency of the hepatic venous tributary reconstructed was positively correlated to graft regeneration and was statistically significant (p = 0.017). Splenic artery ligation was advantageous to promote liver regeneration in specific cases but splenectomy did not show any positive advantage. Spleen size is a major factor contributing to portal flow and may directly trigger regeneration after transplant. Control of sufficient portal flow and adequate hepatic outflow are important factors in graft regeneration.

  14. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation with ABO-Incompatible Grafts: A German Single Center Experience

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    Armin D. Goralczyk


    Full Text Available Adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs across the ABO blood group barrier have been reported in Asia, North Americas, and Europe, but not yet in Germany. Several strategies have been established to overcome the detrimental effects that are attached with such a disparity between donor and host, but no gold standard has yet emerged. Here, we present the first experiences with three ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantations in Germany applying different immunosuppressive strategies. Four patient-donor couples were considered for ABO-incompatible ALDLT. In these patients, resident ABO blood group antibodies (isoagglutinins were depleted by plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and replenishment was inhibited by splenectomy and/or B-cell-targeted immunosuppression. Despite different treatments ALDLT could safely be performed in three patients and all patients had good initial graft function without signs for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR. Two patients had long-term graft survival with stable graft function. We thus propose the feasibility of ABO-incompatible ALDLT with these protocols and advocate further expansion of ABO incompatible ALDLT in multicenter trials to improve efficacy and safety.

  15. Clinical significance of parenchymal excretion delay of unilateral graft on hepatobiliary scintigraphy after dual grafts living donors liver transplantation

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    Yang, Y. J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, S. K.; Hwang, S.; Park, G. M.; Lee, Y. J.; Moon, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Clinical significance of unilateral graft parenchymal excretion delay (UED) after dual grafts living donors liver transplantation (DLDLT) on hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) may be different from that of liver transplantation with single graft considering the immune reaction and surgical techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of UED after DLDLT. Clinicopathologic findings of 136 patients (48{+-}9 yrs; M/F=119/17) who underwent HBS using Tc-99m DISIDA after DLDLT were retrospectively evaluated. UED was considered when HBS showed delayed parenchymal excretion of unilateral graft with normal contralateral graft and HBS findings of UED were further classified into biliary obstructive (BO) or non-biliary obstructive (NBO) pattern according to biliary to enteric transit time. The etiology and outcome of UED were determined by clinical and pathologic findings. Of 136 patients, 18 showed UED (Rt/Lt=11/7) within 1 mo (1.6{+-}1.4 wk) after transplantation and 18 (Rt/Lt=6/12) after 1 mo (7.7{+-}5.0 mo). Of 18 patients with UED within 1 mo, 16 resulted from the early postoperative graft dysfunction (EGD) which showed NBO pattern in all but three (81%), and 2 resulted from biliary stenosis of anastomotic site. After 1 mo, 9 of 18 UED resulted from biliary stenosis and parenchymal dysfunction due to unknown but non-biliary etiology in 7, acute rejection in 1, and vascular insufficiency in 1. Four of 9 UED with biliary stenosis showed BO pattern on HBS and 6 of 9 UED with parenchymal dysfunction showed NBO pattern. UED due to EGD was spontaneously resolved and longterm outcome of the involved graft were not different from the contralateral normal graft. Most of unilateral graft parenchymal excretion delay within 1 mo after DLDLT showed NBO pattern on HBS and resulted from transient EGD without longterm prognostic value. UED after 1 mo resulted from variable etiology and needed further diagnostic work-up regardless of scintigraphic pattern.

  16. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap. (United States)

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J


    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site.

  17. Liver grafts for transplantation from donors with diabetes: an analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database.

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    Jun Zheng

    Full Text Available Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM have worse survival than those without DM after liver transplantation. However, the effect of liver grafts from DM donors on the post-transplantation survival of recipients is unclear. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (2004-2008, 25,413 patients were assessed. Among them, 2,469 recipients received grafts from donors with DM. The demographics and outcome of patients were assessed. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analyses. Recipients from DM donors experienced worse graft survival than recipients from non-DM donors (one-year survival: 81% versus 85%, and five-year survival: 67% versus 74%, P5 years (P<0.001 compared with those with DM duration <5 years. Cox regression analyses showed that DM donors were independently associated with worse graft survival (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19. The effect of DM donors was more pronounced on certain underlying liver diseases of recipients. Increases in the risk of graft loss were noted among recipients from DM donors with hepatitis-C virus (HCV infection, whereas those without HCV experienced similar outcomes compared with recipients from non-DM donors. These data suggest that recipients from DM donors experience significantly worse patient survival after liver transplantation. However, in patients without HCV infection, using DM donors was not independently associated with worse post-transplantation graft survival. Matching these DM donors to recipients without HCV may be safe.

  18. Dual grafts in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: a single center experience in Taiwan. (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Chih-Chi; Concejero, Allan M; Wang, Shih-Ho; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Tsan-Shiun


    Volume mismatch is encountered when a single live donor cannot provide adequate graft volume to the recipient with a remnant liver volume which is safe for donation. Our objective is to present our experience in living donor liver transplantation using dual grafts. Record review of 4 dual graft recipients was done. The results were compared with 122 consecutive patients who received a single right lobe. All dual graft recipients were surviving with satisfactory liver function at a median follow-up of 21 months. Two recipients received 1 right and 1 left lobe graft, while the other 2 recipients received 2 left lobe grafts. One donor developed biloma and was managed by percutaneous drainage. The first recipient required re-laparotomy for postoperative bleeding. The second recipient underwent re-laparotomy for bile leak. The third recipient developed grade II decubitus ulcers due to a prolonged sedentary position. When compared with recipients who received a single right lobe, the operative time was prolonged in the dual graft group. There was no apparent increase in the rate of vascular and biliary complications or the incidence of acute cellular rejection. Actuarial patient survivals were comparable in both groups. Dual graft transplantation provides sufficient volume in the recipient without jeopardizing donor safety.

  19. Evaluation of factors causing delayed graft function in live related donor renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A


    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and determinants of delayed graft function due to post-transplant acute tubular necrosis in live related donor renal transplantation. This is a retrospective study of 337 recipients of live related donor renal graft performed between1986 and 2006. Of these recipients, 24 (7.1% subjects developed delayed graft function with no evidence of acute rejection, cyclosporin toxicity, vascular catastrophe or obstructive cause and had evidence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN Group. These subjects were compared with recipients (n= 313, 92.9% who had no clinical or biochemical evidence of ATN. Mean age, and gender distribution of recipients was similar in the two groups (ATN group 35.7 ± 8.3, non-ATN group 34.3 ± 7.5, P= 0.43. Gender distribution of the recipients (men 279, 89.1% vs. 21, 87.5%, P= 0.80 as well as donors (women 221, 70.6% vs. 18, 75.0%, P= 0.75 was also similar. In ATN group as compared with non-ATN group the donor age was significantly greater (56.6 ± 8.3 vs. 46.6 ± 11.2 years, P< 0.0001. There was marginal difference in pre-operative systolic BP (154.5 ± 18.3 vs. 147.4 ± 20.2 mm Hg, P= 0.077 and significant difference in diastolic BP (87.8 ± 9.5 vs. 83.4 ± 11.4 mmHg, P= 0.041. Incidence of multiple renal arteries was similar (16.7% vs. 7.3%, P= 0.22. The warm ischemia time was significantly greater in ATN group (33.3 ± 6.2 min as compared to non-ATN group (30.4 ± 5.7 min, P= 0.042. Duration of hospital stay was more in ATN group (19.9 ± 6.7 vs. 16.8 ± 8.4 days, P= 0.04 but there was no difference in 1 year survival (284 subjects, 90.7% vs. 21 subjects, 87.5%, P= 0.873. This study shows that greater donor age, higher baseline diastolic BP and greater warm ischemia time are major determinants of delayed graft function due to acute tubular necrosis after related donor renal transplantation.

  20. Establishment of a miniature porcine model for controlled cardiac deceased donor%建立小型猪可控型心脏死亡模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕见龙; 蔡明; 袁清; 邹凡; 和安


    Objective To establish a type of porcine model for controlled Cardiac Deceased Donor.Method Using the wuzhishan miniature pig 2 ~ 4 months of age.After intravenous general anesthesia and respiratory,after open heart surgery to produce myocardial infarction model,to heartbeat stop completely,stop breathing machine and drug support,so we established a miniature pig cardiac death donor model.Record during the heart rate,systolic pressure,diastolic blood pressure,central venous blood pressure,blood oxygen saturation and regularly take on blood gas analysis.Before cardiac arrest,monitoring hemodynamic,blood gas analysis,and the time of death before the circulatory failure.After cardiac arrest respectively 0 min,15 min and 30 min,perfusion for donor organs (liver/kidney),get the pig's liver/kidney in the different time of the groups,observed the pathological changes of liver/kidney tissues by HE staining.Result The heartbeat stop completely occurs 7 ± 0.17 minutes after left descending coronary artery ligation and cease of assisted respiration in the different groups,systolic pressure,diastolic blood pressure,central venous pressure,blood oxygen saturation,CO2 partial pressure changed significantly;Immediately after cardiac arrest for compared group (0 min),schemia-reperfusion that group of 15 min after cardiac arrest injury is obvious,ischemia-reperfusion that group of 30 min after cardiac arrest injury is further.Conclusion Miniature pig donor model obtained in this method respiratory cycle failure stability,can be controlled,no adverse drug reactions,the organ ischemia-reperfusion injury caused by repetitive is better.%目的 建立一种小型猪可控型心脏死亡供者模型.方法 采用2~4个月龄的五指山小型猪.静脉及呼吸全身麻醉后,开胸手术制作心肌梗死模型,使供猪出现心脏骤停,同时中断呼吸机及药物支持,由此制备可控型心脏死亡模型.在心脏停搏前后监测循环衰竭前血流动力学、血液

  1. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan


    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  2. Surgical issues in lung transplantation: options, donor selection, graft preservation, and airway healing. (United States)

    Daly, R C; McGregor, C G


    To present an overview of the surgical issues in lung transplantation, including the historical context and the rationale for choosing a particular procedure for a specific patient, we reviewed and summarized the current medical literature and our personal experience. Several surgical options are available, including single lung transplantation; double lung transplantation; heart-lung transplantation; bilateral, sequential single lung transplantation; and (recently) single lobe transplantation. Although single lung transplantation is preferred for maximal use of the available organs, bilateral lung transplantation is necessary for septic lung diseases and may be appropriate for pulmonary hypertension and bullous emphysema. Heart-lung transplantation is performed for Eisenmenger's syndrome and for primary pulmonary hypertension with severe right ventricular failure. General factors for consideration in assessment of compatibility of the donor and potential recipient include ABO blood group, height (the donor should be within +/- 20% of the recipient's height), and length of the lungs (determined on an anteroposterior chest roentgenogram). Graft preservation and minimal duration of ischemia are important. Complications associated with airway healing are related to ischemia of the donor bronchus. We have addressed the issue of donor bronchial ischemia by direct revascularization of the donor bronchial arteries with use of the recipient's internal thoracic artery. Currently, lung transplantation offers a realistic therapeutic option to patients with end-stage pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease.

  3. Ureteric complications in live related donor renal transplantation - impact on graft and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Srivastava


    Full Text Available Objective : The study was performed with an aim to determine the incidence of ureteric complications in live related donor renal transplantation, and to study the effect of ureteric complications on long term graft and patient survival. Patients And Methods: Records of 1200 consecutive live related renal transplants done from 1989-2002 were reviewed. Twenty-six ureteric complications were noted to occur and treatment modalities employed were documented. In the non complication group sufficient data for evaluation was available in 867 patients. Survival analysis were performed using Kaplan-Meier techniques. Results: The overall incidence of urological complications is 2.9%. Complications occurred at a mean interval of 31.9 days after renal transplantation. Ureteric complications occurred in 2% patients with stented and 7.7% patients with non stented anastomosis (p=0.001. Mean follow up following renal transplantation was 37.4 months. Survival analysis showed that ureteric complications did not increase the risk of graft fai lu re or patient death. Conclusions: Ureteric complications in live related donor renal transplantation occurred in 2.9 % patients and did not impair graft and patient survival.

  4. Renal mass dosing and graft function in children transplanted from pediatric donors. (United States)

    de Petris, L; Faraggiana, Tullio; Rizzoni, Gianfranco


    It has been suggested that "renal mass dosing" may affect graft evolution. Between 1993 and 1999, 43 children, aged 4-17 years, received 43 pediatric cadaveric grafts. The ratio between graft volume (calculated by ultrasound within the first 24 h from transplantation, by ellipsoid formula) and the recipient's body surface area (BSA) ranged between 14.1 and 110 ml/m(2). Three groups were identified: group 1, 14-29 ml/m(2) (13 patients); group 2, 30-39 ml/m(2) (16 patients); group 3, 40-110 ml/m(2) (14 patients). As a consequence of the different renal volume increments in the three groups during the first year after transplant, no differences in the absolute renal volume were observed at the end of follow-up. The average follow-up was 38 months (range 12-80). In the 37 routine graft biopsies, performed on average 13 months after transplantation and with more than five glomeruli, maximum mean glomerular diameters were mostly above normal values. There were no significant differences among the three groups. At the end of follow-up, the three groups did not differ in microalbuminuria, proteinuria, glomerular function or in incidence of hypertension. From this retrospective study, we conclude that the very wide range of renal mass dosing did not cause differences in medium-term graft evolution. A longer follow-up will be necessary to ascertain the possible influence of disproportion between pediatric donors and recipients, on a long-term graft outcome.

  5. Significance of anti-HLA and donor-specific antibodies in long-term renal graft survival. (United States)

    Saidman, S


    Numerous studies have demonstrated an association of posttransplant HLA antibodies with decreased long-term graft survival. The presence of C4d deposition in these cases supports the hypothesis that antibody and complement deposition are involved in the pathogenesis of graft failure. Development of HLA antibodies may predate the clinical manifestation of chronic rejection (CR). However, frequency of donor-specific antibody is low when all patients are screened regardless of their graft function, and it may be more valuable to look for antibody only in patients with mild dysfunction. Effective treatment for CR has not been identified, although increased immunosuppression has been shown to decrease antibody levels and stabilize graft function. Many patients have been identified with good graft function despite the presence of circulating donor-specific HLA antibody. Additional studies focusing on the mechanism behind the apparent protection from the detrimental effects of antibody in such patients are needed.

  6. Poor organ quality and donor-recipient age mismatch rather than poor donation rates account for the decrease in deceased kidney transplantation rates in a Germany Transplant Center. (United States)

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Thurow, Christian; Arwinski, Stephan; Schleicher, Christina; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bausch, Dirk; Drognitz, Oliver; Pisarski, Przemyslaw


    Kidney transplantation is limited not by technical or immunological challenges but by lack of donor organs. Whereas the number of patients on waiting list increased, the transplantation rate decreased. We analyzed the development of decline rates and reasons as well as the fate of declined organs. In total, 1403 organs offered to 1950 patients between 2001 and 2010 were included. Of 440 organs offered between 2009 and 2011 that were declined, we investigated whether these organs were transplanted elsewhere and requested delayed graft function, creatinine, graft and patient survival. Data were compared to results of transplantations at the same time at our center. Decline rate increased from 47% to 87%. Main reasons were poor organ quality and donor-recipient age or size mismatch. Of the rejected organs, 55% were transplanted at other centers with function, graft and patient survival equivalent to patients transplanted at our center during that period. The number of decline has increased over time mainly due to a growing number of marginal donors accounting for poor organ quality or a mismatch of donor and recipient. If proper donor-recipient selection is performed, many organs that would otherwise be discarded can be transplanted successfully.

  7. Effect of intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion with the Pringle maneuver during donor hepatectomy in adult living donor liver transplantation with right hemiliver grafts: a prospective, randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Park, Jae Berm; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kwon, Choon-Hyuck David; Chun, Jae Min; Kim, Jong Man; Moon, Ju Ik; Lee, Suk-Koo


    To evaluate the effects of intermittent hepatic inflow occlusion (IHIO) during donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in recipients and donors, we performed a single-center, open-label, prospective, parallel, randomized controlled study. Adult donor-recipient pairs undergoing LDLT with right hemiliver grafts were randomized into IHIO and control groups (1:1). In the IHIO group, IHIO was performed during donor hepatectomy. The primary endpoint was the peak serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration in the recipients within 5 days after the operation. Blood samples for measurements of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were taken from the donors and the recipients during the operation and postoperatively. Biopsy samples for measurements of caspase-3 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were taken from the donors and the recipients. In all, 50 donor-recipient pairs (ie, 25 pairs in each group) completed this study. The mean peak serum ALT levels within 5 days after the operation did not differ in the recipients between the 2 groups (P = 0.32) but were higher in the donors of the IHIO group (P = 0.002). There were no differences in the prothrombin times or total bilirubin levels in the recipients or donors between the 2 groups. The amount of blood loss during donor hepatectomy was significantly lower in the IHIO group versus the control group (P = 0.02). The mean hospital stay for donors was 19.3 ± 7.2 days in the control group and 15.8 ± 4.6 days in the IHIO group (P = 0.046). There were no in-hospital deaths within 1 month and no cases of primary nonfunction or initially poor function in the 2 groups. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and HGF did not differ between the 2 groups, nor did the concentrations of caspase-3 and MDA. In conclusion, although we found differences in postoperative peak serum ALT levels in donors, donor hepatectomy with IHIO for LDLT using a right

  8. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality (United States)

    O’Connor, Roddy S.; Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Lovitch, Scott B.; Dandamudi, Durga Bhavani; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Tkachev, Victor; Pawlicki, Jan M.; Furlan, Scott N.; Kean, Leslie S.; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Foncea, Rocio; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Devine, Steven M.; Burrill, Joel S.; Guo, Lili; Sacristan, Catarina; Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Blair, Ian A.; Milone, Michael C.; Dustin, Michael L.; Riley, James L.; Bernlohr, David A.; Murphy, William J.; Fife, Brian T.; Munn, David H.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Turka, Laurence A.


    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction with PD-1 induces T cell exhaustion and is a therapeutic target to enhance immune responses against cancer and chronic infections. In murine bone marrow transplant models, PD-L1 expression on host target tissues reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PD-L1 is also expressed on T cells; however, it is unclear whether PD-L1 on this population influences immune function. Here, we examined the effects of PD-L1 modulation of T cell function in GVHD. In patients with severe GVHD, PD-L1 expression was increased on donor T cells. Compared with mice that received WT T cells, GVHD was reduced in animals that received T cells from Pdl1–/– donors. PD-L1–deficient T cells had reduced expression of gut homing receptors, diminished production of inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced rates of apoptosis. Moreover, multiple bioenergetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid metabolism, were also reduced in T cells lacking PD-L1. Finally, the reduction of acute GVHD lethality in mice that received Pdl1–/– donor cells did not affect graft-versus-leukemia responses. These data demonstrate that PD-L1 selectively enhances T cell–mediated immune responses, suggesting a context-dependent function of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and suggest selective inhibition of PD-L1 on donor T cells as a potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate GVHD. PMID:27294527

  9. Lethal graft-versus-host disease: modification with allogeneic cultured donor cells. (United States)

    Mauch, P; Lipton, J M; Hamilton, B; Obbagy, J; Kudisch, M; Nathan, D; Hellman, S


    The use of the bone marrow culture technique was studied as a means to prepare donor marrow for bone marrow transplantation to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Preliminary experiments demonstrated the rapid loss of theta-positive cells in such cultures, so that theta-positive cells were not detected after 6 days. Initial experiments in C3H/HeJ (H-2k, Hbbd) recipients prepared with 900 rad demonstrated improved survival when 3-day cultured C57BL/6 (H-2b, Hbbs) donor cells were used in place of hind limb marrow for transplantation. However, hemoglobin typing of recipient animals revealed only short-term donor engraftment, with competitive repopulation of recipient marrow occurring. Subsequent experiments were done in 1,200-rad prepared recipients, with long-term donor engraftment demonstrated. The majority of 1,200-rad prepared animals receiving cultured allogeneic cells died of GVHD, but animals receiving 28-day cultured cells had an improved 90-day survival and a delay in GVHD development over animals receiving hind limb marrow or marrow from shorter times in culture. In addition, animals receiving anti-theta-treated, 3-day nonadherent cells had an improved survival (44%) over animals receiving anti-theta-treated hind limb marrow (20%). These experiments demonstrate modest benefit for the use of cultured cells in bone marrow transplantation across major H-2 histocompatibility complex differences.

  10. Management of Abnormal Ureters of Donor Kidney in Deceased Renal Transplantation%肾移植中供肾输尿管异常的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小鹏; 邓素雄; 费继光; 陈立中; 王长希


    目的:探讨肾移植术中供肾输尿管异常的手术处理方法.方法:回顾性分析18例供肾输尿管异常的肾移植术中处理,包括损伤致输尿管过短8例,完全型双输尿管4例,不完全型双输尿管2例,输尿管结石2例,巨输尿管2例.根据具体情况采用输尿管膀胱吻合术、供受者输尿管端端吻合术和膀胱腰大肌悬吊术等方法再植输尿管.结果:术后恢复顺利,未发生移植肾功能延迟恢复和尿漏.随访3~8年,发生输尿管梗阻1例,行经皮肾造口输尿管镜切开后治愈.发生尿路感染5例(其中2例为反复感染).未见膀胱输尿管返流.结扎输尿管的原肾未出现胀痛和不适,B超检查未见肾积水.带输尿管结石移植肾未见结石复发.巨输尿管供肾移植后输尿管管径稳定,无明显增大.结论:供肾输尿管损伤和异常时采用不同的技术修复和再植输尿管,可减少并发症的发生.%Objective:To explore the operative techniques of transplantation of kidneys having injured or abnormal ureters. Methods: Eighteen cases of transplantation of donor kidney with injured or abnormal ureter were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 cases of short ureter,4 cases of complete double ureters,2 cases of incomplete double ureters, 2 cases of ureteral lithiasis and 2 cases of megaureter. Various methods including ureteroneocystoto-my,ureteroureterostomy,and psoas hitch were adopted to repair and implant the ureters. Results: All recipients recovered uneventfully without delayed graft and urine leakage. After a follow-up of 3-8 years,one case of ureteral obstruction of vesicoureteric anastomosis occurred and treated by percutaneous nephrostomy and endoscopic incision. Urinary tract infection occurred in 5 cases including 2 cases of recurrent infection. None of vesicoureteric reflux occurred. None of the recipients with native ureter ligated had infection or post-ligation flank pain,no hydrone-phrosis was found by ultrasonography in

  11. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation (United States)

    Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A.; Richards, Douglas A.; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F.; Viant, Mark R.


    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27) and DCD (n = 10), both during static cold storage (T1) as well as post-reperfusion (T2). Furthermore 6 biopsies from DBD donors prior to the organ donation (T0) were also profiled. Considering DBD and DCD together, significant metabolic differences were discovered between T1 and T2 (688 peaks) that were primarily related to amino acid metabolism, meanwhile T0 biopsies grouped together with T2, denoting the distinctively different metabolic activity of the perfused state. Major metabolic differences were discovered between DCD and DBD during cold-phase (T1) primarily related to glucose, tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism, and in the post-reperfusion phase (T2) related to amino acid and glutathione metabolism. We propose tryptophan/kynurenine and S-adenosylmethionine as possible biomarkers for the previously established higher graft failure of DCD livers, and conclude that the associated pathways should be targeted in more exhaustive and quantitative investigations. PMID:27835640

  12. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Hrydziuszko, Olga; Perera, M Thamara P R; Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A; Richards, Douglas A; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F; Viant, Mark R


    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27) and DCD (n = 10), both during static cold storage (T1) as well as post-reperfusion (T2). Furthermore 6 biopsies from DBD donors prior to the organ donation (T0) were also profiled. Considering DBD and DCD together, significant metabolic differences were discovered between T1 and T2 (688 peaks) that were primarily related to amino acid metabolism, meanwhile T0 biopsies grouped together with T2, denoting the distinctively different metabolic activity of the perfused state. Major metabolic differences were discovered between DCD and DBD during cold-phase (T1) primarily related to glucose, tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism, and in the post-reperfusion phase (T2) related to amino acid and glutathione metabolism. We propose tryptophan/kynurenine and S-adenosylmethionine as possible biomarkers for the previously established higher graft failure of DCD livers, and conclude that the associated pathways should be targeted in more exhaustive and quantitative investigations.

  13. Donor risk index and organ patient index as predictors of graft survival after liver transplantation. (United States)

    Avolio, A W; Siciliano, M; Barbarino, R; Nure, E; Annicchiarico, B E; Gasbarrini, A; Agnes, S; Castagneto, M


    In liver transplantation the identification of risk factors and the risk quantification for each single case represent a field of great interest. There are donor-related and recipient-related risk factors. Donor risk index (DRI) was retrospectively calculated in 223 liver transplant cases. We did not include patients with preoperative diagnosis of hepatocarcinoma and retransplants. The cases were stratified into two classes according to the DRI (low risk, DRIor= 1.7). A new index, namely the organ patient index (OPI) was calculated adding the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to the DRI. Patients were stratified into two classes according to the OPI (low risk, OPI 2.85). The cases with low DRI (n=144) showed better survival than the cases with high DRI (n=82; P< .02). The cases with low OPI (n=173) showed better survival than cases with high OPI (n=50; P< .01). The OPI predicted outcomes better than DRI, increasing the gap in the long-term graft survival between the low- and the high-risk class. The inclusion of the MELD in the new index allowed better prediction of graft survival.

  14. Computed tomography perfusion in living donor liver transplantation: an initial study of normal hemodynamic changes in liver grafts. (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhi Guo; Qian, Li Jun; Wang, Bi Xiong; Zhou, Yan; Li, Qi Gen; Xu, Jian Rong; Cheng, Yu Fan


    Hepatic hemodynamic changes in grafts after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are complicated. In this study, computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameter values, especially portal vein perfusion (PVP), was retrospectively analyzed in recipients both with and without small-for-size syndrome (SFSS). PVP was significantly higher in non-SFSS recipients on post-operative day (POD) 14 or 28 than in normal donors before donation (p spleen size ratio and PVP on POD 14 in non-SFSS group (r = -0.545, p = 0.002). Furthermore, PVP in the SFSS group was significantly greater than in the non-SFSS group on POD 14 (p = 0.042). In conclusion, we successfully evaluated normal hemodynamic changes in grafts without SFSS by CT perfusion examination. To our knowledge, this is the first study on hemodynamic changes of living donor liver grafts using CT technique.

  15. Donor age dependent graft development and recovery in a rat model of Huntington's disease: histological and behavioral analysis. (United States)

    Schackel, Stefanie; Pauly, Marie-Christin; Piroth, Tobias; Nikkhah, Guido; Döbrössy, Máté D


    Neural cell replacement therapy using fetal striatal cells has provided evidence of disease modification in clinical trials in Huntington's disease (HD) patients, although the results have been inconsistent. One of the contributing factors to the variable outcome could be the different capacity of transplanted cells derived from the primordial striatum to proliferate and maturate into striatal projection neurons. Based on the rodent lesion model of HD, the current study investigated how intrastriatal-striatal grafts from variable aged donors develop in vivo and how they influence functional recovery. Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were lesioned unilaterally in the dorso-striatum with quinolinic acid (0.12 M) and transplanted 14 days later with single cell suspension grafts equivalent of one whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) from donors of embryonic developmental age E13, E14, or E15; animals with or without striatal lesion served as controls. All animals were tested on the Cylinder and the Corridor tests, as well as on apomorphine-induced rotation at baseline, post-lesion/pre-grafting, and at 6 and 10 weeks post-grafting. A week prior to perfusion, a sub-group in each grafted group received fluorogold injections into the ipsilateral globus pallidus to study graft efferent projections. In summary, the data demonstrates that the age of the embryonic donor tissue has an impact on both the graft mediated functional recovery, and on the in vivo cellular composition of the striatal transplant. E13 tissue grafts gave the best overall outcome indicating that WGE from different donor ages have different potential to promote functional recovery. Understanding the stages and process in rodent striatal development could improve tissue selection in clinical trials of cell therapy in HD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail:; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)


    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  17. Successful Management of Graft Reinfection of HCV Genotype 2 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation from a Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donor with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin (United States)

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu


    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. It became clear that the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin promptly led to a sustained virologic response and that this combination was safe to treat graft reinfection with HCV genotype 2 after LDLT. Adverse events caused by DAAs were not observed, except for slight anemia. HBIG and entecavir were useful in the prevention of HBV reactivation. In conclusion, the present case indicated that DAA treatment for graft reinfection with HCV is safe and effective in LDLT from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors. PMID:27721720

  18. Successful Management of Graft Reinfection of HCV Genotype 2 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation from a Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donor with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

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    Reina Sasaki


    Full Text Available Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV reactivation. It became clear that the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin promptly led to a sustained virologic response and that this combination was safe to treat graft reinfection with HCV genotype 2 after LDLT. Adverse events caused by DAAs were not observed, except for slight anemia. HBIG and entecavir were useful in the prevention of HBV reactivation. In conclusion, the present case indicated that DAA treatment for graft reinfection with HCV is safe and effective in LDLT from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors.

  19. Preparation, preservation, and morphological evaluation of the donor graft for descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yiqian; Peng Rongmei; Hong Jing


    Background Though there have been various methods for harvesting and preserving descemet membrane (DM) and intact endothelium,there is no literature about the morphological evaluation of endothelium after graft preparation for descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK).The aim of this study was to establish and improve a simple method for preparing,preserving,and morphologically evaluating the donor graft for DMEK.Methods To obtain a donor graft,an air bubble was formed by injecting a 29 G needle with 1 ml sterile air into a small edge created outside the Schwalbe line.Another needle was inserted into the bubble through the stroma to aspirate the air or replace half the air with organ culture medium.Trypan blue was used to mark the location for small incision to improve the success rate.Frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE).Based on the air bubble,DM grafts were divided into four groups:group A (normal control),graft without any operative technique; group B,graft with zero-pressure air bubble; group C,graft with full-pressure air bubble; group D,graft with half-pressure air bubble.The four groups of grafts were preserved for 24 hours to observe the effect of bubbles on cells.The gross and ultrastructure morphologies were evaluated using alizarin red and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),respectively.Results Donor grafts were harvested via the air bubble technique,facilitated by prior trypan blue staining.HE-stained sections revealed a pure graft without stroma.There were no significant changes under light microscope.In group A,SEM revealed a confluent layer of polygonal endothelium with distributed microvilli exhibiting characteristics of interdigitating junctions.In group B,intercellular borders became thinner.In group C,interdigitations were almost flat and microvilli were observed less frequently.In group D,other than less microvilli,there were minimal changes.Conclusions The donor graft preparation method appears to be effective

  20. Tacrolimus dosage requirements in living donor liver transplant recipients with small-for-size grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Liu; Ya Li; Xiang Lan; Yong-Gang Wei; Bo Li; Lv-Nan Yan; Tian-Fu Wen; Ji-Chun Zhao; Ming-Qing Xu; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang


    AIM: To investigate the tacrolimus dosage requirements and blood concentrations in adult-to-adult right lobe living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) recipients with small-for-size (SFS) grafts.METHODS: During January 2007 and October 2008, a total of 54 cases of AALDLT with an observation period of 6 mo were enrolled in this study. The 54 patients were divided into two groups according to graftrecipient body weight ratio (GRBW): SFS grafts group (Group S, GRBW < 0.8%, n = 8) and non-SFS grafts group (Group N, GRBW ≥ 0.8%, n = 46). Tacrolimus 12-hour blood levels and doses were recorded during weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 and months 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 in group S and group N. Meanwhile, acute rejection rates,liver and renal function test results, and the number of potentially interacting medications were determined at each interval in the two groups. A comparison of tacrolimus dosage requirements and blood levels were made weekly in the first month post-surgery, and monthly from months 2 to 6.RESULTS: There were no differences in the demographic Demographic characteristics, acute rejection rates, liver and renal function test results, or the number of potentially interacting medications administered between the two groups. The tacrolimus dosage requirements in group S were significantly lower than group N at 2 wk (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/d vs 3.6 ± 0.7 mg/d, P = 0.006), 3 wk (2.9 ± 0.7 mg/d vs 3.9 ± 0.8 mg/d, P = 0.008), 4 wk (2.9 ± 0.8 mg/d vs 3.9 ± 1.0 mg/d, P = 0.023) and 2 mo (2.8 ± 0.7 mg/d vs 3.8 ± 1.1 mg/d, P = 0.033). Tacrolimus 12-h trough concentrations were similar between the two groups at all times except for 2 wk post-transplantation,when the concentrations were significantly greater in group S recipients than in group N recipients (11.3 ± 4.8 ng/mL vs 7.0 ± 3.8 ng/mL, P = 0.026).CONCLUSION: SFS grafts recipients have significantly decreased tacrolimus dosage requirements compared with non-SFS grafts recipients in AALDLT during the first 2 mo post-surgery.

  1. Reducing biliary complications in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using right lobe graft: experience of 124 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The aim of this paper is to summarize our experience of using right lobe liver grafts to reduce biliary complications in adult-to-adult(A-A)living donor liver transplantation(LDLT).From January 2002 to October 2007,124 adult patients underwent living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts at the West China Hospital,Sichuan University Medical School,China.There was no death in all donors.Biliary reconstruction for 178 hepatic duct orifices from 124 donor grafts was performed which included 106 reconstructions of duct-toduct anastomoses and 72 cholangiojejunostomy.Nine recipients had biliary complications including six bile leakages(four from the anastomotic site and two from the cut surface of the liver graft)and three biliary strictures.With the improved techniques for biliary reconstruction,we have achieved good results in 124 recipients of A-A LDLT.We ascribe our success to the introduction of microsurgical techniques and the use of fixed operators which help in decreasing the biliary complications of LDLT.

  2. Determinants of graft survival in pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients: a single center experience. (United States)

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A


    To study the independent determinants of graft survival among pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1600 live donor kidney transplants were carried out in our center. Of them 284 were 20 yr old or younger (mean age 13.1 yr, ranging from 5 to 20 yr). Evaluation of the possible variables that may affect graft survival were carried out using univariate and multivariate analyses. Studied factors included age, gender, relation between donor and recipient, original kidney disease, ABO blood group, pretransplant blood transfusion, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, pretransplant dialysis, height standard deviation score (SDS), pretransplant hypertension, cold ischemia time, number of renal arteries, ureteral anastomosis, time to diuresis, time of transplantation, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), primary and secondary immunosuppression, total dose of steroids in the first 3 months, development of acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Using univariate analysis, the significant predictors for graft survival were HLA matching, type of primary urinary recontinuity, time to diuresis, ATN, acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The multivariate analysis restricted the significance to acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The independent determinants of graft survival in live-donor pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.

  3. The learning curves in living donor hemiliver graft procurement using small upper midline incision. (United States)

    Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Shimokawa, Masahiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Itoh, Shinji; Okabe, Norihisa; Sakata, Kazuhito; Nagatsu, Akihisa; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko


    The learning curve for performing living donor hemiliver procurement (LDHP) via small upper midline incision (UMI) has not been determined. Living donors (n=101) who underwent LDHP via UMI were included to investigate the learning curve using cumulative sum analysis. The cumulative sum analysis showed that nine cases for right lobe (case #23) and 19 cases for left lobe (case #32 in the whole series) are needed for stable and acceptable surgical outcomes in LDHP via UMI. The established phase (n=69, since case #33) had a significantly shorter operative time, a smaller incision size, and less blood loss than the previous learning phase (n=32, serial case number up to the last 19th left lobe case). Multivariate analysis showed that the learning phase, high body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) , and left lobe graft procurement are the factors associated with surgical events including operative blood loss ≥400 mL, operative time ≥300 minutes, or surgical complications ≥Clavien-Dindo grade II. There is an obvious learning curve in performing LDHP via UMI, and 32 cases including both 19 cases for left lobe and nine cases for right lobe are needed for having stable and acceptable surgical outcomes.

  4. Evaluation of Polyethylen - Vazeline guaze and melolin on healing of graft donor sites in rat

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    Mohammad Javad Fatemi


    Full Text Available Background: Different types of dressings are applied on wounds to accelerate the healing process and improve its long term outcomes. This study designed to compare the healing rate of skin graft donor site while dressed with polyethylene, Meloline and Vaseline in rats. Material and Methods: In an experimental study, polyethylen, vazeline gauze and melolin were used for skin grft donor site dressing. 30 rats, randomly assigned to 3 groups. An approximately 5x5 cm split thickness wound was made on the dorsum of each rat under general anesthesia. Then dressed by polyethylene, Vaseline gauze and Melolin in each group. The wound size was measured by Image J sotware after operation and on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 to evaluate the rate of healing, then the results compared between groups. Results: The mean area of the wound size on day 12 was 0.72±0.44 cm2 in Vaseline group, 0.68±0.75 cm2 in polyethylene group and 0.14±0.17 cm2 in Meloline group.In 3rd day Vaseline group had smaller size, but in days 6 and 9 the smaller size belonged to Meloline similar to day 12, which differed statistically with Vaseline.P<0.04 Conclusion: Polyethylene dressing according to its low price and acceptable rate of wound healing may be an appropriate choice for wounds’ dressing.

  5. Graft-versus-leukemia effects from donor lymphocyte infusion after nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Bing; LI De-peng; XU Kai-lin; PAN Xiu-ying


    Background Nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been used since the 1990s as a new hematological stem cell transplantation strategy for treating hematological diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) after nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantations, while assessing the declines in treatment-associated morbidity, mortality, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).Methods A total of 615 (H-2k) mice were injected with L615 tumor cells and received 500 cGy (60Coγ-ray) irradiation three days later, followed by an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). The allo-grafts consisted of 3×107 bone marrow cells and 1×107 spleen cells from BALB/C (H-2d) donor mice. Two days after the allo-BMT, the recipient mice were given 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Subsequently, recipient mice were infused with either donor spleen cells (2×107) on day 14 or 21, or donor spleen cells (5×107) pretreated with hydrocortisone and cyclosporin A (CsA) in vitro on day 14 post-BMT.Results The median survival time of mice that received DLI on day 21 and pretreated DLI on day 14 post-BMT was longer than that of controls and the day 14 DLI group (P<0.01). No evidence of severe GVHD was observed in the day 21 DLI group nor in the day 14 treated DLI group. Mixed chimerism was confirmed in the day 14 DLI group, the day 14 treated DLI group, and the day 21 DLI group on the thirteenth day post-transplantation; full donor chimerism was observed two weeks after DLI.Conclusion Donor lymphocyte infusion after nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation may reduce transplantation-associated morbidity and mortality while strengthening graft-versus-leukemia effects.

  6. Impact of early reoperation following living-donor liver transplantation on graft survival.

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    Yoshikuni Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reoperation rate remains high after liver transplantation and the impact of reoperation on graft and recipient outcome is unclear. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of early reoperation following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT on graft and recipient survival. METHODS: Recipients that underwent LDLT (n = 111 at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 2007 and December 2012 were divided into two groups, a reoperation group (n = 27 and a non-reoperation group (n = 84, and case-control study was conducted. RESULTS: Early reoperation was performed in 27 recipients (24.3%. Mean time [standard deviation] from LDLT to reoperation was 10 [9.4] days. Female sex, Child-Pugh class C, Non-HCV etiology, fulminant hepatitis, and the amount of intraoperative fresh frozen plasma administered were identified as possibly predictive variables, among which females and the amount of FFP were identified as independent risk factors for early reoperation by multivariable analysis. The 3-, and 6- month graft survival rates were 88.9% (95%confidential intervals [CI], 70.7-96.4, and 85.2% (95%CI, 66.5-94.3, respectively, in the reoperation group (n = 27, and 95.2% (95%CI, 88.0-98.2, and 92.9% (95%CI, 85.0-96.8, respectively, in the non-reoperation group (n = 84 (the log-rank test, p = 0.31. The 12- and 36- month overall survival rates were 96.3% (95%CI, 77.9-99.5, and 88.3% (95%CI, 69.3-96.2, respectively, in the reoperation group, and 89.3% (95%CI, 80.7-94.3 and 88.0% (95%CI, 79.2-93.4, respectively, in the non-reoperation group (the log-rank test, p = 0.59. CONCLUSIONS: Observed graft survival for the recipients who underwent reoperation was lower compared to those who did not undergo reoperation, though the result was not significantly different. Recipient overall survival with reoperation was comparable to that without reoperation. The present findings enhance the importance of vigilant

  7. Multidonor bone marrow transplantation improves donor engraftment and increases the graft versus tumor effect while decreasing graft-versus-host disease. (United States)

    Zhanna, Yekhtina; Ester, Hirshfeld; Lola, Weiss; Offer, Gerlitz; Shimon, Slavin; Shapira, Michael Yechiel


    In partially matched donor transplantation, mandatory T-cell depletion (TCD) increases the risks of rejection/graft failure, relapse, and post-transplant infections. A multi-donor approach was offered to resolve some of these drawbacks. This hypothesis was previously tested in a TCD fully mismatched murine model. However, the effect of multi-donor transplantation (MDT) on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft versus tumor (GVT) effect were never tested. To assess the safety and efficacy of MDT, we used it in non-TCD transplantation and murine breast carcinoma model. We found that when transplanting non-TCD MDT composed by C57Bl/6 and C3H cells into BALB/c, a consistent trichimerism is established, dominated by C57Bl/6 cells. Following MDT the study animals experienced reduced GVHD compare with those transplanted from C57Bl/6 alone, while the GVT effect was superior. We conclude that MDT may serve as a technique that suppresses GVHD while maintaining the GVT effect. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.


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    D. Mehraban G.H. Naderi


    Full Text Available This study compare:.' [he results 0;,.1 outcome of live-donor transplantation between single-artery "',"' mull/pic-ana' transplant kidneys. Cadaver kidneys with multiple vessels arc retrieved with a patch of the donor artery. 111is is not possible ill the !iI'C donation seuing. Therefore !i1'C donation of rcnal"nallografts with multiple arteries is lIot a straiglnjorward surgery. We studied 22 muttiplc-anery live donor renal allografts among 223 renal transplantations in a sequential. prospective mOllTlCr [or 3 ynJrs. One-year gra{! survival was l(j.:V:(, ill single-anery group and 95.5":{, in tlns muliplc . arIer' group. III the singleartery group the complications wae: dctavcd gm[l [unction ill 3.5'7;, rean astomosis o[ tlu: v-essels in 2,9':k, transient post-transplant dialysis in 1. 5 (X" graft nephrectomy ill 2,5';{, AT"' ill 1":'(" Urine leak in 2.5':{', renal anav stenosis in O.5S'(" and lvmpho cclc ill 1%. NOlie: o] thcsc occurred in the"nmultiptc-oncry group. This difference is statistically significant IX~ = 8.10. Cold ischemia time: l"'(lS significantly lunger in lilt' multiple . anery group (panastomosis was not siglliftcanl~"' dlffaelll among lht' 2,1,'Youps (I = 1.255. Ttu: totat tcngtli of tile operation IVas IOllga ill lhe mutsiptc-oncry group (p < O. 00(5. In conclusion it is appareIH snas t lu: intra-op crativc complications. posi-operati vc complications and one-year grafr survival are ccnnparabtc ill"nsingle - ane'Y' "'."'. mutsiptc - arrcry renal transplantation. tn other words, !i1'C - donor transptannuion with muliip!c . arIa' reno! units is safe and has a good OI/lCO!1le.

  9. Post-transplant donor-specific antibody production and graft outcome in kidney transplantation: results of sixteen-year monitoring by flow cytometry. (United States)

    Piazza, Antonina; Poggi, Elvira; Ozzella, Giuseppina; Borrelli, Laura; Scornajenghi, Alessandra; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tisone, Giuseppe; Adorno, Domenico


    Our data show that monitoring by sensitive flow cytometric techniques of the de novo production of anti-HLA antibodies in patients receiving kidney transplantation is a useful and noninvasive tool to identify the onset of an immune response towards the graft before any clinical manifestation of antibody-mediated graft injury. Consequently prospective posttransplant monitoring of anti-HLA donor-directed antibodies may offer the chance to realize an effective clinical intervention in order to prevent graft dysfunction and to prolong graft survival. The long follow-up period of the study allowed us to demonstrate a very low graft survival rate in patients who developed donor-specific HLA antibodies in comparison with patients who did not have antibodies, thus confirming the "humoral theory of transplantation". The posttransplant production of anti-HLA antibodies can predict not only graft failure but also chronic dysfunction of the graft. Moreover, our findings suggest that graft survival is influenced by the epitope- and locus-specificity of anti-HLA donor-directed antibodies. The interval between antibody appearance and loss of graft function was short in some patients but reached several years in others. Moreover, some patients showed consistent production of antibodies for many years and an uneventful clinical status. These findings suggest a mechanism of graft "accommodation" or the production of "harmless" antibodies. Immunosuppressive drug combinations able to inhibit T and B cell activation are useful tools to prevent the humoral immune response against graft and consequently to prolong graft survival.

  10. The scalp as a donor site for split-thickness skin graft: a rare complication case report. (United States)

    Robert, N; May, P; Binder, J P; Revol, M; Servant, J M


    The scalp is a useful and reliable donor site for the paediatric burn population that can be harvested several times with minimal morbidity. However, the scalp cannot be used as skin graft donor site with impunity. Scalp alopecia and chronic folliculitis can be observed among the complications. In these cases, the reconstruction phase offers different surgical procedures such as primary closure, staged excision or tissue expansion. We report the case of a patient (29-years-old), treated 20 years ago for second-degree burns covering up to 20% total body surface area (TBSA) by using thin split-thickness skin grafts of his scalp. As a teenager, he developed multiple episodes of folliculitis at the donor site of the scalp and then of recurrent abscesses, resistant to all existing medical treatments. Surgical treatment consisted in the skin excision of his scalp donor site which was immediately covered by a thin split-thickness skin graft. Four months after surgery, the patient was satisfied with the functional and aesthetic result. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Liver Transplantation Using a Graft from a Donor with Situs Inversus Totalis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Xu-Yong Sun


    Full Text Available It is critical to effectively use every available organ to meet the increasing demands for liver transplantation. Situs inversus is a rare congenital anomaly caused by obstruction of viscus rotation during embryonic development. Situs inversus was once regarded as a contraindication to liver transplantation because of the technical difficulties associated with the unique vascular anatomy and concern about achieving accurate graft positioning. Here, we present a successful case of liver transplantation using a graft from a donor with situs inversus totalis. The related experience will contribute to opening up new realms for the use of such rare organ resources.

  12. Liver graft-to-recipient spleen size ratio as a novel predictor of portal hyperperfusion syndrome in living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Chen, T Y; Concejero, A; Tsang, L L C; Wang, C C; Wang, S H; Sun, C K; Lin, C C; Liu, Y W; Yang, C H; Yong, C C; Ou, S Y; Yu, C Y; Chiu, K W; Jawan, B; Eng, H L; Chen, C L


    Portal hyperperfusion in a small-size liver graft is one cause of posttransplant graft dysfunction. We retrospectively analyzed the potential risk factors predicting the development of portal hyperperfusion in 43 adult living donor liver transplantation recipients. The following were evaluated: age, body weight, native liver disease, spleen size, graft size, graft-to-recipient weight ratio (GRWR), total portal flow, recipient portal venous flow per 100 g graft weight (RPVF), graft-to-recipient spleen size ratio (GRSSR) and portosystemic shunting. Spleen size was directly proportional to the total portal flow (p = 0.001) and RPVF (p = 0.014). Graft hyperperfusion (RPVF flow > 250 mL/min/100 g graft) was seen in eight recipients. If the GRSSR was Spleen size is a major factor contributing to portal flow after transplant. The GRSSR is associated with posttransplant graft hyperperfusion at a ratio of < 0.6.

  13. Two simple leg net devices designed to protect lower-extremity skin grafts and donor sites and prevent decubitus ulcer. (United States)

    Hedman, Travis L; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Quick, Charles D; Wolf, Steven E; Holcomb, John B


    Burn therapists routinely are tasked to position the lower extremities of burn patients for pressure ulcer prevention, skin graft protection, donor site ventilation, and edema reduction. We developed two durable and low-maintenance devices that allow effective positioning of the lower extremities. The high-profile and low-profile leg net devices were simple to fabricate and maintain. The frame was assembled using a three-quarter-inch diameter copper pipe and copper fittings (45 degrees, 90 degrees, and tees). A double layer of elasticized tubular netting was pulled over the frame and doubled back for leg support to complete the devices. The devices can be placed on any bed surface. The netting can be exchanged when soiled and the frame can be disinfected between patients using standard techniques. Both devices were used on approximately 250 patients for a total of 1200 treatment days. No incidence of pressure ulcer was observed, and graft take was not adversely affected. The devices have not required repairs or replacement. Medical providers reported they are easy to apply and effectively maintain proper positioning throughout application. Neither device interfered with the application of other positioning devices. Both devices were found to be an effective method of positioning lower extremities to prevent pressure ulcer, minimize graft loss and donor site morbidity, and reduce edema. The devices allowed for proper wound ventilation and protected grafted lower extremities on any bed surface. The devices are simple to fabricate and maintain. Both devices can be effectively used simultaneously with other positioning devices.

  14. Venous Outflow Reconstruction in Adult Living Donor Liver Transplant: Outcome of a Policy for Right Lobe Grafts without the Middle Hepatic Vein


    Mohamed Ghazaly; Badawy, Mohamad T.; Hosam El-Din Soliman; Magdy El-Gendy; Tarek Ibrahim; Davidson, Brian R.


    Introduction. The difficulty and challenge of recovering a right lobe graft without MHV drainage is reconstructing the outflow tract of the hepatic veins. With the inclusion or the reconstruction of the MHV, early graft function is satisfactory. The inclusion of the MHV or not in the donor's right lobectomy should be based on sound criteria to provide adequate functional liver mass for recipient, while keeping risk to donor to the minimum. Objective. Reviewing the results of a policy for righ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR im


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR

  17. Five-year clinical effects of donor bone marrow cells infusions in kidney allograft recipients: improved graft function and higher graft survival. (United States)

    Solgi, Ghasem; Gadi, Vijayakrishna; Paul, Biswajit; Mytilineos, Joannis; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Ranjbar, Moslem; Mohammadnia, Mousa; Nikbin, Behrouz; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar


    Augmentation of microchimerism in solid organ transplant recipients by donor bone marrow cells (DBMC) infusion may promote immune hyporesponsiveness and consequently improve long-term allograft survival. Between March 2005 and July 2007, outcomes for 20 living unrelated donor (LURD) primary kidney recipients with concurrent DBMC infusion (an average of 2.19 ± 1.13 x 10⁹ donor cells consisting of 2.66 ± 1.70 x 10⁷ CD34⁺ cells) were prospectively compared with 20 non-infused control allograft recipients given similar conventional immunosuppressive regimens. With five years of clinical follow up, a total of 11 cases experienced rejection episodes (3 DBMI patients vs. 8 controls, p = 0.15). One DBMC-infused patient experienced chronic rejection vs. two episodes (1 biopsy-confirmed) in the control patients. Actuarial and death-censored 5-y graft survival was significantly higher in infused patients compared with controls (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Long-term graft survival was significantly associated with pre-transplant anti-HLA antibodies (p = 0.01), slightly with peripheral microchimerism (p = 0.09) and CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ T cells (p = 0.09). Immunosuppressant dosing was lower in infused patients than controls, particularly for mycophenolate mofetil (p = 0.001). The current findings as well as our previous reports on these patients indicates clinical improvement in long-term graft survival of renal transplant patients resulting from low-dose DBMC infusion given without induction therapy.

  18. Risk factors for delayed graft function in cadaveric kidney transplantation - A prospective study of renal function and graft survival after preservation with University of Wisconsin solution in multi-organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, OHJ; Ploeg, RJ; VanBockel, JH; VanderWoude, FJ; Persijn, GG; Hermans, J


    Background. Delayed graft function (DGF) remains an important complication in renal transplantation. In this multicenter study, we investigated the influence of donor and recipient factors on the occurrence of DGF and DGF's effect on long-term graft survival. Methods. A total of 547 transplanted kid

  19. Deceased organ donation for transplantation: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Girlanda, Raffaele


    Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives every year but the shortage of donors is a major limiting factor to increase transplantation rates. To allow more patients to be transplanted before they die on the wait-list an increase in the number of donors is necessary. Patients with devastating irreversible brain injury, if medically suitable, are potential deceased donors and strategies are needed to successfully convert them into actual donors. Multiple steps in the process of deceased organ donation can be targeted to increase the number of organs suitable for transplant. In this review, after describing this process, we discuss current challenges and potential strategies to expand the pool of deceased donors. PMID:27683626

  20. [IV Consensus meeting of the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation (SETH) 2012. Liver transplant with non-conventional grafts: Split liver transplantation and non-heart beating donors]. (United States)

    Abradelo, Manuel; Fondevila, Constantino


    The disbalance between the number of candidates to liver transplant and the number of liver grafts leads to waiting list mortality. Two potential ways of increasing the number of liver grafts are split liver transplantation and the transplantation of grafts from non-heart beating donors. Both of them were discussed in a consensus meeting of the Spanish Society of Liver Transplantation in October 2012. This paper outlines the conclusions of that meeting.

  1. Immunomodulation with dendritic cells and donor lymphocyte infusion converge to induce graft vs neuroblastoma reactions without GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation


    Ash, S.; Stein, J.; Askenasy, N; Yaniv, I.


    Background: Mounting evidence points to the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and immunisation with tumour-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) in generating graft vs leukaemia reactions after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We assessed the efficacy of DLI and DC in generating potent graft vs neuroblastoma tumour (GVT) reactions following allogeneic BMT. Methods: Mice bearing congenic (H2Ka) Neuro-2a tumours were grafted with allogeneic (H2Kb) T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells....

  2. Liver Transplantation Using Grafts From Donors After Circulatory Death: A Propensity Score-Matched Study From a Single Center. (United States)

    Laing, R W; Scalera, I; Isaac, J; Mergental, H; Mirza, D F; Hodson, J; Wilkin, R J W; Perera, M T P R; Muiesan, P


    The use of livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) is increasing, but concerns exist regarding outcomes following use of grafts from "marginal" donors. To compare outcomes in transplants using DCD and donation after brain death (DBD), propensity score matching was performed for 973 patients with chronic liver disease and/or malignancy who underwent primary whole-liver transplant between 2004 and 2014 at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Primary end points were overall graft and patient survival. Secondary end points included postoperative, biliary and vascular complications. Over 10 years, 234 transplants were carried out using DCD grafts. Of the 187 matched DCDs, 82.9% were classified as marginal per British Transplantation Society guidelines. Kaplan-Meier analysis of graft and patient survival found no significant differences for either outcome between the paired DCD and DBD patients (p = 0.162 and p = 0.519, respectively). Aspartate aminotransferase was significantly higher in DCD recipients until 48 h after transplant (p grafts in similar recipients.

  3. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults]. (United States)

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M


    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  4. The impact of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies on graft outcome in renal transplantation: a six-year follow-up study

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    Elias David-Neto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%. Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH, single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19% developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57% exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

  5. Living donor liver transplantation for inborn errors of metabolism - An underutilized resource in the United States. (United States)

    Pham, Thomas A; Enns, Gregory M; Esquivel, Carlos O


    Inborn metabolic diseases of the liver can be life-threatening disorders that cause debilitating and permanent neurological damage. Symptoms may manifest as early as the neonatal period. Liver transplant replaces the enzymatically deficient liver, allowing for metabolism of toxic metabolites. LDLT for metabolic disorders is rarely performed in the United States as compared to countries such as Japan, where they report >2000 cases performed within the past two decades. Patient and graft survival is comparable to that of the United States, where most of the studies are based on deceased donors. No living donor complications were observed, suggesting that LDLT is as safe and effective as deceased donor transplants performed in the USA. Increased utilization of living donors in the USA will allow for early transplantation to prevent permanent neurological damage in those with severe disease. Pediatric transplant centers should consider utilizing living donors when feasible for children with metabolic disorders of the liver.

  6. Clinical and anti-HLA antibody profile of nine renal transplant recipients with failed grafts: donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibody development. (United States)

    Rebellato, Lorita M; Ozawa, Miyuki; Verbanac, Kathryn M; Catrou, Paul; Haisch, Carl E; Terasaki, Paul I


    predictor of late graft loss via chronic allograft nephropathy, understanding and modifying the antibody response is critical to extending the longevity of transplanted organs. Finally, since the strong sensitization to NDSA will seriously hamper the ability to identify a compatible donor for a future transplant, these data reinforce the importance of minimizing HLA mismatches between the donor and the recipient.

  7. Liver graft hyperperfusion in the early postoperative period promotes hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after living donor liver transplantation (United States)

    Byun, Sung Hye; Yang, Hae Soo; Kim, Jong Hae


    Abstract Hepatic regeneration is essential to meet the metabolic demands of partial liver grafts following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Hepatic regeneration is promoted by portal hyperperfusion of partial grafts, which produces shear stress on the sinusoidal endothelium. Hepatic regeneration is difficult to assess within the first 2 weeks after LDLT as the size of liver graft could be overestimated in the presence of postsurgical graft edema. In this study, we evaluated the effects of graft hyperperfusion on the rate of hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after LDLT by measuring hepatic hemodynamic parameters. Thirty-six patients undergoing LDLT were enrolled in this study. Hepatic hemodynamic parameters including peak portal venous flow velocity (PVV) were measured using spectral Doppler ultrasonography on postoperative day 1. Subsequently, we calculated the ratio of each velocity to 100 g of the initial graft weight (GW) obtained immediately after graft retrieval on the day of LDLT. Ratios of GW to recipient weight (GRWR) and to standard liver volume (GW/SLV) were also obtained. The hepatic regeneration rate was defined as the ratio of the regenerated volume measured using computed tomographic volumetry at postoperative week 2 to the initial GW. Correlations of the hemodynamic parameters, GRWR, and GW/SLV with the hepatic regeneration rate were assessed using a linear regression analysis. The liver grafts regenerated to approximately 1.7 times their initial GW (1.7 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard deviation]). PVV/100 g of GW (r2 = 0.224, β1 [slope coefficient] = 2.105, P = 0.004) and velocities of the hepatic artery and vein per 100 g of GW positively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate, whereas GRWR (r2 = 0.407, β1 = –81.149, P < 0.001) and GW/SLV (r2 = 0.541, β1 = –2.184, P < 0.001) negatively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate. Graft hyperperfusion demonstrated by increased hepatic

  8. Effects of temperature and fluid media on the scroll width size of the Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK donor graft

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    Koo EH


    Full Text Available Ellen H Koo,1 Allen O Eghrari,2 Ryan S Meshkin,2 Wei Shi,1 William J Feuer,1 Karen G DeMarco,3 Arthur C Kurz3 1Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3KeraLink International, Baltimore, MD, USA Aim: Our study was conducted to evaluate whether higher temperature leads to increased – or wider – scroll widths of the Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK donor graft.Purpose: To investigate the effects of temperature and fluid media on the DMEK donor graft scroll widths.Materials and methods: This research work was a laboratory investigation. Baseline cell count was taken via specular microscopy for the donor corneas at room temperature (20°C–25°C. The endothelium sides of the donor corneas were stained with Trypan Blue Solution 0.4% for 30 s, and the Descemet’s membranes were stripped. The DMEK donor grafts were placed into three different fluid media – Optisol®, Balanced Salt Solution (BSS, and BSS PLUS® (BSS Plus. The DMEK donor grafts were then transferred into cold temperature (4°C for 60 min, after which the donor grafts’ scroll widths were examined and measured. The donor grafts were then warmed in the incubator and brought to physiological temperature (35°C–37°C, and their scroll widths were examined and measured again.Results: In 30 measurements of ten tissues across three temperature and fluid conditions, the average scroll width measured 1.73 mm, ranging from 1.1 to 2.9 mm. In a mixed linear model, the scroll widths increased with temperature (P=0.02. There was no significant difference in scroll widths among the three solutions (P=0.84, mixed linear model.Conclusion: We observed an increase in DMEK donor graft scroll widths with higher temperatures. The usage of BSS Plus as media solution could also lead to smaller DMEK donor graft scroll widths, compared with BSS, but our study does

  9. Successful second transplantation from haploidentical donor for graft failure following unrelated cord blood cell transplantation or mismatched related transplantation: 2cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lan-ping; HUANG Xiao-jun


    @@ Cord blood transplantation (CBT) from unrelated donors has increasingly been performed worldwide during the last decade. The immaturity of lymphocytes in cord blood permits HLA-mismatching between donors and recipients and reduces the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).However, the relatively small dose of the cord blood nucleated cells is associated with a high frequency of engraftment failure.1-5 But re-transplantation with stem cells from the original donor is impossible.

  10. Induction of graft versus malignancy effect after unrelated allogeneic PBSCT using donor lymphocyte infusions derived from frozen aliquots of the original graft. (United States)

    Hasskarl, J; Zerweck, A; Wäsch, R; Ihorst, G; Bertz, H; Finke, J


    To evaluate safety and efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI), derived from frozen aliquots of the original G-CSF-stimulated graft after allogeneic PBSCT from unrelated donors, data of 121 patients with hematological malignancies treated with DLIs were retrospectively analyzed. Indications for PBSCT were AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (n=63/8), ALL (n=17), lymphoma (n=13), multiple myeloma (n=10) and myeloproliferative syndrome (n=10). Reasons for DLI were hematological relapse (n=81), molecular and/or cytogenetic relapse (n=5), mixed chimerism (n=22) and prophylactic DLI in high-risk patients (n=13). DLIs were well tolerated with no acute adverse reactions. DLI-induced acute-type GvHD (aGvHD) was observed in 19 patients and chronic-type GvHD (cGvHD) developed in 14 patients. Three patients died of GvHD complications. DLI induced CR, complete chimerism or PR in 34 patients; 24 patients had stable disease, 50 patients progressed and 13 patients were not evaluable for response. Objective response was more obvious for molecular relapse (5/5) or mixed chimerism (14/22) compared with hematological relapse (13/81). Median survival after first DLI was 10.4 months (95% confidence interval: 4.4-26.0). Cryopreserved G-CSF-stimulated DLI, derived from allogeneic grafts are safe and immunoreactive, and can be applied early in case of mixed chimerism and molecular or cytogenetic relapse.

  11. Alloimmunisation to donor antigens and immune rejection following foetal neural grafts to the brain in patients with Huntington's disease.

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    Pierre Krystkowiak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brain is deemed "immunologically privileged" due to sparse professional antigen-presenting cells and lymphatic drainage, and to the blood-brain barrier. Although the actual extent of this privilege is controversial, there is general consensus about the limited need in intracerebral neural grafts for immunosuppressive regimens comparable to those used in other cases of allotransplantation. This has led over the past fifteen years to the use of either short-term or even no immunosuppression in most clinical trials with foetal neural transplant in patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report biological demonstration of alloimmunisation without signs of rejection in four grafted patients out of 13 studied during the course of a clinical trial involving fetal neural transplantation in patients with Huntington's Disease. Biological, radiological and clinical demonstration of an ongoing rejection process was observed in a fifth transplanted patient. The rejection process was, however, fully reversible under immunosuppressive treatment and graft activity recovered within six months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There had been, up to date, no report of documented cases that could have cast a doubt on those procedures. Our results underline the need for a reconsideration of the extent of the so-called immune privilege of the brain and of the follow-up protocols of patients with intracerebral grafts. It also suggests that some of the results obtained in past studies with foetal neural transplants may have been biased by an unrecognized immune response to donor cells.

  12. Case report: living donor liver transplantation for giant hepatic hemangioma using a right lobe graft without the middle hepatic vein (United States)


    Hepatic hemangioma patients with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome have reportedly been cured by liver transplantation. However, liver transplantation as a potential cure for a stable patient without Kasabach-Merritt syndrome remains debatable. We report the case of a 27-year-old female patient with a giant hepatic hemangioma. The hemangioma measured 50 × 40 × 25 cm in size and weighed 15 kg, which is the largest and heaviest hemangioma reported in the literature. The patient showed jaundice, ascites, anemia, and appetite loss; but no disseminated intravascular coagulation was observed through laboratory findings. We successfully operated using a right lobe graft without the middle hepatic vein from a 55-year-old donor. At the long-term follow-up, the patient experienced two acute rejections, which were confirmed by biopsy. However, the patient still survives with good graft function after 50 months. PMID:24708716

  13. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

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    Ignjatović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  14. A histopathological score on baseline biopsies from elderly donors predicts outcome 1 year after renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birgitte G; Federspiel, Birgitte H; Sørensen, Søren S


    Kidneys from elderly deceased patients and otherwise marginal donors may be considered for transplantation and a pretransplantation histopathological score for prediction of postoperative outcome is warranted. In a retrospective design, 29 baseline renal needle biopsies from elderly deceased donors...... wall thickness of arteries and/or arterioles. Nineteen renal baseline biopsies from 15 donors (age: 64 ± 10 years) were included and following consensus the histopathological score was 4.3 ± 2.1 (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.81; confidence interval: 0.66-0.92). The donor organs were used...... for single renal transplantation (recipient age: 47 ± 3 years). Two grafts were lost after the transplantation. In the remaining 17 recipients the 1-year creatinine clearance (54 ± 6 mL/min) correlated to the baseline histopathological score (r(2) = 0.59; p

  15. Graft reconditioning with nitric oxide gas in rat liver transplantation from cardiac death donors. (United States)

    Kageyama, Shoichi; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Saito, Shunichi; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Hata, Koichiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Tolba, Rene; Shinji, Uemoto


    Liver transplant outcomes using grafts donated after cardiac death (DCD) remain poor. We investigated the effects of ex vivo reconditioning of DCD grafts with venous systemic oxygen persufflation using nitric oxide gas (VSOP-NO) in rat liver transplants. Orthotopic liver transplants were performed in Lewis rats, using DCD grafts prepared using static cold storage alone (group-control) or reconditioning using VSOP-NO during cold storage (group-VSOP-NO). Experiment I: In a 30-min warm ischemia model, graft damage and hepatic expression of inflammatory cytokines, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were examined, and histologic analysis was performed 2, 6, 24, and 72 hr after transplantation. Experiment II: In a 60-min warm ischemia model, grafts were evaluated 2 hr after transplantation (6 rats/group), and survival was assessed (7 rats/group). Experiment I: Group-VSOP-NO had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (PVSOP-NO.Experiment II: VSOP-NO decreased ET-1 and 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression and improved survival after transplantation by 71.4% (PVSOP-NO effectively reconditions warm ischemia-damaged grafts, presumably by decreasing ET-1 upregulation and oxidative damage.

  16. Impact of graft steatosis on the post-transplantation biliary complications for living donor liver transplant recipients in China. (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Li, Bo; Yan, Lv-Nan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhao, Ji-Chun; Xu, Ming-Qing; Wang, Wen-Tao; Ma, Yu-Kui; Yang, Jia-Yin


    After living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), the prevalence of complications related to the biliary system is 6-35%. In spite of great improvements in both surgical techniques and postoperative and long-term medical treatment, the biliary complications are still considered a relatively high risk for LDLT. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the incidence of biliary complications and identify predisposing risk factors. The clinical and follow-up data of 175 adult patients receiving LDLT (right lobe or left lobe) between 2002 and December 2008 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with biliary complications (n=30) and without biliary complications (n=145). Thirty patients (17.1%) had post-transplantation biliary complications. Eight patients (4.6%) were diagnosed with bile leakage, while 24 patients (13.7%) developed biliary stricture. Percentage of steatosis of the graft and hepatic artery thrombosis after LDLT were two factors upon univariate analysis (p=0.034, p=0.01, respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, 20-50% macrovesicular steatosis emerged as a new defined risk factor by us (p=0.001). There was no difference in patient survival rate in different groups and sorts of graft steatosis (p>0.05). We consider that using a graft with macro-vesicular steatosis in 20-50% should be put on the table carefully, balancing both sides of positive and negative.

  17. Simplified one-orifice venoplasty for middle hepatic vein reconstruction in adult living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts. (United States)

    Kim, Joo Dong; Choi, Dong Lak; Han, Young Seok


    Middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction is often essential to avoid hepatic congestion and serious graft dysfunction in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this report was to introduce evolution of our MHV reconstruction technique and excellent outcomes of simplified one-orifice venoplasty. We compared clinical outcomes with two reconstruction techniques through retrospective review of 95 recipients who underwent LDLT using right lobe grafts at our institution from January 2008 to April 2012; group 1 received separate outflow reconstruction and group 2 received new one-orifice technique. The early patency rates of MHV in group 2 were higher than those in group 1; 98.4% vs. 88.2% on postoperative day 7 (p = 0.054) and 96.7% vs. 82.4% on postoperative day 14, respectively (p = 0.023). Right hepatic vein (RHV) stenosis developed in three cases in group 1, but no RHV stenosis developed because we adopted one-orifice technique (p = 0.043). The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1 during the early post-transplant period. In conclusion, our simplified one-orifice venoplasty technique could secure venous outflow and improve graft function during right lobe LDLT.

  18. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration

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    Jyuhn-Huarng Juang


    Full Text Available The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue.

  19. Standardized surgical techniques for adult living donor liver transplantation using a modified right lobe graft: a video presentation from bench to reperfusion. (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu


    After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases.

  20. Evaluation of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Wound Dressing for Split-Thickness Skin-Graft Donor Sites

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    Denys J. Loeffelbein


    Full Text Available Human amniotic membrane (HAM has been used as a biomaterial in various surgical procedures and exceeds some qualities of common materials. We evaluated HAM as wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft (STSG donor sites in a swine model (Part A and a clinical trial (Part B. Part A: STSG donor sites in 4 piglets were treated with HAM or a clinically used conventional polyurethane (PU foil (n=8 each. Biopsies were taken on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 and investigated immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: wound contraction marker, von Willebrand factor (vWF: angiogenesis, Ki-67 (cell proliferation, and laminin (basement membrane integrity. Part B: STSG donor sites in 45 adult patients (16 female/29 male were treated with HAM covered by PU foam, solely by PU foam, or PU foil/paraffin gauze (n=15 each. Part A revealed no difference in the rate of wound closure between groups. HAM showed improved esthetic results and inhibitory effects on cicatrization. Angioneogenesis was reduced, and basement membrane formation was accelerated in HAM group. Part B: no difference in re-epithelialization/infection rate was found. HAM caused less ichor exudation and less pruritus. HAM has no relevant advantage over conventional dressings but might be a cost-effective alternative.

  1. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function. (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter


    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little evidence to support differences between the study group, who had undergone serial biopsies, and a contemporaneous control group, who had not. In allografts with serial biopsies (n = 162), there was an increase in ICD between implantation (median: 2%, IQR:0-8) and 2-3 months post-transplant (median 8% IQR:4-15; p live donors was independently associated with smaller early post-transplant increases in ICD. There was no evidence for a difference in delta ICD between donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death, nor association with length of cold ischemia. After adjustment for GFR at the time of the second biopsy, delta ICD after three months did not predict allograft function at one yr. These findings suggest that graft damage develops shortly after transplantation and reflects donor factors, but does not predict future biochemical outcomes.

  2. Serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin during the early postoperative period predicts the recovery of graft function after kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death. (United States)

    Kusaka, Mamoru; Iwamatsu, Fumi; Kuroyanagi, Yoko; Nakaya, Miho; Ichino, Manabu; Marubashi, Shigeru; Nagano, Hiroaki; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka


    Kidneys procured from donors after cardiac death hold great potential to expand the donor pool. However, they have not yet been fully used, in part due to the high incidence of delayed graft function. Although urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a well-known early biomarker for renal injury after kidney transplantation, its usefulness is limited in cases with delayed graft function because of the unavailability of a urine sample. We evaluated serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a potential biomarker to predict the functional recovery of kidneys transplanted from donors after cardiac death. Consecutive patients transplanted with a kidney from a living related (39), brain dead (1) or post-cardiac death (27) donor were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected serially before and after kidney transplantation. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was measured using the ARCHITECT® assay. Average serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin was markedly high during the pre transplantation period. It decreased rapidly after transplantation. The slope of the decrease correlated well with the recovery period. By analyzing ROC curves we determined cutoffs to predict immediate, slow or delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis for longer than 1 week with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that serial monitoring of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may allow us to predict graft recovery and the need for hemodialysis after kidney transplantation from a donor after cardiac death. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of graft size matching on outcomes of infantile living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Wan, Ping; Li, Qigen; Zhang, Jianjun; Shen, Conghuan; Luo, Yi; Chen, Qimin; Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Ming; Han, Longzhi; Xia, Qiang


    We aimed to assess the impact of size mismatching between grafts and recipients on outcomes of infants or small children after LDLT. Between October 2006 and December 2014, 129 LDLT recipients weighing no more than 8 kg were retrospectively analyzed. The entire cohort was categorized into three groups by GRWR: GRWR graft survival rates were 89.5%, 86.6%, and 81.6%, respectively (p = 0.846). In conclusion, GRWR between 1.9% and 5.8% would not cause noticeable adverse events for infantile LDLT recipients ≤ 8 kg. However, there is still a role for considering reduction in the graft mass as an applicable strategy in selected cases.

  4. Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney donors. (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Golzari, Samad E J; Golzari, Samad; Abravesh, Mohammad; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aghamohammadi, Davood; Zomorrodi, Afshar; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa


    To evaluate the effect of low-dose dopamine administration on the early function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation. In this double-blinded clinical trial, 60 adult kidney donors and 60 recipients, younger than 50 years old, were studied. Donors and recipients were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 received dopamine 3 µ/kg/min and group 2 received similar regimen of placebo. During the first 3 days postoperatively, serum levels of urea and creatinine as well as urine output and early kidney function were compared between two groups. Serum levels of creatinine and urea and urine output during the first three days after the operation did not differ statistically significantly between two groups (P = .549, P = .306, and P = .375, respectively). Early kidney function was better significantly in group 1 (5.3 ± 3.2 versus 8.6 ± 8.0 hours; P = .048). Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine accelerates early kidney function after transplantation, but has no effect on the hemodynamic status and serum levels of creatinine and urea in the donors.

  5. Erythema persists longer than one year in split-thickness skin graft donor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Jorgensen, Lars N; Jørgensen, Bo


    on the thigh using a pneumatic dermatome in 19 consecutive Caucasian patients, median age 70 years, age range 44-86 years, who were undergoing skin graft surgery for leg ulcers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and pigmentation were measured quantitatively using non-invasive devices...

  6. Modified extracorporeal photopheresis with cells from a healthy donor for acute graft-versus-host disease in a mouse model.

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    Holger Budde

    Full Text Available Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD is a major challenge after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but treatment options for patients are still limited. In many cases first-line treatment with glucocorticoids is not successful. Among second-line therapies the extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP is frequently performed, due to induction of selective tolerance instead of general immunosuppression. However, for some patients with severe acute GvHD the leukapheresis step of the ECP procedure is physically exhausting and limits the number of ECP cycles.We hypothesized that leukocytes from healthy cell donors could be used as a replacement for ECP leukocytes gained from the GvHD patient. For this purpose we used a well established mouse model of acute GvHD. The ECP therapy was based on cells with the genetic background of the initial donor of the stem cell transplantation. As a precondition we developed a protocol representing conventional ECP in mice equivalent to clinical used ECP setup.We could demonstrate that conventional, clinically derived ECP setup is able to alleviate acute GvHD. By using leukocytes obtained from healthy mice with the bone marrow donor's genetic background we could not observe a statistically significant therapeutic effect.Conventional human ECP setup is effective in the mouse model of severe acute GvHD. In addition we could not prove that ECP cells from healthy mice with bone marrow donor's genetic background are as effective as ECP cells derived from GvHD mice. Based on our findings, new questions arise for further studies, in which the cellular characteristics for ECP mediated immune tolerance are a matter of investigation.

  7. The effects of donor stage on the survival and function of embryonic striatal grafts in the adult rat brain; II. Correlation between positron emission tomography and reaching behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, S.B. [Department of Experimental Psychology and MRC Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Brooks, D.J.; Ashworth, S.; Opacka-Juffrey, J.; Myers, R.; Hume, S.P. [PET Methodology Group, Cyclotron Unit, MRC Clinical Science Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Torres, E.M.; Fricker, R.A. [Department of Experimental Psychology and MRC Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Grafts of embryonic striatal primordia are able to elicit behavioural recovery in rats which have received an excitotoxic lesion to the striatum, and it is believed that the P zones or striatal-like tissue within the transplants play a crucial role in these functional effects. We performed this study to compare the effects of different donor stage of embryonic tissue on both the morphology (see accompanying paper) and function of striatal transplants. Both the medial and lateral ganglionic eminence was dissected from rat embryos of either 10 mm, 15 mm, 19 mm, or 23 mm crown-rump length, and implanted as a cell suspension into adult rats which had received an ibotenic acid lesion 10 days prior to transplantation. After four months the animals were tested on the 'staircase task' of skilled forelimb use. At 10-14 months rats from the groups which had received grafts from 10 mm or 15 mm donor embryos were taken for positron emission tomography scanning in a small diameter postiron emission tomography scanner, using ligands to the dopamine D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} receptors, [{sup 11}C]SCH 23390 and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, respectively. A lesion-alone group was also scanned with the same ligands for comparison. Animals which had received transplants from the 10 mm donors showed a significant recovery with their contralateral paw on the 'staircase test'. No other groups showed recovery on this task. Similarly, the animals with grafts from the youngest donors showed a significant increase in D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} receptor binding when compared to the lesion-alone group. No increase in signal was observed with either ligand in the group which had received grafts from 15 mm donors. Success in paw reaching showed a strong correlation to both the positron emission tomography signal obtained and the P zone volume of the grafts.These results suggest that striatal grafts from younger donors (10 mm CRL) give greater behavioural recovery than grafts preparedfrom

  8. Impact of Donor Recipient Gender and Race Mismatch on Graft Outcomes in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease Undergoing Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Zhang, Yefei


    The discrepancy between donor supply and organ demand increased the possibility of gender and race mismatch between the donors and recipients. However, the findings of their impact on graft and patient survival are outdated and mixed. To estimate the effects of gender and race mismatch on graft survival and patient survival among adult patients (18 years and older) with end-stage liver disease. A total of 38 768 patients undergoing liver transplant between 2002 and 2011 were identified from United Network for Organ Sharing database. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazard regressions with backward elimination adopting a marginal approach with a working independence assumption and stratification on recipient hepatitis C virus status were used. Posttransplantation graft survival and patient survival. Both gender mismatch (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.12) and race mismatch (HR 1.08, 95%C: 1.04-1.12) had significantly adverse effects on graft survival and patient survival after controlling for other factors, especially among hepatitis C-positive female recipients with male donors (HR 1.13, 95%CI 1.03-1.24), black recipients with white donors (1.39, 1.29-1.49) or Hispanic donors (HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.27-1.72), and these effects were even worse among hepatitis C-positive recipients. Gender and race mismatch between donors and recipients adversely affected graft survival and patient survival among adult patients with end-stage liver disease, both independently and after the adjustment for other factors. Future research is recommended to explore other factors such as new model for end-stage liver disease sharing policy change and disparities in access to waiting-list or transplantation.

  9. Graft-versus-leukemia reactivity involves cluster formation between superantigen-reactive donor T lymphocytes and host macrophages. (United States)

    Müerköster, S; Wachowski, O; Zerban, H; Schirrmacher, V; Umansky, V; Rocha, M


    T-cell-mediated antitumor effects play an important role clinically in allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reactivity, whereas T-cell-mediated antihost effects are associated with a risk of developing graft-versus-host (GvH) disease. GvL and GvH were compared in an animal tumor model system after the systemic transfer of allogeneic antitumor immune T lymphocytes from B10.D2 [H-2d; minor lymphocyte-stimulating antigen (Mls)b] mice into ESb-MP tumor-bearing or normal DBA/2 (H-2d; Mls(a)) mice. Here we demonstrate that this T-cell-mediated therapy involves the formation of clusters of donor CD4 and CD8 T cells with host macrophages, in particular, with a subpopulation expressing the lymphocyte adhesion molecule sialoadhesin. DBA/2 mice and the derived tumor ESb-MP express viral superantigen 7 (Mls(a)), an endogenous viral superantigen that is absent from B10.D2 mice. To test the contribution of viral superantigen 7-reactive Vbeta6 donor T cells in the GvL-mediated eradication of liver metastases, we performed immunohistological and transmission electron microscopy studies. Vbeta6+ CD4 and CD8 T cells from B10.D2 donors formed tight clusters with host sialoadhesin-positive macrophages, and transmission electron microscopy pictures revealed direct membrane-membrane interactions between T cells and macrophages. Clusters were more abundant and consisted of more cells in tumor-bearing hosts (GvL model) than in non-tumor-bearing hosts (GvH model). In addition, Vbeta6 T cells within the clusters showed a strong proliferation activity, indicating stimulation. Moreover, in an in vitro tumor cytostasis assay, primed as well as nonprimed purified Vbeta6 T cells from donor mice were able to inhibit the proliferation of superantigen-expressing ESb-MP lymphoma cells. This suggests that the transferred superantigen-reactive Vbeta6 T cells contribute to the eradication of metastases. The observed cell clusters might be sites for antigen presentation and the activation of tumor

  10. Elderly donor liver grafts are not associated with a higher incidence of biliary complications after liver transplantation : results of a national multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Korkmaz, Kerem S.; Bottema, Jan T.; Ringers, Jan; Polak, Wojciech G.; van den Berg, Aad P.; van Hoek, Bart; Metselaar, Herold J.; Porte, Robert J.


    Background: Liver transplantation with livers grafts from elderly donors has been associated with a higher risk of biliary complications. The aim of this study was to examine whether our national protocol could contribute to a lower incidence of biliary complications. Methods: All adult recipients i

  11. Plugged percutaneous biopsy of the liver in living-donor liver transplantation recipients suspected to have graft rejection. (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jung; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Young Bae; Wang, Hee-Jung; Kim, Bong-Wan; Kim, Haeryoung; Kim, Jinoo


    Background Percutaneous biopsy is a widely-accepted technique for acquiring histologic samples of the liver. When there is concern for bleeding, plugged percutaneous biopsy (PPB) may be performed, which involves embolization of the biopsy tract. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PPB of the liver in patients suspected to have graft rejection after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Material and Methods During January 2007 and December 2013, 51 patients who underwent PPB of the liver under the suspicion of post-LDLT graft rejection were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 73 biopsies were performed. Biopsy was performed with a 17-gauge core needle and 18-gauge cutting needle. The needle tract was embolized using gelatin sponge (n = 44) or N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (n = 29). The specimens were reviewed to determine their adequacy for histologic diagnosis. We reviewed all medical records after PPB. Results Specimens were successfully acquired in all procedures (100%). They were adequate for diagnosis in 70 cases (95.9%) and inadequate in three (1.3%). Average of 9.8 complete portal tracts was counted per specimen. One minor complication (1.4%) occurred where the patient had transient fever after the procedure. Conclusion PPB is easy and safe to perform in LDLT recipients and provides high diagnostic yield.

  12. Rates and determinants of progression to graft failure in kidney allograft recipients with de novo donor-specific antibody. (United States)

    Wiebe, C; Gibson, I W; Blydt-Hansen, T D; Pochinco, D; Birk, P E; Ho, J; Karpinski, M; Goldberg, A; Storsley, L; Rush, D N; Nickerson, P W


    Understanding rates and determinants of clinical pathologic progression for recipients with de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA), especially subclinical dnDSA, may identify surrogate endpoints and inform clinical trial design. A consecutive cohort of 508 renal transplant recipients (n = 64 with dnDSA) was studied. Recipients (n = 388) without dnDSA or dysfunction had an eGFR decline of -0.65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) /year. In recipients with dnDSA, the rate eGFR decline was significantly increased prior to dnDSA onset (-2.89 vs. -0.65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) /year, p < 0.0001) and accelerated post-dnDSA (-3.63 vs. -2.89 mL/min/1.73 m(2) /year, p < 0.0001), suggesting that dnDSA is both a marker and contributor to ongoing alloimmunity. Time to 50% post-dnDSA graft loss was longer in recipients with subclinical versus a clinical dnDSA phenotype (8.3 vs. 3.3 years, p < 0.0001). Analysis of 1091 allograft biopsies found that dnDSA and time independently predicted chronic glomerulopathy (cg), but not interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA). Early T cell-mediated rejection, nonadherence, and time were multivariate predictors of IFTA. Independent risk factors for post-dnDSA graft survival available prior to, or at the time of, dnDSA detection were delayed graft function, nonadherence, dnDSA mean fluorescence intensity sum score, tubulitis, and cg. Ultimately, dnDSA is part of a continuum of mixed alloimmune-mediated injury, which requires solutions targeting T and B cells.

  13. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors]. (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A


    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  14. Immunomodulation with donor regulatory T cells armed with Fas-ligand alleviates graft-versus-host disease. (United States)

    Yolcu, Esma S; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir


    Infusion of large numbers of donor regulatory T cells (Tregs) is an effective approach to suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We have reported previously that enhancing the killing activity of CD25(+) Tregs by decoration with short-lived Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Tregs) is effective in abrogation of autoimmunity. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of killer Tregs in murine models of lethal GvHD. In a model in which disease-associated mortality was not prevented by infusion of naive donor Tregs (3 days after transplant) at an effector:suppressor ratio of 10:1, killer Tregs rescued 70% of the mice and improved the clinical and histologic scores. We found that both effector lymphocytes and therapeutic Tregs migrate to and proliferate in the mesenteric lymph nodes of irradiated recipients; however, only killer Tregs increased fractional apoptosis of effector lymphocytes. Although the lymphoid organs were primarily reconstituted from the bone marrow with little contribution of the infused effector and suppressor subsets, immunomodulation with FasL caused a durable rise in fractions of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs. Our findings demonstrate that a short-lived apoptotic protein increases the suppressive activity of Tregs and ameliorates GvHD severity.

  15. 尸体供肠的获取、保存及临床应用%Procurement and preservation of small intestinal graft from cadaveric donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼生; 黎介寿; 李宁; 江志伟; 李元新; 石群立


    Objective To investigate the procurement and preservation of small intestinal graft from cadaveric donor.Methods The donor was perfused in sim and the graft including small intestine,pancreas,kidneys and liver was procured en bloc.The graft was preserved by cold Euro-Collins solution.Structure and ultrastructure of the graft were observed.Two grafts were transplanted into 2 patients with short bowel syndrome.Results The 6 grafts were procured from cadaveric donors according to the above method.The grafts were procured within(10.8±1.4)min and the warm ischemia time was(5.6±1.2)min.The results of light and electron microscopical observation showed that tissue injury was slight following the graft preserved within 10 h.In the first patient,absorptive and motive function of the graft was restored,and the second patient had oral diet without fat.Conclusions This method of procurement and preservation of small intestinal graft was suitable to cadaveric donors.%目的 研究尸体供肠的获取与保存方法.方法 采用原位灌洗、整块切取的方法自6具尸体获取供肠,Euro-Collins液保存,光镜和电镜下观察供肠的组织学变化,其中2例供肠分别移植至2例短肠综合征患者.结果 6例尸体供肠完整切取的时间为(10.8±1.4)min,热缺血时间为(5.6±1.2)min;光镜及电镜检查证实保存10 h内的供肠组织损伤轻微;第1例移植的小肠运动和吸收功能逐渐恢复,后因肠道和肺部感染死亡,第2例患者恢复无脂饮食.结论 该法实用、有效,所获小肠可用于临床移植.

  16. Complications in the use of the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis as donor sites in bone graft surgery. A systematic review (United States)

    Cobo-Vázquez, Carlos; Monteserín-Matesanz, Marta; López-Quiles, Juan


    Background To develop a systematic review by assessing and comparing the different complications that occurs in bone graft surgery using the mandibular body, ramus and symphysis as donor sites. Material and Methods In order to respond to the following question, a systematic review was developed: does the use of intraoral mandibular body and ramus as donor sites in bone graft surgery, produce fewer and less severe complications in comparison to the use of the mandibular symphysis in patients that present bone resorption that needs augmentation using autologous grafts? The review was carried out between January 1990 and 2015, during which only clinical essays with a minimum follow-up period of six months were included. Results The initial search yielded a total of 2912 articles, of which 6 were finally selected. In total, 259 graft surgeries were performed; 118 using the mandibular body and ramus as donor sites, and 141, the symphysis. The most frequent complications that arose when using the mandibular symphysis were temporary sensory alterations in the anterior teeth (33.87%), followed by sensory alterations of the skin and mucosa (18.57%). As for the mandibular body and ramus donor sites, the most frequent complications relate to temporary sensory alterations of the mucosa (8.19%) and to minor postoperative bleeding (6.55%). Conclusions The analyzed results show a higher prevalence and severity of complications when using mandibular symphysis bone grafts, producing more discomfort for the patient. Therefore, it would be advisable to perform further clinical essays due to the lack of studies found. Key words:Alveolar ridge augmentation, autogenous bone, mandibular bone grafts, chin, mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus. PMID:26827063

  17. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  18. Kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death: an initial report of 71 cases from China. (United States)

    Chen, G-D; Shiu-Chung Ko, D; Wang, C-X; Qiu, J; Han, M; He, X-S; Chen, L-Z


    Shortage of deceased donors is a severe problem in recent years in China especially in a culture in which brain death criteria is not widely accepted. Donation after cardiac death (DCD) has been reported to expand the donor pool despite higher rates of primary nonfunction (PNF) and delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation. We collected 71 DCD kidney transplants performed at our hospital between February, 2007 and June, 2012 with aims to demonstrate the feasibility of DCD donation in China. All patients were followed up, and postoperative complications and graft loss were recorded. The PNF rate was 2.8%, and DGF rate was 28.2%. The 1- and 3-year graft survival was 95.7% and 92.4%. In conclusion, graft survival of DCD kidney transplantation in China is excellent despite of higher rates of PNF and DGF after transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Donor-specific HLA antibodies and graft function in kidney-transplanted children - the Vienna cohort. (United States)

    Rusai, Krisztina; Dworak, Johanna; Potemkina, Alexandra; Fischer, Gottfried; Csaicsich, Dagmar; Arbeiter, Klaus; Aufricht, Christoph; Müller-Sacherer, Thomas


    In the pediatric population, little is known on de novo DSA development, its impact on graft function, and association with suboptimal IS. We assessed the prevalence of de novo DSA in the Vienna cohort of 40 renal transplanted children and adolescents and prospectively followed its association with clinical parameters, graft function, and proteinuria for one yr. At the cross-sectional analysis (median post-transplant time of five yr), 17% of the patients had developed de novo DSA. All HLA-Ab were anti-HLA class II antibodies and persisted in 85% of the cases until the follow-up screening performed within one yr. Basic clinical and laboratory parameters did not differ between DSA-negative and DSA-positive patients at the time of HLA-Ab screening. Suboptimal IS due to reduced medication or non-adherence could not be proven in DSA-positive patients. The changes in eGFR did not differ during the prospective study period, but there was a significantly higher proteinuria in the DSA-positive patients during the follow-up. Our data demonstrate an overall prevalence of 17% of de novo DSA in a pediatric renal transplant cohort. During 12 months of prospective follow-up time, we could demonstrate a significant impact of de novo DSA presence on proteinuria.

  20. Kidney clamp, perfuse, re-implant: a useful technique for graft salvage after vascular complications during kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Mekeel, Kristin L; Halldorson, Jeffery B; Berumen, Jennifer A; Hemming, Alan W


    Although intra-operative vascular complications during renal transplantation are rare, injuries associated with prolonged ischemia may lead to graft threatening early and late complications. This series describes a novel technique for intra-operative repair of vascular complications in five patients over a three-yr period. The method consists of rapid graft nephrectomy and re-preservation of the graft with cold University of Wisconsin solution, which allows for controlled/precise back table repair of the vascular injury without incurring prolonged warm ischemia time. In three cases, the donor renal vein (2) and donor renal artery (1) were damaged and required back table reconstruction. In two cases, the recipient iliac artery needed reconstruction. Three of the five cases used deceased donor iliac vessels from another donor for reconstruction. Two patients required postoperative dialysis for delayed graft function for three to nine d (average six d) and two patients had slow graft function. All grafts were functioning at 17 months (mean) after transplant, with a median serum of 1.61 mg/dL (0.74-3.69). This series demonstrates the effectiveness of kidney clamp, perfuse, resuscitate as an effective intra-operative technique to salvage grafts after vascular injury. Although the grafts may suffer from delayed or slow graft function, excellent long-term function is attainable.

  1. Application of cryopreserved vein grafts as a conduit between the coronary vein and liver graft to reconstruct portal flow in adult living liver transplantation. (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Pan, Kuang-Tse; Lee, Ching-Song; Wu, Ting-Jun; Chu, Sung-Yu; Chen, Miin-Fu; Lee, Wei-Chen


    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation is an alternative to donation from a deceased individual, and can help relieve the shortage of liver donations available for adult patients in Asian countries. When transplant candidates have thrombosis and deterioration of the portal vein, living donor liver transplantation is relatively contraindicated because portal veins in the grafts are short and vein grafts may not be available to reconstruct the portal vein. From June 2003 to May 2007, 82 adult living donor liver transplantations were performed at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Three patients had portal vein thrombosis and marked fibrosis of the portal vein and cryopreserved vein grafts were used to reconstruct portal flow from the engorged coronary vein to the graft portal vein. All vein grafts are patent and all patients have normal liver function at 21-36 months after transplantation. When cryopreserved vein grafts are available, adult living donor liver transplantation can be successfully performed in patients with marked deterioration of the portal vein. The short distance from the engorged coronary vein to the graft portal vein may decrease the incidence of re-thrombosis of the venous conduit.

  2. Immunosuppression for 6-8 weeks after modified donor lymphocyte infusion reduced acute graft-versus-host disease without influencing graft-versus-leukemia effect in haploidentical transplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chenhua; Xu Lanping; Liu Daihong; Chen Huan; Wang Yu; Liu Kaiyan; Huang Xiaojun


    Background In haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT),the duration of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after modified donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was the only risk factor of DLI-associated grades 3-4 acute GVHD.However,the successful application of modified DLI depended not only on the reduction of severe GVHD,but also on the preservation of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect.Therefore,this study was performed to compare the impact of prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks and prophylaxis for <6 weeks on GVL effect after modified DLI in haploidentical HSCT.Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients developing hematological relapse or minimal residual disease (MRD)-positive status after haploidentical HSCT and receiving modified DLI were investigated retrospectively.Fifty-two patients received prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks after modified DLI; the remaining 51 patients received prophylaxis for <6 weeks.Results First,compared with prophylaxis for <6 weeks,prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks reduced incidence of relapse in total patients (26.6% vs.69.0%,P <0.001).Besides,prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks also reduced incidence of relapse in 54 patients developing hematological relapse post-transplant (P=0.018) and in 49 patients developing MRD-positive status post-transplant (P <0.001).Second,prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks reduced incidence of acute GVHD (P <0.05),reduced the therapeutic application of immunosuppressive agents (P=0.019),but increased the incidence of chronic GVHD (P<0.05).Third,prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks improved overall survival and disease-free survival in total patients,as well as in patients developing hematological relapse post-transplant and in patients developing MRD-positive status post-transplant (P <0.05).Conclusions In haploidentical HSCT,prophylaxis for 6-8 weeks after modified DLI does not reduce GVL effect,but reduces the incidence of DLI-associated acute GVHD compared with prophylaxis for <6 weeks.This strategy will

  3. Different modalities of arterial reconstruction in hepatic retransplantation using right partial graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore Gruttadauria; Fabrizio di Francesco; Marco Spada; Mariapina Milazzo; Bruno Gridelli


    Though split-liver and living-related transplantation are routinely performed, they are done almost exclusively for primary liver transplantation because of potential surgical difficulties. These difficulties are generally related to arterial revascularization, particularly if there is hepatic artery thrombosis. According to UNOS data,of the hepatic retransplantations performed between 1996 and 2007, only 8.7% were done using right or extended right grafts from deceased donors, and 14.3%using right grafts from live donors. Here we report our experience with 5 hepatic retransplantations in which right partial grafts resulting from conventional in situ splits, and one right lobe resulting from an adult-toadult living-related transplant, were successfully used with different modalities of graft arterialization.

  4. Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe? (United States)

    Boffa, C; van de Leemkolk, F; Curnow, E; Homan van der Heide, J; Gilbert, J; Sharples, E; Ploeg, R J


    The gap between supply and demand in kidney transplantation has led to increased use of marginal kidneys; however, kidneys with acute kidney injury are often declined/discarded. To determine whether this policy is justified, we analyzed outcomes of donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a large UK cohort. A retrospective analysis of the UK Transplant Registry evaluated deceased donors between 2003 and 2013. Donors were classified as no AKI, or AKI stage 1-3 according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Relationship of AKI with delayed graft function/primary nonfunction (DGF/PNF), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and graft-survival at 90 days and 1 year was analyzed. There were 11 219 kidneys (1869 [17%] with AKI) included. Graft failure at 1 year is greater for donors with AKI than for those without (graft survival 89% vs. 91%, p = 0.02; odds ratio (OR) 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.41]). DGF rates increase with donor AKI stage (p kidneys (9% vs. 4%, p = 0.04) Analysis of association between AKI and recipient eGFR suggests a risk of inferior eGFR with AKI versus no AKI (p kidneys from donors with AKI. We conclude that AKI stage 1 or 2 kidneys should be used; however, caution is advised for AKI stage 3 donors.

  5. [The impact of donor naive and memory T cell subsets on patient outcome following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: relationship between infused donor CD4+/CCR7+ T cell subsets and acute graft-versus-host disease]. (United States)

    Choufi, B; Thiant, S; Trauet, J; Cliquennois, M; Cherrel, M; Boulanger, F; Coiteux, V; Magro, L; Labalette, M; Yakoub-Agha, I


    In a previous prospective study on 62 patients who underwent an HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation, we have observed that proportion of donor-derived CCR7(+)/CD4(+) T cells in the graft provided a predictive indicator of acute GVHD without interfering on chronic GVHD and relapse rate. Here we present our results on a confirmatory cohort of 137 consecutive patients. Indeed patients who received more than 76% of CCR7(+)/CD4(+) T cells in the graft developed more often acute GVHD be it of low or high grade than those who did not. Determination of the CCR7(+)/CCR7(neg) ratio of CD4(+) T cells in the graft provides a predictive indicator of acute GVHD and could help to define strategies of partial selective T cell depleted transplantation.

  6. Recurrence of cholestatic liver disease after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumihito Tamura; Masatoshi Hakuuchi; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Junichi Kaneko; Junichi Togashi; Yuichi Matsui; Noriyo Yamashiki; Norihiro Kokudo


    End-stage liver disease,due to cholestatic liver diseases with an autoimmune background such as primary biliary cirrhosis(PBC)and primary sclerosing cholangitis(PSC),is considered a good indication for liver transplantation.Excellent overall patient and graft outcomes,based mostly on the experience from deceased donor liver ransplantation(DDLT),have been reported.Due to the limited number of oraan donations from deceased donors in most Asian countries,living donor liver transplantation(LDLT)is the mainstream treatment for end-stage liver disease,including that resulting from PBC and PSC.Although the initial experiences with LDLT for PBC and PSC seem satisfactory or comparable to that with DLT,some aspects,including the timing of transplantation,the risk of recurrent disease,and its long-term clinical implications,require further evaluation.Whether or not the long-term outcomes of LDLT from a biologically related donor are equivalent to that of DDLT requires further observations.The clinical course following LDLT may be affected by he genetic background shared between the recipient and the living related donor.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  7. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah


    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  8. Effects of a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing and calcium alginate on the healing of split skin graft donor sites: a prospective randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M


    An open randomised prospectively controlled trial was performed to assess the healing efficacy, slippage rate and degree of discomfort on removal of calcium alginate and a silicone-coated polyamide net dressing on split skin graft donor sites. Sixteen patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 14 to the silicone-coated group. The donor sites were assessed at days 7, 10, 14 and up to day 21. The mean time to healing in the calcium alginate group was 8.75 +\\/- 0.78 days (range 7 to 14 days) compared to 12 +\\/- 0.62 days (range 7 to 16 days) for the silicone-coated group (p < 0.01). Although more silicone-coated dressings slipped (5 versus 1), the difference was not statistically significant. Pain during the first dressing change was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale. Although no significant differences were found between the groups, it was necessary to change the dressing protocol in the silicone-coated arm of the trial after entering the first two patients. Overlaid absorbent gauze adhered to the donor site through the fenestrations in the dressing necessitating the placement of paraffin gauze between the experimental dressing and the overlying cotton gauze. There was one infection in the study, occurring in the alginate group. Based on these results we recommend calcium alginate as the dressing of choice for split skin graft donor sites.

  9. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs

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    John D. Miller


    Full Text Available In the past decade, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has seen increasingly widespread integration into medical specialties. PRP application is known to accelerate wound epithelialization rates, and may also reduce postoperative wound site pain. Recently, we observed an increase in patient satisfaction following PRP gel (Angel, Cytomedix, Rockville, MD application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG donor sites. We assessed all patients known to our university-based hospital service who underwent multiple STSGs up to the year 2014, with at least one treated with topical PRP. Based on these criteria, five patients aged 48.4±17.6 (80% male were identified who could serve as their own control, with mean time of 4.4±5.1 years between operations. In both therapies, initial dressing changes occurred on postoperative day (POD 7, with donor site pain measured by Likert visual pain scale. Paired t-tests compared the size and thickness of harvested skin graft and patient pain level, and STSG thickness and surface area were comparable between control and PRP interventions (p>0.05 for all. Donor site pain was reduced from an average of 7.2 (±2.6 to 3 (±3.7, an average reduction in pain of 4.2 (standard error 1.1, p=0.0098 following PRP use. Based on these results, the authors suggest PRP as a beneficial adjunct for reducing donor site pain following STSG harvest.

  10. De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies Developing Early or Late after Transplant Are Associated with the Same Risk of Graft Damage and Loss in Nonsensitized Kidney Recipients (United States)

    Cioni, Michela; Nocera, Arcangelo; Innocente, Annalisa; Tagliamacco, Augusto; Trivelli, Antonella; Basso, Sabrina; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Iris; Magnasco, Alberto; Drago, Francesca; Gurrado, Antonella; Guido, Ilaria; Compagno, Francesca; Garibotto, Giacomo; Klersy, Catherine; Verrina, Enrico; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Cardillo, Massimo


    De novo posttransplant donor-specific HLA-antibody (dnDSA) detection is now recognized as a tool to identify patients at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and graft loss. It is still unclear whether the time interval from transplant to DSA occurrence influences graft damage. Utilizing sera collected longitudinally, we evaluated 114 consecutive primary pediatric kidney recipients grafted between 2002 and 2013 for dnDSA occurrence by Luminex platform. dnDSAs occurred in 39 patients at a median time of 24.6 months. In 15 patients, dnDSAs developed within 1 year (early-onset group), while the other 24 seroconverted after the first posttransplant year (late-onset group). The two groups were comparable when considering patient- and transplant-related factors, as well as DSA biological properties, including C1q and C3d complement-binding ability. Only recipient age at transplant significantly differed in the two cohorts, with younger patients showing earlier dnDSA development. Late AMR was diagnosed in 47% of the early group and in 58% of the late group. Graft loss occurred in 3/15 (20%) and 4/24 (17%) patients in early- and late-onset groups, respectively (p = ns). In our pediatric kidney recipients, dnDSAs predict AMR and graft loss irrespective of the time elapsed between transplantation and antibody occurrence. PMID:28367453

  11. Rejection is a strong graft survival predictor in live donor pediatric renal transplantation using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids: 5-year outcomes in a single Mexican center. (United States)

    Martinez-Mier, G; Enriquez-De Los Santos, H; Méndez-López, M T; Avila-Pardo, S F; Budar-Fernandez, L F; Gonzalez-Velazquez, F


    Long-term graft function and survival are of particular importance in children assuming that they have a longer transplantation life span than most adults. Because acute rejection episodes (ARE) continue to have a serious impact on graft loss, we analyzed the effects of ARE on 5-year survival and function in our population. Fifty-seven living donor kidney transplant recipients (34 males) younger than 18 years of age (13.5 ± 2.6 years; range, 5-17) were follow up for at feast 12 months using cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid therapy with or without induction treatment between February 2003 and December 2010. ARE incidence during the first 12 months following transplantation was 14%. One-, 3- and 5-year serum creatinine values were 1.24 ± 0.39, 2.16 ± 2.39, and 1.76 ± 0.9 mg/dL, respectively. Mean calculated creatinine clearances (Schwartz) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 82.5 ± 24.8, 64.7 ± 24.1, and 67 ± 27.5 mL/min*1.73 m(2), respectively. Patient/graft survival rates were 96/85%, 90/72%, and 88/65% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Patients who experienced an ARE within 12 months following transplantation displayed a reduced 5-year graft survival rate (37.5%) versus those who did not (78%; P = .005). Patients who did not have an ARE during 60 months had a higher graft survival rate (76%) than those who had ARE (33%; P = .001). Patient without basiliximab induction showed a lower 5-year graft survival rate (61% vs 100%; P = not significant [NS]). ARE is an important risk factor for graft loss in the pediatric kidney transplant population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholesterol-crystal embolism presenting with delayed graft function and impaired long-term function in renal transplant recipients: two case reports

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    Pliquett Rainer U


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Impaired renal function and/or pre-existing atherosclerosis in the deceased donor increase the risk of delayed graft function and impaired long-term renal function in kidney transplant recipients. Case presentation We report delayed graft function occurring simultaneously in two kidney transplant recipients, aged 57-years-old and 39-years-old, who received renal allografts from the same deceased donor. The 62-year-old donor died of cardiac arrest during an asthmatic state. Renal-allograft biopsies performed in both kidney recipients because of delayed graft function revealed cholesterol-crystal embolism. An empiric statin therapy in addition to low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was initiated. After 10 and 6 hemodialysis sessions every 48 hours, respectively, both renal allografts started to function. Glomerular filtration rates at discharge were 26 ml/min/1.73m2 and 23.9 ml/min/1.73m2, and remained stable in follow-up examinations. Possible donor and surgical procedure-dependent causes for cholesterol-crystal embolism are discussed. Conclusion Cholesterol-crystal embolism should be considered as a cause for delayed graft function and long-term impaired renal allograft function, especially in the older donor population.

  13. Dynamical changing patterns of histological structure and ultrastructure of liver graft undergoing warm ischemia injury from non-heart-beating donor in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ma; Guo-Dong Wang; Lin-Wei Wu; Rui-De Hu


    AIM: To investigate the histological and ultra-structural characteristics of liver graft during different of warm ischemia time (WIT) in rats and to predict the maximum limitation of liver graft to warm ischemia. METHODS: The rats were randomized into 7 groups undergoing warm ischemia injury for 0, 10, 15, 20, 30,45 and 60 min, respectively. All specimens having undergone warm ischemia injury were investigated dynamically by light and electron microscopy, and histochemistry staining. After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the recovery of morphology of liver grafts after 6, 24 and 48 h was observed. RESULTS: The donor liver from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) underwent ischemia injury both in the warm ischemia period and in the reperfusion period. Morphological changes were positively related to warm ischemia injury in a time-dependent manner during the reperfusion period. The results demonstrated that different degrees of histocyte degeneration were observed when WIT was within 30 min, and became more severe with the prolongation of WIT, no obvious hepatocyte necrosis was noted in any specimen. In the group undergolng warm ischemia injury for 45 min, small focal necrosis occurred in the central area of hepatic lobule first. In the group undergoing warm ischemia injury for 60 min, patchy or diffused necrosis was observed and the area was gradually extended, while hepatic sinusoid endothe lial cells were obviously swollen. Hepatic sinusoid was obstructed and microcirculation was in disorder. CONCLUSION: The rat liver graft undergoing warm ischemia injury is in the reversible stage when the WIT is within 30 min. The 45 min WIT may be a critical point of rat liver graft to endure warm ischemia injury. When the WIT is over 60 min, the damage is irreversible.

  14. Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies after bone-graft transplantation. Impact on a subsequent renal transplantation: a case report. (United States)

    Mosconi, G; Baraldi, O; Fantinati, C; Panicali, L; Veronesi, M; Cappuccilli, M L; Corsini, S; Zanelli, P; Bassi, A; Buscaroli, A; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S


    Immunological evaluation by panel-reactive antibody (PRA) and determination of anti-HLA specificity are important phases in the evaluation of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. The main causes of immunization are previous solid organ transplantation, hemotransfusion, and pregnancy. It is also possible that immunogenicity can be triggered by vascularized tissue grafts. Immune induction by cryopreserved bone prostheses is not yet understood. A 19-year-old patient with osteosarcoma had undergone resection of the left proximal tibia with reconstruction using human bone in 1997. The donor HLA typing was as follows: A3, A29 (19); B44 (12), Bw4; DR13 (6), DR7, DR52, DR53. The patient was subsequently enrolled onto the waiting list for cadaveric donor kidney transplantation due to chronic kidney failure caused by cisplatin toxicity. Pretransplantation immunological screening using the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) technique revealed a PRA of 63%. IgG antibody specificities were detected against class I and class II donor antigens, specifically anti-A3, B44, DR7 antibodies, using flow cytometry (Tepnel Luminex). Further immunological studies using single HLA specificity analysis (LSA Class I degrees -II degrees , Tepnel-Luminex) showed direct antibodies against all donor antigen specificities. This case showed immune induction after the implantation of bone prosthesis in a kidney transplant candidate, underlining the importance of the availability of HLA typing data of donors of a human prosthesis.

  15. Venous Outflow Reconstruction in Adult Living Donor Liver Transplant: Outcome of a Policy for Right Lobe Grafts without the Middle Hepatic Vein

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    Mohamed Ghazaly


    Full Text Available Introduction. The difficulty and challenge of recovering a right lobe graft without MHV drainage is reconstructing the outflow tract of the hepatic veins. With the inclusion or the reconstruction of the MHV, early graft function is satisfactory. The inclusion of the MHV or not in the donor’s right lobectomy should be based on sound criteria to provide adequate functional liver mass for recipient, while keeping risk to donor to the minimum. Objective. Reviewing the results of a policy for right lobe grafts transplant without MHV and analyzing methods of venous reconstruction related to outcome. Materials and Methods. We have two groups Group A (with more than one HV anast. (n=16 and Group B (single HV anast. (n=24. Both groups were compared regarding indications for reconstruction, complications, and operative details and outcomes, besides describing different modalities used for venous reconstruction. Results. Significant increase in operative details time in Group A. When comparison came to complications and outcomes in terms of laboratory findings and overall hospital stay, there were no significant differences. Three-month and one-year survival were better in Group A. Conclusion. Adult LDLT is safely achieved with better outcome to recipients and donors by recovering the right lobe without MHV, provided that significant MHV tributaries (segments V, VIII more than 5 mm are reconstructed, and any accessory considerable inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs or superficial RHVs are anastomosed.

  16. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar at donor site of skin grafting

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    Ravi Kumar Chittoria


    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scarring at donor site of skin grafting is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scars at donor site of skin grafting. Design: Prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Setting: The study was conducted in the department of Plastic Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 2007 to June 2009. Patients were recruited during follow-up in the OPD. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, donor site scars were divided into upper half and lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. Results: 100 scars in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gel. The median age was 25.5 years and there were 30 men (60% and 20 women (40%. Thirty-seven patients (74% had good compliance. The overall incidence of donor site hypertrophic scar was 94% (47 out of 50. At the second month postoperatively, the silicone gel scars were scored lower when compared with the control scars. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation ( P = 0.001, Vascularity ( P = 0.010, pliability ( P = 0.001, and height ( P = 0.010. Conclusion: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in donor site scars is promising. Success of silicone gel in its prophylactic role will create its routine use in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  17. Effect of Donor Ethnicity on Kidney Survival in Different Recipient Pairs– An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS Database (United States)

    Callender, C.O.; Cherikh, W.S.; Traverso, P; Hernandez, A.; Oyetunji, T.; Chang, D.


    Background Previous multivariate analysis during 4/1/94-12/31/00 from the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database has shown that kidneys from Black donors were associated with lower graft survival. We compared graft and patient survival of different kidney donor-to-recipient ethnic combinations to see if this result still holds on a recent cohort of US kidney transplants. Methods 72,495 recipients of deceased and living donor kidney alone transplants from 2001-2005 were included. A multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze the effect of donor-recipient ethnicity on graft and patient survival within 5 years of transplant, and to adjust for the effect of other donor, recipient and transplant characteristics. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) with the 95% confidence limit (CL) and p-values. Results Adjusted HR's of donor-recipient patient survival: White to White (1), White to Black (1.22, p=.001). Graft survival HRS: Black to Black (1.40, p<0.001), Black to White (1.35, p<0.001), Black to Hispanic (0.87, p=0.18), Black to Asian (0.69, p=0.05). Summary Black donor Kidneys are associated with significantly lower graft survival when transplanted into Whites and Blacks and are only associated with lower patient survival when these kidneys are transplanted into White transplant recipients. The graft and patient survival rates for Asian and Latino/Hispanic recipients however were not affected by donor ethnicity. This analysis underscores the need for research to better understand the reasons for these disparities and how to improve the post transplant graft survival rates of Blacks. PMID:20005353


    Cicciarelli, James; Cho, Yong W; Koss, Michael; Helstab-Houston, Kathryn; Mendez, Robert; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Hutchinson, Ian V; Shah, Tariq


    In 69 renal transplant recipients (RTR), all had a functioning graft (SCr HLA antibodies and 41 (59%) had DSA. The proportion of C4d positivity was significantly higher in patients with DSA (HLA Class I only, II only, and I & II) in comparison to patients without post-transplant HLA antibodies. The incidence of graft failure (including current SCr > 4.0) in RTR with HLA Class II antibodies (Class II only or I & II) was significantly higher than in RTR without post-transplant HLA antibodies (P=0.03).Even after amelioration of rejection, the RTR with Class II DSA group continued to fail beyond 2 years after transplantation when compared with the other 2 groups (None/NDSA or HLA Class I only), however, the difference in graft survival between HLA Class II and None/NDSA groups did not reach statistical significance (log-rank P=0.32). Significant association between C4d staining, post-transplant HLA Class II antibodies and graft failure strongly suggests the importance of post-transplant HLA antibodies. HLA Class II DSAs may be an indicator of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) proceeding to graft loss. We propose that amelioration of CAN graft loss may be affected by monitoring and identification of DSA with appropriate immunosuppression of these antibodies.

  19. Early changes of graft function, cytokines and superoxide dismutase serum levels after donor liver denervation and Kupffer cell depletion in a rat-to-rat liver transplantation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhu; Catena Marco; Ferla Gianfranco


    BACKGROUND:Hepatic reperfusion injury may cause acute inlfammatory damage, producing signiifcant organ dysfunction, and is an important problem in liver transplantation. This experiment aimed to study early changes of hepatic function after donor liver denervation and Kupffer cell depletion in rat-to-rat liver transplantation and to evaluate the effect of pre-treatment on liver reperfusion injury. METHODS:Donor rats were divided into four groups:control group; group G was pre-treated with gadolinium chloride (G), an inhibitor of Kupffer cells; group H with hexamethonium (H), a sympathetic ganglionic blocking agent; and group HG, with combined H and G pre-treatment. Under the same conditions, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of recipient rats were assessed at 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after liver transplantation. Histological studies of the grafts were compared. RESULTS:HG pre-treatment signiifcantly decreased ALT, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, increased AKBR and SOD levels, and demonstrated less pathological damage at 8, 16 and 24 hours compared with the control group. Similar trends were also found in the other groups (G and H). However, the differences among them were not signiifcant at 4 post-operative hours.CONCLUSIONS:Donor denervation and Kupffer cell depletion had preventive effect on liver reperfusion injury. HG pre-treatment is a feasible and reproducible method to protect grafts from reperfusion injury.

  20. Allosuppressor- and allohelper-T cells in acute and chronic graft-vs. -host (GVH) disease. III. Different Lyt subsets of donor T cells induce different pathological syndromes

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    Rolink, A.G.; Gleichmann, E.


    Previous work from this laboratory has led to the hypothesis that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) are caused by alloreactive donor T helper (TH) cells, whereas the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD are caused by alloreactive T suppressor (TS) cells of the donor. We analyzed the Lyt phenotypes of B10 donor T cells required for the induction of either acute or chronic GVHD in H-2-different (B10 X DBA/2)F1 recipients. When nonirradiated F1 mice were used as the recipients, we found unseparated B10 T cells induced only a moderate formation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoantibodies, but a high percentage of lethal GVHD (LGVHD). In contrast, Lyt-1+2- donor T cells were unable to induce LGVHD in these recipients but were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like autoantibodies and severe immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Lyt-1-2+ T cells were incapable of inducing either acute or chronic GVHD. The sensitivity and accuracy of the GVH system were increased by using irradiated F1 mice as recipients and then comparing donor-cell inocula that contained similar numbers of T lymphocytes. Donor-cell inocula were used that had been tested for their allohelper and allosuppressor effects on F1 B cells in vitro. In the irradiated F1 recipients unseparated donor T cells were superior to T cell subsets in inducing LGVHD. In contrast Lyt-1+2- T cells, but neither unseparated T cells nor Lyt-1-2+ T cells, were capable of inducing a vigorous formation of SLE-like auto-antibodies. We conclude that the stimulatory pathological symptoms of chronic GVHD are caused by Lyt-1+2- allohelper T cells. In contrast, the development of the suppressive pathological symptoms of acute GVHD appears to involve alloreactive Lyt-1+2+ T suppressor cells.

  1. Safe time to warm ischemia and posttransplant survival of liver graft from non-heart-beating donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Shun He; Yi Ma; Lin-Wei Wu; Wei-Qiang Ju; Jin-Lang Wu; Rui-De Hu; Gui-Hua Chen; Jie-Fu Huang


    AIM: To explore the dynamical changes of histology,histochemistry, energy metabolism, liver microcirculation,liver function and posttransplant survival of liver graft in rats under different warm ischemia times (WIT) and predict the maximum limitation of liver graft to warm ischemia.METHODS: According to WIT, the rats were randomized into 7 groups, with WIT of 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60 min,respectively. The recovery changes of above-mentioned indices were observed or measured after liver transplantation. The graft survival and postoperative complications in each subgroup were analyzed.RESULTS: Liver graft injury was reversible and gradually resumed normal structure and function after reperfusion when WIT was less than 30 min. In terms of graft survival,there was no significant difference between subgroups within 30 min WIT. When WIT was prolonged to 45 min,the recipients' long-term survival was severely insulted,and both function and histological structure of liver graft developed irreversible damage when WIT was prolonged to 60 min.CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that rat liver graft can be safely subjected to warm ischemia within 30 min.The levels of ATP, energy charge, activities of glycogen,enzyme-histochemistry of liver graft and its recovery potency after reperfusion may serve as the important criteria to evaluate the quality of liver graft.

  2. Application of postoperative Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scoring system for evaluating liver graft function after living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Toshima, T; Ikegami, T; Kimura, K; Harimoto, N; Yamashita, Y; Yoshizumi, T; Soejima, Y; Ikeda, T; Shirabe, K; Maehara, Y


    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has been validated to predict the mortality rate of patients with various chronic liver diseases on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to assess the value of the postoperative MELD scoring system as an early postoperative predictor of outcome in patients undergoing living donor LT (LDLT). A retrospective analysis of 217 adult-to-adult LDLT patients was performed. The values of the MELD score on various postoperative days (PODs) as predictors of graft loss within 6 months after LDLT were examined by calculating the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves. The 6-months graft survival rates were compared between patients with (n = 22) and without (n = 195) graft loss. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with mortality. The MELD score on POD2 was a predictor of graft loss, with an AUROC c-statistic of 0.779, a specificity of 79.5%, and a sensitivity of 68.2% at optimal cutoff, whereas the preoperative MELD score c-statistic was 0.605 with 44.6% sensitivity. Multivariate analyses for postoperative mortality revealed MELD-POD2 ≥19 (odds ratio, 5.601; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.395-4.508; P = .0009) as an independent predictor of short-term graft loss following LDLT, in addition to preoperative hospitalization status. Later MELD POD scores were also predictive of graft loss. The early postoperative MELD scoring system is feasible as an index for prediction of postoperative mortality following LDLT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Baseline donor chronic renal injury confers the same transplant survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. (United States)

    Kosmoliaptsis, V; Salji, M; Bardsley, V; Chen, Y; Thiru, S; Griffiths, M H; Copley, H C; Saeb-Parsy, K; Bradley, J A; Torpey, N; Pettigrew, G J


    Histological assessment of baseline chronic kidney injury may discriminate kidneys that are suitable for transplantation, but has not been validated for appraisal of donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. 'Time-zero' biopsies for 371 consecutive, solitary, deceased-donor kidneys transplanted at our center between 2006 and 2010 (65.5% DCD, 34.5% donation after brain death [DBD]) were reviewed and baseline chronic degenerative injury scored using Remuzzi's classification. High scores correlated with donor age and extended criteria donors (42% of donors), but the spectrum of scores was similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Transplant outcomes for kidneys scoring from 0 to 4 were comparable (1 and 3 year graft survival 95% and 92%), but were much poorer for kidneys scoring ≥5, with 1 year graft survival only 73%, and 12.5% suffering primary nonfunction. Critically, high Remuzzi scores conferred the same survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. On multi-variable regression analysis, time-zero biopsy score was the only independent predictor for graft survival, whereas one-year graft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated with donor age and biopsy score. In conclusion, the relationship between severity of chronic kidney injury and transplant outcome is similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Kidneys with Remuzzi scores of ≤4 can be implanted singly with acceptable results.

  4. Culture site dependence on pearl size realization in Pinctada margaritifera in relation to recipient oyster growth and mantle graft biomineralization gene expression using the same donor phenotype (United States)

    Le Pabic, Lore; Parrad, Sophie; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Nakasai, Seiji; Saulnier, Denis; Devaux, Dominique; Ky, Chin-Long


    Size is the most important and valuable quality of the cultured black-lip pearl, Pinctada margaritifera. As this pearl aquaculture is carried out at numerous grow-out sites, this study analyzes the environmental influence on pearl size parameters (nacre weight and thickness) in relation to the recipient oyster biometric parameters (shell thickness, height, width, and oyster weight) at harvest time. Toward this end, an experimental graft was designed by using a homogeneous donor oyster phenotype. The recipient oysters were randomly and equally transferred and reared in five commercial and contrasting grow-out locations. Overall inter-site comparisons revealed that the cultured pearl size (N = 2168) and the biometric parameters of the recipient oysters were highest for sites with warmer temperatures with low seasonal variation in comparison to the southern latitude sites. These results were supported by positive correlations between pearl nacre thickness and recipient oyster shell thickness, height, and width. In parallel, the biomineralization potential of the mantle graft was screened through four genes encoding aragonite (Pif 177, MSI60) and calcite (shematrin 9, aspein). As the gene expression levels were the same among all the donor oysters, this finding demonstrates that: 1) the pearl sac that originated from the mantle graft was not isolated from environmental variations during the culture period and 2) the phenotypic expressions of the two biomineralizing tissues in the recipient oyster were consistent (shell and pearl). In the near future, this knowledge will be helpful at the production sites of genetically selected donor oyster lines for growth produced in hatchery systems.

  5. Effect of Schneiderian membrane perforation on sinus lift graft outcome using two different donor sites: a retrospective study of 105 maxillary sinus elevation procedures

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    Sakkas, Andreas


    Full Text Available Background: Sinuslift is meanwhile an established method of bone augmentation in the posterior maxilla. Aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of intraoperative Schneiderian membrane perforations during maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery using autogenous bone harvested from two different donor sites using a Safescraper device on the success rate, graft survival and implant integration.Methods: The investigators conducted a retrospective cohort study at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Military Hospital Ulm composed of patients with severe maxillary atrophy who underwent sinus augmentation from January 2011 until December 2011. Ninety-nine consecutive patients (89 men, 10 women with a mean age of 43.1 years underwent sinus graft procedures in a 2-stage procedure using the lateral wall approach, as described by Tatum (1986. Data on patient age, smoking status, donor site and surgical complications were recorded and the relationship between Schneiderian membrane perforation and complication rate was evaluated. Dental implants were inserted 4 months after grafting.Results: A total of 105 sinus lift procedures were performed in 99 patients. Sixty-one patients (61.6% underwent sinus elevation with autogenous bone from the buccal sinus wall, while 38 patients (38.4% bone harvesting from the iliac crest. Intraoperative perforation of the Schneiderian membrane was observed in 11 of the 105 sinuses (10.4%. These perforations resulted in 4 (36.3% of the cases in major postoperative complications accompanied by swelling and wound infection. Membrane perforations were slightly associated with the appearance of postoperative complications (p=0.0762. In 2.4% of all cases, regarding 2 patients the final rehabilitation with dental implants was not possible because of extensive bone resorption. Conclusion: Intraoperative complications performing sinus augmentation may lead to postoperative complications. With careful clinical

  6. Early detection of biliary complications and graft rejection in a non-RH Identitical liver transplant recipient from a non-heart-beating donor: a case report. (United States)

    Turiño-Luque, J; Zambudio-Carroll, N; Muffak-Granero, K; Villegas-Herrera, T; Garrote-Lara, D; Ferrón-Orihuela, J-A


    Because of a shortage of organs, non-heart-beating donors have been proposed to be a possible source of grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation. Herein, we have presented a blood group A+ patient with primary biliary cirrhosis, who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a non-heart-beating blood group A- donor. On day 5 after transplantation the patient displayed a low hemoglobin levels as well as an increased total bilirubin with progressive encephalopathy, hypotension, and oligoanuria on day 11. The patient responded to steroid treatment. We assume the main cause of organ dysfunction was a passenger lymphocyte syndrome (ABO-Rh incompatibility). Biliary complications were detected at a 6-month follow-up visit by increased hepatic enzymes. We thus concluded that it is useful to take Rh group into account.


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    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available Situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality that affects approximately 0.005% of all live births. Traditionally, this condition is considered as a contraindication for liver donation, primarily due to the peculiarities of the vascular anatomy and the diffi culties in graft placement in the abdominal cavity. Review of the world literature testifi es to fi ve cases of use of the whole liver from deceased donor with situs inversus in adult recipients, and to just one case of inverted right lobe transplantation from living donor to 53-year-old man. Thus, transplantation of an inverted left liver lobe from a living related donor in pediatric patients was performed for the fi rst time. The article presents a successful experience of liver transplantation in child with tyrosinemia type 1 from AB0-incompatible living donor with situs inversus.

  8. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD


    Ross, Lainie Friedman


    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  9. First documented case of successful kidney transplantation from a donor with acute renal failure treated with dialysis. (United States)

    Bacak-Kocman, Iva; Peric, Mladen; Kastelan, Zeljko; Kes, Petar; Mesar, Ines; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina


    There is a widening gap between the needs and possibilities of kidney transplantation. In order to solve the problem of organ shortage, the selection criteria for kidney donors have been less stringent over the last years. Favorable outcome of renal transplantation from deceased donors with acute renal failure requiring dialysis may have an important role in expanding the pool of donors. We present the case of two renal transplantations from a polytraumatized 20-years old donor with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. One recipient established good diuresis from the first post-transplant day and did not require hemodialysis. The second recipient had delayed graft function and was treated with 8 hemodialysis sessions. The patient was discharged with good diuresis and normal serum creatinine. After two years of follow-up, both recipients have normal graft function. According to our experience, kidneys from deceased young donors with acute renal failure requiring dialysis may be transplanted, in order to decrease the number of patients on transplantation waiting lists.

  10. Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate Mofetil Combination Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation from HLA-Matched Donors. (United States)

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Caravelli, Daniela; Gallo, Susanna; Coha, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Vassallo, Elena; Fizzotti, Marco; Nesi, Francesca; Gioeni, Luisa; Berger, Massimo; Polo, Alessandra; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Becco, Paolo; Giraudo, Lidia; Mangioni, Monica; Sangiolo, Dario; Grignani, Giovanni; Rota-Scalabrini, Delia; Sottile, Antonino; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo


    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) remains the only curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies but it is limited by high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), primarily from unpredictable control of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recently, post-transplant cyclophosphamide demonstrated improved GVHD control in allogeneic bone marrow HCT. Here we explore cyclophosphamide in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies received alloPBSCT from HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD prophylaxis included combination post-HCT cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg (days +3 and +4) and tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) (day +5 forward). The primary objective was the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Between March 2011 and May 2015, 35 consecutive patients received the proposed regimen. MMF was stopped in all patients at day +28; the median discontinuation of tacrolimus was day +113. Acute and chronic GVHD cumulative incidences were 17% and 7%, respectively, with no grade IV GVHD events, only 2 patients requiring chronic GVHD immunosuppression control, and no deaths from GVHD. Two-year NRM, overall survival, event-free survival, and chronic GVHD event-free survival rates were 3%, 77%, 54%, and 49%, respectively. The graft-versus-tumor effect was maintained as 5 of 15 patients (33%) who received HCT with evidence of disease experienced further disease response. A post-transplant cyclophosphamide + T/MMF combination strategy effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD after alloPBSCT from HLA-matched donors and achieved an unprecedented low NRM without losing efficacy in disease control or impaired development of the graft-versus-tumor effect. This trial is registered at as NCT02300571.

  11. Donor Preconditioning After the Onset of Brain Death With Dopamine Derivate n-Octanoyl Dopamine Improves Early Posttransplant Graft Function in the Rat. (United States)

    Li, S; Korkmaz-Icöz, S; Radovits, T; Ruppert, M; Spindler, R; Loganathan, S; Hegedűs, P; Brlecic, P; Theisinger, B; Theisinger, S; Höger, S; Brune, M; Lasitschka, F; Karck, M; Yard, B; Szabó, G


    Heart transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage heart failure. However, hemodynamic instability, which has been demonstrated in brain-dead donors (BDD), could also affect the posttransplant graft function. We tested the hypothesis that treatment of the BDD with the dopamine derivate n-octanoyl-dopamine (NOD) improves donor cardiac and graft function after transplantation. Donor rats were given a continuous intravenous infusion of either NOD (0.882 mg/kg/h, BDD+NOD, n = 6) or a physiological saline vehicle (BDD, n = 9) for 5 h after the induction of brain death by inflation of a subdural balloon catheter. Controls were sham-operated (n = 9). In BDD, decreased left-ventricular contractility (ejection fraction; maximum rate of rise of left-ventricular pressure; preload recruitable stroke work), relaxation (maximum rate of fall of left-ventricular pressure; Tau), and increased end-diastolic stiffness were significantly improved after the NOD treatment. Following the transplantation, the NOD-treatment of BDD improved impaired systolic function and ventricular relaxation. Additionally, after transplantation increased interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, NF-kappaB-p65, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-p105 gene expression, and increased caspase-3, TNF-α and NF-kappaB protein expression could be significantly downregulated by the NOD treatment compared to BDD. BDD postconditioning with NOD through downregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NF-kappaB may protect the heart against the myocardial injuries associated with brain death and ischemia/reperfusion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Evaluation of Six Split-thickness Skin Graft Donor-site Dressing Materials in a Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Masella, DO


    Conclusions: DuoDERM and Xeroform were most effective overall. DuoDERM tended to outperform all dressings in reepithelialization at 3 days, while Xeroform was least expensive, easy to use, and demonstrated rapid reepithelialization. These findings suggest that Xeroform may be preferred for use on large donor-site areas. DuoDERM may be more appropriate for small donor sites when healing time is a priority.

  13. Recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process in Belgium. (United States)

    Hoste, Pieter; Ferdinande, Patrick; Hoste, Eric; Vanhaecht, Kris; Rogiers, Xavier; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Deynse, Dominique; Ledoux, Didier; Vandewoude, Koenraad; Vogelaers, Dirk


    Belgium has achieved high deceased organ donation rates but according to the medical record data in the Donor Action database, deceased potential donors are still missed along the pathway. Between 2010 and 2014, 12.9 ± 3.3% of the potential donors after brain death (DBD) and 24.6 ± 1.8% of the potential donors after circulatory (DCD) death were not identified. Conversion rates of 41.7 ± 2.1% for DBD and 7.9 ± 0.9% for DCD indicate room for further improvement. We identify and discuss different issues in the monitoring of donation activities, practices and outcomes; donor pool; legislation on deceased organ donation; registration; financial reimbursement; educational and training programs; donor detection and practice clinical guidance. The overall aim of this position paper, elaborated by a Belgian expert panel, is to provide recommendations for further improvement of the deceased organ donation process up to organ procurement in Belgium.

  14. Alginate dressing and polyurethane film versus paraffin gauze in the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a randomized controlled pilot study. (United States)

    Kaiser, Dominik; Hafner, Jürg; Mayer, Dieter; French, Lars E; Läuchli, Severin


    To compare postoperative healing of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites using traditional dressings (paraffin gauze) or modern wound dressings (alginate dressing and polyurethane film) in a randomized controlled trial. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to treatment of an STSG donor site with an alginate dressing and a polyurethane film or nonadherent paraffin gauze. Outcome variables were pain (measured with a visual analog scale), amount of dressing changes, healing time, cosmetic outcome, treatment costs, and overall satisfaction with the procedure. There was no significant difference in pain (postoperative day 1: 2.1 vs 1.2, P = .26; postoperative days 5-7: 1.0 vs 0.9, P = .47; final removal: 1.9 vs 1.0, P = .19) and time to healing (18.1 vs 15.4 days, P = .29) between alginate/polyurethane film dressing and nonadherent paraffin gauze. The semiocclusive dressings with polyurethane film required multiple dressing changes, whereas the nonadherent paraffin gauze could be left in place until complete epithelialization. Treatment costs were substantially lower for paraffin gauze. Semiocclusive dressings with alginate dressings and polyurethane film showed no advantages over treatment with paraffin gauze. With lower costs and better patient acceptance, paraffin gauze dressings were the preferred treatment for STSG donor sites.

  15. Risk Factors for Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Matched Related or Unrelated Donors. (United States)

    Calmettes, Claire; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Labopin, Myriam; Tabrizi, Reza; Turlure, Pascal; Lafarge, Xavier; Marit, Gérald; Pigneux, Arnaud; Leguay, Thibaut; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Duclos, Cédric; Mohr, Catherine; Lascaux, Axelle; Dumas, Pierre-Yves; Dimicoli-Salazar, Sophie; Saint-Lézer, Arnaud; Milpied, Noël


    We performed a retrospective study to identify pretransplantation risk factors for steroid-refractory (SR) acute graft-versus host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from matched donors in 630 adult patients who underwent transplantation at our center between 2000 and 2012. The cumulative incidence (CI) of SR aGVHD was 11.3% ± 2.3%. The identified independent risk factors were matched unrelated donor (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; P = .001), female donor for male recipient (HR, 1.84; P = .023) and absence of antithymocyte globulin (HR, 2.02; P = .005). Three risk groups were defined according to the presence of these risk factors. In the whole cohort, the CI of SR aGVHD was 3.5% ± 1.7% in the low-risk group (0 risk factor, n = 115), 9.3% ± 1.6% in the intermediate-risk group (1 risk factor, n = 323), and 19.3% ± 2.9% in the high-risk group (2 or 3 risk factors, n = 192). Our study suggests that pretransplantation characteristics might help identify patients at high risk for SR aGVHD. A risk adapted first-line treatment of aGVHD could be evaluated in those patients.

  16. Detection of C3d-Binding Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies at Diagnosis of Humoral Rejection Predicts Renal Graft Loss (United States)

    Sicard, Antoine; Ducreux, Stéphanie; Rabeyrin, Maud; Couzi, Lionel; McGregor, Brigitte; Badet, Lionel; Scoazec, Jean Yves; Bachelet, Thomas; Lepreux, Sébastien; Visentin, Jonathan; Merville, Pierre; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Dubois, Valérie


    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a major cause of kidney graft loss, yet assessment of individual risk at diagnosis is impeded by the lack of a reliable prognosis assay. Here, we tested whether the capacity of anti-HLA antibodies to bind complement components allows accurate risk stratification at the time of AMR diagnosis. Among 938 kidney transplant recipients for whom a graft biopsy was performed between 2004 and 2012 at the Lyon University Hospitals, 69 fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for AMR and were enrolled. Sera banked at the time of the biopsy were screened for the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) and their ability to bind C1q and C3d using flow bead assays. In contrast with C4d graft deposition, the presence of C3d-binding DSA was associated with a higher risk of graft loss (P<0.001). Despite similar trend, the difference did not reach significance with a C1q-binding assay (P=0.06). The prognostic value of a C3d-binding assay was further confirmed in an independent cohort of 39 patients with AMR (P=0.04). Patients with C3d-binding antibodies had worse eGFR and higher DSA mean fluorescence intensity. In a multivariate analysis, only eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 8.70; P=0.005) and the presence of circulating C3d-binding DSA (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.95; P=0.03) were independent predictors for allograft loss at AMR diagnosis. We conclude that assessment of the C3d-binding capacity of DSA at the time of AMR diagnosis allows for identification of patients at risk for allograft loss. PMID:25125383

  17. Preimplantation biopsy predicts delayed graft function, glomerular filtration rate and long-term graft survival of transplanted kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Pedroso


    Full Text Available The predictive value of preimplantation biopsies for long-term graft function is often limited by conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of time-zero graft biopsy histological scores on early and late graft function, graft survival and patient survival, at different time points. We retrospectively analyzed 284 preimplantation biopsies at a single center, in a cohort of recipients with grafts from live and deceased donors (standard and nonstandard, and their impact in posttransplant renal function after a mean follow-up of 7 years (range 1-16. Implantation biopsy score (IBS, a combination score derived from 4 histopathological aspects, was determined from each sample. The correlation with incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, creatinine clearance (1st, 3rd and 5th posttransplant year and graft and patient survival at 1 and 5 years were evaluated. Preimplantation biopsies provided somewhat of a prognostic index of early function and outcome of the transplanted kidney in the short and long term. In the immediate posttransplantation period, the degree of arteriolosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis correlated better with the presence of DGF. IBS values between 4 and 6 were predictive of worst renal function at 1st and 3rd years posttransplant and 5-year graft survival. The most important histological finding, in effectively transplanted grafts, was the grade of interstitial fibrosis. Patient survival was not influenced by IBS. Higher preimplantation biopsy scores predicted an increased risk of early graft losses, especially primary nonfunction. Graft survival (at 1st and 5th years after transplant but not patient survival was predicted by IBS.


    CERN Multimedia

    Affaires sociales; Le groupe CMS ECAL


    Nous avons le regret d'annoncer le décès de Monsieur François ZACH survenu le 16 octobre 2001. Monsieur François ZACH, né le 04.05.1970, travaillait à la Division EP et était au CERN depuis le 01.09.2001. Le Directeur général a envoyé un message de condoléances à sa famille de la part du personnel du CERN. Affaires sociales Division des Ressources Humaines It is with a great sadness that we learnt on October 16th that our friend and colleague François Zach passed away. Research assistant at the French CNRS, member of Institut de Physique Nucleaire in Lyon, François participated first to the analysis of the DELPHI experiment on which he did his PhD thesis. François joined the CMS collaboration in 1996 where he had a very important contribution in the development of many prototypes of the crystal calorimeter. He had just started a fellowship at CER...

  19. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen


    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  20. Long term follow-up and outcome of liver transplantation from hepatitis B surface antigen positive donors (United States)

    Ballarin, Roberto; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Magistri, Paolo; Cescon, Matteo; Cillo, Umberto; Burra, Patrizia; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio


    Liver transplant for hepatitis B virus (HBV) currently yields excellent outcomes: it allows to rescue patients with an HBV-related advanced liver disease, resulting in a demographical modification of the waiting list for liver transplant. In an age of patient-tailored treatments, in liver transplantation as well the aim is to offer the best suitable graft to the patient who can benefit from it, also expanding the criteria for organ acceptance and allocation. With the intent of developing strategies to increase the donor pool, we set-up a multicenter study involving 3 Liver Transplant Centers in Italy: patients undergoing liver transplantation between March 03, 2004, and May 21, 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. 1408 patients underwent liver transplantation during the study period, 28 (2%) received the graft from hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg)-positive deceased donors. The average follow-up after liver transplantation was 63.7 mo [range: 0.1-119.4; SD ± 35.8]. None Primary non-function, re-liver transplantation, early or late hepatic artery thrombosis occurred. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft and patient survival resulted of 85.7%, 82.1%, 78.4%. Our results suggest that the use of HBsAg-positive donors liver grafts is feasible, since HBV can be controlled without affecting graft stability. However, the selection of grafts and the postoperative antiviral therapy should be managed appropriately.

  1. Experience of the transplant unit from Virgen de las Nieves Hospital in using liver grafts from asystolic donors. (United States)

    Zambudio, N; Fundora, Y; Muffak, K; Villegas, T; Becerra, A; Garrote, D; Ferrón, J A


    Given the shortage of donors, it has become increasingly necessary to use alternative sources to meet the growing demand for organs, and evolution in the use of asystolic donors is proving to be an important resource in helping to meet those needs. The goal of this study is to describe the initial results of our experience with Type II asystolic donation. An observational retrospective study was conducted to analyze the variables of four cases in this type of donation. After the analysis we conclude that, despite the limited number of cases in our series, the results are compatible with larger series and permit us to continue to value this method as a resource for broadening the donor pool.

  2. Prognostic value of MELD score and donor quality in liver transplantation: implications for the donor recipient match. (United States)

    Avolio, A W; Agnes, S; Gasbarrini, A; Nure, E; Siciliano, M; Castagneto, M


    The model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been adopted by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) in 2002 as the standard priority rule for the liver transplantation waiting list. We retrospectively calculated the pretransplant MELD scores of 226 consecutive adult grafts. We did not correct for hepatocellular carcinoma comorbidity or for the etiology of liver disease. Cases were categorized according to the MELD score: class I, MELD scores between 6 and 14 (low MELD, n = 116); class II, MELD score between 15 and 24 (intermediate MELD, n = 78); class III, MELD score between 25 and 42 (high MELD, n = 32). All patients were transplanted using deceased donors. Grafts were categorized also according to donor quality (standard donor vs nonstandard donor). Sorting into categories was performed before transplant by officers of the Central-South Italian Transplant Organization overregional organ procurement agencies, namely OCST. Differences in Kaplan-Meier graft survivals (GS) between low MELD class and high MELD class were statistically significant (P < .01). Among standard donors, the 6-month GS were 83%, 94%, and 63% for the low, intermediate, and high MELD subset, respectively, differences that did not reach statistical significance. Among nonstandard donors, the 6-month GS were 77%, 71%, and 38% for the low, intermediate, and high MELD classes, respectively. Differences between low MELD class and intermediate MELD class and between low MELD class and high MELD class were statistically significant (P < .01). We strongly suggest that the utilization of nonstandard organs should be avoided for patients with high MELD scores.

  3. Increased risk of graft failure and mortality in Dutch recipients receiving an expanded criteria donor kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, F.J. van; Hemke, A.C.; Dekker, F.W.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Christiaans, M.H.; Roodnat, J.I.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Diepen, M. van


    Survival of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys and their recipients has not been thoroughly evaluated in Europe. Therefore, we compared the outcome of ECD and non-ECD kidney transplantations in a Dutch cohort, stratifying by age and diabetes. In all first Dutch kidney transplants in recipients

  4. Living and deceased organ donation should be financially neutral acts. (United States)

    Delmonico, F L; Martin, D; Domínguez-Gil, B; Muller, E; Jha, V; Levin, A; Danovitch, G M; Capron, A M


    The supply of organs—particularly kidneys—donated by living and deceased donors falls short of the number of patients added annually to transplant waiting lists in the United States. To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. The argument that providing financial benefits would incentivize enough people to part with a kidney (or a portion of a liver) to clear the waiting lists is flawed. This commentary marshals arguments against the claim that the shortage of donor organs would best be overcome by providing financial incentives for donation. We can increase the number of organs available for transplantation by removing all financial disincentives that deter unpaid living or deceased kidney donation. These disincentives include a range of burdens, such as the costs of travel and lodging for medical evaluation and surgery, lost wages, and the expense of dependent care during the period of organ removal and recuperation. Organ donation should remain an act that is financially neutral for donors, neither imposing financial burdens nor enriching them monetarily. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Transplantation of Donor-Origin Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Thymic Epithelial Progenitors Prevents the Development of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Mice. (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Liu, Yalan; Su, Min; Song, Yinhong; Rood, Debra; Lai, Laijun


    : Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant diseases. However, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a significant cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT. cGVHD often manifests as autoimmune syndrome. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a critical role in supporting negative selection and regulatory T-cell (Treg) generation. Studies have shown that damage in TECs is sufficient to induce cGVHD. We have previously reported that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be selectively induced to generate thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) in vitro. When transplanted in vivo, mESC-TEPs further develop into TECs that support T-cell development. We show here that transplantation of donor-origin mESC-TEPs into cGVHD recipients induces immune tolerance to both donor and host antigens and prevents the development of cGVHD. This is associated with more TECs and Tregs. Our results suggest that embryonic stem cell-derived TEPs may offer a new tool to control cGVHD.

  6. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function


    Caplin, B; Veighey, K.; Mahenderan, A.; Manook, M.; Henry, J; Nitsch, D; Harber, M.; Dupont, P.; Wheeler, D.C.; G. Jones; Fernando, B.; Howie, A J; Veitch, P


    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little...

  7. Adenosine A₂A receptor agonist-mediated increase in donor-derived regulatory T cells suppresses development of graft-versus-host disease. (United States)

    Han, Kyu Lee; Thomas, Stephenie V M; Koontz, Sherry M; Changpriroa, Cattlena M; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Malech, Harry L; Kang, Elizabeth M


    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant complication of allogeneic transplantation. We previously reported that the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) specific agonist, ATL146e, decreases the incidence and severity of GVHD in a mouse transplant model. There is increasing interest in treatments that increase CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress GVHD. Our current study found in vitro that A(2A)R selective agonists enhanced TGF-β-induced generation of mouse Tregs 2.3- to 3-fold. We demonstrated in vivo suppression of GVHD with specific A(2A)R agonists in two different murine GVHD transplant models associated with profound increases in both circulating and target tissue Tregs of donor origin. Three different A(2A)R agonists of differing potency, ATL146e, ATL370, and ATL1223, all significantly inhibited GVHD-associated weight loss and mortality. At the same time, Tregs shown to be of donor origin increased 5.1- to 7.4-fold in spleen, 2.7- to 4.6-fold in peripheral blood, 2.3- to 4.7-fold in colon, and 3.8- to 4.6-fold in skin. We conclude that specific activation of A(2A)R inhibits acute GVHD through an increase of donor-derived Tregs. Furthermore, the increased presence of Tregs in target tissues (colon and skin) of A(2A)R-specific agonist-treated mice is likely the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effect preventing acute GVHD.

  8. Immunologic testing of xeno-derived osteochondral grafts using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors

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    Targoni Oleg S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One means of treating osteoarthritis is with autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immunological response in humans toward xeno-derived osteochondral grafts that have been partially or entirely treated by the photooxidation process. Methods The antigens tested included bovine, porcine, ovine and equine osteochondral samples that have been treated in successive steps of photooxidation. ELISPOT assays were used to evaluate the production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α by human monocytes in response to the antigens. Results Results indicated vigorous production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in response to untreated bovine, porcine and equine specimens. This indicates that these samples are perceived as foreign, or stimulatory, by the human monocytes. There was no induction of IL-4 or IL-12, which is required for Th2 and Th1 immunity, respectively. In contrast, the processed bovine, porcine and equine samples did not induce significant activation of cells of the innate immune system. This occurred after the first step in processing (after cleaning in increasing strengths of ethanol. This suggests that the processing steps dramatically, if not completely, negated the immunostimulatory properties of the test sample. The results for the ovine samples indicate a reverse response. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that photooxidized bovine, porcine or equine samples have the potential to be used as an osteochondral graft. Although the first step in processing reduced the immunological response, photooxidation is still necessary to retain the structure and mechanical integrity of the cartilage, which would allow for immediate joint resurfacing.

  9. Intentional portal pressure control is key to improving the outcome of living donor liver transplantation: the Kyoto University Hospital experience. (United States)

    Ogura, Yasuhiro; Hori, Tomohide; Uemoto, Shinji


    This study indicates that intentional portal pressure control under 20 mmHg can improve patient survival not only for recipients of small-for-size grafts but also in classically appropriately sized grafts undergoing A-LDLT. In a retrospective analysis of 100 transplants with intentional portal pressure control, we found that patient survival was significantly better at an even lower final portal pressure of 15 mmHg. As a result, we have adjusted our target portal pressure control protocol, targeting a final portal pressure below 15 mmHg. Portal pressure control allows living donors to donate the smaller left lobe in many cases, which is safer in terms of living donors' post-operative morbidity. As intentional portal pressure control can overcome size-mismatching between the donor and recipient, we propose that it may also be applied to deceased donor liver grafts and in the split-liver transplant setting when the graft size is considered small for the recipient. Intentional portal pressure control can be applied in many liver transplantation situations to overcome small-for-size problems.

  10. Combined Scleral Flap with Donor Scleral Patch Graft for Anterior Tube Placement in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery (United States)

    Yu, Jea H.; Nguyen, Chuck; Gallemore, Esmeralda


    Purpose. To report a new technique for anterior placement of tubes for glaucoma drainage devices to reduce the risk of tube erosions. Methods. Retrospective review of select cases of Ahmed Valve surgery combined with the novel method of a limbal-based scleral flap covered by a scleral patch graft to cover the tube at the entrance through the limbus. Intraoperative and postoperative illustrations are shown to highlight the method of tube placement. Results. In this retrospective case series, 3 patients are presented illustrating the technique. Two had neovascular glaucoma and one had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). On average, intraocular pressure was reduced from 39 ± 14 mmHg to 15 ± 2 mmHg and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 4 ± 1 to 0. Preoperative and most recent visual acuities were hand-motion (HM) and HM, 20/60 and 20/50, and 20/70 and 20/30, respectively. Conclusion. The combination of a limbal-based scleral flap with scleral patch graft to cover the tube with glaucoma drainage devices may be an effective means to reduce erosion and protect against endophthalmitis. PMID:27747118

  11. Combined Scleral Flap with Donor Scleral Patch Graft for Anterior Tube Placement in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery

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    Jea H. Yu


    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a new technique for anterior placement of tubes for glaucoma drainage devices to reduce the risk of tube erosions. Methods. Retrospective review of select cases of Ahmed Valve surgery combined with the novel method of a limbal-based scleral flap covered by a scleral patch graft to cover the tube at the entrance through the limbus. Intraoperative and postoperative illustrations are shown to highlight the method of tube placement. Results. In this retrospective case series, 3 patients are presented illustrating the technique. Two had neovascular glaucoma and one had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. On average, intraocular pressure was reduced from 39±14 mmHg to 15±2 mmHg and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 4±1 to 0. Preoperative and most recent visual acuities were hand-motion (HM and HM, 20/60 and 20/50, and 20/70 and 20/30, respectively. Conclusion. The combination of a limbal-based scleral flap with scleral patch graft to cover the tube with glaucoma drainage devices may be an effective means to reduce erosion and protect against endophthalmitis.

  12. Comparison between spousal donor transplantation treated with anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy and, living related donor transplantation treated with standard immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Demir


    Full Text Available The worldwide shortage of organs available for transplantation has led to the use of living-unrelated kidney donors. In this context, spouses represent an important source of organ donors. We compared the allograft outcomes of spousal donor transplantation (SDT with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction therapy and living related donor transplantation (LRDT with triple immonosuppression and basiliximab, in addition. Among the 335 living and deceased donor kidney transplantations performed between April 2001 and June 2010, there were 274 living donor kidney transplantations including 34 SDT and 240 LRDT. The minimum follow-up period was 36 months. All recipients of SDT received ATG (1.5 mg/kg induction therapy, which was stopped five to seven days after surgery. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus (TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone. LRDT recipients received triple immunosuppressive protocol consisting of cyclosporine or TAC, MMF and prednisolone, in addition to basiliximab. There was a significant difference between the two groups in recipient age, while pre-operative duration on dialysis, recipient sex and donor age and sex were not significantly different. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in the number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of SDT were 94.1%, 88.2% and 79.4%, respectively, and the frequency of acute rejection episodes was 5.8% (two cases. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of LRDT were 95.8%, 91.6% and 83.3%, respectively, with the frequency of acute rejection being 16.2%. The graft survival rates of SDT were as good as LRDT, while the acute rejection rates in SDT were lower than in LRDT, although the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.13.

  13. Incentivizing Authorization for Deceased Organ Donation With Organ Allocation Priority: The First 5 Years. (United States)

    Stoler, A; Kessler, J B; Ashkenazi, T; Roth, A E; Lavee, J


    The allocation system of donor organs for transplantation may affect their scarcity. In 2008, Israel's Parliament passed the Organ Transplantation Law, which grants priority on waiting lists for transplants to candidates who are first-degree relatives of deceased organ donors or who previously registered as organ donors themselves. Several public campaigns have advertised the existence of the law since November 2010. We evaluated the effect of the law using all deceased donation requests made in Israel during the period 1998-2015. We use logistic regression to compare the authorization rates of the donors' next of kin in the periods before (1998-2010) and after (2011-2015) the public was made aware of the law. The authorization rate for donation in the period after awareness was substantially higher (55.1% vs. 45.0%, odds ratio [OR] 1.43, p = 0.0003) and reached an all-time high rate of 60.2% in 2015. This increase was mainly due to an increase in the authorization rate of next of kin of unregistered donors (51.1% vs. 42.2%). We also found that the likelihood of next-of-kin authorization for donation was approximately twice as high when the deceased relative was a registered donor rather than unregistered (89.4% vs. 44.6%, OR 14.27, p organ donation. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Comparison of Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Alemtuzumab for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis with Fludarabine/Melphalan-Based Conditioning in Matched Unrelated Donor Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation. (United States)

    Patel, Khilna; Parmar, Sapna; Shah, Shreya; Shore, Tsiporah; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; van Besien, Koen


    The objective of this study was to compare infusion-related reactions and outcomes of using subcutaneous (subQ) alemtuzumab versus intravenous (i.v.) alemtuzumab as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis for matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations. Outcomes include incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV)/Epstein-Barr (EBV) viremia, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, time to engraftment, relapse rate, and survival. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantations patients who received fludarabine/melphalan with subQ or i.v. alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus as part of their conditioning for unrelated donor transplantation at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 21, 2014. Alemtuzumab was administered at a total cumulative dose of 100 mg (divided over days -7 to -3). Forty-six patients received an unrelated donor stem cell transplantation with fludarabine/melphalan and either subQ (n = 26) or i.v. (n = 20) alemtuzumab in combination with tacrolimus. Within the evaluable population, 130 subQ and 100 i.v. alemtuzumab doses were administered. For the primary outcome, ≥grade 2 infusion-related reactions occurred in 11 (8%) versus 25 (25%) infusions in the subQ and i.v. cohorts, respectively (P = .001). Overall, 12 injections (9%) in the subQ arm versus 26 infusions (26%) in the i.v. arm experienced an infusion-related reaction of any grade (P = .001). There were no significant differences between the subQ and i.v. arms in rates of reactivation of CMV/EBV, development of CMV disease or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, fatal infections, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, or survival. Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab for GVHD prophylaxis was associated with fewer infusion-related reactions compared with i.v. administration in the SCT setting

  15. Preemptive kidney transplantation in elderly recipients with kidneys discarded of very old donors: A good alternative. (United States)

    Morales, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Hernández, Ana; Rojas-Rivera, Jorge; Gonzalez, Esther; Hernández, Eduardo; Polanco, Natalia; Praga, Manuel; Andrés, Amado


    The shortage of organs is a major hurdle in kidney transplantation, and one solution to the problem is to extend the age of the donor. However, organs from older donors are often discarded due to the macroscopic appearance of the parenchyma or major vessels. On the other hand, a large number of elderly patients are potential candidates for kidney transplantation, while many kidneys from elderly deceased donors are discarded due to a lack of age-matched recipients. In addition, a large number are often discarded due to the lack of compatible recipients among elderly patients undergoing chronic dialysis. A possible solution to avoid this wastage of kidneys potentially suitable for transplantation could be the performance of preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) in carefully selected elderly patients. PKT improves graft and patient survival compared to other renal replacement therapy options. There is no information about PKT in elderly patients receiving kidneys from elderly deceased donors. From 2007 to 2012, we performed a prospective observational study comparing 26 elderly patients receiving PKT with a control group of 26 elderly patients receiving a first transplant after prior dialysis. Mean age of recipients was 74.3±2.9 years and mean age of donors was 73.8±4.1 years. Induction immunosuppression was similar in both groups. Death-censored graft survival was 96% in the PKT group and 68% in the control group (p=0.02), at 5 years after transplantation. Immediate and delayed graft function occurred in 92% and 3.8%, respectively, of patients in the PKT group and 53% and 34.6% of patients in the control group (p=0.005). Acute rejection was significantly more frequent in PKT patients (23.1% vs 3.8%, p=0.043). At the end of follow-up time 35.5±20.1 months, the glomerular filtration rate was similar in both groups (42.2±11.7 vs 41.7±11.2ml/min, p-value=0.72). Patient survival was similar in the two groups. Elderly patients with end stage of renal disease non

  16. A joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data to better assess the specific role of donor and recipient factors on long-term kidney transplantation outcomes. (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Cécile; Foucher, Yohann; Blanche, Paul; Buron, Fanny; Giral, Magali; Dantan, Etienne


    In renal transplantation, serum creatinine (SCr) is the main biomarker routinely measured to assess patient's health, with chronic increases being strongly associated with long-term graft failure risk (death with a functioning graft or return to dialysis). Joint modeling may be useful to identify the specific role of risk factors on chronic evolution of kidney transplant recipients: some can be related to the SCr evolution, finally leading to graft failure, whereas others can be associated with graft failure without any modification of SCr. Sample data for 2749 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2013 with a functioning kidney at 1-year post-transplantation were obtained from the DIVAT cohort. A shared random effect joint model for longitudinal SCr values and time to graft failure was performed. We show that graft failure risk depended on both the current value and slope of the SCr. Deceased donor graft patient seemed to have a higher SCr increase, similar to patient with diabetes history, while no significant association of these two features with graft failure risk was found. Patient with a second graft was at higher risk of graft failure, independent of changes in SCr values. Anti-HLA immunization was associated with both processes simultaneously. Joint models for repeated and time-to-event data bring new opportunities to improve the epidemiological knowledge of chronic diseases. For instance in renal transplantation, several features should receive additional attention as we demonstrated their correlation with graft failure risk was independent of the SCr evolution.

  17. Early reperfusion hemodynamics predict recovery in rat hearts: a potential approach towards evaluating cardiac grafts from non-heart-beating donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dornbierer

    Full Text Available AIMS: Cardiac grafts from non-heartbeating donors (NHBDs could significantly increase organ availability and reduce waiting-list mortality. Reluctance to exploit hearts from NHBDs arises from obligatory delays in procurement leading to periods of warm ischemia and possible subsequent contractile dysfunction. Means for early prediction of graft suitability prior to transplantation are thus required for development of heart transplantation programs with NHBDs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hearts (n = 31 isolated from male Wistar rats were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer aerobically for 20 min, followed by global, no-flow ischemia (32°C for 30, 50, 55 or 60 min. Reperfusion was unloaded for 20 min, and then loaded, in working-mode, for 40 min. Left ventricular (LV pressure was monitored using a micro-tip pressure catheter introduced via the mitral valve. Several hemodynamic parameters measured during early, unloaded reperfusion correlated significantly with LV work after 60 min reperfusion (p<0.001. Coronary flow and the production of lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH also correlated significantly with outcomes after 60 min reperfusion (p<0.05. Based on early reperfusion hemodynamic measures, a composite, weighted predictive parameter, incorporating heart rate (HR, developed pressure (DP and end-diastolic pressure, was generated and evaluated against the HR-DP product after 60 min of reperfusion. Effective discriminating ability for this novel parameter was observed for four HR*DP cut-off values, particularly for ≥20 *10(3 mmHg*beats*min(-1 (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Upon reperfusion of a NHBD heart, early evaluation, at the time of organ procurement, of cardiac hemodynamic parameters, as well as easily accessible markers of metabolism and necrosis seem to accurately predict subsequent contractile recovery and could thus potentially be of use in guiding the decision of accepting the ischemic heart for transplantation.

  18. Early Reperfusion Hemodynamics Predict Recovery in Rat Hearts: A Potential Approach towards Evaluating Cardiac Grafts from Non-Heart-Beating Donors (United States)

    Dornbierer, Monika; Stadelmann, Mathieu; Sourdon, Joevin; Gahl, Brigitta; Cook, Stéphane; Carrel, Thierry P.; Tevaearai, Hendrik T.; Longnus, Sarah L.


    Aims Cardiac grafts from non-heartbeating donors (NHBDs) could significantly increase organ availability and reduce waiting-list mortality. Reluctance to exploit hearts from NHBDs arises from obligatory delays in procurement leading to periods of warm ischemia and possible subsequent contractile dysfunction. Means for early prediction of graft suitability prior to transplantation are thus required for development of heart transplantation programs with NHBDs. Methods and Results Hearts (n = 31) isolated from male Wistar rats were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer aerobically for 20 min, followed by global, no-flow ischemia (32°C) for 30, 50, 55 or 60 min. Reperfusion was unloaded for 20 min, and then loaded, in working-mode, for 40 min. Left ventricular (LV) pressure was monitored using a micro-tip pressure catheter introduced via the mitral valve. Several hemodynamic parameters measured during early, unloaded reperfusion correlated significantly with LV work after 60 min reperfusion (p<0.001). Coronary flow and the production of lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) also correlated significantly with outcomes after 60 min reperfusion (p<0.05). Based on early reperfusion hemodynamic measures, a composite, weighted predictive parameter, incorporating heart rate (HR), developed pressure (DP) and end-diastolic pressure, was generated and evaluated against the HR-DP product after 60 min of reperfusion. Effective discriminating ability for this novel parameter was observed for four HR*DP cut-off values, particularly for ≥20 *103 mmHg*beats*min−1 (p<0.01). Conclusion Upon reperfusion of a NHBD heart, early evaluation, at the time of organ procurement, of cardiac hemodynamic parameters, as well as easily accessible markers of metabolism and necrosis seem to accurately predict subsequent contractile recovery and could thus potentially be of use in guiding the decision of accepting the ischemic heart for transplantation. PMID:22928009

  19. Inhibition of myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling mediated by histidine-grafted poly(β-amino ester ester nanovector induces donor-specific liver allograft tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu F


    Full Text Available Fanguo Hu,1,* Hanjie Wang,2,* Shuangnan Zhang,2 Yao Peng,2 Lin Su,2 Jin Chang,2 Gang Liu11Department of General Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin Engineering Center of Micro-Nano Biomaterials and Detection-Treatment Technology, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs activate biochemical pathways that evoke activation of innate immunity, which leads to dendritic cell maturation and initiation of adaptive immune responses that provoke allograft rejection. We aimed to prolong allograft survival by selectively inhibiting expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, which is an essential adaptor in TLR signaling. We designed and synthesized a novel histidine-grafted poly(β-amino ester(HGPAE nanovector, which was shown to be safe and efficient both in vitro and in vivo for the delivery of a plasmid containing shRNA targeting MyD88 (pMyD88. We also demonstrated that the pMyD88/HGPAE complex mediated remarkable inhibition of MyD88 expression in rat liver in vivo. We transplanted Dark Agouti rat livers lacking MyD88 as result of transfection with the pMyD88/HGPAE complex into Lewis rats. The recipients survived longer and graft rejection of the donor liver as well as serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the recipient were significantly reduced.Keywords: immune recognition, allograft rejection, MyD88, short hairpin RNA (shRNA, gene delivery, PAE

  20. 背部供皮区在大面积烧伤后期整复中的应用%The Application of the Back as Donor Site for Skin Graft in Treating Large Area Post-Burn Deformities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智明; 黄远发; 方云德; 柴勇


    目的 探讨背部供皮区应用于大面积烧伤后期整复中的优势.方法 对52例大面积烧伤后期整复患者,采用鼓式取皮机在背部切取中厚皮片,移植修复多处瘢痕切除创面,观察供、植皮区愈合情况.结果 52例患者术后随访1~2年,移植皮片均成活,质地柔软、平整光滑,富有弹性,无明显增生性瘢痕,关节区活动自如,功能和外观恢复良好.供皮区愈合良好,无瘢痕增生或增生轻微.结论 背部供皮区可多次切取中厚皮片,用于大面积皮肤瘢痕创面的修复,手术效果良好,是大面积烧伤后期整复中的理想供区.%Objective To evaluate the priority of the back as donor site for skin graft in treating large area post-burn deformities. Methods In 52 large area post-burn patients, medium thickness skin grafts were taken from the back several times and the healing recovery of both the donor and receipt sites were observed and recorded. Results All patients were followed up for 1 -2 years. All the skin graft survived well with improved function and contour. The donor sites healed smoothly without obvious scars. Conclusion The back should be the ideal option for the donor site of skin graft in treating large area skin defect.

  1. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: deceased organ donation. (United States)

    Israni, A K; Zaun, D A; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L


    The status of deceased organ donation is assessed using metrics such as donation/conversation rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted. These metrics are based on eligible deaths (brain death of a person aged 70 years or younger) as well as on actual donors. The 9132 eligible deaths reported in 2013 represented a slight increase over 2012. The donation/conversion rate was 71.3 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight decline from 2012, and varied by donation service area from 50.0 to 87.0. The number of organs recovered per donor, 3.55, also varied by donation service area, from 2.79 to 4.10. The mean number of organs transplanted per donor was 3.08 in 2013, slightly higher than 3.02 in 2012. The mean observed/expected organ yield ratio for kidneys varied from 0.86 to 1.18; for pancreata, from 0.29 to 2.59; for livers, from 0.69 to 1.17; for hearts, from 0.68 to 1.41; and for lungs, from 0.33 to 1.41. The rate of organs recovered for transplant and not transplanted in 2013 for all organs combined was 0.13 per recovered organ, slightly lower than the rate of 0.14 in 2012. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Parenchyma-wise technique for the harvest and implantation of hepatic segment 2-3 grafts: Anatomic basis and surgical steps. (United States)

    El Gharbawy, Ramadan M; Skandalakis, Lee J; Heffron, Thomas G; Skandalakis, John E


    We propose a technique for pediatric liver transplantation that does not waste the donor's parenchyma. Organ shortage has extended criteria for donor acceptance, such that even individuals with livers of suboptimal volume can donate their segment 2-3. By incorporating wise use of parenchyma, our proposed technique for harvesting segment 2-3 for implantation in a pediatric recipient benefits these and other donors, and it might increase donations. This is especially important in countries in which procurement of organs from the deceased is not allowed. Our technique also aims to solve the problem of the large-for-size syndrome for neonates and extremely small infants and to allow for primary closure of the abdomen. This technique enables harvest of the following four grafts: (1) complete segment 2-3; (2) reduced segment 2-3; (3) complete segment 3; and (4) reduced segment 3. The surgeon will select the type that has suitable graft-to-recipient weight ratio and that suits the donor's liver anatomy and volume. These four types benefit the donor by preserving the parenchyma of segment 4 and the left part of the caudate lobe. The three graft types other than the complete segment 2-3 graft will also preserve varying fractions of the parenchyma of segment 2-3. The technique for complete segment 2-3 graft can be put into practice immediately; the techniques for the other three grafts need an imaging modality to preoperatively delineate the donor's fourth-order bile ducts. We expect to correct this deficiency in the near future by developing the requisite imaging technique.

  3. Deceased Organ Donation Registration and Familial Consent among Chinese and South Asians in Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Li, Alvin Ho-ting; McArthur, Eric; Maclean, Janet; Isenor, Cynthia; Prakash, Versha; Kim, S. Joseph; Knoll, Greg; Shah, Baiju; Garg, Amit X.


    Objective For various reasons, people of Chinese (China, Hong Kong or Taiwan) and South Asian (Indian subcontinent) ancestry (the two largest ethnic minority groups in Ontario, Canada) may be less likely to register for deceased organ donation than the general public, and their families may be less likely to consent for deceased organ donation at the time of death. Methods We conducted two population-based studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of deceased organ donor registration as of May 2013, and (2) a cohort study of the steps in proceeding with deceased organ donation for patients who died in hospital from October 2008 to December 2012. Results A total of 49 938 of 559 714 Chinese individuals (8.9%) and 47 774 of 374 291 South Asians (12.8%) were registered for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (2 676 260 of 10 548 249 (25.4%). Among the 168 703 Ontarians who died in a hospital, the families of 33 of 81 Chinese (40.1%; 95% CI: 30.7%-51.6%) and 39 of 72 South Asian individuals (54.2%; 95% CI: 42.7-65.2%) consented for deceased organ donation, proportions lower than the general public (68.3%; 95% CI: 66.4%-70.0%). Conclusions In Ontario, Canada Chinese and South Asian individuals are less likely to register and their families are less likely to consent to deceased organ donation compared to the remaining general public. There is an opportunity to build support for organ and tissue donation in these two large ethnic communities in Canada. PMID:26230320

  4. Knowledge and Opinions of Deceased Organ Donation Among Middle and High School Students in Korea. (United States)

    Chung, J; Choi, D; Park, Y


    Adolescents are an important target group for organ donation education. As yet, little is known about the attitude of Korean adolescents toward deceased organ donation, or the factors related to their decision. In this study, we explored the knowledge and opinions of deceased organ donation among middle and high school students in Korea. A self-reported survey was conducted among middle and high school students in Seoul, Korea. The questionnaire assessed knowledge, personal experience, and opinions of organ donation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant factors associated with willingness to become an organ donor. Of the 323 students, 161 (49.8%) were willing to be a deceased donor, and the other 162 (50.2%) were unwilling or unsure. Neither level of knowledge nor experience of recent public information on organ donation affected students' decisions. Instead, a cohesive family environment and family discussion were strong predictors of the willingness of Korean middle and high school students to be an organ donor. A donation education program that promotes family communication and discussion about organ donation could increase willingness to be an organ donor among Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Right lobe living-donor hepatectomy-the Toronto approach, tips and tricks. (United States)

    Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Laurence, Jerome M; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Cattral, Mark S


    Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a well-established treatment for end-stage liver disease. Nevertheless, it has not been extensively accepted in North America or Europe as it has been in Asia. At the University of Toronto we initiated our LDLT program in 2000 and since then our program has grown each year, representing today the largest LDLT program in North America. Our right-lobe LDLT experience from 2000-2014 includes 474 right lobes. Only 30% of our grafts have included the middle hepatic vein. We present excellent outcomes in terms of graft and patient survival which is not different to that achieved with deceased donor liver transplantation. In the present study we will discuss the evolution, challenges and current practices of our LDLT program. We will discuss what is and has been the program philosophy. We will also discuss how we evaluate our donors and the extensive workup we do before a donor is accepted for live donation. Furthermore we will discuss some tips and tricks of how we perform the right hepatectomy for live donation.

  6. The critical pathway for deceased donation : reportable uniformity in the approach to deceased donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L.; Shaheen, Faissal A. M.; Matesanz, Rafael; O'Connor, Kevin; Minina, Marina; Muller, Elmi; Young, Kimberly; Manyalich, Marti; Chapman, Jeremy; Kirste, Guenter; Al-Mousawi, Mustafa; Coene, Leen; Garcia, Valter Duro; Gautier, Serguei; Hasegawa, Tomonori; Jha, Vivekanand; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus; Loty, Bernard; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Nathan, Howard M.; Ploeg, Rutger; Reznik, Oleg; Rosendale, John D.; Tibell, Annika; Tsoulfas, George; Vathsala, Anantharaman; Noel, Luc


    P>The critical pathway of deceased donation provides a systematic approach to the organ donation process, considering both donation after cardiac death than donation after brain death. The pathway provides a tool for assessing the potential of deceased donation and for the prospective identification

  7. Characterization of acute graft-versus-host disease following reduced-intensity stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical related donor. (United States)

    Murashige, Naoko; Kami, Masahiro; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Katayama, Yuta; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Onishi, Yasushi; Hori, Akiko; Kishi, Yukiko; Hamaki, Tamae; Tajima, Kinuko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takaue, Yoichi


    To investigate clinical features of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following reduced intensity stem-cell transplantation (RIST), we retrospectively investigated medical records of 65 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent RIST from a matched related donor. Preparative regimen comprised fludarabine 30 mg/m(2) (n = 53) or cladribine 0.11 mg/kg (n = 12) for 6 days plus busulfan 4 mg/kg for 2 days. Twelve patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2-4 consecutive days. Grade II to IV acute GVHD was diagnosed in 36 patients (55%). Its median onset was day 58 (range, 17-109), while it was bimodal, peaking day 15-29 (early-onset GVHD, n = 18) and day 75-89 days (late-onset GVHD, n = 18). Variables that were more common in early-onset GVHD than late-onset GVHD included skin rash (89% vs. 61%) and noninfectious fevers (33% vs. 11%). Desaturation, pulmonary infiltrates and hyperbilirubinemia (>2.0 mg/dL) were more common in late-onset GVHD (6% vs. 22%, 0% vs. 17%, and 6% vs. 33%, respectively). All of the patients with early-onset GVHD given corticosteroid responded to it, while 5 of the 18 patients with late-onset GVHD failed to respond it. Patients with either early-onset or late-onset GVHD tended to have better progression-free survival (PFS) than those without it; however, there was no significant difference in PFS between patients with early-onset GVHD and those with late-onset GVHD. This study suggests that several etiologies might have contributed to the development of acute GVHD following RIST.

  8. Graft versus host disease in a rat small bowel transplant model after T-cell depleted donor specific bone marrow infusion

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    Bakonyi Neto Alexandre


    Full Text Available Low cytoreductive regimen of irradiation associated to unmodified bone marrow infusion (UBM does not prevent the occurrence of graft versus host disease (GVHD after transplant. PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the potential advantages of a long-term immunossupression and T-cell depleted bone marrow infusion (TCDBMI in preventing the occurrence of GVHD after small bowel transplantation (SBTx. METHODS: Heterotopic SBTX was performed with Lewis rats as recipients and DA as donors and distributed into 5 groups according to the irradiation, duration of immunossupression and the use of UBM or TCDBMI: G1 (n=6, without irradiation and G2 (n=9, G3 (n=4, G4 (n=5 and G5 (n=6 was given 250 rd of irradiation. Groups 1,2,4 and G3 and 5 were infused with 100 x 10(6 UBM and TCDBM respectively. Animals in G1, 2, 3 were immunossupressed with 1mg/ FK506/Kg/IM for 5 days and G4 and G5 for 15 days. Anti CD3 monoclonal antibodies and immunomagnetic beads were used for T-cell depletion.Animals were examined for rejection, GVHD, chimerism characterization and ileal and skin biopsies. RESULTS: Minimal to mild rejection was observed in all groups; however, GVHD were present only in irradiated groups. Long-term immunossupression changed the severity of GVHD in G4 and G5. Rejection was the cause of death in G1 while GVHD in G2, 3, 4 and 5, not avoided by the use of TCDBMI. Total chimerism and T-cell chimerism was statistically higher in irradiated groups when compared to G1. CONCLUSION: Extended immunossupression associated to low dose of irradiation decrease the severity of GVHD, not avoided by the use of TCDBMI.

  9. Graft-versus-leukemia effect with a WT1-specific T-cell response induced by azacitidine and donor lymphocyte infusions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tatsunori; Fujii, Nobuharu; Imada, Masahide; Aoe, Michinori; Meguri, Yusuke; Inomata, Tomoko; Nakashima, Hiromi; Fujii, Keiko; Yoshida, Shohei; Nishimori, Hisakazu; Matsuoka, Ken-Ichi; Kondo, Eisei; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune


    Azacitidine (Aza) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) therapy has recently been reported as an effective salvage therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Despite the high response rate and relatively long period of remission, most patients relapse again. The immunologic mechanism of the response and limited efficacy remain unknown. Aza + DLI therapy was performed for a patient with therapy-related MDS (t-MDS), who had relapsed after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. We observed a powerful graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect accompanied by an evident Wilms tumor antigen 1 (WT1)-specific CD8 T-cell response. Remission continued for 15 months, but finally the patient relapsed. The kinetics of the WT1-specific CD8 T cells were inversely associated with WT1 messenger RNA (mRNA), suggesting a WT1-driven GVL effect. A difference of T-cell phenotype between the whole T cells and the WT1-specific CD8 T cells was observed. It is of note that the memory phenotype of the WT1-specific T cell was limited and decreased early. The immunoescape mechanism was partly supported by loss of the memory phenotype due to failure of expansion and differentiation. Our data suggested that a WT1-specific T-cell response at least partly contributes to the GVL effect induced by Aza + DLI. A strategy for maximizing and maintaining the memory phenotype of the CTL may be required for durable remission. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation]. (United States)

    Macher, Marie-Alice


    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Transplante lobar experimental em suínos: enxerto proporcional na disparidade entre receptor e doador Experimental lobar transplantation in swine: proportional graft in the discrepancy between donor and recipient

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    Nuno Ferreira de Lima


    grafts with restricted vascular bed. The authors hypothesized that this type of graft may develop pulmonary hypertension in the recipient by the end of the growth period. Methods - This hypothesis was investigated in a porcine survival model of lung transplantation in piglets. There were three groups for comparison purposes: I (n = 4 - transplantation of the upper lobe from an adult donor, graft being proportional to the recipient but irrigated by two arterial rami only; II (n = 5 - transplantation of the lower lobe from an adult donor, graft being oversized to the recipient and having adequate vascular bed; III (n = 6 - transplantation of immature lung, from matched-sized donor. Graft function was studied three months after the transplantation, when the growth period was completed. Results - The pulmonary artery pressure of grafts in group I (51.8 ± 2.1 mmHg was increased compared to that of group II (40.4 ± 2.5 mmHg and of group III (34.8 ± 1.5 mmHg, reaching statistical significance (p = 0.0003. Conclusions - The lobar graft proportional to the recipient, with restricted vascular bed, had hampered hemodynamic performance in the growing animal. These results suggest that graft proportionality should be secondary to an adequate vascular bed.

  12. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi


    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  13. Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume. (United States)

    Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk


    Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.

  14. Catheter-based donor site analgesia after rib grafting: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial comparing ropivacaine and bupivacaine. (United States)

    Anantanarayanan, Parameswaran; Raja, Dharmesh Kumar; Kumar, J Naveen; Sneha, P; Christabel, Amelia; Manikandhan, Ramanathan; Elavazhagan, Namasivayam


    Although ribs provide the best source of cartilage for reconstruction, its harvesting is associated with significant postoperative pain and sometimes incapacitating functional deficit. The lack of studies in the maxillofacial literature on regional analgesia for rib harvests stimulated this study design. This study compared ropivacaine with bupivacaine in providing postoperative analgesia after rib harvest. Patients who needed rib grafting for maxillofacial reconstructive procedures were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups with different modalities of anesthesia against a control group. A catheter was embedded in the rib donor site in all patients. Patients in group A received 0.75% ropivacaine, those in group B received 0.5% bupivacaine, and those in croup C patients received normal saline and served as the controls. The outcome variables were the subjective and objective pain scores, the duration of action, and the efficacy of the drugs after rib harvest. Dependent variables were the need for a rescue analgesic by the patient and the duration of hospital stay. The subjective intensity of pain at rest was calculated using the visual analog scale. The objective pain scores at function were evaluated by comparing preoperative with postoperative values of incentive spirometry, breath-holding test, maximal chest expansion, and match-blowing test. The t test and paired samples test were used to the analyze data, and a P value less than .05 was considered significant. Forty-two patients were enrolled in this study. Patients in groups A and B showed significant pain relief compared with group C. Patients in group A showed significantly less pain at rest (2.8±0.894) compared with those in group B (3.7±0.875; Ppain at function (3.8±0.894) compared with those in group B (4.7±0.923; Prib harvesting provides excellent postoperative comfort, with ropivacaine providing an earlier return

  15. Living donor liver transplantation for pediatric patients with metabolic disorders: the Japanese multicenter registry. (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Koji, Umeshita; Mizuta, Koichi; Shinkai, Masato; Takahito, Yagi; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Inomata, Yukihiro; Uemoto, Shinji; Tatsuo, Kuroda; Kato, Shunichi


    LDLT is indicated for a variety of metabolic disorders, primarily in Asian countries due to the absolute scarcity of deceased donor LT. We analyzed data for all pediatric LDLTs performed between November 1989 and December 2010, during which 2224 pediatric patients underwent LDLT in Japan. Of these patients, 194 (8.7%) underwent LDLT for metabolic disorders. Wilson's disease (n = 59; 30.4%) was the most common indication in the patients with metabolic disorders, followed by OTCD (n = 40; 20.6%), MMA (n = 20; 10.3%), and GSD (n = 15; 7.7%). The one-, five-, 10-, and 15-yr patient and graft survival rates were 91.2%, 87.9%, 87.0%, and 79.3%, and 91.2%, 87.9%, 86.1%, and 74.4%, respectively. Wilson's disease and urea cycle deficiency were associated with better patient survival. The use of heterozygous donors demonstrated no negative impact on either the donors or recipients. With regard to X-linked OTCD, symptomatic heterozygote maternal donors should not be considered potential donor candidates. Improving the understanding of the long-term suitability of this treatment modality will require the registration and ongoing evaluation of all patients with inherited metabolic disease considered for LT.

  16. A Modified Protocol with Improved Detection Rate for Mis-Matched Donor HLA from Low Quantities of DNA in Urine Samples from Kidney Graft Recipients. (United States)

    Kwok, Janette; Choi, Leo C W; Ho, Jenny C Y; Chan, Gavin S W; Mok, Maggie M Y; Lam, Man-Fei; Chak, Wai-Leung; Cheuk, Au; Chau, Ka-Foon; Tong, Matthew; Chan, Kwok-Wah; Chan, Tak-Mao


    Urine from kidney transplant recipient has proven to be a viable source for donor DNA. However, an optimized protocol would be required to determine mis-matched donor HLA specificities in view of the scarcity of DNA obtained in some cases. In this study, fresh early morning urine specimens were obtained from 155 kidney transplant recipients with known donor HLA phenotype. DNA was extracted and typing of HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci by polymerase chain reaction-specific sequence primers was performed using tailor-made condition according to the concentration of extracted DNA. HLA typing of DNA extracted from urine revealed both recipient and donor HLA phenotypes, allowing the deduction of the unknown donor HLA and hence the degree of HLA mis-match. By adopting the modified procedures, mis-matched donor HLA phenotypes were successfully deduced in all of 35 tested urine samples at DNA quantities spanning the range of 620-24,000 ng. This urine-based method offers a promising and reliable non-invasive means for the identification of mis-matched donor HLA antigens in kidney transplant recipients with unknown donor HLA phenotype or otherwise inadequate donor information.

  17. Effect of donor CTLA-4 alleles and haplotypes on graft-versus-host disease occurrence in Tunisian patients receiving a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Bani, Meriem; Torjemane, Lamia; Kaabi, Houda; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othmane, Tarek; Hmida, Slama


    The CTLA-4 genetic variation, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be critical and can affect the functional activity of cells that initiate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) effects. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of donor CTLA-4 alleles and haplotypes for the -318C>T and the 49A>G polymorphisms on the occurrence of GVHD in Tunisians recipients of HSCs. A total of 112 patients and their 112 respective sibling donors of HSCs were enrolled in this study. All patients had either grades 0-I or grades II-IV acute GVHD, or chronic GVHD. The SNPs genotyping assay was performed using sets of sequence specific primers (SSP-PCR). The single marker association analysis showed that the 49G allele, in a genetic recessive model, may be a potential risk factor only for the chronic GVHD (p = 0.032, odds ratio [OR] = 2.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-6.32). The haplotypes analyses showed that the CTLA-4 -318C49G nucleotide combination is significantly associated with the incidence of chronic GVHD (p = 0.043, χ² = 3.27). Donor CTLA-4 -318C49G haplotype may be a significant risk factor for developing chronic GVHD after allo-stem cell transplantation. We suppose that donor T cells expressing this haplotype in a homozygous state have higher proliferation than those expressing other haplotypes, especially after recognition of the recipient's minor histocompatibility antigens.

  18. Dual Kidney Allocation Score: A Novel Algorithm Utilizing Expanded Donor Criteria for the Allocation of Dual Kidneys in Adults. (United States)

    Johnson, Adam P; Price, Thea P; Lieby, Benjamin; Doria, Cataldo


    BACKGROUND Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) of expanded-criteria donors is a cost-intensive procedure that aims to increase the pool of available deceased organ donors and has demonstrated equivalent outcomes to expanded-criteria single kidney transplantation (eSKT). The objective of this study was to develop an allocation score based on predicted graft survival from historical dual and single kidney donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data for 1547 DKT and 26 381 eSKT performed between January 1994 and September 2013. We utilized multivariable Cox regression to identify variables independently associated with graft survival in dual and single kidney transplantations. We then derived a weighted multivariable product score from calculated hazard ratios to model the benefit of transplantation as dual kidneys. RESULTS Of 36 donor variables known at the time of listing, 13 were significantly associated with graft survival. The derived dual allocation score demonstrated good internal validity with strong correlation to improved survival in dual kidney transplants. Donors with scores less than 2.1 transplanted as dual kidneys had a worsened median survival of 594 days (24%, p-value 0.031) and donors with scores greater than 3.9 had improved median survival of 1107 days (71%, p-value 0.002). There were 17 733 eSKT (67%) and 1051 DKT (67%) with scores in between these values and no differences in survival (p-values 0.676 and 0.185). CONCLUSIONS We have derived a dual kidney allocation score (DKAS) with good internal validity. Future prospective studies will be required to demonstrate external validity, but this score may help to standardize organ allocation for dual kidney transplantation.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In a retrospective study the rate of rejection and clouding of the donor cornea for other reasons was investigated in 230 penetrating keratoplasties performed between 1984-1986. Donor corneas were stored in McCarey-Kaufmann Medium (MK) at 4-degrees-C or in a modified Minimal Essential Medium (MEM)

  20. Reconstruction of Isolated Inferior Right Hepatic Vein(s) in Right Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation Using Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts: A New Feasible Concept, Technique of 'Bridging Conduit Venoplasty' and Outcomes. (United States)

    Thorat, Ashok; Hsu, Shih-Chao; Yang, Horng-Ren; Li, Ping-Chun; Li, Ming-Li; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Te-Hung; Poon, Kin-Shing; Jeng, Long-Bin


    BACKGROUND Right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remains the most common form of liver transplantation in Asia. However, reconstruction of the venous outflow in a right liver allograft may pose technical difficulties if hepatic venous variations are present. Recently, much emphasis has been given to the reconstruction of large and multiple inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs). The method of reconstructive technique, type of vascular grafts, and the outcome after the procedure have been a point of debate. In this report we discuss the IRHV reconstruction techniques using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts and the outcomes after such reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS Out of 262 right liver allografts that underwent venous reconstruction using ePTFE vascular grafts, IRHVs required either venoplasty or second inferior vena cava (IVC) anastomosis in 99 recipients. Depending upon type of IRHV reconstruction, the recipients were divided in 2 groups: Group A (n=52): IRHV venoplasty using ePTFE graft, and group B (n=47): Direct IRHV-to-IVC anastomosis. The outcome after LDLT was compared for these 2 groups. RESULTS The ePTFE venoplasty group had significantly shorter warm ischemia time as compared to the direct to IVC anastomosis group (pgraft migration in the second portion of the duodenum that required surgical exploration. CONCLUSIONS The IRHVs drain a considerable portion of the posterior sector of right liver allografts and thus must be reconstructed. Use of ePTFE vascular grafts for IRHV venoplasty is a safe and feasible concept that facilitates the outflow reconstruction of liver allografts.

  1. Maintaining relational continuity with the deceased on Facebook. (United States)

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M


    Scholars have noted that communication helps maintain relational continuity despite physical absence; yet, the specific role of communication in continuing a relationship with the deceased has not been analyzed. In this study, messages directed to the deceased on Facebook memorial group walls were examined to explore how grieving individuals utilize Facebook memorial groups in order to make sense of the death of a loved one and reconnect with the deceased. Using a grounded theory approach, message topics and apparent grief-related functions served by messages were identified and characterized. Initial observation revealed that grieving individuals wrote to the deceased as if the deceased could read the messages, which is a unique type of communication. The communication written to the deceased individuals appeared to serve two functions for those writing the messages: (1) Sensemaking; and (2) Continuing Bonds, or upholding relational continuity, with the deceased.

  2. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F


    with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  3. ABO血型不合供肝在肝移植中的应用%Application of liver grafts from ABO incompatible donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江春平; 丁义涛; 徐庆祥; 吴亚夫


    Objective To discuss the effect of ABO incompatible donor on postoperative liver function and prognosis in liver transplantation and to share our experience of perioperative care in these cases. Methods We analyzed 8 ABO incompatible donor liver transplantation cases carried out in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical College from January 2008 to December 2011 and compared with 10 control cases of ABO compatible donor liver transplantation. Postoperative liver function,prothrombin time(PT),intensive care unit(ICU)stay days,the incidence of rejection,biliary tract complication,infection, donor liver initial poor function/primary nonfunction(IPF/PNF)and 1 year survival rate were summarized and compared between marginal donor cases and control cases. Results We found no significant difference between ABO incompatible donor cases and ABO compatible donor cases in all above analyzed parameters (all P>0.05). Conclusion With proper perioperative care,the application of ABO incompatible donor liver in the situation of organ shortage may have similar therapeutic efficacy as ABO compatible donor liver transplantation.%目的探讨ABO血型不合供肝在肝移植的应用对术后肝功能和预后的影响及围手术期的处理经验。方法分析南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院2008年1月至2011年12月ABO血型不合供肝8例,随机选择同期ABO血型相合供肝10例作为对照组,分别监测肝移植术后受体肝功能、凝血酶原时间(PT)、住重症监护病房(ICU)时间,排斥反应、胆道并发症、感染、移植肝功能不良或无功能(IPF/PNF)发生率和患者1年生存率等指标。结果上述指标ABO血型不合供肝组与对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05)。结论在没有合适供肝的情况下,谨慎使用ABO血型不合供肝,辅以适当的围手术期处理,其治疗结果可与正常供肝组相近。

  4. Evaluation of a Hockey Deceased Organ Donation Awareness Campaign: A Population-Based Cohort Study (United States)

    Naylor, Kyla L.; McKenzie, Susan; Cherry, Cindy; McArthur, Eric; Li, Alvin H.; McCallum, Megan K.; Kim, S. Joseph; Prakash, Versha; Knoll, Gregory A.; Garg, Amit X.


    Background: The Kidney Foundation of Canada developed a pilot campaign to educate persons attending junior hockey league games in London, Ontario, Canada, on deceased organ donation. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a hockey campaign on the number of new organ and tissue donor registrants. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting: Residents of London, Ontario. Patients: We included 255 476 individuals eligible to register for organ donation with a London, Ontario postal code. Measurements: We compared the number of new deceased organ donor registrants in London, Ontario, during the campaign period (March 12 to April 16, 2015) with 3 different time periods (December 30, 2014 to February 3, 2015; February 4 to March 11, 2015; April 17 to May 22, 2015). We also compared registration rates in London with 2 Ontario cities (Kitchener-Waterloo and Hamilton) matching in a 1:1 ratio on age, sex, and income quintile. Methods: To compare registrations across time periods, we used binomial regression with an identity link function and generalized estimating equations with an independence correlation structure. We used modified Poisson regression to compare registration rates between cities. Results: During the campaign period, there were slightly more registrations (1218 registered of 252 832 unregistered individuals [0.48%]) compared with an earlier time period (risk difference: 0.09%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05%-0.12%). However, there was no significant difference compared with 2 time periods immediately before and after the campaign. London had slightly more registrations during the campaign period compared with the matched city of Hamilton (1180 registered of 236 582 unregistered individuals [0.50%] vs 490 registered of 236 582 unregistered individuals [0.21%]; risk ratio: 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17-2.68). The registration rate in London did not significantly differ from Kitchener-Waterloo. Limitations: Unable to conclude whether the minor increase

  5. Analysis of risk factors of initial poor graft function after living donor liver transplantation%活体肝移植术后早期移植物功能不良的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振兴; 陈晓波; 严律南; 李波; 曾勇; 文天夫; 徐明清; 王文涛; 杨家印


    目的:分析活体肝移植受体发生早期移植物功能不良(IPGF)的危险因素。方法回顾性分析309例活体肝移植病例资料。备选危险因素:(1)供体因素,包括年龄、性别、体质量指数(BMI);(2)受体因素,包括年龄、性别、BMI,术前肝功能Child-Pugh分级、终末期肝病模型(MELD)评分、术前肾功能不全、血清总胆红素升高、低钠血症、低钾血症;(3)移植物因素,包括移植物冷缺血时间、移植物与受体体质量比(GRWR);(4)受体手术因素:总手术时间、失血量、输血量、输血小板和无肝期≥100 min。对以上因素进行单因素分析,找出IPGF的潜在危险因素,并进行Logistic回归分析以找出独立危险因素。结果与结论受体术前肝功能Child-Pugh C级、MELD评分≥20分、血清总胆红素升高(>68.4μmol/L)、低钠血症(<135 mmol/L)、低钾血症(<3.5 mmol/L)和无肝期≥100 min是IPGF的潜在危因素(均为P<0.05),其中受体术前肝功能Child-Pugh C级为活体肝移植发生IPGF的独立危险因素(P=0.019)。%Objective To identify the risk factors of the incidence rate of initial poor graft function (IPGF)in recipients after living donor liver transplantation. Methods Clinical data of 309 patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Candidate risk factors:(1 )donor factors included age,gender and body mass index (BMI);(2)recipient factors included age,gender,BMI and preoperative Child-Pugh classification,model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)grading,preoperative renal insufficiency,serum total bilirubin elevation,hyponatremia and hypopotassaemia;(3)graft factors included graft cold ischemia time,graft recipient weight ratio (GRWR);(4)recipient surgery factors included total operation time,blood loss volume,blood transfusion volume,platelet transfusion and anhepatic phase≥1 00 min

  6. Transmission of Angiosarcomas From a Common Multiorgan Donor to Four Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoning, J; Liu, Ying; Bistrup, C


    We describe the donor tumor transmission of metastatic angiosarcomas to four transplant recipients through transplantation of deceased-donor organs, i.e. kidneys, lung and liver, from an apparently unaffected common female multiorgan donor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of angiosarcoma cells...

  7. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified. (United States)

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir


    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  8. Analysis of CD8+CD28- T-suppressor cells in living donor liver transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin Lin; Lan-Lan Wang; Lu-Nan Yan; Pei Cai; Bo Li; Tian-Fu Wen; Yong Zeng


    BACKGROUND: Human CD8+CD28- T-suppressor (Ts) cells have been considered to indicate a reduced need for immunosuppression in pediatric liver-intestine transplant recipients and recipients of deceased heart-kidney transplants. However, in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) little information is available and the clinical signiifcance is still unknown. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect the population of CD8+CD28- Ts cells present in peripheral blood in A-A LDLT recipients (n=31), patients with end-stage liver disease (n=24) and healthy controls (n=19). Meanwhile, we tested the graft function and trough levels of immunosuppression in recipients. The clinical and follow-up data of 31 transplant recipients were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with diseased controls (P=0.007) and healthy individuals (P=0.000), a notable expansion of CD8+CD28- Ts cells was found in recipients of A-A LDLT. This was associated with graft function, levels of immunosuppression and rejection episodes. CONCLUSIONS: To monitor the CD8+CD28- Ts cells levels is important to evaluate the immune state of recipients. Meanwhile, it is also important to promote expansion of CD8+CD28- Ts cells in recipients of A-A LDLT, not only to sustain good graft function and decrease the dosage of immunosuppressants, but also to reduce the occurrence of rejection.

  9. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons. (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L


    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  10. Selective Depletion of CD45RA+ T Cells From Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Grafts From HLA-Matched Related and Unrelated Donors in Preventing GVHD (United States)


    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Graft Versus Host Disease; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts

  11. Meniscal allograft transplantation. Part 1: systematic review of graft biology, graft shrinkage, graft extrusion, graft sizing, and graft fixation. (United States)

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Taylor, Dean C; Rill, Brian; Lock, Terrence; Moutzouros, Vasilius; Kolowich, Patricia


    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding five topics in meniscal allograft transplantation: graft biology, shrinkage, extrusion, sizing, and fixation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases. Articles were classified only in one topic, but information contained could be reported into other topics. Information was classified according to type of study (animal, in vitro human, and in vivo human) and level of evidence (for in vivo human studies). Sixty-two studies were finally included: 30 biology, 3 graft shrinkage, 11 graft extrusion, 17 graft size, and 6 graft fixation (some studies were categorized in more than one topic). These studies corresponded to 22 animal studies, 22 in vitro human studies, and 23 in vivo human studies (7 level II, 10 level III, and 6 level IV). The principal conclusions were as follows: (a) Donor cells decrease after MAT and grafts are repopulated with host cells form synovium; (b) graft preservation alters collagen network (deep freezing) and causes cell apoptosis with loss of viable cells (cryopreservation); (c) graft shrinkage occurs mainly in lyophilized and gamma-irradiated grafts (less with cryopreservation); (d) graft extrusion is common but has no clinical/functional implications; (e) overall, MRI is not superior to plain radiograph for graft sizing; (f) graft width size matching is more important than length size matching; (g) height appears to be the most important factor influencing meniscal size; (h) bone fixation better restores contact mechanics than suture fixation, but there are no differences for pullout strength or functional results; and (i) suture fixation has more risk of graft extrusion compared to bone fixation. Systematic review of level II-IV studies, Level IV.

  12. Meta-analysis of complications following autologous iliac crest bone graft from donor site%自体髂骨植骨供骨区并发症的Meta分析**★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹沙沙; 陈婷婷; 田汝辉; 常燕燕; 王亚楠; 李铮; 胡洪亮


      背景:目前,自体髂骨移植被广泛认为是治疗骨缺损的“金标准”;然而,髂嵴供骨区常出现并发症,限制了其在临床上的推广使用。目的:采用循证医学研究方法,对已发表相关文献进行汇总分析,总结自体髂骨植骨后供骨区并发症的种类及发生率。方法:检索 PubMed Medline、Ovid Medline、Cochrane Database、Embase Database 等数据库,检索时间范围:2002年1月至2011年12月,以“Iliac crest bone graft”或“autologous bone graft”或“bone graft donor site”或“complication”或“Morbidity”为检索词,共检索到174篇文献。根据检索条件及评价标准,最终筛选出30篇临床研究报道进行 Meta 分析,共计2476例患者。采用 SPSS 13.0和 R 软件及其 Meta 程序包对检索结果进行统计分析。结果与结论:自体髂骨植骨后供骨区主要并发症包括供骨区≥6个月长期疼痛(发生率=7.88%,95%可信区间4.76%-12.79%)、供骨区感染(发生率=4.26%,95%可信区间2.95%-6.12%)、血肿及血清肿(发生率=6.55%,95%可信区间4.90%-8.70%)、神经损伤(发生率=5.85%,95%可信区间3.46%-9.71%)、感觉障碍(发生率=10.1%,95%可信区间6.07%-16.23%)。可见髂骨取骨后并发症发生率较高,临床医师应予以重视。%BACKGROUND: Recently, autologous iliac crest bone graft is considered to be the “gold standard” therapeutic method for bone defects. However, there are some complications in iliae crest bone donor site, and the clinical application is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compiled analyze the published articles and evaluate the types of complications and morbidity fol owing autologous iliac crest bone graft by employing evidence-based medicine method. METHODS: A computer-based online search in PubMed Medline database, Ovid Medline database, Cochrane database and Embase database was performed using key words of “Iliac crest bone graft”,“autologous bone

  13. De novo noncutaneous malignancies after kidney transplantation are associated with an increased risk of graft failure: results from a time-dependent analysis on 672 patients. (United States)

    Cena, Tiziana; Musetti, Claudio; Quaglia, Marco; Magnani, Corrado; Stratta, Piero; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Cantaluppi, Vincenzo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cancer occurrence and risk of graft failure in kidney transplant recipients. From November 1998 to November 2013, 672 adult patients received their first kidney transplant from a deceased donor and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (3523 patient-years), 47 patients developed a nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and 40 a noncutaneous malignancy (NCM). A total of 59 graft failures were observed. The failure rate was 6 per 100 patient-year (pt-yr) after NCM versus 1.5 per 100 pt-yr in patients without NCM. In a time-dependent multivariable model, the occurrence of NCM appeared to be associated with failure (HR = 3.27; 95% CI = 1.44-7.44). The effect of NCM on the cause-specific graft failure was different (P = 0.002) when considering events due to chronic rejection (HR = 0.55) versus other causes (HR = 15.59). The reduction of the immunosuppression after NCM was not associated with a greater risk of graft failure. In conclusion, our data suggest that post-transplant NCM may be a strong risk factor for graft failure, particularly for causes other than chronic rejection.

  14. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable

  15. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L


    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcome

  16. Preferences for Policy Options for Deceased Organ Donation for Transplantation: A Discrete Choice Experiment. (United States)

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John M; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Cass, Alan


    Despite broad public support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of deceased donor organs. We sought to identify community preferences for features of organ donation policies. A discrete choice study was conducted using an online panel of Australian community respondents older than 18 years. Respondents were presented with scenarios comparing a "new" policy to the current policy. Tradeoffs between 8 policy aspects were quantified using mixed logit and latent class models: registration system, extent of donor family involvement, ease of registration, frequency of confirmation of intent, direct payment, and funeral expense reimbursement, priority for donor's family, and formal recognition of donation. There were 2005 respondents (mean, 44.6 years). We found a strong preference for a new policy. Overall, respondents favored a policy that included: some involvement of the donor's family in the final decision, simple registration processes, less frequent reconfirmation of donation intent, direct payment or funeral expense reimbursement, and formal recognition of donation. However, there was significant preference heterogeneity across respondents, with various respondent groups valuing policy mechanisms differently. Respondents who viewed policy change negatively were also those who would be unlikely to be organ donors anyway, because they tended to hold negative views toward organ donation. Our results suggest that the Australian community are open to alternative organ donation policies including changes to: registration systems, family involvement, and financial and nonfinancial mechanisms. Future policy discussions should not be limited by preconceived notions of what is acceptable to the community, rather informed by actual community values and preferences.

  17. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors


    Azzam, Ayman; Uryuhara, Kinji; Taka, Ito; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; TANAKA, Koichi


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. METHODS: Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS...

  18. Donor Corneal Transplantation vs Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis in Patients with Previous Graft Failures: A Retrospective Single Center Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis). (United States)

    Akpek, Esen K; Cassard, Sandra D; Dunlap, Karen; Hahn, Sarah; Ramulu, Pradeep Y


    To compare short-term outcomes of repeat penetrating keratoplasty (PK) to those of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro). Our hypothesis was that visual outcomes were superior for KPro compared to PK. This is a retrospective, nonrandomized, intermediate-term case series. Consecutive adults with one or more failed PKs who underwent either PK or KPro between January 2008 and December 2010 were included. Demographics, indication for the initial PK, comorbidities, concomitant procedures, and complications were considered. Only one procedure in each eye was included. All KPro procedures were retained in the analyses. Fifty-three patients underwent PK and 27 received KPro. Mean follow-up was 19.5 months in the PK group and 16.5 months in the KPro group. KPro eyes had worse mean preoperative vision (hand motions vs counting fingers, P=.01) and more comorbidities. In the postoperative period, 35% of PK eyes and 45% of KPro eyes attained best-ever visual acuity of 20/70. Forty-seven percent of PK eyes vs 40% of KPro eyes were able to retain this visual acuity. Two-year rate of failure to retain visual acuity better than the baseline was higher for PK eyes, though not at a statistically significant level (hazard ratio [HR]=1.67; 95% CI, 0.78-3.60; P=.19). Two-year cumulative rate of graft failure (loss of clarity for PK and removal/replacement for KPro) was higher for PK eyes (HR=3.23; 95% CI, 1.12-9.28; P=.03). Retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, and glaucoma rates were similar (P=.6 for all). These results demonstrate less frequent graft failure, greater visual improvement, and greater likelihood of maintaining the visual improvement in KPro eyes vs PK.

  19. Partial Recovery of Delayed Graft Function due to Cholesterol Emboli after Renal Transplantation

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    Ackoundou-N'Guessan C


    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man who received a deceased renal allograft in September 2001. The donor of the allograft was a 54-year-old hypertensive man who expired from intracerebral hemorrhage. Atheroma with hard plaques was present in both renal arteries and aortic patches. After vascular anastomosis and clamp release, the allograft recolo-ration was inadequate, and the patient remained anuric. Computerized tomography scan demonstrated disseminated infarction areas, suggesting cholesterol emboli, which was confirmed later by a graft biopsy. As approximately 50% of the renal parenchyma was perfused, graft nephrectomy was not indicated and dialysis was restarted. Diuresis was over 3000 ml/day and serum creatinine decreased and stabilized at 360 µmol/L by the 32 nd postoperative day. The allograft supported the patient for only two years, and he eventually was successfully retransplanted in June 2003. We believe that delayed graft function due to cholesterol emboli disease may be reversible if areas of infarction are not too large.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis in Swine Associates Corneal Graft Rejection with Donor-Recipient Mismatches in Three Novel Histocompatibility Regions and One Locus Homologous to the Mouse H-3 Locus.

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    Susan Nicholls

    Full Text Available In rodents, immune responses to minor histocompatibility antigens are the most important drivers of corneal graft rejection. However, this has not been confirmed in humans or in a large animal model and the genetic loci are poorly characterised, even in mice. The gene sequence data now available for a range of relevant species permits the use of genome-wide association (GWA techniques to identify minor antigens associated with transplant rejection. We have used this technique in a pre-clinical model of corneal transplantation in semi-inbred NIH minipigs and Babraham swine to search for novel minor histocompatibility loci and to determine whether rodent findings have wider applicability. DNA from a cohort of MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched donors and recipients was analysed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The level of SNP homozygosity for each line was assessed. Genome-wide analysis of the association of SNP disparities with rejection was performed using log-likelihood ratios. Four genomic blocks containing four or more SNPs significantly linked to rejection were identified (on chromosomes 1, 4, 6 and 9, none at the location of the MHC. One block of 36 SNPs spanned a region that exhibits conservation of synteny with the mouse H-3 histocompatibility locus and contains the pig homologue of the mouse Zfp106 gene, which encodes peptide epitopes known to mediate corneal graft rejection. The other three regions are novel minor histocompatibility loci. The results suggest that rejection can be predicted from SNP analysis prior to transplant in this model and that a similar GWA analysis is merited in humans.

  1. 老龄供肾在青年受者体内的病理学改变%Pathological changes of renal grafts from elderly donor kidney in young recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方佳丽; 陈正; 马俊杰; 李光辉; 徐璐; 张磊; 郭予和; 张异蕊; 潘光辉


    目的:研究老龄供肾在青年受者体内的病理学改变,探讨老龄供肾移植的安全性。方法研究对象选择2008年1月至2008年12月期间在广州医科大学附属第二医院移植科实施亲属活体供肾移植的14例老龄供者(年龄>55岁)和14例青年受者(年龄<30岁)。对每例老龄供肾进行零时活组织检查(活检),对接受老龄供肾的青年受者在移植后6个月进行常规的移植肾活检。观察老龄供肾移植后的肾脏组织病理结构改变。结果老龄供肾移植至青年受者体内6个月后组织病理结构发生改变:肾小动脉病变程度较移植前减轻;肾小动脉硬化指数较移植前减轻(P <0.05);肾小球硬化比例移植前后变化不大(P >0.05)。纤维连接蛋白(FN)水平较移植术前表达水平降低,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);层黏连蛋白(LN)表达水平较移植前降低(P <0.05)。结论老龄供肾移植到青年受者体内后,其组织病理学结构有所改善。%Objective To study the pathological changes of renal grafts from elderly donor in young recipients and to investigate the safety of kidney transplantation from elderly donors.Methods Fourteen elderly kidney donors (with the age >55 years old)and fourteen young recipients (with the age 0.05 ).The expression of fibronectin (FN)decreased after transplantation,but the difference had no statistical significance (P >0.05 ).The expression of laminin (LN ) decreased after transplantation (P <0.05).Conclusions The histopathological structure of renal graft from elderly donors in young recipients has improved.

  2. Factors affecting the deceased organ donation rate in the Chinese community: an audit of hospital medical records in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Cheung, C Y; Pong, M L; Au Yeung, S F; Chau, K F


    The number of actual donors per million population is the most commonly used metric to measure organ donation rates worldwide. It is deemed inadequate, however, because it does not take into account the potential donor pool. The aim of this study was to determine the true potential for solid organ donation from deceased brain-dead donors and the reasons for non-donation from potential donors in the Chinese community. Medical records of all hospital deaths between 1 January and 31 December 2014 at a large regional hospital in Hong Kong were reviewed. Those who were on mechanical ventilation with documented brain injury and aged ≤75 years were classified as possible organ donors. The reasons why some potential organ donors did not become utilised organ donors were recorded and evaluated. Among 3659 patient deaths, 121 were classified as possible organ donors. The mean age of the possible organ donors was 59.4 years and 72.7% of them were male. The majority (88%) were from non-intensive care units. Of the 121 possible organ donors, 108 were classified as potential organ donors after excluding 13 unlikely to fulfil brain death criteria. Finally 11 patients became actual organ donors with an overall conversion rate of 10%. Reasons for non-donation included medical contra-indication (46%), failure to identify and inform organ donation coordinators (14%), failure of donor maintenance (11%), brain death diagnosis not established (18%), and refusal by relatives (11%). It is possible to increase the organ donation rate considerably by action at different stages of the donation process. Ongoing accurate audit of current practice is necessary.

  3. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

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    Amudha Palanisamy


    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  4. Graft-to-recipient weight ratio lower to 0.7% is safe without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe living donor liver transplantation with favorable conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung Duk Lee; Seong Hoon Kim; Young-Kyu Kim; Soon-Ae Lee and Sang-Jae Park


    BACKGROUND: The  low  graft-to-recipient  weight  ratio (GRWR) in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is one of the major risk factors affecting graft survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the lower limit of the GRWR can be safely reduced without portal pressure modulation in right-lobe LDLT. METHODS: From 2005 to 2011, 317 consecutive patients from a single institute underwent LDLT with right-lobe grafts without portal pressure modulation. Of these, 23 had a GRWR of less than 0.7% (group A), 27 had a GRWR of ≥0.7%,  RESULTS: The  baseline  demographics  showed  low  model for end-stage liver disease score (mean 16.3±8.9) and high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma (231 patients, 72.9%). Three groups by GRWR demonstrated similar characteristics except recipient body mass index and donor gender. For small-for-size syndrome, there were 3 (13.0%) in group A, 1 (3.7%) in group B, and 2 patients (0.7%) in group C (P CONCLUSION: A GRWR lower to 0.7% is safe and does not need to modulate portal pressure in adult-to-adult LDLT using the right-lobe in favorable conditions including low model for end-stage liver disease score.

  5. Methotrexate Reduces the Incidence of Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease without Increasing the Risk of Relapse after Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Unrelated Donors. (United States)

    Vigouroux, Stéphane; Tabrizi, Reza; Melot, Cyril; Coiffard, Joelle; Lafarge, Xavier; Marit, Gérald; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Pigneux, Arnaud; Leguay, Thibaut; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Schmitt, Anna; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Milpied, Noël


    Optimized prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation when preceded by a conditioning regimen utilizing antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is poorly defined. To investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) in this treatment setting, we conducted a retrospective analysis. Sixty-three patients were selected based on the administration of a total dose of 5 mg/kg of ATG in the conditioning regimen and then separated into either group M+ (n = 39), which received MTX or group M- (n = 24), which did not. All patients received cyclosporine. In the M- and M+ groups, cumulative incidences (CI) of grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 43% and 10%, respectively (P = .002). Multivariate analysis indicated that grade III-IV aGVHD was favored by both the absence of MTX and the provision of a female donor for a male recipient. At 2 years, the M+ and M- groups exhibited, respectively: overall survival of 69% and 40% (P = .06), disease-free survival of 57% and 43% (P = .2), nonrelapse mortality of 20% and 44% (P = .1), and incidence of relapse of 27% and 35% (P = .6). These data suggest that MTX reduces the incidence of severe aGVHD without increasing the risk of relapse but with an accompanying trend toward improved survival after unrelated reduced-intensity transplantation with ATG in the conditioning regimen.

  6. The Outcomes of Living Kidney Donation from Medically Complex Donors: Implications for the Donor and the Recipient. (United States)

    Niemi, Matthew; Mandelbrot, Didier A


    Living kidney donation is an important option for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and has improved life expectancy and quality for patients otherwise requiring maintenance dialysis or deceased-donor transplantation. Given the favorable outcomes of live donation and the shortage of organs to transplant, individuals with potentially unfavorable demographic and clinical characteristics are increasingly being permitted to donate kidneys. While this trend has successfully expanded the live donor pool, it has raised concerns as to which acceptance criteria are safe. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on the outcomes of transplantation from medically complex, living kidney donors, including both donor and recipient outcomes when available.

  7. Delayed Graft Function in Kidney Transplants: Time Evolution, Role of Acute Rejection, Risk Factors, and Impact on Patient and Graft Outcome

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    Martin Chaumont


    Full Text Available Background. Although numerous risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF have been identified, the role of ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection episodes (ARE occurring during the DGF period is ill-defined and DGF impact on patient and graft outcome remains controversial. Methods. From 1983 to 2014, 1784 kidney-only transplantations from deceased donors were studied. Classical risk factors for DGF along with two novel ones, recipient’s perioperative saline loading and residual diuresis, were analyzed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results. Along with other risk factors, absence of perioperative saline loading increases acute rejection incidence (OR = 1.9 [1.2–2.9]. Moreover, we observed two novel risk factors for DGF: patient’s residual diuresis ≤500 mL/d (OR = 2.3 [1.6–3.5] and absence of perioperative saline loading (OR = 3.3 [2.0–5.4]. Area under the curve of the ROC curve (0.77 [0.74–0.81] shows an excellent discriminant power of our model, irrespective of rejection. DGF does not influence patient survival (P=0.54. However, graft survival is decreased only when rejection was associated with DGF (P<0.001.  Conclusions. Perioperative saline loading efficiently prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury, which is the predominant factor inducing DGF. DGF per se has no influence on patient and graft outcome. Its incidence is currently close to 5% in our centre.

  8. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study. (United States)

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E


    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor

  9. Differing Tales of Two Patients after Receiving a Kidney Transplant from a Donor with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

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    Pradeep V. Kadambi


    Full Text Available In order to decrease the time on the deceased donor kidney wait list and to have more organs available, criteria for acceptable organs for transplant could be made less stringent. There are reports of successful recipient outcomes using kidney donors presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. We report a unique circumstance where two patients received kidneys from the same deceased donor who had DIC; one patient developed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA while the other did not. This difference in outcome may indicate that both donor and recipient factors contribute to the development of posttransplant TMA.

  10. Present status and recent advances in living donor liver transplantation for malignant hepatic tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Qin; Yasutsugu Takada; Shinji Uemoto; Koichi Tanaka


    BACKGROUND:Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasingly used to treat hepatic tumors worldwide in recent years, and is currently the most effective alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation to overcome the problem of organ shortage. LDLT has played an enormous role in treating early malignant hepatic tumors. But the indication of LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors is based on indeifnite criteria. This review summarizes the recent studies in LDLT for treating malignant hepatic tumors. DATA SOURCES:A literature research of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The current data on LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors, combined with our hospital experience, indicated that if a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who meets with the conventional Milan criteria cannot undergo tumor resection because of poorly preserved liver function, and a cadaveric graft is dififcult to obtain within six months, LDLT may be selected. In a patient with recurrence of HCC after conventional therapies, feasibility, optimal timing, and efifcacy of LDLT as a second-line treatment should be determined. CONCLUSIONS:Tumor recurrence is related to the biological behavior and staging of the tumor. New immunosuppressors which have anti-tumor effects and inhibit the immune system need to be developed. The indications of LDLT for hepatic malignant tumors should be selected meticulously.

  11. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

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    Jacob A. Akoh


    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  12. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center. (United States)

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S


    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts.

  13. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.


    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  14. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.

    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  15. 38 CFR 1.465 - Incompetent and deceased patients. (United States)


    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.465 Incompetent and deceased patients. (a) Incompetent patients other than minors..., alcoholism or alcohol abuse, infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia is subject to §§ 1.460 through 1.... (3) Information related to sickle cell anemia. Information related to sickle cell anemia......

  16. Current and future approaches to treat graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Locatelli, Franco; Lucarelli, Barbarella; Merli, Pietro


    One significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is represented by graft failure, defined as either lack of initial engraftment of donor cells (primary graft failure) or loss of donor cells after initial engraftment (secondary graft failure). Graft failure mediated by host immune cells attacking donor stem cells is named graft rejection. Factors associated with graft failure include HLA disparity in the donor/recipient pair, underlying disease, viral infections, type of conditioning regimen and stem cell source employed. In this article, the experts summarize current approaches to treat graft failure/rejection after HSCT, and they discuss new strategies of graft manipulation and immune therapy of particular interest for preventing/treating this complication. A limited array of options is available to treat graft failure. The experts believe that re-transplantation from another donor or the same donor (if there is no evidence of immunologically mediated graft failure) is the treatment of choice for patients with primary graft failure or acute graft rejection. The experts think that strategies based on innovative approaches of graft manipulation, new agents or cellular therapies could render in the future graft failure a much less relevant problem for HSCT recipients.

  17. Differences in the occurence of adverse events between discharged or deceased patients in Dutch hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.; Bruyne, M.C.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Wal, G. van der


    An epidemiological study was initiated to (1) determine the incidence, nature, type, impact, causes, and preventability among discharged or deceased patients, (2) examine the differences of patient and admission characteristics between deceased or discharged hospitalised patients with adverse event

  18. Donor pretreatment with carbamylated erythropoietin in a brain death model reduces inflammation more effectively than erythropoietin while preserving renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Willemijn N.; Ottens, Petra J.; van Dijk, Antony; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.


    Objective: We hypothesized that donor treatment of deceased brain dead donors would lead to a decrease in inflammatory responses seen in brain death and lead to a restoration of kidney function. Design: A standardized slow-induction rat brain death model followed by evaluation of kidney function in

  19. Donor pretreatment with carbamylated erythropoietin in a brain death model reduces inflammation more effectively than erythropoietin while preserving renal function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, W.N.; Ottens, P.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Goor, H. van; Ploeg, R.J.; Leuvenink, H.G.


    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that donor treatment of deceased brain dead donors would lead to a decrease in inflammatory responses seen in brain death and lead to a restoration of kidney function. DESIGN: A standardized slow-induction rat brain death model followed by evaluation of kidney function in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Bagnenko


    Full Text Available The articleis is dedicated to the main problem of transplantology which is shortage of acceptable donors’ organs. The tendency of expanding the donor’s pool should include policy of prevention and reduction the ischemia- reperfusion trauma of donor’s organs. The crucial role of machine perfusion in pretransplantaion improving organs quality is highlighted. The large review of literature is listed in order to state several new approaches in modern preservation trend. The definition of organ preservation is given as well as new strategy in organ acceptance is grounded. 

  1. Femoral herniation of transplanted ureter after deceased-donor kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Esposito


    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a femoral ureter hernia. Due to its rarity in the literature, an understanding of management is critical to patient outcome.

  2. Successful liver transplantation for infant with biliary astresia by using liver graft from infant donor after cardiac death%心脏死亡幼儿供肝移植治疗幼儿胆道闭锁一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明满; 陈柏林; 胡键阳; 陈凯; 戴小科; 郭春宝; 蒲从伦; 李英存; 康权; 任志美; 邓玉华; 熊强


    目的 总结心脏死亡幼儿供肝移植治疗幼儿先天性胆道闭锁的体会.方法 供者为女孩,年龄16个月,体重10kg,因严重缺氧性脑病继发心脏死亡行器官捐赠;受者为女孩,年龄2岁,体重12kg,因先天性胆道闭锁行肝门-空肠吻合术,术后出现黄疸并发胆汁性肝硬化晚期.肝移植手术采用经典肝移植术式,供肝热缺血时间为7 min,冷缺血时间为360 min,移植物与受者标准肝体积比(GV/SLV)为1.02.术后严格监测受者的生命体征和移植肝功能,积极进行抗感染、抗凝血,改善微循环等护理措施,采用他克莫司、吗替麦考酚酯和泼尼松的三联免疫抑制方案预防排斥反应.结果 受者手术耗时480min,无肝期65min,术中出血230 ml.受者于术后12h拔除气管插管,48 h开始进食.术后3和15d时,受者出现肝动脉血栓形成,用介入法经肝动脉插管持续灌注尿激酶溶栓等治疗后肝动脉恢复血流,移植肝功能逐渐恢复正常,术后42 d时出院,健康生活至今.结论 心脏死亡肝供幼儿可以成为婴幼儿肝移植的供肝来源,并获得良好的肝移植效果;供、受者肝脏体积的匹配可以减少手术并发症的发生;熟练的显微外科技术和围手术期精细的管理是手术成功的保证.%Objective To summarize the clinical experience of successful liver transplantation from infant donation after cardiac death (DCD) for infant with biliary astresia (BA).Methods The donor was a 16-months-old girl with a body weight of 10 kg,who died of irreversible anoxic cerebral damage after sudden asphyxiation.The recipient was a 24-months-old girl with a body weight of 12 kg,who suffered from icteric concurrent late biliary cirrhosis after the Porta-jejunum anastomosis because of congenital BA.The DCD liver was classically orthotopically transplanted into the infants recipient.The warm ischemia time was 7 min,the cold ischemia time was 360 min,and the graft volume to the standard

  3. Nutrition assessment and counseling of the medically complex live kidney donor. (United States)

    Bergen, Carol R; Reese, Peter P; Collins, Donna


    Kidney transplantation is the preferred option for patients with end-stage renal disease facing the need for dialysis because it provides maximum survival benefit. The number of people seeking kidney transplantation greatly exceeds available deceased donor organs. Organs from live donors provide a survival advantage over organs from deceased donors while also broadening the pool of available organs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical guidelines that pertain to live kidney organ donation and to describe the nutrition evaluation and care of live kidney donors. The process for living kidney donation is dictated by policies centered on protecting the donor. In a perfect world, the living donor would present with a flawless medical examination and a benign family health history. The obesity epidemic has emerged as a major health concern. Live donor programs are faced with evaluating increasing numbers of obese candidates. These "medically complex donors" may present with obesity and its associated comorbid conditions, including hypertension, impaired glycemic control, and kidney stone disease. The dietitian's role in the live donor program is not well defined. Participation in the living donor selection meeting, where details of the evaluation are summarized, provides a platform for risk stratification and identification of donors who are at increased lifetime risk for poor personal health outcomes. Guiding the donor toward maintenance of a healthy weight through diet and lifestyle choices is a legitimate goal to minimize future health risks.

  4. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant. (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V


    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  5. The Science and Social Necessity of Deceased Organ Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Delmonico


    Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.

  6. Legal framework governing deceased organ donation in the UK. (United States)

    Price, D P T


    Laws and policies governing the use of organs for transplantation are evolving rapidly in response to sensitivity to ethical concerns and increasing shortages of transplantable organs. They are necessarily becoming increasingly detailed and complex. Professional practice will be enhanced by clear statements of current provisions, and the debates accompanying their formulation and evolution. This is necessarily a highly selective contribution, with focus on what are perceived to be the most critical items affecting contemporary deceased donation, apart from the meaning of death itself.

  7. The Preliminary Study of Relationship between Donor Glomerular Filtration Rate and Post-Transplant Graft Function in Living Kidney Transplantation%活体肾移植供者肾小球滤过率与受者移植肾功能关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 宋文利; 莫春柏; 王智平


    目的:探讨活体肾移植中供者术前肾小球滤过率(GFR)与受者移植肾功能之间的关系.方法:分析无急性排斥反应、无移植肾功能延迟恢复、随访满2年的活体肾移植患者125例,采用相关分析法分析供者术前肾小球滤过率与受者术后1周、1年、2年肾小球滤过率之间的关系.采用多元线性回归方法分析影响受者术后1年GFR的因素.结果:供者GFR与受者术后1周、1年、2年的GFR相关(r分别为0.217、0.216和0.273,P<0.05).根据多元线性回归分析得出供者GFR和受者体质量是受者术后1年GFR重要的预测因素,线性回归方程为受者术后1年GFR=78.7-0.474×受者体质量+0.239×供者GFR.结论:活体肾移植供者术前GFR为移植肾功能的重要预测因素.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between donor glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and post-transplant graft function in living kidney transplantation. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five cases of living donor kidney transplantation (without acute rejection or delayed graft function, follow-up for 2 years) were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between donor glomerular filtration rate and recipient glomerular filtration rate was analyzed using the correlation method at 1 -week, 1 -year and 2-year post transplantation. The multiple linear regression method was used to analyze the recipient GFR after one year transplantation. Results: The values of GFR of recipients at lweek, 1-year and 2-year post transplantation were significantly correlated with those of donor GFR (r = 0.217, 0.216, 0.273, P < 0.05). According to the multiple stepwise regression analysis, donor GFR and recipient body weight was an important predictor of graft function at 1 year post transplantation. The linear regression equation, recipient GFR at 1 year post transplantation=78.7-0.474 × recipient body weight+0.239×donor GFR. Conclusion: The donor GFR was the important characteristics for predicting the

  8. Donor Tag Game (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  9. Validity of Diagnostic Evidence for Deceased Cases in Hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To determine the validity of the diagnostic evidence for deceased cases in hospitals. Methods All information collected from medical records of the deceased cases in tertiary care health facilities was input into our database. Four diagnosis levels were determined based on level of diagnostic evidence: level I was based on autopsy, pathology or operative exploration, level Ⅱ on physical and laboratory tests plus expert clinical judgment, level Ⅲ on expert clinical judgment, level Ⅳ on postmortem assumptions. After the diagnostic evidence of each deceased case was reviewed by a panel of three experts, the diagnostic level of each diagnosis was determined. Results Among the 2102 medical cases for verbal autopsy study, only 26 (1.24%) afforded diagnostic evidence for level Ⅲ. Among the level Ⅲ evidence-based cases of death, the major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and gastroenterological diseases. According to some special symptoms and medical histories, these cases could be diagnosed by comprehensive clinical judgment. Only one case met the criteria for level Ⅳ. Conclusion Level Ⅰ diagnostic evidence is hard to attain in China because of the traditional concept and economic restriction. The causes for 2101 deaths can be validated by level Ⅱ or Ⅲ diagnostic evidence.

  10. The national program for deceased organ donation in China. (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Sheung Tat; Zhao, Baige; Zhang, Zongjiu; Hao, Lina; Huo, Feng; Liu, Yongfeng


    China has developed a new national program for deceased-organ donation to address the need for organ transplantation in the country. The program adheres to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles, is compliant with the Declaration of Istanbul, and respects the cultural and social values of the Chinese people. The experience of pilot trials conducted between 2010 and 2012 was evaluated to generate a comprehensive design of a national program of organ donation and transplantation for implementation throughout China. The legal framework for this program was established from a series of legislative steps since 2007. Accountable national committees have been established to oversee activities of organ donation and transplantation across the nation. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has accredited 164 organ transplant hospitals in China, each of which has an organ procurement organization (OPO) to conduct organ donation and organ recovery. National protocols for deceased-organ donation in China include category I (organ donation after brain death), category II (organ donation after circulatory death), and category III (organ donation after brain death followed by circulatory death). The China Organ Transplant Response System (COTRS) has been developed to allocate organs equitably and transparently. Scientific registries have been established to evaluate the performance of transplant centers and OPOs. China is in the process of implementing a new national program for deceased-organ donation. The program includes a unique approach of organ donation, China category III, which will be promulgated throughout China and is intended to gain widespread acceptance of Chinese society.

  11. Improved Outcome of Alternative Donor Transplantations in Patients with Myelofibrosis: From Unrelated to Haploidentical Family Donors. (United States)

    Bregante, Stefania; Dominietto, Alida; Ghiso, Anna; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Varaldo, Riccardo; Di Grazia, Carmen; Lamparelli, Teresa; Luchetti, Silvia; Geroldi, Simona; Casarino, Lucia; Pozzi, Sarah; Tedone, Elisabetta; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Galaverna, Federica; Barosi, Giovanni; Bacigalupo, Andrea


    This is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients with myelofibrosis who were allografted between 2001 and 2014. The aims of the study were to assess whether the outcome of alternative donor grafts has improved with time and how this compares with the outcome of identical sibling grafts. Patients were studied in 2 time intervals: 2000 to 2010 (n = 58) and 2011 to 2014 (n = 37). The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score was comparable in the 2 time periods, but differences in the most recent group included older age (58 versus 53 years, P = .004), more family haploidentical donors (54% versus 5%, P < .0001), and the introduction of the thiotepa-fludarabine-busulfan conditioning regimen (70% of patients versus 2%, P < .0001). Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were comparable in the 2 time periods. The 3-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in the 2011 to 2014 period versus the 2000 to 2010 period is 16% versus 32% (P = .10), the relapse rate 16% versus 40% (P = .06), and actuarial survival 70% versus 39% (P = .08). Improved survival was most pronounced in alternative donor grafts (69% versus 21%, P = .02), compared with matched sibling grafts (72% versus 45%, P = .40). In conclusion, the outcome of allografts in patients with myelofibrosis has improved in recent years because of a reduction of both TRM and relapse. Improvement is most significant in alternative donor transplantations, with modifications in donor type and conditioning regimen.

  12. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications]. (United States)

    Karam, Georges


    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  13. Hybrid Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Predictable Graft for Knee Stabilization. (United States)

    Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barksdale, Leticia; Krill, Michael K; Leo, Brian M


    Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a season-ending injury and involves months of activity modification and rehabilitation. The annual incidence of ACL tears in the United States is approximately 200,000, which allows for a broad range of individualized treatment options. Various surgical techniques, including transtibial and independent tunnel drilling, allograft and autograft tissue, and various implants, have been described in the literature. This article describes the indications and technique for a hybrid soft tissue graft for ACL reconstruction. Autologous grafts eliminate the risk of disease transmission and have recently been shown to have a lower rerupture rate, particularly in younger, active patients; however, the harvesting of autologous hamstring grafts carries a risk of donor-site morbidity, iatrogenic injury of the graft, and inadequate graft size. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, the hybrid graft allows for graft size customization for a desired reconstruction, especially in cases where autograft hamstrings may be iatrogenically damaged or of inadequate size when harvested. The goal of a hybrid graft ACL reconstruction is to provide a favorable-sized graft with clinical outcomes comparable with autologous soft tissue grafts. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, this technique provides another option in the event of unforeseen deficiencies or complications associated with harvesting and preparation of the autologous gracilis and semitendinosis soft tissue graft.

  14. Graft stability after endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vesna


    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Techniques for replacing the corneal endothelium have been improved. The host-graft interface is the key to graft adhesion and visual recovery. The aim of this study was to establish graft stability after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK, compare it to the graft stability after endothelial keratoplasty with the intact posterior corneal layers (nDSEK in the rabbit cornea, and to investigate the nature of wound healing. Methods. Adult white rabbits (n = 20 were divided in two experimental groups: ten rabbits underwent monocular DSEK, and ten rabbits underwent endothelial keratoplasty without Descemet stripping (nDSEK. On the second postoperative day a horizontal dislocation of the graft was tried using the Lindstrom roller in each animal. Corneas were processed for the light microscopy study. Results. Rolling the Lindstrom instrument over the corneal surface did not cause horizontal dislocation in any of the operated eyes. In the DSEK group light microscopy revealed the lack of inflammation and fibrosis at the clearly distinctive donor-recipient interface (DRI. Retrocorneal membrane was found in two eyes. In nDSEK group, the host Descemet` s membrane (DM was intact without endothelial cells, with good graft apposition, without inflammation, fibrosis, or retrocorneal membrane. Conclusion. This study suggests that there is no difference in graft stability in DSEK compared to nDSEK in rabbit corneas. Wounds healed at DRI by hypocellular scarring only in both experimental groups.

  15. Expanding the donor pool: regional variation in pediatric organ donation rates. (United States)

    Godown, Justin; McKane, Meghann; Wujcik, Kari; Mettler, Bret A; Dodd, Debra A


    There are limited published data on pediatric organ donation rates. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in pediatric organ donation over time and to assess the regional variation in pediatric deceased organ donation. OPTN data were utilized to assess the trends in pediatric organ donation over time. The number of deceased pediatric organ donors was indexed using regional mortality data obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and compared across UNOS regions and two different eras. The number of pediatric deceased organ donors has declined in the recent era, largely driven by fewer adolescent donors. For all age groups, there is significant regional variation in organ donation rates, with identifiable high- and low-performing regions. Expansion of the donor pool may be possible by optimizing organ donation in regions demonstrating lower recruitment of pediatric donors. Using the region with the highest donation rate for each age group as the gold standard, we estimate a potential 24% increase in the number of donors if all regions performed comparably, equating to 215 new pediatric donors annually.

  16. Living donor liver hilar variations:surgical approaches and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onur Yaprak; Tolga Demirbas; Cihan Duran; Murat Dayangac; Murat Akyildiz; Yaman Tokat; Yildiray Yuzer


    BACKGROUND: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients. METHODS: Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria. RESULTS: Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.

  17. Impacto do marketing dos processos de divulgação nas doações de córneas a um banco de tecidos oculares humanos e avaliação do perfil socioeconômico de seus doadores Marketing role of corneal graft tissue donation to an eye bank and donors' socioeconomic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Jansen de Mello Farias


    abordagem. CONCLUSÃO: O papel da mídia aliado à credibilidade da instituição são obrigatórios na conscientização da população sobre a doação de órgãos. A profissionalização das equipes de abordagem requer intenso treinamento, entretanto, o resultado é percebido quando 82,9% das doações foram obtidas devido a esse trabalho.ABSTRACT Penetrating keratoplasty has been the leading and the most successful type of transplant in the world, however corneal deficiency is a commom problem usually presented to corneal surgeons. PURPOSE: Impact evaluation of the number of corneal graft donations to the Sorocaba Eye Bank after the implementation of a corneal graft procurement system; to draw the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors of the Sorocaba Eye Bank (SEB. METHODS: Retrospective study on donations to SEB from its creation and after the development of media marketing. Prospective analysis of the socioeconomic profile of corneal graft donors by a questionnaire sent as letters to the families of the donors in a certain month. RESULTS: SEB began its work in 1971 by spreading need of organ donation through lectures in churches, shopping malls, community meetings, radio programs, television programs, etc. In the 70s, the number of retrieved corneal grafts was 1 or 2/month. Between 1984 - 1989 a procurement coordination team was trained to act in mortuaries and by 2000 they also began to work in public hospitals. In 1984 only 260 corneal grafts were retrieved. This number has been increasing to 2,778 corneal graft donations in 2004. The questionnaire was answered by 76 of the 93 donor families, with a response rate of 81.7%. Donor age had a mean of 65.1 ± 14.7 y/o, forty-two (55.3% were men. Educational level of the donor families was an important factor for organ donation, once 36.8% had concluded high school and 34.2% completed university. The great majority, sixty-three (82.9% of the corneal grafts were donated through the efforts of the procurement

  18. Clinical study of repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting%自体头皮移植修复瘢痕皮肤中厚供皮区创面的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申传安; 柴家科; 张琳; 李东杰; 庹晓晔; 蔡建华; 王淑君; 朱华; 蔡金东


    Objective To study the effects of using auto-scalp for repairing donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin with auto-scalp grafting.Methods A total of 13 cases with donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin from January 2011 to December 2011 were analyzed.Wounds of donor site from cicatricial skin were grafted with auto-scalp and scalp were fixation was applied with negative pressure.The survival rate of auto-scalp graft was observed at Day 7 post-operation.At Month 12,hyperplastic scars at these donor sites of cicatricial skin were assessed through Vancouver Scar Assessment Table,scar itch assessment and scar proliferation rate.Wounds in the other thirteen cases with donor site of thickness from cicatricial skin from January 2010 to December 2010 were covered with vaseline gauze as control.Results No significant difference existed in the gender and age of the two groups patients (P > 0.05).The auto-scalp graft all survived.And the average healing time of donor-site wound in cicatricial skin in grafting group (7 days) was significantly decreased than that of control group (a mean of 20 days) (P < 0.01).After followed up for twelve months,the scar formation assessment value (1.5 ± 0.5),scar itch assessment (1.2 ± 0.4) and scar proliferation rate (14.6% ± 7.6%) in grafting group were significantly less than those of control group (6.7 ±1.1,2.0 ±0.7,55.8% ± 12.2%,all P<0.01).Conclusion Auto-scalp grafting may greatly shorten the healing procedure and ameliorate the quality of donor-site of thickness from cicatricial skin.%目的 观察自体头皮移植修复瘢痕皮肤中厚供皮区创面的临床效果.方法 对2011年1至12月解放军总医院第一附属医院烧伤整形科收治的13例以瘢痕皮肤为中厚供皮区的大面积烧伤后整形患者(植皮组)的临床资料进行回顾性分析,瘢痕供皮区创面均采用自体中厚头皮皮片移植,并使用负压治疗技术固定皮片,手术后第7天拆除敷料,观

  19. Strategies to increase the donor pool and access to kidney transplantation: an international perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, U.; Oberbauer, R.; Pascual, J.


    In this position article, DESCARTES (Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States) board members describe the current strategies aimed at expanding living and deceased donor kidney pools. The article focuses on the recent progress in desensitization and kidney...

  20. Laparoscopic versus open living donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y. Smits-Lind (May)


    textabstractRenal transplantation was fi rst performed in 1936 by Voronoy 1. The kidney was harvested in a patient who had died from a head injury 6 hours earlier. The blood group of the donor was incompatible with that of the recipient. The renal graft did not function and the recipient died two

  1. Lipid peroxidation products in machine perfusion of older donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Minor, Thomas; Gallinat, Anja; Moers, Cyril; Jochmans, Ina; Pirenne, Jacques; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Paul, Andreas; Treckmann, Juergen


    Background: Owing to the shortage of donors, organs with an increased risk potential such as grafts recovered from expanded criteria donors are increasingly being used in transplants. Machine perfusion (MP) technology offers the possibility of determining the biomarkers in the perfusion solution so

  2. Lipid peroxidation products in machine perfusion of older donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Minor, Thomas; Gallinat, Anja; Moers, Cyril; Jochmans, Ina; Pirenne, Jacques; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Paul, Andreas; Treckmann, Juergen

    Background: Owing to the shortage of donors, organs with an increased risk potential such as grafts recovered from expanded criteria donors are increasingly being used in transplants. Machine perfusion (MP) technology offers the possibility of determining the biomarkers in the perfusion solution so

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study. (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping


    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p donate one's own organ was associated with knowledge score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-1.22), attitude score (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.31), secondary school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.05-2.02), and Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Vorinostat plus tacrolimus and mycophenolate to prevent graft-versus-host disease after related-donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase 1/2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, S.W.; Braun, T.; Chang, L.; Ferrara, J.L.; Pawarode, A.; Magenau, J.M.; Hou, G.; Beumer, J.H.; Levine, J.E.; Goldstein, S.; Couriel, D.R.; Stockerl-Goldstein, K.; Krijanovski, O.I.; Kitko, C.; Yanik, G.A.; Lehmann, M.H.; Tawara, I.; Sun, Y; Paczesny, S.; Mapara, M.Y.; Dinarello, C.A.; Dipersio, J.F.; Reddy, P.


    BACKGROUND: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a barrier to more widespread application of allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases and was shown to attenuate GVHD in preclinical models. We aimed to study the safety and activit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev


    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  6. Bone graft (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  7. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation. (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan


    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation.

  8. Attitudes toward making babies … with a deceased partner's cryopreserved gametes. (United States)

    Hans, Jason D; Dooley, Brigitte


    A multiple segment factorial vignette was used with a probability sample of 857 U.S. households to assess the effects of contextual variables on attitudes toward posthumous reproduction using the cryopreserved gametes of a deceased partner. Attitudes were affected in predictable directions by marital status, gender of the deceased individual, disposition of the deceased's parents, and the deceased's wishes. In addition, respondents who identified more closely with their chosen religion tended to perceive posthumous conception as less appropriate and those who had never had children attributed a greater degree of obligation to assist on the part of medical professionals.

  9. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland. (United States)

    Shaw, David


    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  10. Does situs inversus totalis preclude liver donation in living donor liver transplantation? A series of 3 cases from single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar N.


    Conclusion: SIT donors can be safely accepted for living donor liver transplantation. It is a technically challenging procedure both for donor liver harvesting and implantation in recipient. This is the first case series of LT using modified left lobe graft (conventional right from a SIT donor with 2 different techniques. Biliary anastomosis is the tricky part of the operation.

  11. Barriers to live donor kidney transplants in the pediatric population: A single-center experience. (United States)

    Taormina, Shibany P; Galloway, Matthew P; Jain, Amrish


    A decrease in live donor pediatric kidney transplants has occurred in the United States. This study investigates barriers that may influence access to live donor kidney transplants in children. Retrospective chart review was conducted for 91 children (69% male, mean age 11.9 years) who underwent pretransplant workup from 2005 to 2015 at an urban pediatric hospital. Fifty-four percent were African American, 32% Caucasian, 8% Arabic, 3% Hispanic, and 3% Others. Government-sponsored insurance (Medicaid/Medicare) was utilized by 73%, and 54% had dual caregivers. Only nine of 68 kidney transplants were live donor transplants. Live donor transplants (11%) were significantly (P=.008) lower than deceased donor transplants (59%) in African Americans. Private insurance was reported by 56% of live donor recipients and 25% of deceased donor recipients. Among live donor recipients, 78% were from dual caregiver families. Caregiver, health-related, financial, and religious/cultural barriers to live donor transplants were reported, several of which may be amenable to positive intervention.

  12. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors]. (United States)

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K


    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  13. Harvesting olecranon bone graft in adults by using bone biopsy trephine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kabakas


    Conclusion: Bone graft harvesting with trephine is technically easy and fast, and donor site morbidity is diminished compared other methods and donor sites. It can be performed under axillary anesthesia and provides adequate amounts of bone graft for upper extremity reconstructions. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 44-49

  14. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  15. 水溶性一氧化碳释放分子抑制供肾树突状细胞活化减轻移植后排斥反应%Water-soluble CO-releasing molecules inhibit activation of donor renal dendritic cells and suppress graft rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁清; 洪善娟; 蔡明; 王毅; 张雷; 曾力; 朱有华


    after removal of both na? ve kidneys,serum creatinine as well as graft histology was observed.In the C.FVB-Tg(ItgaxDTR/GFP) 57Lan/J donors,rDCs were acquired in vitro and selected by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) after graft nephrectomy.The expression of activation markers,CD80 and CD86,on rDC was assessed by using flow cytometry.Results The graft medium survival time was 40.5 days in the iCORM group and 70 days in the CORM-3 group respectively (P<0.05).CORM-3 preserved the graft function as shown by significantly lower serum creatinine (P<0.05; or P<0.01) and alleviated graft pathology injury.Diffuse infiltration of mononuclear cells in the interstitial tissues,moderate tubulitis and partial glomerular sclerosis were found in the iCORM graft kidney,while the CORM-3 graft kidney displayed almost normal histology.Meanwhile,CORM-3 suppressed the expression of CD80 and CD86 in donor-derived rDC.Conclusion CORM-3 can alleviate allograft rejection,prolong the graft survival,and improve kidney function in mouse kidney transplantation,probably via inhibiting rDC activation.

  16. Long-term graft function with tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplantation: paired kidney analysis. (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; Chan, Hoi Wong; Liu, Yan Lun; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang


    The first prospective, randomized trial with paired kidney analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus with cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. This paper reports the long-term follow-up results of the authors' previously published study, with the main focus on graft survival and renal function. Chinese patients transplanted in our centre between June 1998 and June 2005 with their first deceased renal transplant were included. Patients were included if both kidneys were received by the authors' centre, thus allowing a paired analysis. Patients were randomized to receive triple immunosuppressive therapy with either tacrolimus or Neoral cyclosporine, concomitantly with prednisolone and azathioprine therapy. Seventy-six patients received cadaveric kidneys from 38 donors. Each pair of kidneys was randomly assigned to a separate group (38 subjects/group). The mean follow-up duration was 6.1 +/- 1.8 years. The mean calculated creatinine clearance was significantly higher in patients receiving tacrolimus-based therapy. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was lower in the tacrolimus group (18.4% vs 42.1%, P = 0.03). The patient and graft survival were comparable in both treatment arms. Significantly fewer patients on tacrolimus-based therapy developed hypercholesterolaemia (P = 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hypertension, opportunistic infection and malignancy between both groups. Using the immunosuppressive regimen, tacrolimus-based therapy provided adequate immunosuppression with better renal function and less acute rejection, as compared with cyclosporine-based therapy.

  17. The Reliability of Facial Recognition of Deceased Persons on Photographs. (United States)

    Caplova, Zuzana; Obertova, Zuzana; Gibelli, Daniele M; Mazzarelli, Debora; Fracasso, Tony; Vanezis, Peter; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina


    In humanitarian emergencies, such as the current deceased migrants in the Mediterranean, antemortem documentation needed for identification may be limited. The use of visual identification has been previously reported in cases of mass disasters such as Thai tsunami. This pilot study explores the ability of observers to match unfamiliar faces of living and dead persons and whether facial morphology can be used for identification. A questionnaire was given to 41 students and five professionals in the field of forensic identification with the task to choose whether a facial photograph corresponds to one of the five photographs in a lineup and to identify the most useful features used for recognition. Although the overall recognition score did not significantly differ between professionals and students, the median scores of 78.1% and 80.0%, respectively, were too low to consider this method as a reliable identification method and thus needs to be supported by other means. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu; Ji-Chun Zhao; Yu-Kui Ma; Jiang-Wen Liu; Hong Wu; Lu-Nan Yan; Wen-Tao Wang; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jia-Yin Yang; Zhe-Yu Chen


    AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients .RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors' remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation

  19. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.


    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  20. The role of estrogen in the modulation of autologous fat graft outcomes. (United States)

    Bills, Jessica D; Derderian, Christopher; Barker, Jenny; Lowe, Alysia; Lavery, Lawrence A; Davis, Kathryn E


    Autologous fat grafting is a widely used procedure, yet the mechanisms that regulate graft outcomes are poorly understood. Estrogen signaling is a potent regulator of lipid handling, inflammation, fibrosis, and adipocyte progenitor recruitment in adipose tissues. To date, no studies have investigated the effect of circulating estrogens on fat graft outcomes. Immunosuppressed (Nu/Nu) mice underwent ovariectomy or sham surgery. Forty-five days later, half the mice (donors) were killed, and adipose tissue was taken and transplanted into the remaining cohort (recipients). Forty-five days after transplantation, grafts were dissected, weighed, and assessed for expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, estrogen receptor-α, and vascular density. Grafts harvested from and transplanted into sham environments are smaller but more highly vascularized compared with ovariectomy environments. The estrogenic effects on grafts are more critical at the site of the donor tissue than the recipient. Finally, expression of estrogen receptor-α in the grafted tissue correlates with the observed graft characteristics, which is altered by both the donor and recipient environments. Circulating estrogens have significant effects on fat graft outcomes, primarily at the site of the donor tissue. As there are well-established depot-specific estrogenic responses, the choice of adipose depot used as a donor for fat grafting may affect outcomes. In addition, outcomes may be confounded by the patient's hormonal status. Understanding the mechanisms by which estrogen signaling regulates graft outcomes is important in refining this commonly used clinical procedure.

  1. Attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent among next-of-kin who consented vs. refused organ donation. (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Cornell, Danielle L; Howard, Richard J


    Financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent are strategies designed to increase organ donation rates. Surveys designed to assess attitudes toward these initiatives have been conducted with the general public, transplant patients, and transplant professionals. To assess attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent and to identify multivariate predictors of such attitudes, we conducted telephone interviews with 561 family members who had recently been asked for consent to donate the organs of a deceased family member (348 donors, 213 nondonors). Financial incentives would have made a difference in the donation decision for 54% of nondonors (vs. 46% of donors, P=0.02), and a higher percentage of nondonors would themselves become donors if financial incentives were available (P=0.03). Donors had significantly more favorable attitudes toward donor authorization (Pdonation was unnecessary when the deceased documented their donation intention, and 24% favored a presumed consent law with an opting out provision. Of the three initiatives, donor authorization is likely supported by more donor and nondonor families than either financial incentives or presumed consent. Public education efforts should aim to better inform the public regarding existing and proposed donor authorization legislation and its benefits for registered organ donors and their families.

  2. 19 CFR 24.32 - Claims; unpaid compensation of deceased employees and death benefits. (United States)


    ... Claims; unpaid compensation of deceased employees and death benefits. (a) A claim made by a designated... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims; unpaid compensation of deceased employees and death benefits. 24.32 Section 24.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  3. The prognostic value of time needed on dialysis in patients with delayed graft function. (United States)

    Marek, Caitlyn; Thomson, Benjamin; Shoker, Ahmed; Luke, Patrick P; Moser, Michael A J


    We hypothesize that in patients with delayed graft function (DGF), the need for a longer time needed on dialysis (TND) post-kidney transplant is associated with poorer long-term function and an increase in complications. This was a retrospective chart review involving collaboration between Western University (WU) Renal Transplant Program of London, Ontario and the Saskatchewan renal transplant program (SRTP). A total of 774 patients (567 WU and 207 SRTP) received kidney transplants between 2004 and 2011, of which 83 patients with deceased donor transplants (59 WU and 24 SRTP) developed DGF, defined as the need for dialysis in the first week posttransplant. Patients with DGF were divided into three groups depending on TND [group 1: 14 days]. The creatinine clearance (CrCl) at 30 days (42.5, 33.8, 20.0 cc/min; P < 0.001) and 1 year (56.7, 49.2, 37.3 cc/min, P = 0.031) were significantly different between the three groups. Multivariate regression analysis identified length of TND posttransplant (β = -0.5, P < 0.001) and donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor (β = 19.5, P < 0.001) as the most significant predictors of CrCl at 1 year in these patients with DGF. DCD kidneys with DGF had a higher CrCl at 1 year and fewer readmissions in the first year compared with non-DCD kidneys with DGF. Our study suggests that increased TND is associated with worse CrCl at 1 year. The data also support the hypothesis of a different mechanism for DGF in DCD and non-DCD kidneys.

  4. Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but it does not affect chronic GvHD incidence, disease-free survival or overall survival after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor transplantation. (United States)

    Gallardo, D; Aróstegui, J I; Balas, A; Torres, A; Caballero, D; Carreras, E; Brunet, S; Jiménez, A; Mataix, R; Serrano, D; Vallejo, C; Sanz, G; Solano, C; Rodríguez-Luaces, M; Marín, J; Baro, J; Sanz, C; Román, J; González, M; Martorell, J; Sierra, J; Martín, C; de la Cámara, R; Grañena, A


    Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 between patient and donor has been associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, no data concerning the impact of such disparity on chronic GvHD, relapse or overall survival are available. A retrospective multicentre study was performed on 215 HLA-A2-positive patients who received an HLA-identical sibling SCT, in order to determine the differences in acute and chronic GvHD incidence on the basis of the presence or absence of the HA-1 antigen mismatch. Disease-free survival and overall survival were also analysed. We detected 34 patient-donor pairs mismatched for HA-1 antigen (15.8%). Grades II-IV acute GvHD occurred in 51.6% of the HA-1-mismatched pairs compared with 37.1% of the non-mismatched. The multivariate logistic regression model showed statistical significance (P: 0.035, OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.07-8.14). No differences were observed between the two groups for grades III-IV acute GvHD, chronic GvHD, disease-free survival or overall survival. These results confirmed the association between HA-1 mismatch and risk of mild acute GvHD, but HA-1 mismatch was not associated with an increased incidence of chronic GvHD and did not affect relapse or overall survival.

  5. Prospective trial of thick vs standard split-thickness skin grafts in burns of the hand. (United States)

    Mann, R; Gibran, N S; Engrav, L H; Foster, K N; Meyer, N A; Honari, S; Costa, B A; Heimbach, D M


    For best function and appearance, thick skin grafts for hands are generally preferred to thinner grafts. But how thick is thick enough? This prospective randomized trial was designed to compare 0.015-inch skin grafts for burned hands to hand grafts that are 0.025 inches thick. Consecutive patients receiving skin grafts to hands were randomized to have sheet grafts using donor sites of 0.015-inch or 0.025-inch thickness. To prevent delayed healing and potential hypertrophic scarring, the thick graft donor sites were grafted with 0.008-inch grafts. There were no significant differences in range of motion, final appearance, or patient satisfaction between the two groups at 1 year. There were problems with donor site healing in both groups. We recommend that hand grafts for adults be at least 0.015 inches thick but do not see an advantage to the use of very thick (0.025-inch) grafts, even with thin split-thickness skin grafts to the donor site.

  6. Experimental vascular graft for liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobori, L; Nemeth, T; Nemes, B; Dallos, G; Sotonyi, P; Fehervari, [No Value; Patonai, A; Slooff, MJH; Jaray, J; De Jong, KP


    Hepatic artery thrombosis is a major cause of graft failure in liver transplantation. Use of donor interponates are common, but results are controversial because of necrosis or thrombosis after rejection. Reperfusion injury, hypoxia and free radical production determinate the survival. The aim of th

  7. Determination of endothelin and stem cell factors in epidermal tissue fluid at the donor site and recipient site in patients with vitiligo receiving autologous epidermal grafting%白癜风自体表皮移植处内皮素与干细胞因子的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠英; 关翠萍; 郑冬娣; 樊奇敏; 许爱娥


    Objective To investigate the relationship between the efficacy of autologous epidermal grafting and the levels of epidermal cytokines in vitiligo. Methods A total of 57 patients with stable vitiligo receiving autologous epidermal grafting were included in this study. Before grafting, 17 patients were irradiated with narrow-band UVB on vitiliginous sites. Suction blister fluid was collected from the recipient site (vitiligous lesions) and donor site (normal skin) in these patients (including the 17 patients irradiated with NB-UVB). ELISA was used to detect the levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1 ) and stem cell factors (SCF) in suction blister fluid. Clinical efficacy was evaluated through a 3-month follow-up. Resttlts Among these 57 patients, 45 successfully responded to autologous epidermal grafting. In these 45 patients, the levels of ET-1 and SCF in vitiligous lesions were 728.97±286.12 ng/L and 329.97±114.13 ng/L respectively, significantly higher than those in nomal skin (503.16±251.44 ng/L, 224.73±107.91 ng/L, t = 5.443, 5.897, respectively, both P 0.05). In those patients who responded successfully, the level of ET-1 was lower in the 15 patients exposed to NB-UVB compared to the other 30 patients without exposure (548.48±230.22 ng/L vs 794.60±278.72 ng/L, P0.05.在移植成功者中,行紫外线照射的15例内皮素-1为(548.48±230.22)ng/L,未照光组为(794.60±278.72)ng/L(P<0.05);干细胞因子浓度差异则无统计学意义. 结论 内皮素-1、干细胞因子在白癜风的色素恢复中起作用,其中内皮素-1的作用可能更为重要.

  8. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants. (United States)

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L


    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  9. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C


    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  10. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen


    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  11. The impact of dreams of the deceased on bereavement: a survey of hospice caregivers. (United States)

    Wright, Scott T; Kerr, Christopher W; Doroszczuk, Nicole M; Kuszczak, Sarah M; Hang, Pei C; Luczkiewicz, Debra L


    Many recently bereaved persons experience vivid and deeply meaningful dreams featuring the presence of the deceased that may reflect and impact the process of mourning. The present study surveyed 278 bereaved persons regarding their own perspective of the relationship between dreams and the mourning process. Fifty eight percent of respondents reported dreams of their deceased loved ones, with varying levels of frequency. Most participants reported that their dreams were either pleasant or both pleasant and disturbing, and few reported purely disturbing dreams. Prevalent dream themes included pleasant past memories or experiences, the deceased free of illness, memories of the deceased's illness or time of death, the deceased in the afterlife appearing comfortable and at peace, and the deceased communicating a message. These themes overlap significantly with previous models of bereavement dream content. Sixty percent of participants felt that their dreams impacted their bereavement process. Specific effects of the dreams on bereavement processes included increased acceptance of the loved one's death, comfort, spirituality, sadness, and quality of life, among others. These results support the theory that dreams of the deceased are highly prevalent among and often deeply meaningful for the bereaved. While many counselors are uncomfortable working with dreams in psychotherapy, the present study demonstrates their therapeutic relevance to the bereaved population and emphasizes the importance for grief counselors to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills with regards to working with dreams.

  12. Suction blister skin grafting--a modern application. (United States)

    Parbhoo, A V; Simpson, M T


    The suction blistering technique produces an ultra-thin skin graft with no morbidity at the donor site. Negative pressure using wall suction in outpatients is used to generate a graft that can be used for reconstruction, and it avoids the need for invasive procedures in patients with coexisting conditions. The harvested tissue has a low metabolic demand and survival is excellent. We used it in a patient when previous reconstructions after excision of skin cancer had failed. Graft survival was more than 95% by surface area and there was no donor site morbidity. We have found it particularly useful for grafting over Integra® dermal regeneration template (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, NJ, USA) to produce healing at difficult sites. Patients tolerate the procedure well and the donor site heals quickly. It is useful where recipient vascularity is poor or where coexisting conditions prevent complex procedures. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

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    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  14. The use of bone grafts and bone graft substitutes in pediatric orthopaedics: an overview. (United States)

    Gross, Richard H


    Bone graft substitutes have become progressively more widely used, and are currently heavily marketed. To make intelligent decisions, a complete knowledge of autograaft and allograft bone healing is essential, including the definition of "sterile". Differences in donor selection and tissue processing may confound the user not familiar with the implications of these different approaches. Specific products include demineralized bone matrix (DBM), specific growth factors (recombinant BMP's), ceramic grafts, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There are a number of useful applications of bone graft substitues for pediatric orthopaedists, but the data base is evolving. This paper describes the current status of these products.

  15. Donor selection for renal transplantation : a study on mixed lymphocyte reactions and kidney allograft survival in unimmunosuppressed dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bijnen (Bart)


    textabstractThe prime cause of failure of a transplanted kidney is immunological rejection of the graft. Graft rejection will not occur, when the transplanted organ is obtained from a donor which is genetically identical to the recipient (isogenic transplant). Graft rejection can always occur, when

  16. Nerve repair and cable grafting for facial paralysis. (United States)

    Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, J David


    Facial nerve injury and facial paralysis are devastating for patients. Although imperfect, primary repair is currently the best option to restore facial nerve function. Cable, or interposition, nerve grafting is an acceptable alternative when primary repair is not possible. Several donor nerves are at the surgeon's disposal. Great auricular, sural, or medial and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves are all easily obtained. Both primary repair and interposition grafting typically result in better facial function than do other dynamic and static rehabilitation strategies. Proficient anastomotic technique and, when necessary, selection of an appropriate interposition graft will optimize patient outcomes. Promising research is under way that will enhance future nerve repair and grafting efforts.

  17. Eyebrow Reconstruction Using a Composite Skin Graft from Sideburns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Matsuda, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Summary: Wide resection of malignant skin tumors in the upper orbital region often results in soft-tissue defects involving the eyebrow. We used composite skin grafts from the area around the sideburns for 1-stage reconstruction of skin and eyebrow defects. The results were aesthetically satisfying because the hair and shape of these regions were similar to those of the original eyebrow, and donor-site closure was easy with inconspicuous scar. The survival of full-thickness skin graft area of composite grafts from sideburn facilitates revascularization of thicker hair follicles in the graft and allows safe, natural eyebrow reconstruction.

  18. Target-like pigmentation after minipunch grafting in stable vitiligo

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    Nelee Bisen


    Full Text Available Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a "perigraft halo" surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm larger graft from the donor site.

  19. 重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶修复中厚皮供皮区创面%External use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor hydrogel to repair thick skin graft donor sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 李守聚; 李永涛; 付子扬; 任长印


    BACKGROUND:There are less reports about the external use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) hydrogel to repair thick skin graft donor sites. By now, relevant self-control studies have not been retrieved. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of rhGM-CSF on the repair of thick skin graft donor sites. METHODS:Sixty patients with burns and scar hyperplasia undergoing autologous thick skin grafting were enroled, 47 males and 13 females, aged 18-65 years. The thigh was selected as donor sites. According to the depth of donor sites, the patients were divided into 0.4 mm and 0.55 mm groups, with 30 cases in each group. Wounds on the symmetric areas with equal area and same depth were selected or wounds with same depth were selected and divided equaly. The wounds were randomly assigned into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with rhGM-CSF hydrogel externaly; the control group was only given vaseline dressing. At postoperative 3, 7, 10, 14 days, the fresh dressing was changed. Then, the wound appearance, healing time, healing rate and adverse effects were observed in the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At 14 days after operation, the wound surface was smoother and the pigmentation was relatively less in the treatment group compared with the control group; the degree of wound pain was less in the treatment group than the control group during dressing change (P < 0.05). At 10 and 14 days after operation, the healing rate and healing time were better in the treatment group than the control group (P < 0.05). No general malaise or hypersensitivity cases were reported, and local issue hyperplasia was also not found. Al the above indicate that the external use of the rhGM-CSF hydrogel can evidently shorten the healing time and improve the healing condition when it is applied in the thick skin graft donor sites.%背景:将外用重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞刺激因子凝胶应用于中厚皮供皮区创

  20. Pediatric Deceased Donation-A Report of the Transplantation Society Meeting in Geneva. (United States)

    Martin, Dominique E; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Siebelink, Marion J; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Brierley, Joe; Dobbels, Fabienne; Rodrigue, James R; Sarwal, Minnie; Shapiro, Ron; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Sweet, Stuart C; Trompeter, Richard S; Moazam, Farhat; Bos, Michael A; Delmonico, Francis L


    The Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society convened a meeting on pediatric deceased donation of organs in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 21 to 22, 2014. Thirty-four participants from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Europe, and North and South America explored the practical and ethical issues pertaining to pediatric deceased donation and developed recommendations for policy and practice. Their expertise was inclusive of pediatric intensive care, internal medicine, and surgery, nursing, ethics, organ donation and procurement, psychology, law, and sociology. The report of the meeting advocates the routine provision of opportunities for deceased donation by pediatric patients and conveys an international call for the development of evidence-based resources needed to inform provision of best practice care in deceased donation for neonates and children.

  1. Analysis of survival and morbidity after pediatric liver transplantation with full-size and technical-variant grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieders, E; Peeters, PMJG; TenVergert, EM; Bijleveld, CMA; De Jong, KP; Zwaveling, JH; Boersma, GA; Slooff, MJH


    Background To alleviate the shortage of size-matched whole-donor organs, too-large-for-size cadaveric donor grafts are modified by liver resection techniques. These modifications result in technical-variant liver transplantation (TVLTx). Patient and graft survival rates after TVLTx are considered co

  2. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale


    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  3. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: where are the limits? (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique


    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts.

  4. Tenon's capsule granuloma at the donor site after conjunctival grafting: short report Granuloma da cápsula de Tenon em área doadora de retalho conjuntival: relato curto

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    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe a rare complication at the donor site of conjunctival transplantation. METHODS: The authors report the clinical, surgical, postoperative and histologic aspects of a Tenon's granuloma that followed an uneventful pterygium excision with conjunctival transplantation. RESULTS: Histology identified an hemangiomatous-like structure with some areas of foreign body granuloma overlying necrotic epithelial cels, easily excised surgically. CONCLUSIONS: Pyogenic granuloma is an inadequate term to describe an inflammatory nonsuppurative reaction that may follow uneventful conjunctival surgery in susceptible individuals.OBJETIVO: Descrever complicação rara em área doadora de retalho conjuntival. MÉTODOS: Os autores descrevem os aspectos clínico, cirúrgico, pós-operatório e histológico de granuloma da cápsula de Tenon em área doadora de conjuntiva que seguiu cirurgia não complicada de excisão de pterígio com transplante conjuntival. RESULTADOS: O exame histológico evidenciou estrutura tipo hemangiomatosa com áreas de granuloma de corpo estranho envolvendo células epiteliais necróticas. CONCLUSÃO: Granuloma piogênico é nomenclatura inadequada para descrever reação inflamatória não supurativa de fácil excisão cirúrgica que pode seguir a retirada de conjuntiva em pacientes suscetíveis.

  5. Rapid donor liver procurement with only aortic perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Yuan Lin; KK Chui; AR-Nitin Rao


    ATM: to describe a rapid technique for procurement of donor liver with aortic perfusion only (APO). METHODS: Only the aorta is cannulated and perfused with chilled preservation solution. RESULTS: The quality of donor liver can ensure the grafted liver functions. CONCLUSION: The method of APO can simplify the operative procedure, compared with the dual cannulation. It also can minimize the danger of injuring vascular structures and involve less dissection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Bagnenko


    Full Text Available Article provides elaborated method of kidney grafts quality evaluation by virtue of hypothermic perfusion data and express biopsy results. 27 kidney transplantation in older age recipients group were carried out from elder kidney donors. 7 of them were double kidney transplantation. First results of transplantation in elder recipients were compared with 31 transplant procedures in young recipients from optimal donor. To day 90 there were no significant differences in creatinine level between the study and comparison group. 

  7. Kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C infection. (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Corona, Daniela; Sinagra, Nunziata; Giaquinta, Alessia; Zerbo, Domenico; Ekser, Burcin; Giuffrida, Giuseppe; Caglià, Pietro; Gula, Riccardo; Ardita, Vincenzo; Veroux, Pierfrancesco


    The increasing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led to most transplant centers developing protocols that allow safe utilization from donors with special clinical situations which previously were regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis C infection may represent a safe resource to expand the donor pool. When allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C may result in an excellent short-term outcome and a significant reduction of time on the waiting list. Special care must be dedicated to the pre-transplant evaluation of potential candidates, particularly with regard to liver functionality and evidence of liver histological damage, such as cirrhosis, that could be a contraindication to transplantation. Pre-transplant antiviral therapy could be useful to reduce the viral load and to improve the long-term results, which may be affected by the progression of liver disease in the recipients. An accurate selection of both donor and recipient is mandatory to achieve a satisfactory long-term outcome.

  8. Three Cases of Neurologic Syndrome Caused by Donor-Derived Microsporidiosis (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Schaenmann, Joanna; Baxi, Sanjiv; Koo, Sophia; Blau, Dianna; Chin-Hong, Peter; Thorner, Anna R.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Wheeler, Kristina; Liakos, Alexis; Jackson, Jonathan W.; Benedict, Theresa; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Ritter, Jana M.; Rollin, Dominique; Metcalfe, Maureen; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Zaki, Sherif


    In April 2014, a kidney transplant recipient in the United States experienced headache, diplopia, and confusion, followed by neurologic decline and death. An investigation to evaluate the possibility of donor-derived infection determined that 3 patients had received 4 organs (kidney, liver, heart/kidney) from the same donor. The liver recipient experienced tremor and gait instability; the heart/kidney and contralateral kidney recipients were hospitalized with encephalitis. None experienced gastrointestinal symptoms. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected by tissue PCR in the central nervous system of the deceased kidney recipient and in renal allograft tissue from both kidney recipients. Urine PCR was positive for E. cuniculi in the 2 surviving recipients. Donor serum was positive for E. cuniculi antibodies. E. cuniculi was transmitted to 3 recipients from 1 donor. This rare presentation of disseminated disease resulted in diagnostic delays. Clinicians should consider donor-derived microsporidial infection in organ recipients with unexplained encephalitis, even when gastrointestinal manifestations are absent. PMID:28220747

  9. Bone graft substitutes: past, present, future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh S


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are necessary to provide support, fill voids, and enhance biologic repair of skeletal defects. They are used by orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, and periodontists. Bone harvested from donor sites is the gold standard for this procedure. It is well documented that there are limitations and complications from the use of autograft, including the limited quantity and associated chronic donor site pain. Despite the increase in the number of procedures that require bone grafts, there has not been a single ideal bone graft substitute Scientists, surgeons, and medical companies, thus, have a tremendous responsibility to develop biologic alternatives that will enhance the functional capabilities of the bone graft substitute, and potentially reduce or eliminate the need for autograft. This article is an attempt to review the past and existing bone graft substitutes, and future directions of research. The historical data was extracted after thorough review of the literature. The data for the current concepts and future directions was compiled from the Internet, and from direct correspondence with medical companies. Since many products are undergoing clinical trials, and are yet not commercially available, their data cannot be found in literature. The main purpose of this article is to give the reader an idea about the existing market products and products likely to be available in near future.

  10. Factors relating to consent for organ donation: prospective data on potential organ donors. (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M R; Dwyer, B M; Hickey, B B; D'Costa, R; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A


    Obtaining family consent to organ donation is a significant obstacle to improving further Australian deceased organ donation rates. Currently, neither the consent rates for donors eligible to donate after circulatory death, nor factors that influence decision to decline or consent to donation in general are known in Australia. This study at four university teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Victoria, examined consecutive patients where organ donation was discussed with the family A total of 123 cases were identified; the family consent rate was 52.8%, and 34.1% proceeded to donation. Consent to donation was related to potential donor factors such as country of birth, cultural background in Australia, a non-religious or Christian background and registration on the Australian Organ Donor Register. Family-related factors included being English speaking and having knowledge of the deceased's wishes about organ donation. Family of donation after circulatory death-eligible donors were less likely to consent to donation than the family of donation after brain death-eligible donors, although not reaching statistical significance. Among consented potential donors, those eligible for donation after brain death and with a shorter length of stay were more likely to proceed to donating organs for transplantation. Despite a small sample size, these findings describe current consent and donation rates and associated factors and may assist in improving conversations about organ donation. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Applying rigor and reproducibility standards to assay donor-derived cell-free DNA as a non-invasive method for detection of acute rejection and graft injury after heart transplantation. (United States)

    Agbor-Enoh, Sean; Tunc, Ilker; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Fideli, Ulgen; Davis, Andrew; Cuttin, Karen; Bhatti, Kenneth; Marishta, Argit; Solomon, Michael A; Jackson, Annette; Graninger, Grace; Harper, Bonnie; Luikart, Helen; Wylie, Jennifer; Wang, Xujing; Berry, Gerald; Marboe, Charles; Khush, Kiran; Zhu, Jun; Valantine, Hannah


    Use of new genomic techniques in clinical settings requires that such methods are rigorous and reproducible. Previous studies have shown that quantitation of donor-derived cell-free DNA (%ddcfDNA) by unbiased shotgun sequencing is a sensitive, non-invasive marker of acute rejection after heart transplantation. The primary goal of this study was to assess the reproducibility of %ddcfDNA measurements across technical replicates, manual vs automated platforms, and rejection phenotypes in distinct patient cohorts. After developing and validating the %ddcfDNA assay, we subjected the method to a rigorous test of its reproducibility. We measured %ddcfDNA in technical replicates performed by 2 independent laboratories and verified the reproducibility of %ddcfDNA patterns of 2 rejection phenotypes: acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection in distinct patient cohorts. We observed strong concordance of technical-replicate %ddcfDNA measurements across 2 independent laboratories (slope = 1.02, R(2) > 0.99, p < 10(-6)), as well as across manual and automated platforms (slope = 0.80, R(2) = 0.92, p < 0.001). The %ddcfDNA measurements in distinct heart transplant cohorts had similar baselines and error rates. The %ddcfDNA temporal patterns associated with rejection phenotypes were similar in both patient cohorts; however, the quantity of ddcfDNA was significantly higher in samples with severe vs mild histologic rejection grade (2.73% vs 0.14%, respectively; p < 0.001). The %ddcfDNA assay is precise and reproducible across laboratories and in samples from 2 distinct types of heart transplant rejection. These findings pave the way for larger studies to assess the clinical utility of %ddcfDNA as a marker of acute rejection after heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Full-thickness skin grafting in nasal reconstruction. (United States)

    Weathers, William M; Bhadkamkar, Mohin; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Thornton, James F


    Skin grafting in nasal reconstruction, long used by dermatologists, can provide superior results and can well be the "go to" procedure for nasal reconstruction. The upper two-thirds of the nose is composed of both flattened, featureless and often thin skin that is well recreated with defect-only full-thickness grafting. Skin grafting for the lower third of the nose has been practiced for years by dermatologists; over the last 4 to 5 years, it has been embraced by plastic surgeons. The patient and donor site selection is critical. Meticulous attention to graft selection, utilization of a no-touch technique during graft harvest and placement of surgical bolsters with through-and-through tacking sutures are essential to ensure 100% graft take and a successful aesthetic result.

  13. Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Michael E.; op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.


    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate vi

  14. Concern for Lost Income Following Donation Deters Some Patients From Talking to Potential Living Donors. (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Taber, David J; Phan, Van; Baliga, Prabhakar K


    Some living kidney donors report lost income during recovery from surgery. Little is known about whether concern for living donor's lost income affects the decision to undergo donation evaluation and the willingness of transplant candidates to discuss living kidney donation (LKD) with others. To examine whether transplant patients were told by potential donors about lost income concerns and whether patients chose not to discuss LKD with others due to lost income concerns. Kidney transplant patients (185 wait-listed candidates, 171 deceased donor recipients, and 100 live donor recipients) at 2 centers completed a questionnaire to assess whether concern about donor's lost income was a consideration in discussion about LKD with others. One-third (32%) were told by a family member/friend that they were willing to donate but were concerned about potential lost income. The majority of those who expressed financial concern (64%) did not initiate donation evaluation. Many patients (42%) chose not to discuss living donation with a family member/friend due to concern about the impact of lost income on the donor. In the multivariable model, lower annual household income was the only statistically significant predictor of both having a potential donor expressing lost income concern and choosing not to talk to someone because of lost income concern. Findings from the current study underscore how concern about income loss for living donors may affect decision-making by both transplant candidates and potential donors.

  15. Differences in willingness to donate cadaveric organ between young donor families and adult donor families: evidence from the Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-zhao; YE Qi-fa; LIU Wei; SHAO Ming-jie; WAN Qi-quan; LI Cui-ying; LUO Ai-jing


    Background The Red Cross of China and Ministry of Health jointly started a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2010.The purpose of this qualitative study were to compare the consent rate of organ donation between young donor families and adult donor families; to explore and determine factors associated with differences in willingness to donate organs between them.Research objective was to provide a rationale for further preparation of professionals involved in this sensitive work.Methods Between March 2010 and June 2012,24 young deceased patients including donors and non-donors and 96 potential adult donors were collected,and consent rates of young donors' families and adult donors' families were calculated.A X2 test analysis to compare the consent rates of the two groups was conducted.We studied through semistructured interviews 15 parents of young donors and 15 relatives of old donors who were interviewed for petition of consent.Data collection and analysis of the overall study were performed according to the grounded theory methodology.Factors that influenced the families' decisions were identified and classified.We found the differences in willingness to donate organs between the two groups.Results The consent rate of young donor families was 66.67%,while the consent rate of adult donor families was 26.04%.Young donor families easily consented to organ donation than adult donor families (P<0.005).The donors' families had been affected by various factors throughout the process of deciding to give consent for donation.The findings led to the formulation of an empirically based model of interlinking categories that influence families' decision-making process in organ donation.These factors are grouped into five main categories:(1) personal factors,(2) conditions of organ request,(3) interpersonal factors,(4) ethical factors,and (5) traditional views.The funeral tradition influenced the young

  16. Donor and recipient sex in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: what really matters (United States)

    Kim, Haesook T.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Woolfrey, Ann E.; St. Martin, Andrew; Chen, Junfang; Saber, Wael; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Armand, Philippe; Eapen, Mary


    We investigated whether and how recipient-donor sex affects transplantation outcomes of 11,797 patients transplanted between 2008 and 2010. Thirty-seven percent were male recipients with male donors, 21% male recipients with female donors, 25% female recipients with male donors, and 17% female recipients with female donors. In multivariable analyses, male recipients had inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared to females regardless of donor sex, with an 11% relative increase in the hazard of death (P<0.0001) and a 10% relative increase in the hazard of death or relapse (P<0.0001). The detrimental effect of male recipients varied by donor sex. For male recipients with male donors, there was a 12% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of relapse compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0036) and male recipients with female donors (P=0.0037). For male recipients with female donors, there was a 19% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of non-relapse mortality compared with male recipients with male donors (P<0.0001) and a 22% relative increase compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0003). In addition, male recipients with female donors showed a 21% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P<0.0001) compared with female recipients with male donors. Donor sex had no effect on outcomes for female recipients. Transplantation of grafts from male and female donors was associated with inferior overall survival and progression-free survival in male recipients with differing patterns of failure. Recipient sex is an important prognostic factor independent of donor sex. PMID:27354023

  17. Relationships between Islamic religiosity and attitude toward deceased organ donation among American Muslims: a pilot study. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Zaganjor, Hatidza


    Religion-rooted beliefs and values are often cited as barriers to organ donation among Muslims. Yet how Islamic religiosity relates to organ donation attitude among Muslims is less studied. Using a community based participatory research approach, we recruited adults from mosque communities to self-administer a questionnaire assessing levels of Islamic religiosity, attitude toward deceased organ donation, and sociodemographic descriptors. Of the 97 respondents, there were nearly equal numbers of men and women. Over a third were Arab American (n=36), and nearly a quarter were either South Asian (n=23) or African American (n=25). Respondents viewing difficulties in life as punishment from God had a decreased odds of believing deceased organ donation to be justified (OR 0.85, Preligiosity, such as intrinsic religiosity, positive religious coping and one related to following Islamic ethical guidelines, were not associated with organ donation attitude. Arab Muslims were more likely to believe deceased organ donation to be justified than South Asian or African Americans (OR 7.06, Preligiosity or adherence to Islamic ethics do not appear to associate with negative attitudes toward deceased organ donation. Negative religious coping appears, however, to be related to lower rates of believing deceased organ donation to be justified. Future studies with larger samples that incorporate additional measures of religiosity can further clarify relationships between religiosity and organ donation attitude among Muslim communities.

  18. 儿童心脏死亡器官捐献供者供肝移植11例疗效分析%Outcomes in pediatric liver transplantation using grafts from children donors after cardiac death from a single center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明满; 戴小科; 任志美; 蒲从伦; 李英存; 康权; 张桂芳; 熊强; 邓玉华


    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome in pediatric liver transplantation (LT) using the grafts from children donors after cardiac death (DCD).Method The clinical data of 11 children aged from 4 months to 5 years who underwent LT operation using the graft from children DCD between Nov.2011 and May 2013 in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively.The 11 livers were taken out of the DCD by China organ transplant response system.The 11 donors were children aged from 7 months to 9 years who died of irreversible anoxic cerebral damage,severe brain injuries and intracalvarium benign tumor.The 11 recipients were 3 boys and 8 girls.There were 9 children with severe cirrhosis with biliary atresia,one with fulminant liver failure and one with hepatoglycogenosis.The recipients weight at the time of LT was 6.5~20 kg.The recipients' pediatric endstage liver disease scoring was 8.5 ~31.5.Nine DCD livers including 3 reduced-size livers were classic-orthotopically transplanted into the 9 recipients respectively and 2 DCD livers were subjected to piggyback liver transplantation.Biliary tract was reconstructed via Roux-en-Y operation in 9 recipients and the common hepatic duct was end-to-end anastomosed in 2 cases.The blood type of donor to recipient was identical in 4 cases and compatible in 7 cases.tacrolimus,mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone were used for postoperative immunosuppression.Result The everage weight of 11 DCD livers was 180~690 g,the mean warm ischemia time was 4.3 min,and the mean cold ischemia time was 10 h.The mean operation time of 11 recipients was 10.94 h,and the mean anhepatic phase was 78 min.The graft to recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 2.25%~7.54% (mean 4.35%) and the graft volume to the standard liver volume (GV/SLV) was 0.67 ~ 2.13 (mean 1.15).The postoperative complications included hepatic artery thrombus (HAT) in 4 cases,primary non-function (PNF) in one case,portal vein thrombus in 1 case,peritoneal cavity hematoma in 1 case

  19. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies. (United States)

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A


    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  20. Kidneys from Older Living Donors Provide Excellent Short and Intermediate Outcomes--A Single China Center's Experience. (United States)

    Song, Turun; Fu, Lei; Rao, Zhengsheng; Zeng, Dongyang; Huang, Zhongli; Wang, Xianding; Chen, Mianzhi; Wei, Qiang; Lin, Tao


    Transplantation with kidneys from older living donors is on the rise, yet controversy still exists over whether the outcomes are as satisfactory as with kidneys from younger donors. We retrospectively analyzed 1009 living donor kidney transplants performed at our center between 2006 and 2013. Graft and patient outcomes were compared between transplants with kidneys from old living donors (OLD, 55-65 years) (n = 264) and from young living donors (YLD, transplantation was also similar for patients receiving YLD kidneys (98.5%, 97.1%, and 96.7%) and for patients receiving OLD kidneys (99.6%, 99.6%, and 96.8%; P = 0.110). The OLD kidneys were not associated with increased risk of death-censored graft failure (hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 11.11) and patient death (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 3.73). In addition, there is no increased graft loss or patient death for each 10-year increase in donor age. Transplantation with OLD kidneys was not associated with reduced patient or graft outcomes in the short term (≤ 12 months) or medium term (>1 year). Graft and patient outcomes after living-donor kidney transplantation are similar in the short-term and medium-term for donors aged 55 to 65 years and for younger donors. Therefore, the use of OLD kidneys should be encouraged in China.

  1. Achieving Direct Closure of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Donor Site—An Algorithmic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Pachón Suárez, MD


    Conclusions: Direct primary closure of the ALT donor site can be facilitated by the use of our simple algorithm. Certain strategies need to be adopted at the design stage; however, the techniques used are simple and reliable, produce superior cosmetic results at the donor site, save time, and spare the patient the morbidity associated with the harvest of a skin graft.

  2. Donor liver natural killer cells alleviate liver allograft acute rejection in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Dong Yu; Tian-Zhu Long; Guo-Lin Li; Li-Hong Lv; Hao-Ming Lin; Yong-Heng Huang; Ya-Jin Chen; Yun-Le Wan


    BACKGROUND: Liver enriched natural killer (NK) cells are of high immune activity. However, the function of donor liver NK cells in allogeneic liver transplantation (LTx) remains unclear. METHODS: Ten Gy of whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) from a 60Co source at 0.6 Gy/min was used for depleting donor-derived leukocytes, and transfusion of purified liver NK cells isolated from the same type rat as donor (donor type liver NK cells, dtlNKs) through portal vein was performed immediately after grafting the irradiated liver. Post-transplant survival observation on recipients and histopathological detection of liver grafts were adoptive to evaluate the biological impact of donor liver NK cells on recipients' survival in rat LTx. RESULTS: Transfusion of dtlNKs did not shorten the survival time among the recipients of spontaneous tolerance model (BN to LEW rat) after rat LTx, but prolonged the liver graft survival among the recipients depleted of donor-derived leukocytes in the acute rejection model (LEW to BN rat). Compared to the recipients in the groups which received the graft depleted of donor-derived leukocytes, better survival and less damage in the allografts were also found among the recipients in the two different strain combinations of liver allograft due to transfusion of dtlNKs. CONCLUSIONS: Donor liver NK cells alone do not exacerbate liver allograft acute rejection. Conversely, they can alleviate it, and improve the recipients' survival.

  3. Management of the middle hepatic vein and its tributaries in right lobe living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Fei Yu; Jian Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng


    BACKGROUND: Left liver graft from a small donor will not meet the metabolic demands of a larger adult recipient. To overcome the problem of graft size insufifciency, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe has become a standard method for adult patients. As the drainage of the median sector (segmentsⅤ, Ⅷ andⅣ) is mainly by the middle hepatic vein (MHV), the issue of whether the MHV should or should not be taken with the graft or whether the MHV tributaries (Ⅴ5,Ⅴ8) should be reconstructed in the recipient remains to be settled. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1985-2006) on right lobe living donor liver transplantation, middle hepatic vein, vein graft, hepatic venoplasty and other related subjects. RESULTS: Some institutions had proposed their policy for the management of the MHV and its tributaries. Dominancy of the hepatic vein, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, and remnant liver volume as well as the donor-to-recipient body weight ratio, the volume of the donor's right lobe to the recipient's standard liver volume and the size of MHV tributaries are the major elements for the criteria of inclusion of the MHV, while for the policy of MHV tributaries reconstruction, the proportion of congestive area and the diameter of the tributaries are the critical elements. Optimal vein grafts such as recipient's portal vein and hepatic venoplasty technique have been used to obviate hepatic congestion and venous drainage disturbance. CONCLUSIONS:Taking right liver grafts with the MHV trunk (extended right lobe grafts) or performing the MHV tributaries reconstruction in modiifed right lobe grafts, according to the criteria proposed by the institutions with rich experience, can solve the congestion problem of the right paramedian sector and help to improve the outcomes of the patients. The additional use of optimal vein grafts and hepatic venoplasty also can guarantee excellent venous drainage.

  4. Current outcome of HLA identical sibling versus unrelated donor transplants in severe aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Socié, Gerard; Hamladji, Rose Marie


    We have analyzed 1448 patients with acquired aplastic anemia grafted between 2005 and 2009, and compared outcome of identical sibling (n=940) versus unrelated donor (n=508) transplants. When compared to the latter, sibling transplants were less likely to be performed beyond 180 days from diagnosis.......04). In conclusion, in multivariate analysis, the outcome of unrelated donor transplants for acquired aplastic anemia, is currently not statistically inferior when compared to sibling transplants, although patients are at greater risk of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The use of peripheral blood grafts...

  5. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units. (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M


    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent.

  6. Neonatal striatal grafts prevent lethal syndrome produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of kainic acid. (United States)

    Tulipan, N; Huang, S; Whetsell, W O; Allen, G S


    It is reported that unilateral grafts of neonatal striatal tissue protect the recipient from the lethal aphagia and adipsia produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 nmol of kainic acid in rats. It is shown that neither adult striatum nor neonatal tissue from other sites have the same lifesaving effect and that the salutary effect of the graft is dependent upon graft survival. Grafts from a histoincompatible donor are apparently rejected, leading to the death of the recipient. Cyclosporine inhibits rejection thereby enabling recipient survival. It is postulated that the graft exerts a neurohumoral influence that protects the striatum from the toxic effect of kainate.

  7. Transmission of donor melanoma to multiple organ transplant recipients. (United States)

    Morris-Stiff, G; Steel, A; Savage, P; Devlin, J; Griffiths, D; Portman, B; Mason, M; Jurewicz, W A


    Malignant melanoma represents the most common tumour responsible for donor-derived post transplantation malignancies. We report the varied presentation and outcome of three graft recipients (two kidney and hepatic) who developed metastatic melanoma following cadaveric organ transplantation from a single multiorgan donor. Two of the recipients presented with symptomatic metastatic lesions and the third patient, despite being carefully monitored, developed evidence of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Two of the patients died as a direct result of their melanomas. The recipients of corneal and cardiac grafts remain disease-free. We conclude that despite careful screening, donor-derived tumours remain a not uncommon clinical entity. The identification of a lesion in one recipient should prompt immediate examination and investigation of the remaining recipients of multiorgan donations.

  8. Efifcacy and safety of moderately steatotic donor liver in transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Xiao Xu; Qi Ling; Jian Wu; Lin Zhou; Hai-Yang Xie; Hui-Ping Wang; Shu-Sen Zheng


    BACKGROUND: The discrepancy between available livers and requests for transplantation has forced many centers to use marginal donors in order to expand the donor pool. Many previous studies have demonstrated controversial results of the application of steatotic liver grafts. The aim of the present study was to summarize our experience and evaluate the value of steatotic liver grafts. METHODS: The clinical and follow-up data of 24 adult patients receiving moderately steatotic liver grafts (30%-60%) from May 2003 to June 2005 (group 1) were analyzed. After matching for age, gender, model for end-stage liver diseases score and cold ischemia time, another 24 patients receiving liver grafts with steatosis less than 30%were chosen as the control group (group 2). The patient and graft outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: No difference of liver and kidney functions in the ifrst post-transplant week was found between the two groups (P>0.05). Neither the incidence of early allograft dysfunction and acute kidney injury nor the patient survival rates (3 months, 6 months and 1 year) showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Moderately steatotic liver grafts provide adequate function in the ifrst phase after transplantation and can be used for transplantation.

  9. Evidence of hepatitis E virus transmission by renal graft. (United States)

    Pourbaix, Annabelle; Ouali, Nacera; Soussan, Patrick; Roque Afonso, Anne Marie; Péraldi, Marie-Noelle; Rondeau, Eric; Peltier, Julie


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic infection among immunocompromised patients, especially solid organ transplant recipients, and can evolve to cirrhosis. Several modes of transmission are known. Here we describe the first two cases, to our knowledge, of HEV infection transmitted by a kidney graft from the same infected donor that led to chronic hepatitis. Consequently, systematic screening of donors by HEV serology and HEV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction, particularly in endemic regions, should be considered.

  10. Combination of alginate and polyurethane dressings promotes wound healing at split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a clinical observation%联合应用藻酸盐和聚亚安酯敷料促进中厚皮供区创面愈合的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜川; 邓凡; 周维忠; 戴霞


    Objective To improve the dressing method for split-thickness skin graft donor sites, promote donor site healing, and mitigate scarring. Methods Following harvest of split-thickness skin grafts, the wound was immediately covered with alginate dressing and then self-adhesive polyurethane dressing in the experimental group, and was covered with Vaseline gauze and cotton pads and then compressed with bandage in the control group. On days 1, 2 and 10 after surgery, the pain level was scored upon removal of the dressing using the visual analog scale for pain. In addition, the effect of dressings on postoperative movements was assessed. The difficulty in removing the dressings on day 10 after surgery was also assessed, and the time to wound healing was recorded. Results On days 1, 2 and 10 after surgery, the pain scores were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). In the experimental group, 36. 8% of the patients' movements were not affected by the dressings. In contrast, all patients' movements were affected by the dressings. The rate of no or mild difficulty in removing dressing on day 10 after surgery was significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group ( P <0. 05 ). The time to wound healing was significantly shorter in the experimental group than the control group ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions The combined application of alginate dressing and polyurethane dressing to split-thickness skin graft donor sites mitigated postoperative pain and movement limitations, facilitated manipulation and shortened the time to wound healing. Hence, this method can be used widely.%目的 探讨联合应用藻酸盐和自粘型聚亚安酯敷料于中厚皮片供皮区,加速创面愈合的方法.方法 烧伤后瘢痕整形中厚皮取皮术后,实验组19例以藻酸盐和自粘型聚亚安酯敷料顺序联合应用覆盖供皮区创面,对照组17例以传统的凡士林纱布加棉垫绷带加压包扎供皮

  11. Poor initial graft function after orthotopic liver transplantation : can it be predicted and does it affect outcome? An analysis of 125 adult primary transplantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Zwaveling, JH; Kranenburg, K; TenVergert, EM; Slooff, MJH


    Donor liver shortage is a persistent problem in liver transplantation. A more liberal donor acceptance policy may be a possible solution. However, this might put recipients at risk for initial poor function or even non-function of the graft. Therefore risk factors for initial graft dysfunction shoul


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Tsoy


    Full Text Available The shortage of donor organs results in the search for alternative ways to increase the donor pool. One of these is the expansion of marginal donor criteria. The use of liver grafts from donors in this group is associated with a high risk of primary non-functioning graft which lies at the basis of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. In this regard, in this review, we examined the main stages of the pathogenesis of liver disturbances as well as modern methods of prevention and treatment. 

  13. Clinical Experience and Best Practices Using Epidermal Skin Grafts on Wounds. (United States)

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bernstein, Brent; Bhatia, Animesh; Lantis, John; Le, Lam; Lincoln, Katherine; Liu, Paul; Rodgers, Lee; Shaw, Mark; Young, David


    Over the years, autologous skin grafting has been used extensively to achieve wound closure, optimize a functional scar, and improve aesthetic outcomes for the patient. Although a vast majority of the literature is on the use of full-thickness and split-thickness skin grafts, epidermal skin grafts (ESGs) have emerged as a viable option in the reconstructive ladder when only the epidermal layer is needed. These grafts are distinct from other types of autologous skin grafts in that they can be harvested without anesthesia and leave minimal or no scarring at the donor site. In order to explore the use of ESGs in the continuum of primary wound closure, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened in October 2014, in Las Vegas, NV, to review the scientific basis and clinical uses of epidermal grafting. This publication provides an overview of epidermal grafting, recommendations for graft application, and potential roles for its use in wound care and closure.

  14. Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders;


    Inverse Cutting of Posterior Lamellar Corneal Grafts by a Femtosecond Laser Jesper Hjortdal*, Esben Nielsen, Anders Vestergaard and Anders Søndergaard Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark Abstract: Purpose: Posterior lamellar grafting...... of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft......: A CZM 500 kHz Visumax femto-second laser was used. Organ cultured donor grafts were mounted in an artifical anterior chamber with the endothelial side up and out. Posterior grafts of 7.8 mm diameter and 130 micron thickness were prepared by femto-second laser cutting. A standard DSAEK procedure...

  15. Use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive grafts in liver transplantation: a matched analysis of the US National database. (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Hu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Yan, Sheng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen


    The scarcity of available donor organs is the key challenge in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A viable way of expanding the donor pool is the use of liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors. The present study used the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (1987-2010), and each of the 78 patients who underwent OLT with HBsAg-positive grafts was matched with 4 patients who received HBsAg-negative grafts by urgent status, donor sex, recipient sex, donor age, recipient age, transplant date, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and warm ischemia time. The overall graft and patient survival rates were similar for recipients of HBsAg-positive grafts and matched controls: the 5-year graft survival rates were 66% and 64%, respectively (P = 0.95), and the 5-year patient survival rates were 71% and 71%, respectively (P = 0.87). A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis that was adjusted for other variables showed no impact of the donor HBsAg status on graft or patient survival. The use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) was independently associated with better posttransplant graft survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06-0.81] and patient survival (HR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.75) for recipients of HBsAg-positive grafts. In conclusion, the use of HBsAg-positive liver grafts did not reduce posttransplant graft or patient survival. Moreover, matching these donors to recipients treated with HBIG may improve safety.

  16. Tissue grafts in vitiligo surgery - past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti


    Full Text Available Vitiligo, characterized by depigmented macules is a common disorder with a high psychosocial impact, particularly in darker skins. Surgical methods become important in cases where medical therapy fails to cause repigmentation or in cases of segmental vitiligo where the response to surgery is excellent. The basic principle of surgical treatment is autologous grafting of viable melanocytes from pigmented donor skin to recipient vitiliginous areas. Various grafting methods have been described including tissue grafts and cellular grafts. Stability of the disease is the most important criterion to obtain a successful outcome. Counseling of the patient regarding the outcome is vital before surgery. The technique and followup management of the tissue grafts has been described in detail in this review.

  17. Reuse of a Pediatric Liver Graft: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Karabulut


    Full Text Available We report the reuse of a liver graft after brain death of the first recipient. The liver donor was an 8-year-old male who died as a result of head injury. The graft was implanted first to a 4-year-old girl for fulminant hepatic failure. Unfortunately she developed progressive coma and brain death on fifth day of transplantation. The graft functions were normal, and reuse of the liver graft was planned. After informed consent, the graft was transplanted to a 31-year-old female recipient who has hepatocellular carcinoma with an underlying cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The patient was discharged to home on 9th day after an uneventful postoperative period. However, she was readmitted to hospital with an acute abdominal pain 30 days after the operation. Hepatic artery thrombosis was diagnosed, and the attempt to open the artery by interventional radiology was unsuccessful. She died of sepsis and multiorgan failure on 37th posttransplant day.

  18. Laparoscopic vs open donor nephrectomy: Lessons learnt from single academic center experience (United States)

    Tsoulfas, Georgios; Agorastou, Polyxeni; Ko, Dicken S C; Hertl, Martin; Elias, Nahel; Cosimi, AB; Kawai, Tatsuo


    AIM To compare laparoscopic and open living donor nephrectomy, based on the results from a single center during a decade. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all living donor nephrectomies performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, between 1/1998 - 12/2009. Overall there were 490 living donors, with 279 undergoing laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN) and 211 undergoing open donor nephrectomy (OLDN). Demographic data, operating room time, the effect of the learning curve, the number of conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery, donor preoperative glomerular filtration rate and creatinine (Cr), donor and recipient postoperative Cr, delayed graft function and donor complications were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS Overall there was no statistically significant difference between the LLDN and the OLDN groups regarding operating time, donor preoperative renal function, donor and recipient postoperative kidney function, delayed graft function or the incidence of major complications. When the last 100 laparoscopic cases were analyzed, there was a statistically significant difference regarding operating time in favor of the LLDN, pointing out the importance of the learning curve. Furthermore, another significant difference between the two groups was the decreased length of stay for the LLDN (2.87 d for LLDN vs 3.6 d for OLDN). CONCLUSION Recognizing the importance of the learning curve, this paper provides evidence that LLDN has a safety profile comparable to OLDN and decreased length of stay for the donor. PMID:28101451

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin


    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  20. 42 CFR 102.54 - Documentation the representative of the estate of a deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or... (United States)


    ... deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact must submit to be deemed eligible by the Secretary... VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation To Be Deemed Eligible § 102.54 Documentation the representative of the estate of a deceased smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact...

  1. The Preliminary Study on Procurement Biliary Convergence from Donors with Complicated Bile Duct Variant in Emergency Right Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplantation. (United States)

    Ye, Sheng; Dong, Jia-Hong; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong


    The incidence of biliary complications after living donor adult liver transplantation (LDALT) is still high due to the bile duct variation and necessity reconstruction of multiple small bile ducts. The current surgical management of the biliary variants is unsatisfactory. We evaluated the role of a new surgical approach in a complicated hilar bile duct variant (Nakamura type IV and Nakamura type II) under emergent right lobe LDALT for high model for end-stage liver disease score patients. The common hepatic duct (CHD) and the left hepatic duct (LHD) of the donor were transected in a right-graft including short common trunks with right posterior and anterior bile ducts, whereas the LHD of the donor was anastomosed to the CHD and the common trunks of a right-graft bile duct and the recipient CHD was end-to-end anastomosed. Ten of 13 grafts (Nakamura types II, III, and IV) had two or more biliary orifices after right graft lobectomy; seven patients had biliary complications (53.8%). Later, the surgical innovation was carried out in five donors with variant bile duct (four Nakamura type IV and one type II), and, consequently, no biliary or other complications were observed in donors and recipients during 47-53 months of follow-up; significant differences (P right hepatic ducts in a complicated donor bile duct variant may facilitate biliary reconstruction and reduce long-term biliary complications.

  2. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft. (United States)

    Owens, Christopher M; Marga, Francoise; Forgacs, Gabor; Heesch, Cheryl M


    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual's quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration.

  3. 脱细胞组织工程真皮基质修复供皮区创面的临床观察%Clinical observation on repairing of wounds of skin graft donor site with acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱学文; 王甲汉; 王颖; 刘亮; 吴起; 马军


    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix (ATDM) in repairing wounds of skin graft donor site.Methods Sixty patients with burn or chronic wounds hospitalized from January 2011 to April 2012 received autologous skin grafting.One wound [with size larger than 55 cm2,and thickness of (0.33 ± 0.03) mm] out of multiple skin graft donor sites of every patient was selected,and it was divided into two parts in accordance with self-control principle.A part of wound close to the wound edge with diameter of 5 cm was taken as trial area (treated with ATDM),and the remaining wound was taken as control area (treated with vaseline gauze) according to the random number table.Blood and urine routine,liver and kidney function,and levels of IgG and IgM in blood of patients were measured one day before operation and on the 1 st day after wound healing.Vital signs of patients were recorded on the operation day and the wound healing day.Gross condition of the wounds was observed during dressing change.Wound healing time was recorded.The healed wound was observed histologically.Data were processed with Logrank test or t test.Results Leucocyte count was lowered on the 1st day after wound healing [(7.1 ± 1.2) × 109/L] as compared with that one day before operation [(10.1 ± 1.5) ×109/L,t =-12.10,P <0.01].The differences were not statistically significant in red blood cell count,haemoglobin level,platelet count,urine routine,levels of indexes of liver and kidney function,levels of IgG and IgM in blood between one day before operation and the 1st day after wound healing,or in vital signs (including body temperature,pulse,respiration,systolic pressure,and diastolic pressure) between the operation day and the wound healing day (with t values from-1.43 to 1.88,P values all above 0.05).No adverse effects such as abnormal exudation,itching,redness and swelling,and exanthema were observed in the wound.The median wound healing time in trial area

  4. 77 FR 36229 - Portability of a Deceased Spousal Unused Exclusion Amount (United States)


    ... Exclusion Amount AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by... provide guidance on the estate and gift tax applicable exclusion amount, in general, as well as on the applicable requirements for electing portability of a deceased spousal unused exclusion (DSUE) amount to...

  5. Mortality in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury: descriptive analysis of 62 deceased subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thietje, R.; Pouw, M.H.; Schulz, A.P.; Kienast, B.; Hirschfeld, S.


    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes of death in patients who were deceased patients with tSCI who survived a minimum o

  6. Dreams of Deceased Children and Countertransference in the Group Psychotherapy of Bereaved Mothers: Clinical Illustration (United States)

    Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan


    This article presents, in the form of a clinical illustration, a therapeutic group of bereaved mothers with special reference to their dreams about their deceased children. The article presents descriptions of the emotions of these mothers and countertransference feelings, a topic that, to our knowledge, has not been frequently studied. The group…

  7. 22 CFR 102.13 - Protective services with respect to deceased victims of accidents. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective services with respect to deceased victims of accidents. 102.13 Section 102.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER... remains. When a scheduled United States air carrier meets with an accident, the United States airline...

  8. Pediatric Deceased Donation-A Report of the Transplantation Society Meeting in Geneva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Dominique E.; Nakagawa, Thomas A.; Siebelink, Marion J.; Bramstedt, Katrina A.; Brierley, Joe; Dobbels, Fabienne; Rodrigue, James R.; Sarwal, Minnie; Shapiro, Ron; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Danovitch, Gabriel; Sweet, Stuart C.; Trompeter, Richard S.; Moazam, Farhat; Bos, Michael A.; Delmonico, Francis L.


    The Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society convened a meeting on pediatric deceased donation of organs in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 21 to 22, 2014. Thirty-four participants from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Europe, and North and South America explored the practical and ethica

  9. 19 CFR 24.70 - Claims; deceased or incompetent public creditors. (United States)


    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.70 Claims; deceased or... States (except civilian officers and employees subject to the provisions of section 61f-61k, Title 5... which case the claim shall be forwarded to the Accounting Services Division, Accounts Receivable...

  10. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  11. Two Distinct Isoforms of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Are Associated with Human Delayed Kidney Graft Function. (United States)

    Wanga, Shaynah; Ceron, Carla S; Delgado, Cynthia; Joshi, Sunil K; Spaulding, Kimberly; Walker, Joy P; Song, Sangheon; Olson, Jean L; Lovett, David H


    Delayed graft function (DGF) is a frequent complication of renal transplantation, particularly in the setting of transplantation of kidneys derived from deceased donors and expanded-criteria donors. DGF results from tubular epithelial cell injury and has immediate and long term consequences. These include requirement for post-transplantation dialysis, increased incidence of acute rejection, and poorer long-term outcomes. DGF represents one of the clearest clinical examples of renal acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Experimental studies have demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury induces the synthesis of the full length secreted isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (FL-MMP-2), as well as an intracellular N-terminal truncated MMP-2 isoform (NTT-MMP-2) that initiates an innate immune response. We hypothesized that the two MMP-2 isoforms mediate tubular epithelial cell injury in DGF. Archival renal biopsy sections from 10 protocol biopsy controls and 41 cases with a clinical diagnosis of DGF were analyzed for the extent of tubular injury, expression of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoforms by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization, and qPCR to determine isoform abundance. Differences in transcript abundance were related to tubular injury score. Markers of MMP-2-mediated injury included TUNEL staining and assessment of peritubular capillary density. There was a clear relationship between tubular epithelial cell expression of both FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 IHC with the extent of tubular injury. The MMP-2 isoforms were detected in the same tubular segments and were present at sites of tubular injury. qPCR demonstrated highly significant increases in both the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant associations between FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcript abundance and the extent of tubular injury, with NTT-MMP-2 having the strongest association. We conclude that two distinct MMP-2 isoforms are associated with

  12. Two Distinct Isoforms of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Are Associated with Human Delayed Kidney Graft Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaynah Wanga

    Full Text Available Delayed graft function (DGF is a frequent complication of renal transplantation, particularly in the setting of transplantation of kidneys derived from deceased donors and expanded-criteria donors. DGF results from tubular epithelial cell injury and has immediate and long term consequences. These include requirement for post-transplantation dialysis, increased incidence of acute rejection, and poorer long-term outcomes. DGF represents one of the clearest clinical examples of renal acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. Experimental studies have demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury induces the synthesis of the full length secreted isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (FL-MMP-2, as well as an intracellular N-terminal truncated MMP-2 isoform (NTT-MMP-2 that initiates an innate immune response. We hypothesized that the two MMP-2 isoforms mediate tubular epithelial cell injury in DGF. Archival renal biopsy sections from 10 protocol biopsy controls and 41 cases with a clinical diagnosis of DGF were analyzed for the extent of tubular injury, expression of the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 isoforms by immunohistochemistry (IHC, in situ hybridization, and qPCR to determine isoform abundance. Differences in transcript abundance were related to tubular injury score. Markers of MMP-2-mediated injury included TUNEL staining and assessment of peritubular capillary density. There was a clear relationship between tubular epithelial cell expression of both FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 IHC with the extent of tubular injury. The MMP-2 isoforms were detected in the same tubular segments and were present at sites of tubular injury. qPCR demonstrated highly significant increases in both the FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcripts. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant associations between FL-MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2 transcript abundance and the extent of tubular injury, with NTT-MMP-2 having the strongest association. We conclude that two distinct MMP-2 isoforms are

  13. Living Donor Liver Transplantation (United States)

    ... be a husband or wife. What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the ... Not have a selfish motive for donating. Paid donation is illegal in the ... leave for being organ donors. Other employers have similar programs, so check ...

  14. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    Collection and Apheresis Centers Closed 7 IIC. Immunogenetic Studies 8 IIC.1 Objective 1 – Influence of HLA Mismatches 8 Task 1 – Donor Recipient... Apheresis Centers – This task is closed. National Marrow Donor Program® N000014-11-1-0339 QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT