Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths
Lehnert, B.
1990-12-01
A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)
Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials
Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad
2014-01-01
This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...
Determination of molecular configuration by debye length modulation.
Vacic, Aleksandar; Criscione, Jason M; Rajan, Nitin K; Stern, Eric; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A
2011-09-07
Silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have emerged as ultrasensitive, label-free biodetectors that operate by sensing bound surface charge. However, the ionic strength of the environment (i.e., the Debye length of the solution) dictates the effective magnitude of the surface charge. Here, we show that control of the Debye length determines the spatial extent of sensed bound surface charge on the sensor. We apply this technique to different methods of antibody immobilization, demonstrating different effective distances of induced charge from the sensor surface.
Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.
Ehler, W.
1973-01-01
The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.
Debye's length in expanding quark-gluon plasma
Bialas, A.
1988-06-01
The screening properties of an abelian quark-gluon plasma and boost invariantly expanding in a given direction, are discussed. The expansion results in anisotropic screening. At early stages of the process, the Debye length along the direction of the expansion is reduced by a factor of about 2, relative to static calculations. This may have important consequences for the J/ψ production rate. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)
Hickey, Owen A; Shendruk, Tyler N; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W
2012-08-31
We introduce a mesoscale simulation method based on multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) for the electrohydrodynamics of polyelectrolytes with finite Debye lengths. By applying the Debye-Hückel approximation to assign an effective charge to MPCD particles near charged monomers, our simulations are able to reproduce the rapid rise in the electrophoretic mobility with respect to the degree of polymerization for the shortest polymer lengths followed by a small decrease for longer polymers due to charge condensation. Moreover, these simulations demonstrate the importance of a finite Debye length in accurately determining the mobility of uniformly charged polyelectrolytes and net neutral polyampholytes.
Two independent measurements of Debye lengths in doped nonpolar liquids.
Prieve, D C; Hoggard, J D; Fu, R; Sides, P J; Bethea, R
2008-02-19
Electric current measurements were performed between 2.5 cm x 7.5 cm parallel-plate electrodes separated by 1.2 mm of heptane doped with 0-15% w/w poly(isobutylene succinimide) (PIBS) having a molecular weight of about 1700. The rapid (microsecond) initial charging of the capacitor can be used to infer the dielectric constant of the solution. The much slower decay of current arising from the polarization of electrodes depends on the differential capacitance of the diffuse clouds of charge carriers accumulating next to each electrode and on the ohmic resistance of the fluid. Using the Gouy-Chapman model for the differential capacitance, Debye lengths of 80-600 nm were deduced that decrease with increasing concentration of PIBS. Values of the Debye lengths were confirmed by performing independent measurements of double-layer repulsion between a 6 microm polystyrene (PS) latex sphere and a PS-coated glass plate using total internal reflection microscopy in the same solutions. The charge carriers appear to be inverted PIBS micelles having apparent Stokes diameters of 20-40 nm. Dynamic light scattering reveals a broad distribution of sizes having an intensity-averaged diameter of 15 nm. This smaller size might arise (1) from overestimating the electrophoretic mobility of micelles by treating them as point charges or (2) because charged micelles are larger on average than uncharged micelles. When Faradaic reactions and zeta potentials on the electrodes can be neglected, such current versus time experiments yield values for the Debye length and ionic strength with less effort than force measurements. To obtain the concentration of charge carriers from measurements of conductivity, the mobility of the charge carriers must be known.
Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.
Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W
2006-02-01
The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.
Relationship between the DC Bias and Debye Length in a Complex Plasma
Kong, Jie; Reyes, Jorge C.; Creel, James; Hyde, Truell
2007-01-01
The levitation height of a dust particle layer within a RF discharge plasma sheath is known to be related to the DC bias, the background pressure, and the Debye length. In this paper, a new experimental technique for measurement of the Debye length is introduced. This technique is based on the relationship between an externally applied DC bias and the particle levitation height and shows that under appropriate conditions, the addition of an externally applied DC bias provides a mechanism for ...
Spherical conducting probes in finite Debye length plasmas and E x B fields
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H
2011-01-01
The particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC3D (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 035005) is used to calculate the interaction of a transversely flowing magnetized plasma with a negatively charged spherical conductor, in the entire range of magnetization and Debye length. The results allow the first fully self-consistent analysis of probe operation where neither the ion Larmor radius nor the Debye length are approximated by zero or infinity. An important transition in plasma structure occurs when the Debye length exceeds the average ion Larmor radius, as the sphere starts to shield the convective electric field driving the flow. A remarkable result is that in those conditions, the ion current can significantly exceed the unmagnetized orbital motion limit. When both the Debye length and the Larmor radius are small compared with the probe dimensions, however, their ratio does not affect the collection pattern significantly, and Mach-probe calibration methods derived in the context of quasineutral strongly magnetized plasmas (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 036403) hold for Debye lengths and ion Larmor radii smaller than about 10% of the probe radius.
Boundary asymptotics for a non-neutral electrochemistry model with small Debye length
Lee, Chiun-Chang; Ryham, Rolf J.
2018-04-01
This article addresses the boundary asymptotics of the electrostatic potential in non-neutral electrochemistry models with small Debye length in bounded domains. Under standard physical assumptions motivated by non-electroneutral phenomena in oxidation-reduction reactions, we show that the electrostatic potential asymptotically blows up at boundary points with respect to the bulk reference potential as the scaled Debye length tends to zero. The analysis gives a lower bound for the blow-up rate with respect to the model parameters. Moreover, the maximum potential difference over any compact subset of the physical domain vanishes exponentially in the zero-Debye-length limit. The results mathematically confirm the physical description that electrolyte solutions are electrically neutral in the bulk and are strongly electrically non-neutral near charged surfaces.
Light intensity dependent Debye screening length in undoped photorefractive titanosillenite crystals
de Oliveira, I; Frejlich, J
2012-01-01
We report on the experimental evidence of the light intensity dependence of the Debye screening length l(s) in undoped photorefractive titanosillenite crystals (Bi12TiO20) by measuring the holographic gain and diffraction efficiency in a two-wave mixing experiment under 532 nm wavelength laser light. Debye length shows saturation at high values of the light intensity. Results are in agreement with the theoretical development. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/...
Kumar, Bharat; Crittenden, Scott R
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the ability to measure Stern potential and Debye length in dilute ionic solution with atomic force microscopy. We develop an analytic expression for the second harmonic force component of the capacitive force in an ionic solution from the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. This allows us to calibrate the AFM tip potential and, further, obtain the Stern potential of sample surfaces. In addition, the measured capacitive force is independent of van der Waals and double layer forces, thus providing a more accurate measure of Debye length. (paper)
Kumar, Bharat; Crittenden, Scott R
2013-11-01
We demonstrate the ability to measure Stern potential and Debye length in dilute ionic solution with atomic force microscopy. We develop an analytic expression for the second harmonic force component of the capacitive force in an ionic solution from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This allows us to calibrate the AFM tip potential and, further, obtain the Stern potential of sample surfaces. In addition, the measured capacitive force is independent of van der Waals and double layer forces, thus providing a more accurate measure of Debye length.
Eddies in a bottleneck: an arbitrary Debye length theory for capillary electroosmosis.
Park, Stella Y; Russo, Christopher J; Branton, Daniel; Stone, Howard A
2006-05-15
Using an applied electrical field to drive fluid flows becomes desirable as channels become smaller. Although most discussions of electroosmosis treat the case of thin Debye layers, here electroosmotic flow (EOF) through a constricted cylinder is presented for arbitrary Debye lengths (kappa(-1)) using a long wavelength perturbation of the cylinder radius. The analysis uses the approximation of small potentials. The varying diameter of the cylinder produces radially and axially varying effective electric fields, as well as an induced pressure gradient. We predict the existence of eddies for certain constricted geometries and propose the possibility of electrokinetic trapping in these regions. We also present a leading-order criterion which predicts central eddies in very narrow constrictions at the scale of the Debye length. Eddies can be found both in the center of the channel and along the perimeter, and the presence of the eddies is a consequence of the induced pressure gradient that accompanies electrically driven flow into a narrow constriction.
Ion collection by a sphere in a flowing plasma: 2. non-zero Debye length
Hutchinson, I H
2003-01-01
The spatial distribution of ion flux to a sphere in a flowing collisionless plasma is calculated using a particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC. The code is validated by comparing with prior stationary-plasma and approximate calculations. Comprehensive results are provided for ion temperatures 1 and 0.1 times the electron temperature, and for Debye length from 0.01 to 100 times the probe size. A remarkable qualitatively new result is obtained: over a range of Debye lengths from roughly 0.1 to 10 times the probe radius at T i = 0.1T e , the downstream side of the probe receives substantially higher flux density than the upstream side when the flow is subsonic. This unexpected reversal of the asymmetry reinforces the need for these fully self-consistent calculations, but renders the use of the flux ratio for Mach-probe purposes problematic, even for deriving the direction of the flow
Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.
Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A
2007-11-01
Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.
Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma
Hamilton, J.
1980-01-01
The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented
Detection beyond Debye's length with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor.
Palazzo, Gerardo; De Tullio, Donato; Magliulo, Maria; Mallardi, Antonia; Intranuovo, Francesca; Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Favia, Pietro; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Torsi, Luisa
2015-02-04
Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors are successfully used as biosensors to detect binding events occurring at distances from the transistor electronic channel that are much larger than the Debye length in highly concentrated solutions. The sensing mechanism is mainly capacitive and is due to the formation of Donnan's equilibria within the protein layer, leading to an extra capacitance (CDON) in series to the gating system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Numerical analysis of finite Debye-length effects in induced-charge electro-osmosis.
Gregersen, Misha Marie; Andersen, Mathias Baekbo; Soni, Gaurav; Meinhart, Carl; Bruus, Henrik
2009-06-01
For a microchamber filled with a binary electrolyte and containing a flat unbiased center electrode at one wall, we employ three numerical models to study the strength of the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow rolls: (i) a full nonlinear continuum model resolving the double layer, (ii) a linear slip-velocity model not resolving the double layer and without tangential charge transport inside this layer, and (iii) a nonlinear slip-velocity model extending the linear model by including the tangential charge transport inside the double layer. We show that, compared to the full model, the slip-velocity models significantly overestimate the ICEO flow. This provides a partial explanation of the quantitative discrepancy between observed and calculated ICEO velocities reported in the literature. The discrepancy increases significantly for increasing Debye length relative to the electrode size, i.e., for nanofluidic systems. However, even for electrode dimensions in the micrometer range, the discrepancies in velocity due to the finite Debye length can be more than 10% for an electrode of zero height and more than 100% for electrode heights comparable to the Debye length.
Conditions for similitude and the effect of finite Debye length in electroosmotic flows.
Oh, Jung Min; Kang, Kwan Hyoung
2007-06-15
Under certain conditions, the velocity field is similar to the electric field for electroosmotic flow (EOF) inside a channel. There was a disagreement between investigators on the necessity of the infinitesimal-Reynolds-number condition for the similarity when the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation is applied throughout the boundaries. What is puzzling is a recent numerical result that showed, contrary to the conventional belief, an evident Reynolds number dependence of the EOF. We show here that the notion that the infinitesimal-Reynolds-number condition is required originates from the misunderstanding that the EOF is the Stokes flow. We point out that the EOF becomes the potential flow when the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation is applied at the boundaries. We carry out a numerical simulation to investigate the effect of finiteness of the Debye length and the vorticity layer inherently existing at the channel wall. We show that the Reynolds number dependence of the previous numerical simulation resulted from the finiteness of the Debye length and subsequent convective transport of vorticity toward the bulk flow. We discuss in detail how the convection of vorticity occurs and what factors are involved in the transport process, after carrying out the simulation for different Reynolds numbers, Debye lengths, corner radii, and geometries.
Exact current to a spherical electrode in a collisionless, large-Debye-length magnetoplasma
Sonmor, L.J.; Laframboise, J.G.
1991-01-01
Exact calculations of the steady-state current drawn from a collisionless, Maxwellian plasma in a uniform magnetic field by a spherical, perfectly absorbing electrode are presented for a range of dimensionless electrode potentials and magnetic-field strengths. These calculations are valid in the limit of large Debye length. The results are compared with the theory of Rubinstein and Laframboise, which gives upper and lower bounds for both the attracted-species and the repelled-species current. It is found that as the electrode potential increases from space potential with magnetic-field strength fixed, the electron (i.e., attracted-species) current decreases, but not as quickly as the adiabatic-limit (effectively lower-bound) current. The ion current also diverges immediately from the adiabatic-limit current. As the electrode potential increases further, the electron current rises and moves monotonically toward the canonical upper bound, which is the warm-plasma generalization of the well-known Parker and Murphy upper bound. It is unclear whether the current approaches the upper bound asymptotically as the electrode potential becomes large, or instead a constant proportion of the upper bound which varies with magnetic-field strength. The dependence on magnetic-field strength is more complicated. As expected for small fixed electrode potentials, the attracted-species current approaches the adiabatic-limit current monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. However, for large electrode potentials this pattern reverses: the current approaches the canonical upper bound monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. These patterns are expected to persist when the Debye length is finite. Interpretation of these results leads to an inference that for large electrode potentials, the effect of decreasing the Debye length may be to reduce the current, as in the nonmagnetic case
Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.
Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob
2009-09-11
Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at D
Experimental studies of the large Debye length probe theory in a continuum plasma
Kamitsuma, M.; Chen, S.
1977-01-01
The Laplace limit probe theory for continuum plasmas, i.e., probe theory under the condition r/sub p//lambda/sub D/→0, where r/sub p/ is probe radius and lambda/sub D/ is Debye length, has been experimentally studied. The results show that the application limit of this theory is r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.44 for a spherical probe and r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.23 for a cylindrical probe
Liu, Bo; Liu, Pei; Xu, Zhenli; Zhou, Shenggao
2013-10-01
Near a charged surface, counterions of different valences and sizes cluster; and their concentration profiles stratify. At a distance from such a surface larger than the Debye length, the electric field is screened by counterions. Recent studies by a variational mean-field approach that includes ionic size effects and by Monte Carlo simulations both suggest that the counterion stratification is determined by the ionic valence-to-volume ratios. Central in the mean-field approach is a free-energy functional of ionic concentrations in which the ionic size effects are included through the entropic effect of solvent molecules. The corresponding equilibrium conditions define the generalized Boltzmann distributions relating the ionic concentrations to the electrostatic potential. This paper presents a detailed analysis and numerical calculations of such a free-energy functional to understand the dependence of the ionic charge density on the electrostatic potential through the generalized Boltzmann distributions, the role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the counterion stratification, and the modification of Debye length due to the effect of ionic sizes.
Kremer, J. P.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Lefrancois, R. G.; Marksteiner, Q.
2006-01-01
The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid ExB rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma
Kremer, J P; Pedersen, T Sunn; Lefrancois, R G; Marksteiner, Q
2006-09-01
The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid E x B rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma.
Correa, J.R.; Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.
2005-01-01
Collisional scattering is considered within a system of charged particles experiencing binary Coulomb interactions when the scale length for the range of each interaction is not isotropic and is not necessarily equal to the Debye length. For example, one or more dimensions of the system could be smaller than the Debye length. The effect is assessed by evaluating integrals over the impact cross section. Cutoffs on both the impact parameter and the Coulomb interaction potential are employed, and no assumption is made regarding the value of the Coulomb logarithm. Two expressions are found that have a dependence on the cutoff lengths, with one of the expressions being associated with the Coulomb logarithm. Collisional scattering within an electrostatic ion trap is considered by way of example
Bo, Renheng; Nasiri, Noushin; Chen, Hongjun; Caputo, Domenico; Fu, Lan; Tricoli, Antonio
2017-01-25
Accurate detection of UV light by wearable low-power devices has many important applications including environmental monitoring, space to space communication, and defense. Here, we report the structural engineering of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks for fabrication of very low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors. A record high photo- to dark-current ratio of 3.3 × 10 5 and detectivity of 3.2 × 10 12 Jones at an ultralow operation bias of 2 mV and low UV-light intensity of 86 μW·cm -2 are achieved by controlling the interplay between grain boundaries and surface depletion depth of ZnO nanoscale semiconductors. An optimal window of structural properties is determined by varying the particle size of ultraporous nanoparticle networks from 10 to 42 nm. We find that small electron-depleted nanoparticles (≤40 nm) are necessary to minimize the dark-current; however, the rise in photocurrent is tampered with decreasing particle size due to the increasing density of grain boundaries. These findings reveal that nanoparticles with a size close to twice their Debye length are required for high photo- to dark-current ratio and detectivity, while further decreasing their size decreases the photodetector performance.
Ding, Mingnan; Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun
2016-10-01
Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the mean potential near a charged plate inside a m:-n electrolyte. A perturbation series is developed in terms of g=4πκb, where band1/κ are Bjerrum length and bare Debye length, respectively. To the zeroth order, we obtain the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For asymmetric electrolytes (m≠n), the first order (one-loop) correction to mean potential contains a secular term, which indicates the breakdown of the regular perturbation method. Using a renormalizaton group transformation, we remove the secular term and obtain a globally well-behaved one-loop approximation with a renormalized Debye length and a renormalized surface charge density. Furthermore, we find that if the counterions are multivalent, the surface charge density is renormalized substantially downwards and may undergo a change of sign, if the bare surface charge density is sufficiently large. Our results agrees with large MC simulation even when the density of electrolytes is relatively high.
Abhishek Chowdhury
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Focused multiple ion beamlets from a microwave plasma source is investigated for localized micron-scale modification of substrates in a patterned manner. Plasma electrodes (PE with an array of through apertures having aperture diameters of the order of plasma Debye length are investigated for generating the beamlets. Extraction through sub-Debye length apertures becomes possible when the PE is kept at floating potential. It is found that the current – voltage characteristics of the extracted beamlets exhibits interesting features such as a space-charge-limited region that has a different behaviour than the conventional Child-Langmuir’s law and an extraction-voltage-limited region that does not undergo saturation but exhibits a Schottky-like behaviour similar to that of a vacuum diode. A switching technique to control the motion of individual beamlets is developed and the stopping potential determined. The beamlets are thereafter used to create localized micro-resistive patterns. The experimental results are compared with simulations and reasonably good agreement is obtained.
Bukar, Natalia; Zhao, Sandy Shuo; Charbonneau, David M; Pelletier, Joelle N; Masson, Jean-Francois
2014-05-18
We report that a shorter Debye length and, as a consequence, decreased colloidal stability are required for the molecular interaction of folic acid-modified Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) to occur on a surface-bound receptor, human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). The interaction measured using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing was optimal in a phosphate buffer at pH 6 and ionic strength exceeding 300 mM. Under these conditions, the aggregation constant of the Au NPs was approximately 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and the Debye length was below 1 nm, on the same length scale as the size of the folate anion (approximately 0.8 nm). Longer Debye lengths led to poorer SPR responses, revealing a reduced affinity of the folic acid-modified Au NPs for hDHFR. While high colloidal stability of Au NPs is desired in most applications, these conditions may hinder molecular interactions due to Debye lengths exceeding the size of the ligand and thus preventing close interactions with the surface-bound molecular receptor.
Field-Assisted Splitting of Pure Water Based on Deep-Sub-Debye-Length Nanogap Electrochemical Cells.
Wang, Yifei; Narayanan, S R; Wu, Wei
2017-08-22
Owing to the low conductivity of pure water, using an electrolyte is common for achieving efficient water electrolysis. In this paper, we have fundamentally broken through this common sense by using deep-sub-Debye-length nanogap electrochemical cells to achieve efficient electrolysis of pure water (without any added electrolyte) at room temperature. A field-assisted effect resulted from overlapped electrical double layers can greatly enhance water molecules ionization and mass transport, leading to electron-transfer limited reactions. We have named this process "virtual breakdown mechanism" (which is completely different from traditional mechanisms) that couples the two half-reactions together, greatly reducing the energy losses arising from ion transport. This fundamental discovery has been theoretically discussed in this paper and experimentally demonstrated in a group of electrochemical cells with nanogaps between two electrodes down to 37 nm. On the basis of our nanogap electrochemical cells, the electrolysis current density from pure water can be significantly larger than that from 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, indicating the much better performance of pure water splitting as a potential for on-demand clean hydrogen production.
Kos, L.; Jelić, N.; Kuhn, S.; Tskhakaya, D. D.
2018-04-01
At present, identifying and characterizing the common plasma-sheath edge (PSE) in the conventional fluid approach leads to intrinsic oversimplifications, while the kinetic one results in unusable over-generalizations. In addition, none of these approaches can be justified in realistic plasmas, i.e., those which are characterized by non-negligible Debye lengths and a well-defined non-negligible ion temperature. In an attempt to resolve this problem, we propose a new formulation of the Bohm criterion [D. Bohm, The Characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949)], which is here expressed in terms of fluid, kinetic, and electrostatic-pressure contributions. This "unified" Bohm criterion consists of a set of two equations for calculating the ion directional energy (i.e., the mean directional velocity) and the plasma potential at the common PSE, and is valid for arbitrary ion-to-electron temperature ratios. It turns out to be exact at any point of the quasi-neutral plasma provided that the ion differential polytropic coefficient function (DPCF) of Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)] is employed, with the advantage that the DPCF is an easily measurable fluid quantity. Moreover, our unified Bohm criterion holds in plasmas with finite Debye lengths, for which the famous kinetic criterion formulated by Harrison and Thompson [Proc. Phys. Soc. 74, 145 (1959)] fails. Unlike the kinetic criterion in the case of negligible Debye length, the kinetic contribution to the unified Bohm criterion, arising due to the presence of negative and zero velocities in the ion velocity distribution function, can be calculated separately from the fluid term. This kinetic contribution disappears identically at the PSE, yielding strict equality of the ion directional velocity there and the ion sound speed, provided that the latter is formulated in terms of the present definition of DPCFs. The numerical values of these velocities are found for the
Physics behind the Debye temperature
Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Textbooks introduce the Debye temperature to simplify the integration of the heat capacity. This approach gives the impression that the Debye temperature is a parameter which makes the integration more convenient. The Debye frequency cut occurs when the wavelength of the phonon frequency reaches the size of the smallest unit of the lattice which is the length of the unit cell. At frequencies higher than the cut off frequency the 'lattice' unable to 'see' the vibration because the wavelength o...
Mak, S.S.
1992-01-01
In deriving the expression for the Debye length, the assumption eφ << kT is often invoked casually. Using a scaling technique this assumption is put in perspective. Furthermore, it is shown that the commonly accepted linearization condition is in fact much more stringent (by two orders of magnitude) than necessary. (author)
Yang, X X; Li, J W; Zhou, Z F; Wang, Y; Yang, L W; Zheng, W T; Sun, Chang Q
2012-01-21
From the perspective of bond relaxation and bond vibration, we have formulated the Raman phonon relaxation of graphene, under the stimuli of the number-of-layers, the uni-axial strain, the pressure, and the temperature, in terms of the response of the length and strength of the representative bond of the entire specimen to the applied stimuli. Theoretical unification of the measurements clarifies that: (i) the opposite trends of the Raman shifts, which are due to the number-of-layers reduction, of the G-peak shift and arises from the vibration of a pair of atoms, while the D- and the 2D-peak shifts involve the z-neighbor of a specific atom; (ii) the tensile strain-induced phonon softening and phonon-band splitting arise from the asymmetric response of the C(3v) bond geometry to the C(2v) uni-axial bond elongation; (iii) the thermal softening of the phonons originates from bond expansion and weakening; and (iv) the pressure stiffening of the phonons results from bond compression and work hardening. Reproduction of the measurements has led to quantitative information about the referential frequencies from which the Raman frequencies shift as well as the length, energy, force constant, Debye temperature, compressibility and elastic modulus of the C-C bond in graphene, which is of instrumental importance in the understanding of the unusual behavior of graphene.
Ali Hussein Ni'ma
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, two important ionospheric factors have been calculated, the collision frequency of electron and Deby length for a height range from 80 Km to a height approaching the maximum height of the F2 region of the ionosphere above the Earth's surface. Both above factors have been calculated for two different levels of solar activity and for two seasons (winter and summer. Also, six months were adopted for every level of solar activity and season. The estimation of collision frequency of electron is depends on the contribution of neutral constituents and ions. Three neutral atmospheric gases have been adopted to calculate the collision frequency, Molecular and atomic oxygen O2 and O respectively and molecular nitrogen N2, as well as the singly charged ions were taken into account in calculation.
Chamberlin, Ralph V; Davis, Bryce F
2013-10-01
Disordered systems show deviations from the standard Debye theory of specific heat at low temperatures. These deviations are often attributed to two-level systems of uncertain origin. We find that a source of excess specific heat comes from correlations between quanta of energy if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale. We use simulations of a simplified Creutz model for a system of Ising-like spins coupled to a thermal bath of Einstein-like oscillators. One feature of this model is that energy is quantized in both the system and its bath, ensuring conservation of energy at every step. Another feature is that the exact entropies of both the system and its bath are known at every step, so that their temperatures can be determined independently. We find that there is a mismatch in canonical temperature between the system and its bath. In addition to the usual finite-size effects in the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, if excitations in the heat bath are localized on an intermediate length scale, this mismatch is independent of system size up to at least 10(6) particles. We use a model for correlations between quanta of energy to adjust the statistical distributions and yield a thermodynamically consistent temperature. The model includes a chemical potential for units of energy, as is often used for other types of particles that are quantized and conserved. Experimental evidence for this model comes from its ability to characterize the excess specific heat of imperfect crystals at low temperatures.
Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.
2017-06-01
A one-dimensional, two-fluid, steady state model is used for the analysis of ion temperature effects to the plasma-wall transition. In this paper, the model is solved for a finite ratio ɛ between the Debye and the ionization length, while in Part II [T. Gyergyek and J. Kovačič, Phys Plasmas 24, 063506 (2017)], the solutions for ɛ = 0 are presented. Ion temperature is treated as a given, independent parameter and it is included in the model as a boundary condition. It is shown that when the ion temperature larger than zero is selected, the ion flow velocity and the electric field at the boundary must be consistent with the selected ion temperature. A numerical procedure, how to determine such "consistent boundary conditions," is proposed, and a simple relation between the ion temperature and ion velocity at the boundary of the system is found. The effects of the ion temperature to the pre-sheath length, potential, ion temperature, and ion density drops in the pre-sheath and in the sheath are investigated. It is concluded that larger ion temperature results in a better shielding of the plasma from the wall. An attempt is made to include the ion heat flux qi into the model in its simplest form q i = - K ' /d T i d x , where K ' is a constant heat conduction coefficient. It is shown that inclusion of such a term into the energy transfer equation introduces an additional ion heating mechanism into the system and the ion flow then becomes isothermal instead of adiabatic even in the sheath.
Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.
2011-01-01
Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects
Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.
1979-01-01
The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments
Debye shielding in a nonextensive plasma
Ait Gougam, Leila; Tribeche, Mouloud
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of Debye Shielding is revisited within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. The plasma consists of nonextensive electrons and ions. Both the effective Debye length λ D q and the fall-off of the electrostatic potential Φ are considered and a parameter study conducted. Owing to electron nonextensivity, the critical Mach number derived from the modified Bohm sheath criterion may become less than unity allowing therefore ions with speed less than ion-acoustic speed to enter the sheath from the main body of the plasma. Considering the wide relevance of collective processes, our analysis may be viewed as a first step toward a more comprehensive Debye shielding and electrostatic plasma sheath in nonequilibrium plasmas.
Non-linear unidimensional Debye screening in plasmas
Clemente, R.A.; Martin, P.
1992-01-01
An exact analytical solution for T e = T i and an approximate solution for T e ≠ T i have been obtained for the unidimensional non-linear Debye potential. The approximate expression is a solution of the Poisson equation obtained by expanding up to third order the Boltzmann's factors. The analysis shows that the effective Debye screening length can be quite different from the usual Debye length, when the potential to thermal energy ratio of the particles is not much smaller than unity. (author)
Limitations of the paraxial Debye approximation.
Sheppard, Colin J R
2013-04-01
In the paraxial form of the Debye integral for focusing, higher order defocus terms are ignored, which can result in errors in dealing with aberrations, even for low numerical aperture. These errors can be avoided by using a different integration variable. The aberrations of a glass slab, such as a coverslip, are expanded in terms of the new variable, and expressed in terms of Zernike polynomials to assist with aberration balancing. Tube length error is also discussed.
Spectra of electron pair under harmonic and Debye potential
Munjal, D. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India); Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India)
2017-02-15
Two electron systems confined by harmonic potential is known as harmonium. Such a system has been studied for many reasons in the literature. In this work we study harmonium under Debye potential. We use higher order finite difference method for the solution of Schrodinger equation. Complete energy spectrum of harmonium and harmonium under Debye potential is studied. Debye screening length shows considerable effect on the energy levels and the radial matrix elements. The results are analysed in the light of existing results and the comparison with available results shows remarkable agreement. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Resonant charge exchange for H-H+ in Debye plasmas
Laricchiuta, Annarita; Colonna, Gianpiero; Capitelli, Mario; Kosarim, Alexander; Smirnov, Boris M.
2017-11-01
The dynamics of resonant charge exchange in proton-hydrogen collisions embedded in plasma is investigated in the framework of the asymptotic approach, modified to account for the effect of Debye-Hückel screening in particle interactions. The cross sections exhibit a marked dependence on the Debye length in regimes of severe plasma confinement. Processes involving excited states H( n)-H+ are also discussed.
A review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas
Janev, R. K.; Zhang, Song Bin; Wang, Jian Guo
2016-01-01
Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations), the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye-H\\"uckel (Yukawa-type) potential, characterized by the Debye screening length D. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations ...
Study of two-dimensional Debye clusters using Brownian motion
Sheridan, T.E.; Theisen, W.L.
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional Debye cluster is a system of n identical particles confined in a parabolic well and interacting through a screened Coulomb (i.e., a Debye-Hueckel or Yukawa) potential with a Debye length λ. Experiments were performed for 27 clusters with n=3-63 particles (9 μm diam) in a capacitively coupled 9 W rf discharge at a neutral argon pressure of 13.6 mTorr. In the strong-coupling regime each particle exhibits small amplitude Brownian motion about its equilibrium position. These motions were projected onto the center-of-mass and breathing modes and Fourier analyzed to give resonance curves from which the mode frequencies, amplitudes, and damping rates were determined. The ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency was compared with theory to self-consistently determine the Debye shielding parameter κ, Debye length λ, particle charge q, and mode temperatures. It is found that 1 < or approx. κ < or approx. 2, and κ decreases weakly with n. The particle charge averaged over all measurements is -14 200±200 e, and q decreases slightly with n. The two center-of-mass modes and the breathing mode are found to have the same temperature, indicating that the clusters are in thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas. The average cluster temperature is 399±5 K
On Debye radius measurement in an unstable gas discharged plasma
Shvilkin, B.N.
1998-01-01
It is shown that at low concentrations of charged particles conditions can be realized in a magnetized unstable-to-drift plasma for which concentration perturbations are comparable to the concentration itself. The electron temperature is then determined by potential fluctuations, and the drift oscillation wavelength is of the order of the Debye length
Electron-positronium scattering in Debye plasma environment
Basu, Arindam; Ghosh, A.S.
2008-01-01
Electron-positronium scattering has been investigated in the Debye plasma environment employing the close-coupling approximation. Three models, viz. 3-state CCA, 6-state CCA and 9-state CCA, have been employed. The 2s 21 S e autodetaching resonant state of the positronium negative ion has been successfully predicted for various plasma environments. The position of the resonance for different Debye lengths are in close agreement with those of Kar and Ho [S. Kar, Y.K. Ho, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 052503
Review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas
R.K. Janev
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations, the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye–Hückel (Yukawa-type potential, characterized by the Debye screening length. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations have been carried out in the past few decades on the plasma screening effects on the electronic structure of atoms and their collision processes employing the Debye–Hückel screening model. The present article aims at providing a comprehensive review of the recent studies in atomic physics in Debye plasmas. Specifically, the work on atomic electronic structure, photon excitation and ionization, electron/positron impact excitation and ionization, and excitation, ionization and charge transfer of ion-atom/ion collisions will be reviewed.
Photoexcitation and ionization of hydrogen atom confined in Debye environment
Lumb, S.; Lumb, S.; Nautiyal, V.
2015-01-01
The dynamics of a hydrogen atom confined in an impenetrable spherical box and under the effect of Debye screening, in the presence of intense short laser pulses of few femtosecond is studied in detail. The energy spectra and wave functions have been calculated using Bernstein polynomial (B-polynomial) method. Variation of transition probabilities for various transitions due to changes in Debye screening length, confinement radius as well as the parameters characterizing applied laser pulse is studied and explained. The results are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by others. The photoexcitation and ionization of the atom strongly depend on confinement radius and screening parameter. For small confinement radii and for some values of screening parameter the atom is found to be ionized easily. The dynamics of the atom can be easily controlled by varying pulse parameters
Achromatization of Debye-Scherrer Lines
Ekstein, Hans
1951-01-01
A method is described for reducing the width of a Debye-Scherrer line produced by diffraction from a polycrystalline medium, if this width is due to the spectral impurity of the primary characteristic radiation...
Bound states of hydrogen-like ions in Debye plasma
Li Bowen; Jiang Jun; Kang Weimin; Yang Ningxuan; Dong Chenzhong
2009-01-01
The plasma screening effects on the energy levels and wave functions of hydrogen-like ions were estimated by using Debye model. The effects on n l(n=1-4, l=0-3) energy levels and wave functions of hydrogen and Fe 25+ ion versus screening lengths λ have been analyzed. Furthermore, the screening effects versus quantum number n and l has been analyzed. The results show that the screening effects increasing as n increasing and decreasing as l increasing. Last, the Eigenergies of isoelectronic series change against screening parameter λ has been discussed, it's shown that the plasma screening effects are decreasing as nuclear charge increasing. (authors)
Modified Debye screening potential in a magnetized quantum plasma
Salimullah, M.; Hussain, A.; Sara, I.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.
2009-01-01
The effects of quantum mechanical influence and uniform static magnetic field on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential in an ultracold homogeneous electron-ion Fermi plasma have been examined in detail. It is noticed that the strong quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential and the ion polarization effect can give rise to a new oscillatory behavior of the screening potential beyond the shielding cloud which could explain a new type of possible robust ordered structure formation in the quantum magnetoplasma. However, the magnetic field enhances the Debye length perpendicular to the magnetic field in the weak quantum limit of the quantum plasma.
Non-perturbative Debye mass in finite-T QCD
Kajantie, Keijo; Peisa, J; Rajantie, A; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E
1997-01-01
Employing a non-perturbative gauge invariant definition of the Debye screening mass m_D in the effective field theory approach to finite T QCD, we use 3d lattice simulations to determine the leading O(g^2) and to estimate the next-to-leading O(g^3) corrections to m_D in the high temperature region. The O(g^2) correction is large and modifies qualitatively the standard power-counting hierarchy picture of correlation lengths in high temperature QCD.
A molecular Debye-Hückel theory of solvation in polar fluids: An extension of the Born model
Xiao, Tiejun; Song, Xueyu
2017-12-01
A dielectric response theory of solvation beyond the conventional Born model for polar fluids is presented. The dielectric response of a polar fluid is described by a Born response mode and a linear combination of Debye-Hückel-like response modes that capture the nonlocal response of polar fluids. The Born mode is characterized by a bulk dielectric constant, while a Debye-Hückel mode is characterized by its corresponding Debye screening length. Both the bulk dielectric constant and the Debye screening lengths are determined from the bulk dielectric function of the polar fluid. The linear combination coefficients of the response modes are evaluated in a self-consistent way and can be used to evaluate the electrostatic contribution to the thermodynamic properties of a polar fluid. Our theory is applied to a dipolar hard sphere fluid as well as interaction site models of polar fluids such as water, where the electrostatic contribution to their thermodynamic properties can be obtained accurately.
H2+ embedded in a Debye plasma: Electronic and vibrational properties
Angel, M.L.; Montgomery, H.E.
2011-01-01
The effect of plasma screening on the electronic and vibrational properties of the H 2 + molecular ion was analyzed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. When a molecule is embedded in a plasma, the plasma screens the electrostatic interactions. This screening is accounted in the Schroedinger equation by replacing the Coulomb potentials with Yukawa potentials that incorporate the Debye length as a screening parameter. Variational expansions in confocal elliptical coordinates were used to calculate energies of the 1sσ g and 2pσ u states over a range of Debye lengths and bond distances. When the Debye length is comparable to the equilibrium bond distance, the dissociation energy is reduced while the equilibrium internuclear separation is increased. Expectation values, static dipole polarizabilities and spectroscopic constants were calculated for the 1sσ g state. - Highlights: → Effect of plasma screening on the properties of the H 2 + molecular ion. → Used a variational wavefunction in confocal elliptical coordinates. → Potential energy curves for the ground and first excited state are presented. → Decreasing Debye length increases polarizability of the electron distribution.
Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...
Unknown
From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, ... Keywords. Uranium chalcogenides; p-wave electronic superconductor; phonon frequency; Debye tempera- ture; spin ... to the ionic crystals of similar structure.
Smith, N L; Coukouma, A; Dubnik, S; Asher, S A
2017-12-06
We fabricate 2D photonic crystals (2DPC) by spreading a dispersion of charged colloidal particles (diameters = 409, 570, and 915 nm) onto the surface of electrolyte solutions using a needle tip flow method. When the interparticle electrostatic interaction potential is large, particles self-assemble into highly ordered hexagonal close packed (hcp) monolayers. Ordered 2DPC efficiently forward diffract monochromatic light to produce a Debye ring on a screen parallel to the 2DPC. The diameter of the Debye ring is inversely proportional to the 2DPC particle spacing, while the Debye ring brightness and thickness depends on the 2DPC ordering. The Debye ring thickness increases as the 2DPC order decreases. The Debye ring ordering measurements of 2DPC attached to glass slides track measurements of the 2D pair correlation function order parameter calculated from SEM micrographs. The Debye ring method was used to investigate the 2DPC particle spacing, and ordering at the air-solution interface of NaCl solutions, and for 2DPC arrays attached to glass slides. Surprisingly, the 2DPC ordering does not monotonically decrease as the salt concentration increases. This is because of chloride ion adsorption onto the anionic particle surfaces. This adsorption increases the particle surface charge and compensates for the decreased Debye length of the electric double layer when the NaCl concentration is below a critical value.
Debye classes in A15 compounds
Staudenmann, J.; DeFacio, B.; Testardi, L.R.; Werner, S.A.; Fluekiger, R.; Muller, J.
1981-01-01
The comparison between electron charge-density distribution of V 3 Si, Cr 3 Si, and V 3 Ge at room temperature leads us to study the Debye temperatures at 0 0 K THETA 0 from specific-heat measurements for over 100 A15 compounds. A phenomenological THETA 0 (M), M the molecular mass, is obtained from the static scaling relation THETA 0 (M) = aM/sup b/ and this organizes all of the data into five Debye classes: V(V 3 Si), V-G, G(V 3 Ge), G-C, and C(Cr 3 Si). In contrast, the Debye temperature THETA 0 (V), with V as the unit-cell volume does not relate alloys as THETA 0 (M) does, with the exception of the C class. This latter case leads to the surprising result MproportionalV/sup approximately1/3/ and to a Grueneisen constant of 1.6 +- 0.1 for all compounds of this class. In the V class where V 3 Si and Nb 3 Sn are found, THETA 0 (V) labels these two alloys differently, as does their martensitic c/a ratios. With T-bar/sub c/ denoting the average superconducting transition temperature within a Debye class, interesting correlations are shown. One is the maximum of T-bar/sub c/ which exists in the V class where the strongest anharmonicity occurs. Another is the case of compounds formed only by transition elements up to and including Au. This interesting case shows that approx.3.2< T-bar/sub c/< approx.5.0 K in all of the five classes and that there is no correlation between T/sub c/ and the thermal properties. The implications of these observations for creating better models for the A15 compounds are briefly discussed
Plasma interaction with emmissive surface with Debye-scale grooves
Schweigert, Irina; Burton, Thomas S.; Thompson, Gregory B.; Langendorf, Samuel; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Keidar, Michael
2018-04-01
The sheath development over emissive grooved surface in dc discharge plasma controlled by an electron beam is studied in the experiment and in 2D kinetic simulations. Grooved hexagonal boron nitride surfaces with different aspect ratios, designed to mimic the erosion channels, were exposed to an argon plasma. The characteristic size of the grooves (1 mm and 5 mm) is about of the Debye length. The secondary electrons emission from the grooved surfaces is provided by the bombardment with energetic electrons originated from the heated powered cathode. The transition between a developed and a collapsed sheaths near emissive surface takes place with an increase of the beam electron energy. For grooved emissive surfaces, the sheath transition happens at essentially higher voltage compared to the planar one. This phenomenon is analyzed in the terms of the electron energy distribution function.
Numerical study of the influence of solid polarization on electrophoresis at finite Debye thickness.
Bhattacharyya, Somnath; De, Simanta
2015-09-01
The influence of solid polarization on the electrophoresis of a uniformly charged dielectric particle for finite values of the particle-to-fluid dielectric permittivity ratio is analyzed quantitatively without imposing the thin Debye length or weak-field assumption. Present analysis is based on the computation of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations in the fluid domain along with the Laplace equation within the solid. The electrophoretic velocity is determined through the balance of forces acting on the particle. The solid polarization of the charged particle produces a reduction on its electrophoretic velocity compared to a nonpolarizable particle of the same surface charge density. In accordance with the existing thin-layer analysis, our computed results for thin Debye layer shows that the solid polarization is important only when the applied electric field is strong. When the Debye length is in the order of the particle size, the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle permittivity and attains a saturation limit at large values of the permittivity. Our computed solution for electrophoretic velocity is in agreement with the existing asymptotic analyses based on a thin Debye layer for limiting cases.
Non Debye approximation on specific heat of solids
Bhattacharjee, Ruma; Das, Anamika; Sarkar, A.
2018-05-01
A simple non Debye frequency spectrum is proposed. The normalized frequency spectrum is compared to that of Debye spectrum. The proposed spectrum, provides a good account of low frequency phonon density of states, which gives a linear temperature variation at low temperature in contrast to Debye T3 law. It has been analyzed that the proposed model provides a good account of excess specific heat for nanostructure solid.
Charged particle layers in the Debye limit.
Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Kyrkos, Stamatios
2002-09-01
We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hückel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r--> infinity limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation.
Charged particle layers in the Debye limit
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Kyrkos, Stamatios
2002-01-01
We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation
An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments
Pandey, M. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.
2015-01-01
The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p ¯ ) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results
Electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: Electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations
Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigated the electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability using two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. We introduced a velocity shear layer with a thickness comparable to the electron Debye length and examined the generation of the KH instability. The KH instability occurs in a similar manner as observed in the KH instabilities in fluid or ion scales producing surface waves and rolled-up vortices. The strength and growth rate of the electron Debye scale KH instability is affected by the structure of the velocity shear layer. The strength depends on the magnitude of the velocity and the growth rate on the velocity gradient of the shear layer. However, the development of the electron Debye scale KH instability is mainly determined by the electric field generated by charge separation. Significant mixing of electrons occurs across the shear layer, and a fraction of electrons can penetrate deeply into the opposite side fairly far from the vortices across the shear layer
An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments
Pandey, M. K., E-mail: pandey@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K., E-mail: ykho@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-15
The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p{sup ¯}) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results.
H2+ embedded in a Debye plasma: Electronic and vibrational properties
Angel, M. L.; Montgomery Jr, H. E.
2010-01-01
The effect of plasma screening on the electronic and vibrational properties of the H2+ molecular ion was analyzed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. When a molecule is embedded in a plasma, the plasma screens the electrostatic interactions. This screening is accounted for in the Schr\\"odinger equation by replacing the Coulomb potentials with Yukawa potentials that incorporate the Debye length as a screening parameter. Variational expansions in confocal elliptical coordinates were used...
Wolf, C.
1993-01-01
We study the screening of a central Abelian dyon by a surrounding dyon cloud in a two potential theory of electromagnetism. A generalized formula for the Debye screening length is obtained and a Thomas - Fermi Model for a charged cloud surrounding a central Dyonic Core is studied. 20 refs
Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS
Nguyen Van Hung, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.v [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Van Hung [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ho Khac Hieu [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Frahm, Ronald R. [Bergische Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal, FB: 8-Physik, Gauss Strasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)
2011-02-01
Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. {yields} The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. {yields} Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. {yields} Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.
Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS
Nguyen Van Hung; Vu Van Hung; Ho Khac Hieu; Frahm, Ronald R.
2011-01-01
Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: → We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. → The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. → Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. → Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.
The thermo-electric nature of the Debye temperature
Mithun Bhowmick
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The Debye temperature is typically associated with the heat capacity of a solid and the cut-off of the possible lattice vibrations, but not necessarily to the electric conductivity of the material. By investigating III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors, we reveal that the Debye temperature represents a thermo-electric material parameter, connecting the thermal and electronic properties of a solid via a distinct power law.
Rigorous study of the mean field approximation of Debye and Hueckel for Coulomb systems
Kennedy, T.G.
1984-01-01
The statistical mechanics of a classical charge symmetric Coulomb system is studied in three dimensions in the limit that the plasma parameter (the inverse temperature divided by the Debye length) goes to zero. To make the system stable, a short range interaction, e.g., hard cores is included. This short range interaction is allowed to go to zero as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Debye and Hueckel used a mean field approximation to give a nonrigorous study of Coulomb systems in his limit. For a system with no external charge distribution, it is shown that the pressure, density, and correlation functions are asymptotic to their Debye-Hueckel approximations. These approximations consist of the ideal gas term plus a term of one lower order in the plasma parameter. The main tools are the Sine-Gordon transformation, the Mayer expansion, and some new correlation inequalities. The sine-Gordon transformation and the Mayer expansion are used to express the observables as functional integrals with respect to a Gaussian measure. The correlation inequalities help control these functional integrals
XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes
Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant
2007-02-01
We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained.
XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes
Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant
2007-01-01
We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained
Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals
Lawson, A.C.; Goldstone, J.A.; Cort, B.; Sheldon, R.I.; Foltyn, E.M.
1994-01-01
The authors have been using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction to determine the Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals. The Debye-Waller factor is a measure of the mean-square atomic displacement that arises from the thermal motion of the atoms in any solid. Its temperature dependence determines a Debye-Waller temperature, Θ DW , that is characteristic of the elastic properties of the solid. The data are obtained by Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction powder patterns obtained at several temperatures. The authors will present results for α-U, α-Np, α-Pu and σ-Pu 0.95 Al 0.05 . The Θ DW 's are temperature dependent, and anharmonic interatomic forces seem to be required to explain the results
Relativistic effects in hydrogenlike atoms embedded in Debye plasmas
Bielinska-Waz, D.; Karwowski, J.; Saha, B.; Mukherjee, P.K.
2004-01-01
Spectra of hydrogenlike atoms embedded in a Debye plasma are investigated. The state energies and the transition rates are studied using a fully relativistic formalism based on the Dirac equation. The effect of the plasma is described by introducing an exponential screening to the nuclear Coulomb potential (the Debye screening). Systematic trends with respect to both the nuclear charge and the screening parameter are observed for all calculated quantities. The pattern of splittings of ns 1/2 , np 1/2 and np 3/2 is modified in a specific way due to the combined relativity and plasma effect. The transition rates decrease with an increase of the Debye parameter as well as with an increase of Z
Calculating Debye potentials from data on I or H
Torrence, R.J.
1982-01-01
Using the formalism of Cohen and Kegeles equations are obtained for arbitrary spin radiation field Debye potentials in Reissner-Nordstrom geometries, and a formal series solution is presented. For the case of integer spin the series is modified to what appears to be am more natural form. In the particular case of vanishing spin it is shown that in some important cases the modified series converges to a solution of the Debye potential equation, which is the scalar wave equation, and is simply related to characteristic initial data given on either H or I. (author)
Debye-Waller Factor in Neutron Scattering by Ferromagnetic Metals
Paradezhenko, G. V.; Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.
2018-04-01
We obtain an expression for the neutron scattering cross section in the case of an arbitrary interaction of the neutron with the crystal. We give a concise, simple derivation of the Debye-Waller factor as a function of the scattering vector and the temperature. For ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we estimate the Debye-Waller factor in the range of scattering vectors characteristic of polarized magnetic neutron scattering experiments. In the example of iron, we compare the results of harmonic and anharmonic approximations.
Classical anomalous absorption in strongly magnetized plasmas and effective shielding length
Matsuda, K.
1981-01-01
The high-frequency conductivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field has been evaluated. An anomalous perpendicular conductivity is obtained for a strongly magnetized plasma. Contrarily to the previous prediction, the effective shielding length is found to be the Debye length even when the Debye length is larger than the electron gyroradius. The effective shielding length is further discussed by presenting the generalized Balescu-Lenard equation
Li, Jun; Zhang, Song Bin; Ye, Bang Jiao; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.
2017-09-01
Low-energy electron elastic scattering and impact ionization with hydrogenlike helium in Debye plasmas have been investigated by employing the exterior complex scaling method. The interactions between charged particles in the plasmas have been represented by Debye-Hückel potentials. The 1 s -1 s elastic collision strengths below the n =2 excitation threshold of He+ dominated by resonance structures are calculated for different screening lengths. As the screening strength increases, the resonance peaks studied [2(1,0) 2 +1Se,3Po,1De , and 2(0,1) 2 +1Po] exhibit blueshifts and then redshifts with a further increase of the screening strength, which results in dramatic changes of the collision strengths. It is found that these dynamic variation features of the resonances are related to the changes of energy levels of He+ in the screened potential and geometric configurations of resonances. Triple-differential-ionization cross sections in coplanar geometries at 6-Ry incident electron energy are also reported, significant changes are observed with varying screening length.
Debye-scale solitary structures measured in a beam-plasma laboratory experiment
B. Lefebvre
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary electrostatic pulses have been observed in numerous places of the magnetosphere such as the vicinity of reconnection current sheets, shocks or auroral current systems, and are often thought to be generated by energetic electron beams. We present results of a series of experiments conducted at the UCLA large plasma device (LAPD where a suprathermal electron beam was injected parallel to a static magnetic field. Micro-probes with tips smaller than a Debye length enabled the detection of solitary pulses with positive electric potential and half-widths 4–25 Debye lengths (λ_{De}, over a set of experiments with various beam energies, plasma densities and magnetic field strengths. The shape, scales and amplitudes of the structures are similar to those observed in space, and consistent with electron holes. The dependance of these properties on the experimental parameters is shown. The velocities of the solitary structures (1–3 background electron thermal velocities are found to be much lower than the beam velocities, suggesting an excitation mechanism driven by parallel currents associated to the electron beam.
K. A. Shapovalov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the light scattering problem of biological objects of complicated structure.It considers optically “soft” (having a refractive index close to that of a surrounding medium homogeneous cylindrical capsules, composed of three parts: central one that is cylindrical and two symmetrical rounding end caps. Such capsules can model more broad class of biological objects than the ordinary shapes of a spheroid or sphere. But, unfortunately, if a particle has other than a regular geometrical shape, then it is very difficult or impossible to solve the scattering problem analytically in its most general form that oblige us to use numerical and approximate analytical methods. The one of such approximate analytical method is the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation (or the first Born approximation.So, the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for different objects having size from nanometer to millimeter and depending on wave length and refractive index of an object under small phase shift of central ray.The formulas for light scattering amplitude of cylindrical capsule with arbitrary end caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation in scalar form are obtained. Then the light scattering phase function [or element of scattering matrix f11] for natural incident light (unpolarized or arbitrary polarized light is calculated.Numerical results for light scattering phase functions of cylindrical capsule with conical, spheroidal, paraboloidal ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation are compared. Also numerical results for light scattering phase function of cylindrical capsule with conical ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and in the method of Purcell-Pennypacker (or Discrete Dipole method are compared. The good agreement within an application range of the RayleighGans-Debye approximation is obtained.Further continuation of the work, perhaps, is a consideration of multilayer cylindrical capsule in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye
Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...
Phonon dispersion relations in uranium chalcogenides have been investigated using a modified three-body force shell model. From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, on the basis of the spin fluctuation in the heavy fermion uranium compounds, UPt3 and UBe13, the possible ...
Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinetics
Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.
1990-01-01
Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to introduce the efeects of random zero-point fields, characteristics of classical stochastic electrodynamics. As a result, the Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely undulatory theory, that is, without having to consider the corpuscular character of the photon. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
Electron-hydrogen scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense plasmas has been investigated using the convergent-close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe the plasma screening effects. The target structure, excitation dynamics, and ionization process change dramatically as the screening is increased. Excitation cross sections for the 1s→2s,2p,3s,3p,3d and 2s→2p,3s,3p,3d transitions and total and total ionization cross sections for the scattering from the 1s and 2s states are presented. Calculations cover the energy range from thresholds to high energies (250 eV) for various Debye lengths. We find that as the screening increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Study of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas
Lin Chang; Zhao Jinbao; Zhang Xiulian
2000-01-01
The nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas is investigated. New analytical solutions for the three-dimensional Poisson equation have been obtained for the nonlinear Debye potential for the first time. We derive exact analytical expression for the special case of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas. (orig.)
Stark shifts and widths of a hydrogen atom in Debye plasmas
Yu, A.C.H.; Ho, Y.K.
2005-01-01
A computational scheme has been developed and used to investigate the influence of the plasma environments on modified atomic autoionization for isolated atoms/ions by using the complex coordinate rotation method which is proved to be a very simple and powerful tool to analyze the position and the width of a resonance. The Debye screening potential is employed to describe the effects of the plasma environments. Stark shifts and widths on the ground state of hydrogen are reported for field strength up to F=0.12 a.u. Slater-type basis wave functions are used to describe the system and angular-momentum states up to L=11 are included when the external electric field is turned on. Converged results are obtained by using different maximum angular-momentum states. The modified autoionization for various Debye lengths ranging from infinite to a small value of 0.86 are reported. It has been observed that for a given temperature and under the influence of a given external electric field, the resonance energy and the autoionization width increase for increasing electron density in the plasma. A discussion on the physical implication of our results is made
Screening length in dusty plasma crystals
Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V
2016-01-01
Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)
Electron impact excitation of helium in Debye plasma
Diallo, S.; Gomis, L.; Faye, I. G.; Tall, M. S.; Diédhiou, I. [Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences and Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Diatta, C. S. [Institut International des Sciences et de Technologie, 28 Avenue des Ambassadeurs Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Zammit, M. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)
2015-03-15
The probability, differential, and integral scattering cross sections of the 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}S and 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}P transitions of helium have been calculated in the first Born approximation. The projectile-target interactions depending on the temperature and the density of plasma are described by the Debye-Hückel model. Wave functions of the target before and after collision were modeled by non orthogonal Hartree-Fock orbitals. The wave functions parameters are calculated with the Ritz variational method. We improve our unscreened first Born approximation integral cross sections by using the BE-scaled (B stands for binding energy and E excitation energy) method. The second Born approximation has also been used to calculate the excitation cross sections in Debye plasma. Our calculations are compared to other theoretical and experimental results where applicable.
Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system
Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.
1994-01-01
We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself
Bernoulli Numbers: from Ada Lovelace to the Debye Functions
Sparavigna , Amelia Carolina
2016-01-01
Jacob Bernoulli owes his fame for the numerous contributions to calculus and for his discoveries in the field of probability. Here we will discuss one of his contributions to the theory of numbers, the Bernoulli numbers. They were proposed as a case study by Ada Lovelace in her analysis of Menabrea's report on Babbage Analytical Engine. It is probable that it was this Lovelace's work, that inspired Hans Thirring in using the Bernoulli numbers in the calculus of the Debye functions.
Osman, Frederick; Ghahramani, Nader; Hora, Heinrich
2005-10-01
The studies of laser ablation have lead to a new theory of nuclei, endothermic nuclei generation, and quark-gluon plasmas. The surface of ablated plasma expanding into vacuum after high power laser irradiation of targets contains an electric double layer having the thickness of the Debye length. This led to the discovery of surface tension in plasmas, and led to the internal dynamic electric fields in all inhomogeneous plasmas. The surface tension causes stabilization by short length surface wave smoothing the expanding plasma plume and to stabilization against the Rayleigh Taylor instability. Generalizing this to the degenerate electrons in a metal with the Fermi energy instead of the temperature resulted in the first quantum theory of surface tension of metals in agreement with measurements. Taking the Fermi energy in the Debye length for nucleons results in a theory of nuclei with stable confinement of protons and neutrons just at the well-known nuclear density, and the Debye lengths equal to the Hofstadter decay of the nuclear surface. Increasing the nuclear density by a factor of 10 leads to a change of the Fermi energy into its relativistic branch where no surface energy is possible and the particle mass is not defined, permitting the quark gluon plasma. Expansion of this higher density at the big bang or in super-nova results in nucleation and element generation. The Boltzmann equilibrium permits the synthesis of nuclei even in the endothermic range, however with the limit to about uranium. A relation for the magic numbers leads to a quark structure of nuclear shells that can be understood as a duality property of nuclei with respect to nucleons and quarks
Van Hung, Nguyen, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hue, Trinh Thi [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khoa, Ha Dang [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vuong, Dinh Quoc [Quang Ninh Education & Training Department, Nguyen Van Cu, Ha Long, Quang Ninh (Viet Nam)
2016-12-15
High-order expanded interatomic effective potential and Debye-Waller factors (DWFs) for local vibrational amplitudes in X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of bcc crystals have been studied based on the anharmonic correlated Debye model. DWFs are presented in terms of cumulant expansion up to the fourth order and the many-body effects are taken into account in the present one-dimensional model based on the first shell near neighbor contribution approach used in the derivations of the anharmonic effective potential and XAFS cumulants where Morse potential is assumed to describe the single-pair atomic interaction. Analytical expressions for the dispersion relation, correlated Debye frequency and temperature and four first temperature-dependent XAFS cumulants have been derived based on the many-body perturbation approach. Thermodynamic properties and anharmonic effects in XAFS of bcc crystals described by the obtained cumulants have been in detail discussed. The advantage and efficiency of the present theory are illustrated by good agreement of the numerical results for Mo, Fe and W with experiment.
Finite length thermal equilibria of a pure electron plasma column
Prasad, S.A.; O'Neil, T.M.
1979-01-01
The electrons of a pure electron plasma may be in thermal equilibrium with each other and still be confined by static magnetic and electric fields. Since the electrons make a significant contribution to the electric field, only certain density profiles are consistent with Poisson's equation. The class of such distributions for a finite length cylindrical column is investigated. In the limit where the Debye length is small compared with the dimensions of the column, the density is essentially constant out to some surface of revolution and then falls off abruptly. The falloff in density is a universal function when measured along the local normal to the surface of revolution and scaled in terms of the Debye length. The solution for the shape of the surface of revolution is simplified by passage to the limit of zero Debye length
Cruceru, I; Nicolescu, G [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia - Hulubei' , PO Box MG - 6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Duliu, O G [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, PO Box MG-II, 077125 Magurele (Romania)
2008-11-01
Coherent scattering of neutrinos on high Debye temperature monocrystals represent an alternative to detect solar as well as other high flux neutrino sources such as nuclear reactors or nuclear tests. Therefore, the possibility of detecting neutrinos by using sapphire monocrystals is presented and analyzed. Preliminary evaluations showed that 1 MeV neutrinos with a fluency density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} could interact with a 100 g sapphire monocrystal with a force of about 10{sup -6} dyne, value measurable with a high sensitivity torsion balance. For this reason a torsion balance provided with 1 m length molybdenum or tungsten wire and an optical autocollimator able to measure small rotation angles of about 0.1 seconds of arc was designed, constructed and now is under preliminary tests. Both theoretical and practical implications of such kind of detector are presented and discussed.
Exact mean-field theory of ionic solutions: non-Debye screening
Varela, L.M.; Garcia, Manuel; Mosquera, Victor
2003-01-01
The main aim of this report is to analyze the equilibrium properties of primitive model (PM) ionic solutions in the formally exact mean-field formalism. Previously, we review the main theoretical and numerical results reported throughout the last century for homogeneous (electrolytes) and inhomogeneous (electric double layer, edl) ionic systems, starting with the classical mean-field theory of electrolytes due to Debye and Hueckel (DH). In this formalism, the effective potential is derived from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation and its asymptotic behavior analyzed in the classical Debye theory of screening. The thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions are briefly reviewed in the DH formalism. The main analytical and numerical extensions of DH formalism are revised, ranging from the earliest extensions that overcome the linearization of the PB equation to the more sophisticated integral equation techniques introduced after the late 1960s. Some Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations are also reviewed. The potential distributions in an inhomogeneous ionic system are studied in the classical PB framework, presenting the classical Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electric double layer (edl) in a brief manner. The mean-field theory is adequately contextualized using field theoretic (FT) results and it is proven that the classical PB theory is recovered at the Gaussian or one-loop level of the exact FT, and a systematic way to obtain the corrections to the DH theory is derived. Particularly, it is proven following Kholodenko and Beyerlein that corrections to DH theory effectively lead to a renormalization of charges and Debye screening length. The main analytical and numerical results for this non-Debye screening length are reviewed, ranging from asymptotic expansions, self-consistent theory, nonlinear DH results and hypernetted chain (HNC) calculations. Finally, we study the exact mean-field theory of ionic solutions, the so-called dressed-ion theory
Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P
2015-04-03
Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Numerical analysis of finite Debye-length effects in induced-charge electro-osmosis
Gregersen, Misha Marie; Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Soni, G.
2009-01-01
For a microchamber filled with a binary electrolyte and containing a flat unbiased center electrode at one wall, we employ three numerical models to study the strength of the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow rolls: (i) a full nonlinear continuum model resolving the double laye...
Electrorotation of a metal sphere immersed in an electrolyte of finite Debye length.
García-Sánchez, Pablo; Ramos, Antonio
2015-11-01
We theoretically study the rotation induced on a metal sphere immersed in an electrolyte and subjected to a rotating electric field. The rotation arises from the interaction of the field with the electric charges induced at the metal-electrolyte interface, i.e., the induced electrical double layer (EDL). Particle rotation is due to the torque on the induced dipole, and also from induced-charge electro-osmostic flow (ICEO). The interaction of the electric field with the induced dipole on the system gives rise to counterfield rotation, i.e., the direction opposite to the rotation of the electric field. ICEO generates co-field rotation of the sphere. For thin EDL, ICEO generates negligible rotation. For increasing size of EDL, co-field rotation appears and, in the limit of very thick EDL, it compensates the counter-field rotation induced by the electrical torque. We also report computations of the rotating fluid velocity field around the sphere.
Detection beyond the Debye screening length in a high-frequency nanoelectronic biosensor.
Kulkarni, Girish S; Zhong, Zhaohui
2012-02-08
Nanosensors based on the unique electronic properties of nanotubes and nanowires offer high sensitivity and have the potential to revolutionize the field of Point-of-Care (POC) medical diagnosis. The direct current (dc) detection of a wide array of organic and inorganic molecules has been demonstrated on these devices. However, sensing mechanism based on measuring changes in dc conductance fails at high background salt concentrations, where the sensitivity of the devices suffers from the ionic screening due to mobile ions present in the solution. Here, we successfully demonstrate that the fundamental ionic screening effect can be mitigated by operating single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor as a high-frequency biosensor. The nonlinear mixing between the alternating current excitation field and the molecular dipole field can generate mixing current sensitive to the surface-bound biomolecules. Electrical detection of monolayer streptavidin binding to biotin in 100 mM buffer solution is achieved at a frequency beyond 1 MHz. Theoretical modeling confirms improved sensitivity at high frequency through mitigation of the ionic screening effect. The results should promise a new biosensing platform for POC detection, where biosensors functioning directly in physiologically relevant condition are desired. © 2012 American Chemical Society
An analytical force balance model for dust particles with size up to several Debye lengths
Aussems, D. U. B.; Khrapak, S. A.; Doǧan, I.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Morgan, T. W.
2017-11-01
In this study, we developed a revised stationary force balance model for particles in the regime a / λ D < 10 . In contrast to other analytical models, the pressure and dipole force were included too, and for anisotropic plasmas, a novel contribution to the dipole moment was derived. Moreover, the Coulomb logarithm and collection cross-section were modified. The model was applied on a case study where carbon dust is formed near the plasma sheath in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI. The pressure force and dipole force were found to be significant. By tracing the equilibrium position, the particle radius was determined at which the particle deposits. The obtained particle radius agrees well with the experimentally obtained size and suggests better agreement as compared to the unrevised model.
Kortschot, R. J.; Philipse, A. P.; Erné, B. H.
2014-01-01
The electrical impedance spectrum of simple ionic solutions is measured in a parallel plate capacitor at small applied ac voltage. The influence of the ionic strength is investigated using several electrolytes at different concentrations in solvents of different dielectric constants. The electric
Size, shape, and diffusivity of a single Debye-Hückel polyelectrolyte chain in solution
Soysa, W. Chamath; Dünweg, B.; Prakash, J. Ravi
2015-08-01
Brownian dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead-spring chain model, with Debye-Hückel electrostatic interactions between the beads, are used to determine the root-mean-square end-to-end vector, the radius of gyration, and various shape functions (defined in terms of eigenvalues of the radius of gyration tensor) of a weakly charged polyelectrolyte chain in solution, in the limit of low polymer concentration. The long-time diffusivity is calculated from the mean square displacement of the centre of mass of the chain, with hydrodynamic interactions taken into account through the incorporation of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor. Simulation results are interpreted in the light of the Odjik, Skolnick, Fixman, Khokhlov, and Khachaturian blob scaling theory (Everaers et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 8, 3 (2002)) which predicts that all solution properties are determined by just two scaling variables—the number of electrostatic blobs X and the reduced Debye screening length, Y. We identify three broad regimes, the ideal chain regime at small values of Y, the blob-pole regime at large values of Y, and the crossover regime at intermediate values of Y, within which the mean size, shape, and diffusivity exhibit characteristic behaviours. In particular, when simulation results are recast in terms of blob scaling variables, universal behaviour independent of the choice of bead-spring chain parameters, and the number of blobs X, is observed in the ideal chain regime and in much of the crossover regime, while the existence of logarithmic corrections to scaling in the blob-pole regime leads to non-universal behaviour.
Photoionization of Li and Na in Debye plasma environments
Sahoo, Satyabrata; Ho, Y.K.
2006-01-01
A calculation of the photoionization cross sections is presented for alkali-metal atoms such as Li and Na in plasma environments. The computational scheme is based on the complex coordinate rotation method. A model potential formalism has been used to simplify the computational complexity of the problems of making quantitative predictions of properties and interactions of many electron systems in Debye plasmas. The plasma environment is found to appreciably influence the photoionization cross sections. In this regard the photoionization cross sections of isolated atoms are also discussed that is found to be in good agreement with the previous theoretical results. It is observed that the strong plasma screening effect remarkably alters the photoionization cross sections near the ionization threshold. The Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross sections of Na shifts toward the higher energy as the plasma screening effect increases. For Li, the Cooper minimum is uncovered in strong plasma environments. This is the first time such structures have been determined
Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma
Bhattacharya, Arka [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Kamali, M. Z. M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoshal, Arijit, E-mail: arijit98@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnavelu, K. [Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India)
2015-02-15
The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.
Dynamics of photoionization of hydrogenlike ions in Debye plasmas
Qi, Y. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.
2009-01-01
Photoionization processes for the ground state and n≤3 excited states of hydrogenlike ions embedded in a weakly coupled plasma are investigated in the entire energy range of a nonrelativistic regime. The plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles is described by the Debye-Hueckel model. The energy levels and wave functions for both the bound and continuum states are calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation numerically by the symplectic integrator. The screening of Coulomb interactions reduces the number of bound electron states, decreases their binding energies, broadens the radial distribution of electron wave functions of these states, and changes significantly the phases and the amplitudes of continuum wave functions. These changes strongly affect the dipole matrix elements between the bound and continuum states and, hence, the photoionization cross sections. The most significant effects of the screened Coulomb interactions on the energy behavior of photoionization cross sections are manifested in its low-energy behavior (Wigner threshold law), the appearance of multiple shape and virtual-state resonances when the energy levels of upper bound states enter the continuum after certain critical strength of the screening, and in the (slight) reduction of the cross section at high photon energies. All these features of the photoionization cross section are related to the short-range character of the Debye-Hueckel potential. The effects of the potential screening on the Combet-Farnoux and Cooper minima in the photoionization cross section are also investigated. Comparison of calculated photoionization cross sections with the results of other authors, when available, is made.
From single Debye-Hückel chains to polyelectrolyte solutions: Simulation results
Kremer, Kurt
1996-03-01
This lecture will present results from simulations of single weakly charged flexible chains, where the electrostatic part of the interaction is modeled by a Debye-Hückel potential,( with U. Micka, IFF, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany) as well as simulations of polyelectrolyte solutions, where the counterions are explicitly taken into account( with M. J. Stevens, Sandia Nat. Lab., Albuquerque, NM 87185-1111) ( M. J. Stevens, K. Kremer, JCP 103), 1669 (1995). The first set of the simulations is meant to clear a recent contoversy on the dependency of the persistence length LP on the screening length Γ. While the analytic theories give Lp ~ Γ^x with either x=1 or x=2, the simulations find for all experimentally accessible chain lengths a varying exponent, which is significantly smaller than 1. This causes serious doubts on the applicability of this model for weakly charged polyelectrolytes in general. The second part deals with strongly charged flexible polyelectrolytes in salt free solution. These simulations are performed for multichain systems. The full Coulomb interactions of the monomers and counterions are treated explicitly. Experimental measurements of the osmotic pressure and the structure factor are reproduced and extended. The simulations reveal a new picture of the chain structure based on calculations of the structure factor, persistence length, end-to-end distance, etc. Even at very low density, the chains show significant bending. Furthermore, the chains contract significantly before they start to overlap. We also show that counterion condensation dramatically alters the chain structure, even for a good solvent backbone.
Bo, Maolin [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Yang, Xuexian [Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou, Hunan 416000 (China); Yang, Yezi [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)
2014-11-30
Highlights: • Cohesive energy of the representative bond determines the core-level shift. • XPS derives the energy level of an isolated atom and its bulk shift. • XPS derives the local bond length, bond energy, binding energy density. • Thermal XPS resolves the Debye temperature and atomic cohesive energy. - Abstract: Numerical reproduction of the measured 4f{sub 7/2} energy shift of Ir(1 0 0), (1 1 1), and (2 1 0) solid skins turns out the following: (i) the 4f{sub 7/2} level of an isolated Ir atom shifts from 56.367 eV to 60.332 eV by 3.965 eV upon bulk formation; (ii) the local energy density increases by up to 130% and the atomic cohesive energy decreases by 70% in the skin region compared with the bulk values. Numerical match to observation of the temperature dependent energy shift derives the Debye temperature that varies from 285.2 K (Surface) to 315.2 K (Bulk). We clarified that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms cause local densification and quantum entrapment of electron binding energy, which perturbs the Hamiltonian and the core shifts in the skin region.
Debye temperature, thermal expansion, and heat capacity of TcC up to 100 GPa
Song, T., E-mail: songting@mail.lzjtu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Ma, Q. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Tian, J.H. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, X.B. [School of Physics and Information Science, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Ouyang, Y.H.; Zhang, C.L.; Su, W.F. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)
2015-01-15
Highlights: • A number of thermodynamic properties of rocksalt TcC are investigated for the first time. • The quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to take into account the thermal effect. • The pressure and temperature up to about 100 GPa and 3000 K, respectively. - Abstract: Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity of ideal stoichiometric TcC in the rocksalt structure have been studied systematically by using ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory method within the generalized gradient approximation. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered, the dependences of Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, constant-volume heat capacity, and constant-pressure heat capacity on pressure and temperature are successfully predicted. All the thermodynamic properties of TcC with rocksalt phase have been predicted in the entire temperature range from 300 to 3000 K and pressure up to 100 GPa.
One-dimensional conduction through supporting electrolytes: two-scale cathodic Debye layer.
Almog, Yaniv; Yariv, Ehud
2011-10-01
Supporting-electrolyte solutions comprise chemically inert cations and anions, produced by salt dissolution, together with a reactive ionic species that may be consumed and generated on bounding ion-selective surfaces (e.g., electrodes or membranes). Upon application of an external voltage, a Faraday current is thereby established. It is natural to analyze this ternary-system process through a one-dimensional transport problem, employing the thin Debye-layer limit. Using a simple model of ideal ion-selective membranes, we have recently addressed this problem for moderate voltages [Yariv and Almog, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176101 (2010)], predicting currents that scale as a fractional power of Debye thickness. We address herein the complementary problem of moderate currents. We employ matched asymptotic expansions, separately analyzing the two inner thin Debye layers adjacent to the ion-selective surfaces and the outer electroneutral region outside them. A straightforward calculation following comparable singular-perturbation analyses of binary systems is frustrated by the prediction of negative ionic concentrations near the cathode. Accompanying numerical simulations, performed for small values of Debye thickness, indicate a number unconventional features occurring at that region, such as inert-cation concentration amplification and electric-field intensification. The current-voltage correlation data of the electrochemical cell, obtained from compilation of these simulations, does not approach a limit as the Debye thickness vanishes. Resolution of these puzzles reveals a transformation of the asymptotic structure of the cathodic Debye layer. This reflects the emergence of an internal boundary layer, adjacent to the cathode, wherein field and concentration scaling differs from those of the Gouy-Chapman theory. The two-scale feature of the cathodic Debye layer is manifested through a logarithmic voltage scaling with Debye thickness. Accounting for this scaling, the
Escande, D F; Elskens, Yves; Doveil, F
2015-01-01
The derivation of Debye shielding and Landau damping from the N-body description of plasmas is performed directly by using Newton’s second law for the N-body system. This is done in a few steps with elementary calculations using standard tools of calculus and no probabilistic setting. Unexpectedly, Debye shielding is encountered together with Landau damping. This approach is shown to be justified in the one-dimensional case when the number of particles in a Debye sphere becomes large. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping and chaos due to Langmuir waves. On top of their well-known production of collisional transport, the repulsive deflections of electrons are shown to produce shielding, in such a way that each particle is shielded by all other ones, while keeping in uninterrupted motion. (paper)
An Investigation on the He−(1s2s2 2S Resonance in Debye Plasmas
Arijit Ghoshal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of Debye plasma on the 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states in the scattering of electron from helium atom has been investigated within the framework of the stabilization method. The interactions among the charged particles in Debye plasma have been modelled by Debye–Huckel potential. The 1 s 2 s excited state of the helium atom has been treated as consisting of a H e + ionic core plus an electron moving around. The interaction between the core and the electron has then been modelled by a model potential. It has been found that the background plasma environment significantly affects the resonance states. To the best of our knowledge, such an investigation of 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states of the electron–helium system embedded in Debye plasma environment is the first reported in the literature.
Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.
2000-01-01
The correlation between the temperature dependence of elastic moduli and the Debye temperature of paramagnetic metal is analyzed in neglect of the temperature dependence of the Poison coefficient σ within the frames of the Debye-Grueneisen presentations. It is shown, that namely the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli determines primarily the temperature dependence of the Debye temperature Θ(T). On the other hand, the temperature dependence Θ(T) very weakly effects the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. The later made it possible to formulate the self-consistent approach to calculation of the elastic moduli temperature dependence. The numerical estimates of this dependence parameters are conducted by the example of the all around compression modulus of the paramagnetic lutetium [ru
Debye shielding in a dusty plasma with nonextensively distributed electrons and ions
Liu, Y.; Xu, K.; Liu, S. Q.
2012-01-01
The phenomenon of Debye shielding in dusty plasmas is investigated within the framework of nonextensively distributed electrons and ions. The effects of dust grain charge fluctuation are considered. It shows that the increase of the nonextensive parameters of electrons and ions will lead to the decrease of the shielding distance and it is due to that the effective temperature of nonextensively distributed particles drops with the increase of nonextensive parameters. There is a rather interesting result that the Debye shielding effects may vanish in a certain condition when the fluctuation of the dust grain charges is taken into account.
The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium
Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente
1976-01-01
The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi......-harmonic approximations and results of previous experiments....
Filippov, A V
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to a careful study of two charge interaction in an equilibrium plasma within the Debye approximation. The effect of external boundary conditions for the electric field strength and potential on the electrostatic force is studied. The problem is solved by the method of potential decomposition into Legendre polynomials up to the fifth multipole term included. It is shown that the effect of attraction of identically charged macroparticles is explained by the influence of the external boundary. When the size of a calculation cell is increased the attraction effect disappears and the electrostatic force is well described by the screened Debye-Hückel potential. (paper)
Thermodynamics of Binary Mixed Crystals in the Sub-quasi-chemical/Debye Approximation
van der Kemp, W. J. M.; Verdonk, M. L.
1995-03-01
A new statistical model for the description of the thermodynamic properties of binary mixed crystals is discussed. The model is based on an asymmetrical analogue of the quasi-chemical approximation and the Debye model of a solid. With two interchange -energy parameters and two interchange-Debye-temperature parameters, all important thermodynamic functions, at constant volume, of the binary mixed crystal can be calculated as a function of temperature and composition. The binary system {( 1 - x)Nai + xKI}(s) is used for illustration of the model.
Fundamental length and relativistic length
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...
Modelling the X-ray powder diffraction of nitrogen-expanded austenite using the Debye formula
Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny
2008-01-01
Stress-free and homogeneous samples of nitrogen-expanded austenite, a defect-rich f.c.c. structure with a high interstitial nitrogen occupancy (between 0.36 and 0.61), have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Debye simulations. The simulations confirm the presence of deformation...... to be indistinguishable to X-ray powder diffraction....
A gradient approximation for calculating Debye temperatures from pairwise interatomic potentials
Jackson, D.P.
1975-09-01
A simple gradient approximation is given for calculating the effective Debye temperature of a cubic crystal from central pairwise interatomic potentials. For examples of the Morse potential applied to cubic metals the results are in generally good agreement with experiment. (author)
Slavchov, Radomir I
2014-04-28
If the molecules of a given solvent possess significant quadrupolar moment, the macroscopic Maxwell equations must involve the contribution of the density of the quadrupolar moment to the electric displacement field. This modifies the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and all consequences from it. In this work, the structure of the diffuse atmosphere around an ion dissolved in quadrupolarizable medium is analyzed by solving the quadrupolar variant of the Coulomb-Ampere's law of electrostatics. The results are compared to the classical Debye-Hückel theory. The quadrupolar version of the Debye-Hückel potential of a point charge is finite even in r = 0. The ion-quadrupole interaction yields a significant expansion of the diffuse atmosphere of the ion and, thus, it decreases the Debye-Hückel energy. In addition, since the dielectric permittivity of the electrolyte solutions depends strongly on concentration, the Born energy of the dissolved ions alters with concentration, which has a considerable contribution to the activity coefficient γ± known as the self-salting-out effect. The quadrupolarizability of the medium damps strongly the self-salting-out of the electrolyte, and thus it affects additionally γ±. Comparison with experimental data for γ± for various electrolytes allows for the estimation of the quadrupolar length of water: LQ ≈ 2 Å, in good agreement with previous assessments. The effect of quadrupolarizability is especially important in non-aqueous solutions. Data for the activity of NaBr in methanol is used to determine the quadrupolarizability of methanol with good accuracy.
Poznanski, Roman R
2010-02-01
An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25
Pradhan, T.
1975-01-01
The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)
Chen, Zhanbin
2018-05-01
Plasma-screening effects on the 1s _{1/2} → 2l (l = s , p ) and 1s _{1/2} → 3d _{3/2} electron-impact excitation of highly charged ions are investigated, together with their subsequent radiative decay. The analysis is performed based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and the fully relativistic distorted-wave method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential. To explore the nature of the effects, calculations are carried out based on detailed analyses of the integrated total and magnetic sublevel cross sections, the alignment parameters, the linear polarizations, and the angular distribution of the X-ray photoemission, as well as on corresponding data calculated in various Debye lengths/environments, taking the 2p _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} and 3d _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} characteristic lines of H-like Fe^{25+} ion as an example. The present results are compared with experimental data and other theoretical predictions where available.
Doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H− in Debye plasmas
Jiao, L. G.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We investigate the doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H − system in Debye plasmas modeled by static screened Coulomb potentials. The screening effects of the plasma environment on resonance parameters (energy and width) are investigated by employing the complex-scaling method with Hylleraas-type wave functions for both the shape and Feshbach resonances associated with the H(N = 2 to 6) thresholds. Under the screening conditions, the H(N) threshold states are no longer l degenerate, and all the H − resonance energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum. The influence of Debye plasmas on resonance widths has also been investigated. The shape resonance widths are broadened with increasing plasma screening strength, whereas the Feshbach resonance widths would generally decrease. Our results associated with the H(N = 2) and H(N = 3) thresholds are compared with others in the literature
The Debye-Hückel theory and its importance in modeling electrolyte solutions
Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj
2018-01-01
A colleague at the Technical University of Denmark has often stated: “Life is too short for electrolytes”. Another well-known scientist in the field of molecular simulation has recently said during an international Thermodynamics conference: “All my life I have tried to keep myself away from water...... and electrolytes”. Sadly, what these statements correctly imply is that there are far too many unclear questions and concepts in electrolyte thermodynamics, and associated difficulties in modeling electrolyte solutions. In this work, we attempt to shed some light on some important concepts and misconceptions...... are omitted. We first discuss the peculiarities of electrolyte thermodynamics and associated modeling and continue with the derivation of the Debye-Hückel theory. The assumptions and limits of application of Debye-Hückel are discussed in particular. Next, the Born term and its significance and implications...
Panigrahy, N N [Siddartha Nagar 2, Berhampur (India); Mahapatra, D [T.T. College, Ganjam (India); Panda, B N [DAV College, Koraput (India); Rout, G C [Govt. Science College, Ganjam (India)
2006-04-15
The interplay between superconductivity (SC) and antiferromagnetism (AFM) is studied in strongly correlated systems: R{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (R = Nd, La, Pr. Gd; M = Sr, Ce) due to electron-phonon interaction, It is assumed that SC arises due to BCS pairing mechanism in presence of AFM in Cu lattices of Cu-O planes, Debye frequency {omega}{sub D} dependence of high temperature SC gap as well as staggered magnetic field at different temperatures are calculated analytically and solved self-consistently with respect to half-filled band situation for different model parameters (temperature parameter {theta} and hybridization parameter {nu}, {lambda}{sub 1} and {lambda}{sub 2} being the SC and AF coupling parameters, respectively). The SC gap and AFM gap are studied in their coexistence phase for different Debye frequencies. (author)
Debye frequency and interplay of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in high Tc superconductors
Panigrahy, N.N.; Mahapatra, D.; Panda, B.N.; Rout, G.C.
2006-01-01
The interplay between superconductivity (SC) and antiferromagnetism (AFM) is studied in strongly correlated systems: R 2-x M x CuO 4 (R = Nd, La, Pr. Gd; M = Sr, Ce) due to electron-phonon interaction, It is assumed that SC arises due to BCS pairing mechanism in presence of AFM in Cu lattices of Cu-O planes, Debye frequency ω D dependence of high temperature SC gap as well as staggered magnetic field at different temperatures are calculated analytically and solved self-consistently with respect to half-filled band situation for different model parameters (temperature parameter θ and hybridization parameter ν, λ 1 and λ 2 being the SC and AF coupling parameters, respectively). The SC gap and AFM gap are studied in their coexistence phase for different Debye frequencies. (author)
On the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering
Garcia, N.; Maradudin, A.A.; Celli, V.
1982-01-01
A theory for the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering is presented, to lowest order in the phonon contributions. Multiple-scattering effects as well as the cross-correlated surface atom displacements are included. The theory accounts for experimental data without the necessity of introducing the Armand effect, which is due to the finite size of the incident atom. The work presented here implies that the Kirchhoff approximation fails when the energy of the incident particle is in the energy range of the phonon spectrum. The results of the calculation are presented in the high-temperature limit, and it is observed that the Rayleigh surface phonons contribute three-quarters of the Debye-Waller factor, while the bulk phonons account for the rest. This result is interesting because the calculation of the former contribution is simpler than that of the latter. (author)
Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem
Pisarski, R.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1997-09-22
The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.
Quantum Debye-Hueckel theory and the possible plasma phase transition
Baker, G. Jr.
1998-01-01
In this paper the author first sketches the calculation of the pressure of a neutral, ion-electron gas as an expansion in powers of the electron charge, e, by means of the Matsubara, finite-temperature, many-body, perturbation theory. He then goes on to derive the Debye-Hue term and other equations to support his contentions. His results support but do not prove the existence of a phase transition
Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model
Sako, Tokuei; Okutsu, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2005-01-01
The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)
Volume dependence of the melting temperature for alkali metals with Debye's model
Soma, T.; Kagaya, H.M.; Nishigaki, M.
1983-01-01
Using the volume dependence of the Grueneisen constant at higher temperatures, the volume effect on the melting temperature of alkali metals is studied by Lindeman's melting law and Debye's model. The obtained melting curve increases as a function of the compressed volume and shows the maximum of the melting point at the characteristic volume. The resultant data are qualitatively in agreement with the observed tendency for alkali metals. (author)
Lattice dynamical appraisal of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors in graphite lattice
Haridasan, T.M.; Sathyamurthy, G.
1989-12-01
The Debye-Waller factors in graphite for the atomic motions within the basal plane and also across the basal planes have been calculated using the various lattice dynamical models available to date and a critical comparison is made with the existing experimental data from X ray and neutron scattering studies. The present study reveals the need for further investigation on the nature of atomic motion across the basal planes. (author). 15 refs, 1 tab
The thermo-elastic instability model of melting of alkali halides in the Debye approximation
Owens, Frank J.
2018-05-01
The Debye model of lattice vibrations of alkali halides is used to show that there is a temperature below the melting temperature where the vibrational pressure exceeds the electrostatic pressure. The onset temperature of this thermo-elastic instability scales as the melting temperature of NaCl, KCl, and KBr, suggesting its role in the melting of the alkali halides in agreement with a previous more rigorous model.
A genetic algorithm for optimizing multi-pole Debye models of tissue dielectric properties
Clegg, J; Robinson, M P
2012-01-01
Models of tissue dielectric properties (permittivity and conductivity) enable the interactions of tissues and electromagnetic fields to be simulated, which has many useful applications in microwave imaging, radio propagation, and non-ionizing radiation dosimetry. Parametric formulae are available, based on a multi-pole model of tissue dispersions, but although they give the dielectric properties over a wide frequency range, they do not convert easily to the time domain. An alternative is the multi-pole Debye model which works well in both time and frequency domains. Genetic algorithms are an evolutionary approach to optimization, and we found that this technique was effective at finding the best values of the multi-Debye parameters. Our genetic algorithm optimized these parameters to fit to either a Cole–Cole model or to measured data, and worked well over wide or narrow frequency ranges. Over 10 Hz–10 GHz the best fits for muscle, fat or bone were each found for ten dispersions or poles in the multi-Debye model. The genetic algorithm is a fast and effective method of developing tissue models that compares favourably with alternatives such as the rational polynomial fit. (paper)
Lu Xiaogang; Selleby, Malin; Sundman, Bo
2007-01-01
The thermal expansivities and heat capacities of MX (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta; X = C, N) carbides and nitrides with NaCl structure were calculated using the Debye-Grueneisen model combined with ab initio calculations. Two different approximations for the Grueneisen parameter γ were used in the Debye-Grueneisen model, i.e. the expressions proposed by Slater and by Dugdale and MacDonald. The thermal electronic contribution was evaluated from ab initio calculations of the electronic density of states. The calculated results were compared with CALPHAD assessments and experimental data. It was found that the calculations using the Dugdale-MacDonald γ can account for most of the experimental data. By fitting experimental heat capacity and thermal expansivity data below the Debye temperatures, an estimation of Poisson's ratio was obtained and Young's and shear moduli were evaluated. In order to reach a reasonable agreement with experimental data, it was necessary to use the logarithmic averaged mass of the constituent atoms. The agreements between the calculated and the experimental values for the bulk and Young's moduli are generally better than the agreement for shear modulus
Calculation of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline materials
MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Gamboa, E. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Drake, R. P. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, Applied Physics, and Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2016-06-07
Calculations of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from polycrystalline materials have typically been done in the limit of small deviatoric stresses. Although these methods are well suited for experiments conducted near hydrostatic conditions, more robust models are required to diagnose the large strain anisotropies present in dynamic compression experiments. A method to predict Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns for arbitrary strains has been presented in the Voigt (iso-strain) limit [Higginbotham, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 174906 (2014)]. Here, we present a method to calculate Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline samples in the Reuss (iso-stress) limit. This analysis uses elastic constants to calculate lattice strains for all initial crystallite orientations, enabling elastic anisotropy and sample texture effects to be modeled directly. The effects of probing geometry, deviatoric stresses, and sample texture are demonstrated and compared to Voigt limit predictions. An example of shock-compressed polycrystalline diamond is presented to illustrate how this model can be applied and demonstrates the importance of including material strength when interpreting diffraction in dynamic compression experiments.
Ion-collecting sphere in a stationary, weakly magnetized plasma with finite shielding length
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H
2007-01-01
Collisionless ion collection by a negatively biased stationary spherical probe in a finite shielding length plasma is investigated using the Particle in Cell code SCEPTIC, in the presence of a weak magnetic field B. The overall effect of the magnetic field is to reduce the ion current, linearly in |B| for weak enough fields, with a slope steepness increasing with the electron Debye length. The angular current distribution and space-charge buildup strongly depend on the focusing properties of the probe, hence on its potential and the plasma shielding length. In particular, it is found that the concavity of the ion collection flux distribution can reverse sign when the electron Debye length is comparable to or larger than the probe radius (λ De ∼> r p ), provided the ion temperature is much lower than the probe bias (T i p )
Static correlation lengths in QCD at high temperatures and finite densities
Hart, A; Philipsen, O
2000-01-01
We use a perturbatively derived effective field theory and three-dimensional lattice simulations to determine the longest static correlation lengths in the deconfined QCD plasma phase at high temperatures (T\\gsim 2 Tc) and finite densities (\\mu\\lsim 4 T). For vanishing chemical potential, we refine a previous determination of the Debye screening length, and determine the dependence of different correlation lengths on the number of massless flavours as well as on the number of colours. For non-vanishing but small chemical potential, the existence of Debye screening allows us to carry out simulations corresponding to the full QCD with two (or three) massless dynamical flavours, in spite of a complex action. We investigate how the correlation lengths in the different quantum number channels change as the chemical potential is switched on.
Bruls, R.; Hintzen, H.T.; Metselaar, R.
2005-01-01
The value of the Debye temperature of the acoustic modes, as required in the application of Slack's approximation [G. A. Slack, Solid State Physics, edited by F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, and H. Ehrenreich, (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 34, pp. 1-71] for the thermal conductivity, is not always available. It is shown that for these cases, the value at the minimum of the curve of the Debye temperature versus the temperature obtained from specific-heat data, gives a good approximation
Hopefully, the new year will bring more good than our little faith allows us ... to such an extent that the Royal Academy of Sciences has awarded you the Nobel Prize ... ended in Europe in 1939, during the turmoil of the Second World War.
Low temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions described by Debye-Einstein integrals.
Gamsjäger, Ernst; Wiessner, Manfred
2018-01-01
Thermodynamic data of various crystalline solids are assessed from low temperature heat capacity measurements, i.e., from almost absolute zero to 300 K by means of semi-empirical models. Previous studies frequently present fit functions with a large amount of coefficients resulting in almost perfect agreement with experimental data. It is, however, pointed out in this work that special care is required to avoid overfitting. Apart from anomalies like phase transformations, it is likely that data from calorimetric measurements can be fitted by a relatively simple Debye-Einstein integral with sufficient precision. Thereby, reliable values for the heat capacities, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies at T = 298.15 K are obtained. Standard thermodynamic functions of various compounds strongly differing in the number of atoms in the formula unit can be derived from this fitting procedure and are compared to the results of previous fitting procedures. The residuals are of course larger when the Debye-Einstein integral is applied instead of using a high number of fit coefficients or connected splines, but the semi-empiric fit coefficients keep their meaning with respect to physics. It is suggested to use the Debye-Einstein integral fit as a standard method to describe heat capacities in the range between 0 and 300 K so that the derived thermodynamic functions are obtained on the same theory-related semi-empiric basis. Additional fitting is recommended when a precise description for data at ultra-low temperatures (0-20 K) is requested.
Ionization potential depression and optical spectra in a Debye plasma model
Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Reinholz, Heidi; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich
2017-11-01
We show how optical spectra in dense plasmas are determined by the shift of energy levels as well as the broadening owing to collisions with the plasma particles. In lowest approximation, the interaction with the plasma particles is described by the RPA dielectric function, leading to the Debye shift of the continuum edge. The bound states remain nearly un-shifted, their broadening is calculated in Born approximation. The role of ionization potential depression as well as the Inglis-Teller effect are shown. The model calculations have to be improved going beyond the lowest (RPA) approximation when applying to WDM spectra.
Elf, F; Artus, G R J; Roth, S
2002-01-01
The expected diffraction patterns of the new powder diffractometer SPODI, currently under construction at the FRM-II in Garching, will be smeared Debye-Scherrer rings as depicted by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. To overcome this disadvantage, a concept based on the combination of MC simulations and empirical approximation methods is developed to reverse the smearing by deconvolution and then summing up along the rings, including corrections for different arc lengths, resulting in conventional one-dimensional diffraction patterns suitable for Rietveld-refinement programs without further processing. (orig.)
Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models
Diver, D A; Laing, E W
2015-01-01
The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)
Thermal behaviour of the Debye-Waller factor and the specific heat of anharmonic crystals
Lima, R.A.T. de; Tsallis, C.
1979-08-01
The influence of the cubic and quartic crystalline anharmonicity on the classical and quantum thermal behaviour of the specific heat, Debye temperaturetheta, Debye-Waller factor W, crystalline expansion and phonon spectrum is studied, within the framework of the Variational Method in Statistical Mechanics. The sistems, mainly focalized are the single oscillator, the mono-atomic linear chain and simple cubic crystal. The trial Hamiltonian is an harmonic one, therefore the various anharmonic influences are mainly absorbed into the renormalization of theta(T). Several differences between the classical and quantum results are exhibited. Satisfactory qualitative agreement with experience was obtained in the low-temperature regime, in particular in what concerns the existence of a minimum in theta(T) which has been observed in Cu, Al, Ag, Au and Pb. For the intermediate-temperature regime the customary linear behaviour of W(T) (hence theta(T) almost constant) is reobtained. Finally in the high-temperature regime, the present treatment leads to a √T - dependence for the W-factor, which implies in the wrong curvature with respect to experimental data. A possible explanation of this disagreement might be related to the melting phenomenon, which is not covered by the present theory. (Author) [pt
Ab Initio Calculation of XAFS Debye-Waller Factors for Crystalline Materials
Dimakis, Nicholas
2007-02-01
A direct an accurate technique for calculating the thermal X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) Debye-Waller factors (DWF) for materials of crystalline structure is presented. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid X3LYP functional, a library of MnO spin—optimized clusters are built and their phonon spectrum properties are calculated; these properties in the form of normal mode eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors are in turn used for calculation of the single and multiple scattering XAFS DWF. DWF obtained via this technique are temperature dependent expressions and can be used to substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters when experimental spectra are fitted with a hypothetical structure without any ad hoc assumptions. Due to the high computational demand a hybrid approach of mixing the DFT calculated DWF with the correlated Debye model for inner and outer shells respectively is presented. DFT obtained DWFs are compared with corresponding values from experimental XAFS spectra on manganosite. The cluster size effect and the spin parameter on the DFT calculated DWFs are discussed.
Analytic Debye-Grüneisen equation of state for a generalized Lennard-Jones solids
孙久勋; 吴强; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦
2003-01-01
The approximate method to treat the practical quantum anharmonic solids proposed by Hardy,Lacks and Shukla is reformulated with explicit physical meanings.It is shown that the quantum effect is important at low temperature,it can be treated in the harmonic framework; and the anharmonic effect is important at high temperature and tends to zero at low temperature,it can be treated by using a classical approximation.The alternative formulation is easier for various applications,and is applied to a Debye-Gruneisen solid with the generalized Lennard-Jones intermolecular interaction.The expressions for the Debye temperature and Gruneisen parameter as a function of volume are analytically derived.The analytic equation of state is applied to predict the thermodynamic properties of solid xenon at normal-pressure with the nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction,and is further applied to research the properties of solid xenon and krypton at high pressure by using an all-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction.The theoretical results are in agreement with the experiments.
Investigations of mechanical properties and Debye temperature of U2Ti
Chattaraj, D.; Dash, Smruti; Kulkarni, S.G.
2012-01-01
U 2 Ti is a potential solid state material for safe storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes. It is not pyrophoric and its hydride is resistance to powdering upon hydrogenation. These two properties made this alloy advantageous over the conventionally used uranium as tritium getter material. Hence, thorough study of material properties like thermodynamic and elastic properties of U 2 Ti is important. Recently, present authors have reported thermodynamic functions for U 2 Ti. However, elastic moduli of this alloy have not been reported. The second derivatives of the internal energy with respect to strain, gives adiabatic elastic constants. Thus adiabatic elastic constants are related to interatomic potentials of material. They are also related to the thermal properties of a solid through the Debye theory. For metal hydride material, the elastic constants are useful for an evaluation of the elastic contribution to the hydrogen-hydrogen interaction energy and the elastic energy associated with the precipitation of hydride phases. The present paper reports the ultrasonic measurement of the elastic moduli and Debye temperature of U 2 Ti at room temperature using 38 DL plus ultrasonic velocitymeter
The non-perturbative QCD Debye mass from a Wilson line operator
Laine, Mikko
1999-01-01
According to a proposal by Arnold and Yaffe, the non-perturbative g^2T-contribution to the Debye mass in the deconfined QCD plasma phase can be determined from a single Wilson line operator in the three-dimensional pure SU(3) gauge theory. We extend a previous SU(2) measurement of this quantity to the physical SU(3) case. We find a numerical coefficient which is more accurate and smaller than that obtained previously with another method, but still very large compared with the naive expectation: the correction is larger than the leading term up to T ~ 10^7 T_c, corresponding to g^2 ~ 0.4. At moderate temperatures T ~ 2 T_c, a consistent picture emerges where the Debye mass is m_D ~ 6T, the lightest gauge invariant screening mass in the system is ~ 3T, and the purely magnetic operators couple dominantly to a scale ~ 6T. Electric (~ gT) and magnetic (~ g^2T) scales are therefore strongly overlapping close to the phase transition, and the colour-electric fields play an essential role in the dynamics.
R. Pässler
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Detailed analytical and numerical analyses are performed for combinations of several complementary sets of measured heat capacities, for ZnSe and ZnTe, from the liquid-helium region up to 600 K. The isochoric (harmonic parts of heat capacities, CVh(T, are described within the frame of a properly devised four-oscillator hybrid model. Additional anharmonicity-related terms are included for comprehensive numerical fittings of the isobaric heat capacities, Cp(T. The contributions of Debye and non-Debye type due to the low-energy acoustical phonon sections are represented here for the first time by unprecedented, integral-free formulas. Indications for weak electronic contributions to the cryogenic heat capacities are found for both materials. A novel analytical framework has been constructed for high-accuracy evaluations of Debye function integrals via a couple of integral-free formulas, consisting of Debye’s conventional low-temperature series expansion in combination with an unprecedented high-temperature series representation for reciprocal values of the Debye function. The zero-temperature limits of Debye temperatures have been detected from published low-temperature Cp(T data sets to be significantly lower than previously estimated, namely, 270 (±3 K for ZnSe and 220 (±2 K for ZnTe. The high-temperature limits of the “true” (harmonic lattice Debye temperatures are found to be 317 K for ZnSe and 262 K for ZnTe.
Hopping model for the non-Debye dielectric response in ionic crystals
Wang, J.C.; Bates, J.B.
1988-10-01
A model based on ion hopping in potential double-wells is proposed to explain the non-Debye dielectric response in solids. Relying on some assumptions, an attempt is made to remove the ''average'' nature of previous diffusion theories. This results in a distribution of activation energies, G(E), which decays exponentially on both sides of some given value E/sub o/. It is shown that the existence of a dielectric loss peak is a result of the decay of G(E) for E > E 0 the constant-phase-angle behavior above the loss peak is associated with the decay of G(E) for E 0 , and G(E) can produce all the main features of the empirical Havriliak-Negami function. An interesting property of this G(E) is that it broadens with increasing temperature, consistent with many experimental observations. 18 refs., 3 figs
One- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom embedded in Debye plasmas
Chang, T. N.; Fang, T. K.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the plasma-induced resonance-like atomic structures near the ionization threshold in one- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom. Such resonance-like structures result from the migration of the upper bound excited states of bound-bound atomic transitions into the continuum due to the less attractive screened Coulomb potential which simulates the external environmental effect for an atom embedded in Debye plasma. The change from the resonance-like narrow structures into broad continuous spectra as the plasma effect increases could be accounted for by the overlap between the respective wavefunctions of the atomic electron in the initial state and its corresponding outgoing ionized state in the continuum
Thermal spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs and Debye screening mass from holography
Braga, Nelson R.F.; Ferreira, Luiz F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-10-15
The finite temperature spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs in a plasma is studied using a holographic model. The 0{sup -+} glueball is represented by a pseudo-scalar (axion) field living in a five dimensional geometry that comes from a solution of Einstein equations for gravity coupled with a dilaton scalar field. The spectral function obtained from the model shows a clear peak corresponding to the quasi-particle ground state. Analyzing the variation of the position of the peak with temperature, we describe the thermal behavior of the Debye screening mass of the plasma. As a check of consistency, the zero temperature limit of the model is also investigated. The glueball masses obtained are consistent with previous lattice results. (orig.)
Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter
Butt, M Z
2014-01-01
The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases
Andreetta, Christian
-likelihood estimators for the form factors employed in the Debye formula, a theoretical forward model for SAXS profiles. The resulting computation compares favorably with the state of the art tool in the field, the program CRYSOL in the suite ATSAS. A faster, parallel implementation on Graphical Processor Units (GPUs......The present work describes the design and the implementation of a protocol for arbitrary precision computation of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) profiles, and its inclusion in a probabilistic framework for protein structure determination. This protocol identifies a set of maximum...... of protein structures all fitting the experimental data. For the first time, we describe in full atomic detail a set of different conformations attainable by flexible polypeptides in solution. This method is not limited by assumptions in shape or size of the samples. It allows therefore to investigate...
Formation of Coulomb crystal in presence of attractive overlapping Debye sphere potential
Baruah, Swati; Das, Nilakshi
2011-01-01
The role of attractive overlapping Debye sphere (ODS) potential on dust crystal formation has been investigated by using molecular dynamics code. A comparative study on plasma crystal formation has been made between Yukawa and coupled Yukawa-ODS potential by calculating pair-correlation function, for different values of Coulomb coupling parameter Γ and screening parameter κ. From our study, it is seen that the attractive ODS potential becomes dominant beyond a critical radius than that of the Yukawa potential. This leads to the fact that the effect due to combined Yukawa-ODS potential depends more sensitively on κ. From the comparison of the results for Yukawa and ODS potential with experimental results, it is observed that a close agreement is obtained for attractive ODS potential.
KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera with a coordinate proportional counter
Ageev, O.I.; Glazova, L.P.; Goganov, D.A.; Rejzis, B.M.; Syrkin, M.G.
1985-01-01
An arrangement of the KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera, in which the advantages of a proportional counter are combined with the wide range of simultaneous image recording is described. The camera consists of an X-ray tube unit with the URS-0.1 source, a linear coordinate detector with resistive-capacity coding, a signal transducer and the MK-1 multichannel system for data acquisition and processing based on the ''Uskra-1256'' computer. The counting rate of X-ray pulses is > 5x10 4 s -1 , energy resolution for the CuKsub(α) line constitutes 20%, spatial resolution equals 150 μm, detection efficiency constitutes not less than 64%. The range of the detector displacement varies from -30 deg to +130 deg. The information obtained by means of the camera may be output to a display, a plotter, a numeric printer or a magnetic tape
Elasticity moduli, thermal expansion coefficients and Debye temperature of titanium alloys
Beletskij, V.M.; Glej, V.A.; Maksimyuk, P.A.; Tabachnik, V.I.; Opanasenko, V.F.
1979-01-01
Studied are the characteristics of titanium alloys which reflect best the bonding forces for atoms in a crystal lattice: elastic modules, their temperature dependences, thermal expansion coefficient and Debye temperatures. For the increase of the accuracy of measuring modules and especially their changes with temperature an ultrasonic echo-impulse method of superposition has been used. The temperature dependences of Young modulus of the VT1-0, VT16 and VT22 titanium alloys are plotted. The Young module and its change with temperature depend on the content of alloying elements. The Young module decrease with temperature may be explained within the framework of the inharmonic effect theory. The analysis of the results obtained permits to suppose that alloying of titanium alloys with aluminium results in an interatomic interaction increase that may be one of the reasons of their strength increase
The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers
Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China); Tang, Yi-Hsuan [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Chen, Hui-Ting [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science (China); Kao, Chai-Lin, E-mail: clkao@kmu.edu.tw [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Wang, Shau-Chun, E-mail: chescw@ccu.edu.tw [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China)
2016-03-15
Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract.
Tsui, C K; Boedo, J A; Stangeby, P C
2018-01-01
A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter l p , and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." l p is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0 and for V = V f .
The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers
Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Tang, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Ting; Kao, Chai-Lin; Wang, Shau-Chun
2016-01-01
Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract
Inflation of the screening length induced by Bjerrum pairs.
Zwanikken, Jos; van Roij, René
2009-10-21
Within a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory we study the effect of Bjerrum pairs on the typical length scale [Formula: see text] over which electric fields are screened in electrolyte solutions, taking into account a simple association-dissociation equilibrium between free ions and Bjerrum pairs. At low densities of Bjerrum pairs, this length scale is well approximated by the Debye length [Formula: see text], with ρ(s) the free-ion density. At high densities of Bjerrum pairs, however, we find [Formula: see text], which is significantly larger than 1/κ due to the enhanced effective permittivity of the electrolyte, caused by the polarization of Bjerrum pairs. We argue that this mechanism may explain the recently observed anomalously large colloid-free zones between an oil-dispersed colloidal crystal and a colloidal monolayer at the oil-water interface.
Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J.; Cadena A, A.; Kryvko, A.
2015-01-01
The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)
Petracca, S [Salerno Univ. (Italy)
1996-08-01
Debye potentials, the Lorentz reciprocity theorem, and (extended) Leontovich boundary conditions can be used to obtain simple and accurate analytic estimates of the longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances of (piecewise longitudinally uniform) multi-layered pipes with non simple transverse geometry and/or (spatially inhomogeneous) boundary conditions. (author)
Konstantin A. Shapovalov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article considers general approach to structured particle and particle system form factor calculation in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD approximation. Using this approach, amplitude of light scattering by a truncated pyramid and cone formulas in RGD approximation are obtained. Light scattering indicator by a truncated pyramid and cone in the RGD approximation are calculated.
Qi, Lei; Jin, Yuchun; Zhao, Yuhong; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Hui; Han, Peide
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature under pressure. • Higher hardness of Ni 3 Mo compound may be obtained when pressure increases. • Proper pressure can improve the ductility but excess pressure was just the opposite. • Ni 3 Mo compound has no structural phase transformation under pressure up to 30 GPa. • Debye temperatures increase with increasing pressure. - Abstract: With the help of first principles method based on density functional theory, the structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni 3 Mo binary compound under pressure are investigated. Our calculated structural parameters are in good agreement with experimental and previous theoretical results. The obtained elastic constants show that Ni 3 Mo compound is mechanically stable. Elastic properties such as bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio υ are calculated by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill method. The results of B/G under various pressures show that proper pressure can improve the ductility of Ni 3 Mo but excess pressure will make the ductility decrease. In addition, the density of states as a function of pressure is analyzed. The Debye temperature Θ D calculated from elastic constants increases along with the pressure
Measurements of electric charge and screening length of microparticles in a plasma sheath
Nakamura, Y.; Ishihara, O.
2009-01-01
An experiment is described in which microparticles are levitated within a rf sheath above a conducting plate in argon plasma. The microparticles forming a two-dimensional crystal structure are considered to possess Debye screening Coulomb potential φ(r)=(Q/4πε 0 r)exp(-r/λ), where Q is the electric charge, r is distance, and λ is the screening length. When the crystal structure is slanted with an angle θ, a particle experiences a force Mg sin θ, where M is the mass of the particle and g is acceleration due to gravity, which must be equal to the Debye screened Coulomb force from other particles. By changing θ, relations for λ(Q) are measured. The screening length λ and Q are determined uniquely from the crossing points of several relations. The electric charge Q is also estimated from a floating potential measured with a probe. The measured λ is nearly equal to an ion Debye length.
Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy
Khodabakhsh, R.
1986-01-01
The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency
Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P
2008-01-01
Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...
Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid 4He
Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.
2016-02-01
The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid 4He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp 4He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp 4He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm3, and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data.
X-ray Debye-Waller factor measurements of solid 3He and 4He
Arms, D.A.; Shah, R.S.; Simmons, R.O.
2003-01-01
X-ray synchrotron radiation was used to measure Debye-Waller factors of helium crystals for both 3 He and 4 He in both hcp and fcc phases. To our knowledge, there are no previous measurements for 3 He. The ranges studied for 3 He and 4 He crystals were 11.52-12.82 and 10.95-12.13 cm 3 , respectively, and 11.5-18.2 and 12.0-20.3 K. With small uncertainty, only a Gaussian dependence upon momentum transfer Q was found, and no anisotropy was detected in the hcp phase. Mean square atomic deviations, 2 >, and Lindemann ratios were obtained. Large Lindemann ratios confirm that these solids are highly anharmonic. The 2 > values agree within an average 1% with computations of Draeger and Ceperley from path integral Monte Carlo methods including unusual extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit. Because the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations exhibit a T 3 dependence for 2 >, which also depends upon molar volume, an empirical analysis was made of the present data as well as of published x-ray and neutron data on hcp 4 He. The volume dependencies are similar to those found from calorimetry, over a large volume range, and the temperature dependencies show similar systematic variations with molar volume both in x-ray data and PIMC results
X-ray stress measurement of ferritic steel using fourier analysis of Debye-Scherrer ring
Fujimoto, Yohei; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki
2015-01-01
In this study, X-ray stress measurements of ferritic steel based on Fourier analysis are conducted. Taira et al. developed the cosα method for X-ray stress measurements using a two-dimensional X-ray detector. Miyazaki et al. reported that the cosα method can be described more concisely by developing the Fourier series (the Fourier analysis method). The Fourier analysis method is expected to yield the stress measurement with an imperfect Debye-Scherrer ring and there is a possibility that the materials evaluation is different compared with the conventional method, that is, the sin 2 ψ method. In the Fourier analysis method, the strain measured by X-rays is developed as a Fourier series, and all the plane-stress components can be calculated from the Fourier series. In this study, the normal stress calculation was confirmed. In addition, the Fourier-analysis and cosα methods were used for X-ray stress measurements during a four-point bending test on a S45C test piece, and the effectiveness of the Fourier analysis method was confirmed. It was found that the experimental results from the Fourier analysis and cosα methods were nearly identical. In addition, the measurement accuracies of both the methods were equivalent. (author)
A. KH. Alassafee
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The modified DebyeâEinstein approximation model is used to calculate nanoscale size-dependent values of Gruneisen parameters and lattice specific heat capacity for Si nanowires. All parameters forming the model, including Debye temperatures, bulk moduli, the lattice thermal expansion and the lattice volume, are calculated according to their nanoscale size dependence. Values for lattice volume Gruneisen parameters increase with the decrease of the nanowiresâ diameter, while all other parameters decrease. The nanosize dependence of lattice thermal parameters agree with other reported theoretical results. Keywords: Lattice specific heat capacity, Gruneisen parameter, DebyeâEinstein model, Si nanowires
Bhatia, Anand
2012-01-01
We study the free-free transition in electron-helium ion in the ground state and embedded in a Debye potential in the presence of an external laser field at very low incident electron energies. The laser field is treated classically while the collision dynamics is treated quantum mechanically. The laser field is chosen as monochromatic, linearly polarized and homogeneous. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing Volkov wave function for it. The scattering wave function for the incident electron on the target embedded in a Debye potential is solved numerically by taking into account the effect of electron exchange. We calculate the laser-assisted differential and total cross sections for free-free transition for absorption/emission of a single photon or no photon exchange. The results will be presented at the conference.
Li, Pan; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Shiyu; Jin, Huixin; Zhang, Youjian; Zhang, Wenyang
2018-06-01
The structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni3Ta under different pressures are investigated using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. Our calculated equilibrium lattice parameters at 0 GPa well agree with the experimental and previous theoretical results. The calculated negative formation enthalpies and elastic constants both indicate that Ni3Ta is stable under different pressures. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν are calculated by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill method. The bigger ratio of B/G indicates Ni3Ta is ductile and the pressure can improve the ductility of Ni3Ta. In addition, the results of density of states and the charge density difference show that the stability of Ni3Ta is improved by the increasing pressure. The Debye temperature ΘD calculated from elastic modulus increases along with the pressure.
Janecek, Jirí; Netz, Roland R
2009-02-21
Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model of an electrolyte solution above the critical temperature are performed at a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. Thermodynamic properties such as internal energy, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient, as well as spatial correlation functions are determined. These observables are used to investigate whether quasiuniversality in terms of an effective screening length exists, similar to the role played by the effective electron mass in solid-state physics. To that end, an effective screening length is extracted from the asymptotic behavior of the Fourier-transformed charge-correlation function and plugged into the Debye-Huckel limiting expressions for various thermodynamic properties. Comparison with numerical results is favorable, suggesting that correlation and other effects not captured on the Debye-Huckel limiting level can be successfully incorporated by a single effective parameter while keeping the functional form of Debye-Huckel expressions. We also compare different methods to determine mean ionic activity coefficient in molecular simulations and check the internal consistency of the numerical data.
Radu Mircea Ciuceanu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.
Lin, Wushao; Bi, Lei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Kejun
2017-08-21
The extinction efficiencies of atmospheric particles are essential to determining radiation attenuation and thus are fundamentally related to atmospheric radiative transfer. The extinction efficiencies can also be used to retrieve particle sizes or refractive indices through particle characterization techniques. This study first uses the Debye series to improve the accuracy of high-frequency extinction formulae for spheroids in the context of Complex angular momentum theory by determining an optimal number of edge-effect terms. We show that the optimal edge-effect terms can be accurately obtained by comparing the results from the approximate formula with their counterparts computed from the invariant imbedding Debye series and T-matrix methods. An invariant imbedding T-matrix method is employed for particles with strong absorption, in which case the extinction efficiency is equivalent to two plus the edge-effect efficiency. For weakly absorptive or non-absorptive particles, the T-matrix results contain the interference between the diffraction and higher-order transmitted rays. Therefore, the Debye series was used to compute the edge-effect efficiency by separating the interference from the transmission on the extinction efficiency. We found that the optimal number strongly depends on the refractive index and is relatively insensitive to the particle geometry and size parameter. By building a table of optimal numbers of edge-effect terms, we developed an efficient and accurate extinction simulator that has been fully tested for randomly oriented spheroids with various aspect ratios and a wide range of refractive indices.
The large Debye-Scherrer camera installed at SPring-8 BL02B2 for charge density studies
Nishibori, E; Kato, K; Sakata, M; Kubota, Y; Aoyagi, S; Kuroiwa, Y; Yamakata, M; Ikeda, N
2001-01-01
The design and performance of a large Debye-Scherrer Camera with imaging plate (IP) as a detector, which was very recently installed at SPring-8, BL02B2, is reported. By taking advantage of high beam quality of SPring-8, the camera enables one a rapid collection of a high counting statistics and high angular resolution powder pattern, which can lead to accurate structure analyses. The camera also provides easy access to structural changes at varied temperatures between 15-1000 K. The camera provides a rapid and accurate powder diffraction system utilizing third generation SR.
Chu, Chia-Ho; Sarangadharan, Indu; Regmi, Abiral; Chen, Yen-Wen; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Chen, Chih-Chen; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yu-Lin
2017-07-12
In this study, a new type of field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor is demonstrated to be able to overcome the problem of severe charge-screening effect caused by high ionic strength in solution and detect proteins in physiological environment. Antibody or aptamer-immobilized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are used to directly detect proteins, including HIV-1 RT, CEA, NT-proBNP and CRP, in 1X PBS (with 1%BSA) or human sera. The samples do not need any dilution or washing process to reduce the ionic strength. The sensor shows high sensitivity and the detection takes only 5 minutes. The designs of the sensor, the methodology of the measurement, and the working mechanism of the sensor are discussed and investigated. A theoretical model is proposed based on the finding of the experiments. This sensor is promising for point-of-care, home healthcare, and mobile diagnostic device.
1,3Do and 1,3Pe states of two electron atoms under Debye plasma screening
Saha, Jayanta K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mukherjee, T.K.; Mukherjee, P.K.
2010-01-01
Extensive non-relativistic variational calculations for estimating the energy values of 2pnd( 1,3 D o ) states [n=3-6] of two electron atoms (He, Li + ,Be 2+ ) and 2pnp( 1 P e )[n=3-8] and 2pnp( 3 P e ) states [n=2-7] of Be 2+ under weakly coupled plasma screening have been performed using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis. The modified energy eigenvalues of 1,3 P e states arising from two p electrons of Be 2+ ion and 1,3 D o states due to 2pnd configuration of Li + and Be 2+ ion in the Debye plasma environment are being reported for the first time. The effect of plasma has been incorporated through the Debye screening model. The system tends towards gradual instability and the number of bound states reduces with increasing plasma coupling strength. The wavelengths for 2pn ' p( 1 P e )[n ' =3-8]→2pnd( 1 D o )[n=3-6] and 2pn ' p( 3 P e )[n ' =2-8]→2pnd( 3 D o )[n=3-6] transitions in plasma embedded two electron atoms have also been reported.
Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A
2007-01-01
Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.
Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik
2010-12-02
In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D(NSE) measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D(DLS). This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D(DLS) approaches D(NSE), which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hückel length.
Telomere length and depression
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...
Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M.
2008-09-01
We present detailed measurements of the Casimir-Lifshitz force between two gold surfaces (a sphere and a plate) immersed in ethanol and study the effect of residual electrostatic forces, which are dominated by static fields within the apparatus and can be reduced with proper shielding. Electrostatic forces are further reduced by Debye screening through the addition of salt ions to the liquid. Additionally, the salt leads to a reduction of the Casimir-Lifshitz force by screening the zero-frequency contribution to the force; however, the effect is small between gold surfaces at the measured separations and within experimental error. An improved calibration procedure is described and compared with previous methods. Finally, the experimental results are compared with Lifshitz’s theory and found to be consistent for the materials used in the experiment.
Rezaie-Dereshgi, Amir; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid
2018-04-01
The electrostatic interactions play a crucial role in biological systems. Here we consider an impermeable dielectric molecule in the solvent with a different dielectric constant. The electrostatic free energy in the problem is studied in the Debye-Hückel regime using the analytical Green function that is calculated in the paper. Using this electrostatic free energy, we study the electrostatic contribution to the twist rigidity of a double stranded helical molecule such as a DNA and an actin filament. The dependence of the electrostatic twist rigidity of the molecule to the dielectric inhomogeneity, structural parameters, and the salt concentration is studied. It is shown that, depending on the parameters, the electrostatic twist rigidity could be positive or negative.
Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Chen, Hung-Ing; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng; Lu, Bing-Yuh; Wu, Ya-Fen; Nee, Tzer-En
2015-01-01
Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior of the order–disorder effects in triple-junction InGaP-based photovoltaic solar cells fabricated by a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with careful adjustment of the growth conditions. The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated after post-annealing treatment at various temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements over a broad temperature range provided insight into the roles of the thermophysical phenomena connected with the ordering and disordering in the InGaP alloys. The thermally-related spectroscopic observations associated with the ordering effects on the photon–phonon interactions were confirmed by the McCumber–Sturge theory. The variations of both the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and shift in the peak of PL with temperature were analyzed. According to the width-related PL observations the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperature were 0.53 meV and 424 K, respectively; according to shift-related PL observations of the as-grown sample they were 0.3247 eV and 430 K, respectively, for the width-related PL observation they were 0.29 meV and 421 K; and from the shift-related PL observations for the as-grown ordered samples they were 0.3142 eV and 425 K, respectively, implying that the spontaneously disordered InGaP heterostructures met the demand for improvement of photovoltaic devices. Both the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperatures were characterized as functions of the annealing temperature. The Debye temperatures obtained for the disordered and ordered top subcells were consistent with the universal Gruneisen–Bloch relation. - Highlights: • Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior in photovoltaic solar cells. • The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated. • The Debye temperatures were
Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Chen, Hung-Ing; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ROC (China); Lu, Bing-Yuh [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tungnan University, No.152, Sec. 3, Beishen Road, Shenkeng District, New Taipei City, Taiwan ROC (China); Wu, Ya-Fen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, Taishan District, New Taipei City, Taiwan ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ROC (China)
2015-12-15
Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior of the order–disorder effects in triple-junction InGaP-based photovoltaic solar cells fabricated by a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with careful adjustment of the growth conditions. The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated after post-annealing treatment at various temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements over a broad temperature range provided insight into the roles of the thermophysical phenomena connected with the ordering and disordering in the InGaP alloys. The thermally-related spectroscopic observations associated with the ordering effects on the photon–phonon interactions were confirmed by the McCumber–Sturge theory. The variations of both the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and shift in the peak of PL with temperature were analyzed. According to the width-related PL observations the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperature were 0.53 meV and 424 K, respectively; according to shift-related PL observations of the as-grown sample they were 0.3247 eV and 430 K, respectively, for the width-related PL observation they were 0.29 meV and 421 K; and from the shift-related PL observations for the as-grown ordered samples they were 0.3142 eV and 425 K, respectively, implying that the spontaneously disordered InGaP heterostructures met the demand for improvement of photovoltaic devices. Both the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperatures were characterized as functions of the annealing temperature. The Debye temperatures obtained for the disordered and ordered top subcells were consistent with the universal Gruneisen–Bloch relation. - Highlights: • Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior in photovoltaic solar cells. • The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated. • The Debye temperatures were
Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.
1986-09-01
Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated
Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs
Pion nucleus scattering lengths
Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.
1971-09-01
Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
Gap length distributions by PEPR
Warszawer, T.N.
1980-01-01
Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)
Relativistic length agony continued
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Scrimshire, A.; Lobera, A.; Bell, A. M. T.; Jones, A. H.; Sterianou, I.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.
2018-03-01
Lanthanide orthoferrites have wide-ranging industrial uses including solar, catalytic and electronic applications. Here a series of lanthanide orthoferrite perovskites, LnFeO3 (Ln = La Nd; Sm; Eu; Gd), prepared through a standard stoichiometric wet ball milling route using oxide precursors, has been studied. Characterisation through x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence confirmed the synthesis of phase-pure or near-pure LnFeO3 compounds. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed over a temperature range of 10 K-293 K to observe hyperfine structure and to enable calculation of the recoil-free fraction and Debye temperature (θ D) of each orthoferrite. Debye temperatures (Ln = La 474 K Nd 459 K Sm 457 K Eu 452 K Gd 473 K) and recoil-free fractions (Ln = La 0.827; Nd 0.817; Sm 0.816; Eu 0.812; Gd 0.826) were approximated through minimising the difference in the temperature dependent experimental centre shift and theoretical isomer shift, by allowing the Debye temperature and isomer shift values to vary. This method of minimising the difference between theoretical and actual values yields Debye temperatures consistent with results from other studies determined through thermal analysis methods. This displays the ability of variable-temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy to approximate Debye temperatures and recoil-free fractions, whilst observing temperature induced transitions over the temperature range observed. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement show an inverse relationship between FeO6 octahedral volume and approximated Debye temperatures. Raman spectroscopy show an increase in the band positions attributed to soft modes of Ag symmetry, Ag(3) and Ag(5) from La to GdFeO3 corresponding to octahedral rotations and tilts in the [0 1 0] and [1 0 1] planes respectively.
Mereghetti, Paolo; Martinez, Michael; Wade, Rebecca C
2014-01-01
Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations can be used to study very large molecular systems, such as models of the intracellular environment, using atomic-detail structures. Such simulations require strategies to contain the computational costs, especially for the computation of interaction forces and energies. A common approach is to compute interaction forces between macromolecules by precomputing their interaction potentials on three-dimensional discretized grids. For long-range interactions, such as electrostatics, grid-based methods are subject to finite size errors. We describe here the implementation of a Debye-Hückel correction to the grid-based electrostatic potential used in the SDA BD simulation software that was applied to simulate solutions of bovine serum albumin and of hen egg white lysozyme. We found that the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic correction increased the accuracy of both the protein-protein interaction profiles and the protein diffusion coefficients at low ionic strength. An advantage of this method is the low additional computational cost required to treat long-range electrostatic interactions in large biomacromolecular systems. Moreover, the implementation described here for BD simulations of protein solutions can also be applied in implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations that make use of gridded interaction potentials
Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi
2013-01-01
Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back
Two-dimensional imaging of Debye-Scherrer ring for tri-axial stress analysis of industrial materials
Sasaki, T; Maruyama, Y; Ohba, H; Ejiri, S
2014-01-01
In this study, an application of the two-dimensional imaging technology to the X ray tri-axial stress analysis was studied. An image plate (IP) was used to obtain a Debye-Scherre ring and the image data was analized for determining stress. A new principle for stress analysis which is suitable to two-dimensional imaging data was used. For the verification of this two-dimensional imaging type X-ray stress measurement method, an experiment was conducted using a ferritic steel sample which was processed with a surface grinder. Tri-axial stress analysis was conducted to evaluate the sample. The conventional method for X-ray tri-axial stress analysis proposed by Dölle and Hauk was used to evaluate residual stress in order to compare with the present method. As a result, it was confirmed that a sufficiently highly precise and high-speed stress measurement was enabled with the two-dimensional imaging technology compared with the conventional method
Corcho, Adán J.; Cordero, Juan C.
2018-02-01
We obtain local well-posedness for the one-dimensional Schrödinger-Debye interactions in nonlinear optics in the spaces L^2× L^p, 1≤p 0} in H^1× H^1 associated to an initial data family {(u_{τ _0},v_{τ _0})}_{τ >0} uniformly bounded in H^1× L^2 , where τ is a small response time parameter. We prove that ( u_{τ }, v_{τ }) converges to ( u, -|u|^2) in the space L^{∞}_{[0, T]}L^2_x× L^1_{[0, T]}L^2_x whenever u_{τ _0} converges to u_0 in H^1 as long as τ tends to 0, where u is the solution of the one-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the initial data u_0 . The convergence of v_{τ } for -|u|^2 in the space L^{∞}_{[0, T]}L^2_x is shown under compatibility conditions of the initial data. For non-compatible data, we prove convergence except for a corrector term which looks like an initial layer phenomenon.
Smarandache, Florentin
2013-09-01
Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!
P. R. Parthasarathy
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.
Qin, Shitong; Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying
2017-01-01
The interaction of an axicon-generated vector Bessel beam (AGVBB) with a homogeneous sphere is investigated in the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). An analytical expression of beam shape coefficients (BSCs) is derived using angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), and the scattering coefficients are expanded using Debye series (DSE) in order to isolate the contribution of single scattering process. The internal and near-surface electric fields are numerically analyzed, and the effect of beam location, polarization, order of beam, half-cone angle, and scattering process (namely Debye mode p) are mainly discussed. Numerical results show that a curve formed by extreme peaks can be observed, and the electric fields can be locally enhanced after the interaction of AGVBBs with the particle. Internal and near-surface fields, especially its local enhancement, are very sensitive to the beam parameters, including polarization, order, half-cone angle, etc. The internal fields can also be enhanced by various scattering process (or Debye mode p). Such results have important applications in various fields, including particle sizing, optical tweezers, etc. - Highlights: • Debye series is employed to the analysis of internal and near-surface fields for a sphere illuminated by a vector Bessel beam. • Analytical expressions of BSCs for vector Bessel beams with selected polarizations are derived using ASDM. • The local enhancement of internal and near-surface fields is investigated. • The polarization, order, half-cone angle of the beam affect the local enhancement. • The local enhancement of internal fields is sensitive to the scattering process.
Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Cadena A, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kryvko, A., E-mail: kryshtab@gmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Unidad Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2015-07-01
The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)
Emergent Percolation Length and Localization in Random Elastic Networks
Ariel Amir
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We study, theoretically and numerically, a minimal model for phonons in a disordered system. For sufficient disorder, the vibrational modes of this classical system can become Anderson localized, yet this problem has received significantly less attention than its electronic counterpart. We find rich behavior in the localization properties of the phonons as a function of the density, frequency, and spatial dimension. We use a percolation analysis to argue for a Debye spectrum at low frequencies for dimensions higher than one, and for a localization-delocalization transition (at a critical frequency above two dimensions. We show that in contrast to the behavior in electronic systems, the transition exists for arbitrarily large disorder, albeit with an exponentially small critical frequency. The structure of the modes reflects a divergent percolation length that arises from the disorder in the springs without being explicitly present in the definition of our model. Within the percolation approach, we calculate the speed of sound of the delocalized modes (phonons, which we corroborate with numerics. We find the critical frequency of the localization transition at a given density and find good agreement of these predictions with numerical results using a recursive Green-function method that was adapted for this problem. The connection of our results to recent experiments on amorphous solids is discussed.
Peter Debye and Electrochemistry
however, remember him for the Debye–Hückel limiting law that describes the behavior ... ing the non-ideal behavior of strong electrolytes, his math- ematical treatment ... and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases, he is best known to ...
Peter Debye and Electrochemistry
Author Affiliations. A K Shukla1 T Prem Kumar2. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Electrochemical Power Systems Division Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR) Karaikudi 630006, India.
Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.; Schmidt, A.A.; Beck, H.; Valera, M.
2005-08-01
One of the most intriguing aspects of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) is the presence of the pseudogap in the normal and the superconducting phases of the cuprate compounds. Several pseudogap models have been proposed to explain the $abnormal$ properties of the cuprates. One of the recent models relies on the assumption that the self-energy is given by Σ PG (iω n )=- E g 2 (k)G 0 (k,-iω n ) where G 0 (k,iω n is the one- particle free Green function. Going beyond this mean field model for the pseudogap we now take into account fluctuations of the pseudogap as Σ PG (iω n )=- E g 2 (k)G PG (k,-iω n ) where G PG (k,iω n is the one-particle full Green function. We study the combined effect of the band structure and the Debye frequency, ω D , on the superconducting critical temperature, T c , as a function of the number of carriers per site, n. Our conclusions are: 1) increasing the value of V/t increases the value of T c /t; 2) increasing the value of E G /t decreases the value of T c /t. By the way, one needs some critical value of V/t to have finite values of T c /t. This is the reason we have taken high values of V/ to find superconductivity; 3) decreasing the value of ω D /t decreases the value of T c /t. This is reasonable since we have less available states around the Fermi; 4) the inclusion of α', which we call the effect of the band structure, is important because it moves the center of curve of T c /t x n. The center of this curve, with respect to half-filling (n=1), is displaced to the left if α'>0.0; 5) the chemical potential is defined in the region where T c /t ≠ 0. However, in this region, it is almost identical for different values of V/t. This is due to the fact that μ is a global property; 6) our model always produces d-wave superconductivity around the Fermi level, independent whether E G (K-bar)/t is s- or d-wave symmetry. (author)
Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo
2018-02-01
First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.
Finite-Length Diocotron Modes in a Non-neutral Plasma Column
Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel
2017-10-01
Diocotron modes are 2D distortions of a non-neutral plasma column that propagate azimuthally via E × B drifts. While the infinite-length theory of diocotron modes is well-understood for arbitrary azimuthal mode number l, the finite-length mode frequency is less developed (with some exceptions), and is naturally of relevance to experiments. In this poster, we present an approach to address finite length effects, such as temperature dependence of the mode frequency. We use a bounce-averaged solution to the Vlasov Equation, in which the Vlasov Equation is solved using action-angle variables of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. We write the distribution function as a Fourier series in the bounce-angle variable ψ, keeping only the bounce-averaged term. We demonstrate a numerical solution to this equation for a realistic plasma with a finite Debye Length, compare to the existing l = 1 theory, and discuss possible extensions of the existing theory to l ≠ 1 . Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership Grants PHY1414570 and DESC0002451.
Ammar Guellab
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an efficient finite difference time domain (FDTD method based on the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC technique to evaluate the human body exposure to electromagnetic (EM radiation. The source of radiation considered in this study is a high-power antenna, mounted on a military vehicle, covering a broad band of frequency (100 MHz–3 GHz. The simulation is carried out using a nonhomogeneous human body model which takes into consideration most of the internal body tissues. The human tissues are modeled by a four-pole Debye model which is derived from experimental data by using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The human exposure to EM radiation is evaluated by computing the local and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR for each occupant. The higher in-tissue electric field intensity points are localized, and the SAR values are compared with the crew safety standard recommendations. The accuracy of the proposed PLRC-FDTD approach and the matching of the Debye model with the experimental data are verified in this study.
Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan
2014-11-14
Impedance spectroscopy was used for the study of the static and dynamic behavior of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymer of high viscosity. The experimental data are discussed in the frame of the Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye models. It was found that the translational movement of the ions is due to normal Brownian diffusion, which was revealed by a fulfillment of Ohm's law by the electric current and a strictly exponential decay of the current after removing the electric stimulus. The dependence of the dc conductivity on the viscosity of the medium fulfills the Stokes-Einstein model quite well. An extension of the model, by including in it the conductivity relaxation time, is proposed in this paper. A breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model is revealed by the relations of the dipolar relaxation time to the viscosity and to the dc ionic conductivity. The importance of the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds in that breakdown is discussed.
Suzuki, Yohichi; Seki, Kazuhiko
2018-03-01
We studied ion concentration profiles and the charge density gradient caused by electrode reactions in weak electrolytes by using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations without assuming charge neutrality. In weak electrolytes, only a small fraction of molecules is ionized in bulk. Ion concentration profiles depend on not only ion transport but also the ionization of molecules. We considered the ionization of molecules and ion association in weak electrolytes and obtained analytical expressions for ion densities, electrostatic potential profiles, and ion currents. We found the case that the total ion density gradient was given by the Kuramoto length which characterized the distance over which an ion diffuses before association. The charge density gradient is characterized by the Debye length for 1:1 weak electrolytes. We discuss the role of these length scales for efficient water splitting reactions using photo-electrocatalytic electrodes.
Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping
2016-01-01
The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles. - Highlights: • Concepts of diffraction, reflection and tunneling are refined. • The diffraction together with reflection is rigorously treated. • An improved invariant imbedding method is employed to compute the Debye
Bond length variation in Zn substituted NiO studied from extended X-ray absorption fine structure
Singh, S. D.; Poswal, A. K.; Kamal, C.; Rajput, Parasmani; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Jha, S. N.; Ganguli, Tapas
2017-06-01
Bond length behavior for Zn substituted NiO is determined through extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed at ambient conditions. We report bond length value of 2.11±0.01 Å for Zn-O of rock salt (RS) symmetry, when Zn is doped in RS NiO. Bond length for Zn substituted NiO RS ternary solid solutions shows relaxed behavior for Zn-O bond, while it shows un-relaxed behavior for Ni-O bond. These observations are further supported by first-principles calculations. It is also inferred that Zn sublattice remains nearly unchanged with increase in lattice parameter. On the other hand, Ni sublattice dilates for Zn compositions up to 20% to accommodate increase in the lattice parameter. However, for Zn compositions more than 20%, it does not further dilate. It has been attributed to the large disorder that is incorporated in the system at and beyond 20% of Zn incorporation in the cubic RS lattice of ternary solid solutions. For these large percentages of Zn incorporation, the Ni and the Zn atoms re-arrange themselves microscopically about the same nominal bond length rather than systematically increase in magnitude to minimize the energy of the system. This results in an increase in the Debye-Waller factor with increase in the Zn concentration rather than a systematic increase in the bond lengths.
Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?
Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M
2011-10-01
Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.
Keeping disease at arm's length
Lassen, Aske Juul
2015-01-01
active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....
Continuously variable focal length lens
Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C
2013-12-17
A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.
CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements
Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2016-05-01
Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.
Kondo length in bosonic lattices
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea
2017-09-01
Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.
Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors
Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.
2000-01-01
A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.
Summary of neutron scattering lengths
Koester, L.
1981-12-01
All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)
Overview of bunch length measurements
Lumpkin, A. H.
1999-01-01
An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed
Diet, nutrition and telomere length.
Paul, Ligi
2011-10-01
The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ben Ruktantichoke
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.
Finite length Taylor Couette flow
Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.
Eric Costello
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.
Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity
Alexander Shalyt-Margolin
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.
Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.
1983-01-01
The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths
Non-Debye heat capacity formula refined and applied to GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb
R. Pässler
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Characteristic non-Debye behaviors of low-temperature heat capacities of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb, which are manifested above all in form of non-monotonic behaviors (local maxima of the respective Cp(T/T3 curves in the cryogenic region, are described by means of a refined version of a recently proposed low-to-high-temperature interpolation formula of non-Debye type. Least-mean-square fittings of representative Cp(T data sets available for these materials from several sources show excellent agreements, from the liquid-helium region up to room temperature. The results of detailed calculations of the respective material-specific Debye temperature curves, ΘD(T, are represented in graphical form. The strong, non-monotonic variations of ΘD(T values confirm that it is impossible to provide reasonable numerical simulations of measured Cp(T dependences in terms of fixed Debye temperatures. We show that it is possible to describe in good approximation the complete Debye temperature curves, from the cryogenic region up to their definitive disappearance (dropping to 0 in the high temperature region, by a couple of unprecedented algebraic formulas. The task of constructing physically adequate prolongations of the low-temperature Cp(T curves up to melting points was strongly impeded by partly rather large differences (up to an order of 10 J/(K·mol between the high-temperature data sets presented in different research papers and/or data reviews. Physically plausible criteria are invoked, which enabled an a priori rejection of a series of obviously unrealistic high-temperature data sets. Residual uncertainties for GaAs and InAs could be overcome by re-evaluations of former enthalpy data on the basis of a novel set of properly specified four-parameter polynomial expressions applying to large regions, from moderately low temperatures up to melting points. Detailed analytical and numerical descriptions are given for the anharmonicity
Madariaga, G.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Aramburu, I.
1993-01-01
The incommensurate displacive structure of β-ThBr 4 at 55 K has been determined from a neutron diffraction data set including main reflections and first-order satellites. The superspace group is Psub(s anti 1 s1)sup(I4 1 /amd). Final agreement factors are 0.0193, 0.0186 and 0.045 for all, main and satellite reflections, respectively. It is shown that the effect of phasons on the atomic Debye-Waller factors can be quantified by two additional structural parameters: The modulus β 11,2 Br and the phase χ 11,2 Br of a second harmonic that spatially modulates the temperature factors of Br atoms. Results are in good agreement, within the resolution of the experimental data, with the theoretically expected value for χ 11,2 Br . Crystal data for the average structure: M r =551.65, tetragonal, I4 1 /amd, a=8.919(1), c=7.902(1) A, V=628.6(2) A 3 , Z=4, D x =5.82 Mg m -3 , λ=0.84 A, wavevector q=0.32c*. (orig.)
Steven M. Lund
2011-05-01
Full Text Available A one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson model for sheet beams is reviewed and extended to provide a simple framework for analysis of space-charge effects. Centroid and rms envelope equations including image-charge effects are derived and reasonable parameter equivalences with commonly employed 2D transverse models of unbunched beams are established. This sheet-beam model is then applied to analyze several problems of fundamental interest. A sheet-beam thermal equilibrium distribution in a continuous focusing channel is constructed and shown to have analogous properties to two- and three-dimensional thermal equilibrium models in terms of the equilibrium structure and Debye screening properties. The simpler formulation for sheet beams is exploited to explicitly calculate the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies within a thermal equilibrium beam. It is shown that as space-charge intensity increases, the frequency distribution becomes broad, suggesting that beams with strong space-charge can have improved stability relative to beams with weak space-charge.
Pilati, T.; Dermartin, F.; Gramaccioli, C.M.
1993-01-01
A wide-purpose computer program has been written (Fortran) for lattice dynamical evaluation of crystallographic and thermodynamic properties of solids, especially minerals or inorganic substances.The program essentially consists of a routine affording first and second derivatives of energy with respect to mass weighted coordinates, properly modulated by a wave vector algorithm, so that diagonalization can immediately follow and arrive at frequencies, density of states, and eventually to thermodynamic functions and Debye-Waller parameters thorough an automatic Brillouin-zone sampling procedure. The input consists of crystallographic data (unit-cell parameters, space group symmetry operations, atomic coordinates), plus atomic charge and empirical parameters, such as force constants or non-bonded atom-atom interaction energy functions in almost any form. It is also possible to obtain the structure corresponding to the energy minimum, or even to work with partial rigid bodies, in order to reduce the order of the dynamical matrices. The program provides for automatic symmetry labelling of the vibrational modes, in order to compare them with the experimental data; there is possibility of improving the empirical functions through a minimization routine. Examples of application and transferability of force fields to a series of minerals are provided. (author)
Effect of anharmonicity and Debye-Waller factor on the superconductivity of PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x)
Griessen, R.; Groot, D.G. de
1983-01-01
On the basis of existing superconducting tunnelling, neutron scattering, electrical resistivity and Raman scattering data and new thermal expansion, elastic moduli and point-contact spectroscopy data it is concluded that the anharmonicity of the proton (deuteron)-palladium potential is such that Msub(H)#betta#sub(H) 2 /(Msub(D)#betta#sub(D) 2 ) = 1.12 +- 0.05 Msub(H(D)) is the mass and #betta#sub(H(D)) the frequency of the vibration of hydrogen (deuterium). This anharmonicity is approximately 2 times too weak to reproduce the observed inverse isotope effect in the superconducting transition temperature of concentrated PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x) alloys. Within a pseudopotential formalism it is shown that the Debye-Waller factor arising from the large zero-point amplitude of the interstitial hydrogen (deuterium) leads to a contribution to the inverse isotope effect in Tsub(c) which is as large as that of anharmonicity alone. (Auth.)
Ali, Md. Lokman; Rahaman, Md. Zahidur
2018-04-01
By using first principles calculation dependent on the density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the mechanical, structural properties and the Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds under various pressures up to 60 GPa. The optical properties have been investigated under zero pressure. Our calculated optimized structural parameters of both the materials are in good agreement with other theoretical predictions. The calculated elastic constants show that Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds are mechanically stable under external pressure below 60 GPa. From the elastic constants, the shear modulus G, the bulk modulus B, Young’s modulus E, anisotropy factor A and Poisson’s ratio ν are calculated by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The Debye temperature and average sound velocities are also investigated from the obtained elastic constants. The detailed analysis of all optical functions reveals that both compounds are good dielectric material.
Mangir Murshed, M.; Gesing, Thorsten M. [Solid State Chemical Crystallography, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen (Germany); Zhao, Pei [Solid State Chemical Crystallography, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Bremen (Germany); Huq, Ashfia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2018-03-01
The thermal expansion behavior of Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} has been studied. The temperature-dependent development of crystal structural parameters was obtained from Rietveld refinement using neutron time of flight powder diffraction data. Modeling of the lattice thermal expansion was carried out using a Grueneisen first-order approximation for the zero-pressure equation of state, where the temperature-dependent vibrational energy was calculated taking the Debye-Einstein-Anharmonicity approach. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra shed light on some selective modes with unusual anharmonicity. Debye temperatures were calculated using three different theoretical approaches, namely, thermal expansion, mean-squared isotropic atomic displacement parameter and heat capacity. Similarities as well as discrepancies between the numerical values obtained from different theoretical approaches are discussed. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping
2016-07-01
The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles.
Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers
Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J
2004-01-01
Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.
Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges
Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.
1985-01-01
Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O
Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics
Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2010-01-01
Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.
Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking
Lawson Marty
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.
Information, polarization and term length in democracy
Schultz, Christian
2008-01-01
This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...
Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions
Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.
1996-01-01
In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be
Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1994-01-01
Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs
The length of the male urethra
Tobias. S. Kohler
2008-08-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.
Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers
Hugo F. F. Novaes
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.
Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening
Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM
Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women
Economic issues of broiler production length
Szőllősi László
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.
Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length
Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1972-11-15
The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.
Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length
Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.
1979-01-01
A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents
Marjani, Azam
2016-07-01
For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.
Bolel, Priyanka; Datta, Shubhashis; Mahapatra, Niharendu; Halder, Mintu
2014-01-09
Protein-ligand electrostatic interaction can be looked upon as ion receptor-ligand interaction, and the binding cavity of protein can be either an anion or cation receptor depending on the charge of the guest. Here we focus on the exploration of pH-modulated binding of a number of anionic ligands, specific to the subdomain IIA cavity of HSA, such as carmoisine, tartrazine, cochineal red, and warfarin. The logarithm of the binding constant is found to vary linearly with the square-root of ionic strength, indicating applicability of the Debye-Hückel limiting law to protein-ligand electrostatic binding equilibrium, and concludes that the subdomain IIA cavity is an anion receptor. The present approach is very unique that one can calculate the effective charge of the protein-based anion receptor pocket, and the calculated charge has been found to vary between +1 and +3 depending on the pH and ligand itself. The study also indicates that in such cases of specific ligand binding the pocket charge rather than the overall or surface charge of the macromolecule seems to have a paramount role in determining the strength of interaction. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the Debye-Hückel interionic interaction model can be successfully applied to understand the protein-based receptor-ligand electrostatic interaction in general.
Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children
Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk
2010-01-01
Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children
Zero-point length from string fluctuations
Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.
2006-01-01
One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory
Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.
Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R
2007-01-01
Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.
Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc
Iceland, William F.
1991-01-01
Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.
Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3
Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted
2007-11-28
A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.
The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths
Kesler, D.C.
1986-01-01
Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors
Atomic frequency-time-length standards
Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.
1987-01-01
The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)
The analysis of projected fission track lengths
Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.
1994-01-01
This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...
Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.
Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder
S. Krinsky
2004-11-01
Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.
Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited
Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2015-01-01
We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)
Chord length distribution for a compound capsule
Pitřík, Pavel
2017-01-01
Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)
Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP
Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo
2018-05-01
The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.
Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.
Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay
2016-07-01
Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.
Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database
SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules
Alsolami, Fawaz
2012-01-01
Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.
2017-12-01
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.
Zorębski, Michał; Zorębski, Edward; Dzida, Marzena; Skowronek, Justyna; Jężak, Sylwia; Goodrich, Peter; Jacquemin, Johan
2016-04-14
Ultrasound absorption spectra of four 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides were determined as a function of the alkyl chain length on the cation from 1-propyl to 1-hexyl from 293.15 to 323.15 K at ambient pressure. Herein, the ultrasound absorption measurements were carried out using a standard pulse technique within a frequency range from 10 to 300 MHz. Additionally, the speed of sound, density, and viscosity have been measured. The presence of strong dissipative processes during the ultrasound wave propagation was found experimentally, i.e., relaxation processes in the megahertz range were observed for all compounds over the whole temperature range. The relaxation spectra (both relaxation amplitude and relaxation frequency) were shown to be dependent on the alkyl side chain length of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ring. In most cases, a single-Debye model described the absorption spectra very well. However, a comparison of the determined spectra with the spectra of a few other imidazolium-based ionic liquids reported in the literature (in part recalculated in this work) shows that the complexity of the spectra increases rapidly with the elongation of the alkyl chain length on the cation. This complexity indicates that both the volume viscosity and the shear viscosity are involved in relaxation processes even in relatively low frequency ranges. As a consequence, the sound velocity dispersion is present at relatively low megahertz frequencies.
Ngai, K. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Habasaki, J. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)
2014-09-21
The cusp-like temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor or non-ergodicity parameter f{sub Q}(T) at some temperature T{sub c} above T{sub g} found by experiments in several fragile glassformers has been considered as critical evidence for validity of the ideal Mode Coupling Theory (MCT). A comprehensive review of experimental data of f{sub Q}(T) and beyond brings out various problems of the MCT predictions. For example, the molten salt, 0.4Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-0.6KNO{sub 3} (CKN), was the first glassformer measured by neutron scattering to verify the cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} predicted by ideal MCT. While the fits of the other scaling laws of MCT to viscosity, light scattering, and dielectric relaxation data all give T{sub c} in the range from 368 to 375 K, there is no evidence of cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} from more accurate neutron scattering data obtained later on by Mezei and Russina [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, A341 (1999)] at temperatures below 400 K. In several molecular glass-formers, experiments have found at temperatures below T{sub c} that [1−f{sub Q}(T)] is manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in the frequency dependent susceptibility. The NCL persists down to below T{sub g} and is not predicted by the ideal MCT. No clear evidence of the change of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at any T{sub c} was found in intermediate and strong glassformers, although ideal MCT does not distinguish fragile and strong glassformers in predicting the critical behavior of f{sub Q}(T) a priori. Experiments found f{sub Q}(T) changes T-dependence not only at T{sub c} but also at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The changes of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} and T{sub g} are accompanied by corresponding changes of dynamic variables and thermodynamic quantities at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} and at T{sub g}. The dynamic variables include the relaxation time τ{sub α}(T), the non-exponentiality parameter n(T), and
length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species
Dr Naeem
2012-06-21
Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.
Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus
Khatsymovsky, V.M.
2004-01-01
Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework
Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation
De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa
2012-01-01
The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)
Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation
De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa
2012-06-01
The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.
Kjellander, Roland
2016-09-01
Screened electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids are investigated by means of exact statistical mechanical analysis combined with physical arguments that enhance the transparency and conceptual accessibility of the analysis and results. The constituent ions and immersed particles in the liquid can have arbitrary shapes and any internal charge distributions. The decay of the screened electrostatic potential and the free energy of interaction in ionic liquids can be exponentially damped oscillatory (like in molten simple salts) as well as plain exponential and long-ranged (like in dilute electrolyte solutions). Both behaviors are in agreement with the exact statistical mechanical analysis and reasons for their appearances are investigated. Exact but surprisingly simple expressions for the decay parameter κ of the screened electrostatics are obtained, which replace the classical expression for the Debye-Hückel parameter κDH (the reciprocal Debye length). The expressions are applicable both for cases with plain exponential and oscillatory behaviors. The key importance of nonlocal electrostatics is thereby demonstrated explicitly. Dielectric properties of ionic liquids and other electrolytes are investigated, in particular the static dielectric function ɛ ˜ ( k ) and some effective relative permittivities ( Er eff and Er ∗ ), which take roles that the dielectric constant ɛr has for polar liquids consisting of electroneutral molecules. The dielectric constant in the latter case, which is the limit of ɛ ˜ ( k ) when the wave number k → 0, can be expressed solely in terms of dipolar features of the molecules. In contrast to this, the effective dielectric permittivities of ionic liquids have contributions also from quadrupolar, octupolar, and higher multipolar features of the constituent ions. The "dielectric constant" of electrolytes does not exist since ɛ ˜ ( k ) → ∞ when k → 0, a well-known effect of perfect screening. The effective relative
Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod
Bevilacqua, F.
1979-01-01
A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation
Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths
Lynn, J.E.
1989-06-01
The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.
Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.
Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L
1999-12-01
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.
Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2013-01-01
We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.
Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R
Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.
2017-01-01
VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....
Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths
Lynn, J.E.
1989-01-01
The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs
Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity
Sabine Hossenfelder
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.
Song, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ma, Qin, E-mail: maqin_lut@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Sun, Xiao-Wei [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, Zi-Jiang [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wei, Xiao-Ping [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Tian, Jun-Hong [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)
2017-02-15
First-principles calculations based on density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model are used to investigate the high-pressure and high-temperature physical properties, including the lattice constant, magnetic moment, density of states, pressure-volume-temperature relationship, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter for the new Mn-based full-Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}RuSi in CuHg{sub 2}Ti-type structure. The optimized equilibrium lattice constant is consistent with experimental and other theoretical results. The calculated total spin magnetic moment remains an integral value of 2.0 μ{sub B} in the lattice constant range of 5.454–5.758 Å, and then decreases very slowly with the decrease of lattice constant to 5.333 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that Mn{sub 2}RuSi compound presents half-metallic ferrimagnetic properties under the equilibrium lattice constant. The effects of temperature and pressure on bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter are opposite, which are consistent with a compression rate of volume. Furthermore, the results show that the effect of temperature is larger than pressure for heat capacity and the effect of high temperature and pressure on thermal expansion coefficient is small. All the properties of Mn{sub 2}RuSi alloy are summarized in the pressure range of 0–100 GPa and the temperature up to 1200 K. - Highlights: • High-pressure and high-temperature physical properties of Mn2RuSi were investigated. • Ferrimagnetic ground state has been confirmed in Mn2RuSi alloy. • The first-principle calculations and quasi-harmonic Debye model were used. • The pressure up to 100 GPa and the temperature up to 1200 K.
Stride length: measuring its instantaneous value
Campiglio, G C; Mazzeo, J R
2007-01-01
Human gait has been studied from different viewpoints: kinematics, dynamics, sensibility and others. Many of its characteristics still remain open to research, both for normal gait and for pathological gait. Objective measures of some of its most significant spatial/temporal parameters are important in this context. Stride length, one of these parameters, is defined as the distance between two consecutive contacts of one foot with ground. On this work we present a device designed to provide automatic measures of stride length. Its features make it particularly appropriate for the evaluation of pathological gait
Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.
Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian
2018-04-19
The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length
Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID
2011-08-01
One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.
Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano
Furat Shani Aoda
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.
Neutron scattering lengths of 3He
Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.
1976-01-01
The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths
Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia
Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.
1997-01-01
This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued
Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials
Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)
2010-07-30
The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.
Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length
Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin
2007-01-01
Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....
Asymptotic Translation Length in the Curve Complex
Valdivia, Aaron D.
2013-01-01
We show that when the genus and punctures of a surface are directly proportional by some rational number the minimal asymptotic translation length in the curve complex has behavior inverse to the square of the Euler characteristic. We also show that when the genus is fixed and the number of punctures varies the behavior is inverse to the Euler characteristic.
Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models
Thodberg, Hans Henrik
2003-01-01
The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...
Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.
2016-02-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...
Link lengths and their growth powers
Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J
2015-01-01
For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)
Exciton diffusion length in narrow bandgap polymers
Mikhnenko, O.V.; Azimi, H.; Morana, M.; Blom, P.W.M.; Loi, M.A.
2012-01-01
We developed a new method to accurately extract the singlet exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors by blending them with a low concentration of methanofullerene[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The dependence of photoluminescence (PL) decay time on the fullerene
Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk
tribpo
thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.
String matching with variable length gaps
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel
2012-01-01
primitive in computational biology applications. Let m and n be the lengths of P and T, respectively, and let k be the number of strings in P. We present a new algorithm achieving time O(nlogk+m+α) and space O(m+A), where A is the sum of the lower bounds of the lengths of the gaps in P and α is the total...... number of occurrences of the strings in P within T. Compared to the previous results this bound essentially achieves the best known time and space complexities simultaneously. Consequently, our algorithm obtains the best known bounds for almost all combinations of m, n, k, A, and α. Our algorithm...
Distance and Cable Length Measurement System
Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay
2009-01-01
A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169
Investigations on quantum mechanics with minimal length
Chargui, Yassine
2009-01-01
We consider a modified quantum mechanics where the coordinates and momenta are assumed to satisfy a non-standard commutation relation of the form( X i , P j ) = iℎ(δ ij (1+βP 2 )+β'P i P j ). Such an algebra results in a generalized uncertainty relation which leads to the existence of a minimal observable length. Moreover, it incorporates an UV/IR mixing and non commutative position space. We analyse the possible representations in terms of differential operators. The latter are used to study the low energy effects of the minimal length by considering different quantum systems : the harmonic oscillator, the Klein-Gordon oscillator, the spinless Salpeter Coulomb problem, and the Dirac equation with a linear confining potential. We also discuss whether such effects are observable in precision measurements on a relativistic electron trapped in strong magnetic field.
Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.
Vazirpanah, Nadia; Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Rothova, Anna; Missotten, Tom O A R; van Velthoven, Mirjam; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Hoyng, Carel B; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Broen, Jasper C A; Kuiper, Jonas J W
2017-01-01
Birdshot Uveitis (BU) is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes. To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls. Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL) = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair) compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair) in unaffected controls (PRTEL1. These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.
B. Azzouz
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.
Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length
Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.
2014-01-01
By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...
Summary of coherent neutron scattering length
Rauch, H.
1981-07-01
Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape
Asymptotic safety, emergence and minimal length
Percacci, Roberto; Vacca, Gian Paolo
2010-01-01
There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that (1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and (2) there is a sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In doing so we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.
Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization
Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero
1997-06-01
Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.
The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors
Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O
1999-01-01
If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed
FTO associations with obesity and telomere length.
Zhou, Yuling; Hambly, Brett D; McLachlan, Craig S
2017-09-01
This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids. We suggest that these pathways may also influence telomere regulation. Telomere length (TL) attrition may be influenced by obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress, and FTO gene-involved pathways. There is additional emerging evidence to suggest that telomere length and obesity are bi-directionally associated. However, the role of obesity risk-related genotypes and associations with TL are not well understood. The FTO gene may influence pathways implicated in regulation of TL, which could help to explain some of the non-consistent relationship between weight phenotype and telomere length that is observed in population studies investigating obesity.
Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor
Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun
2008-01-01
The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification
Slip length crossover on a graphene surface
Liang, Zhi, E-mail: liangz3@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Keblinski, Pawel, E-mail: keplip@rpi.edu [Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2015-04-07
Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.
Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers
W. B. Colson
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.
Das, Sudhir Kumar; Sarkar, Moloy
2012-08-06
Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence behavior of coumarin 153 (C153) is investigated in a series of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ([C(2)mim][C(n)OSO(3)]) ionic liquids differing only in the length of the linear alkyl chain (n = 4, 6, and 8) in the anion. The aim of the present study is to understand the role of alkyl chain length in solute rotation and solvation dynamics of C153 in these ionic liquids. The blueshift observed in the steady-state absorption and emission maxima of C153 on going from the C(4)OSO(3) to the C(8)OSO(3) system indicates increasing nonpolar character of the microenvironment of the solute with increasing length of the alkyl side chain of the anion of the ionic liquids. The average solvation time is also found to increase on changing the substituent from butyl to octyl, and this is attributed to the increase in the bulk viscosity of the ILs. A steady blueshift of the time-zero maximum of the fluorescence spectrum with increasing alkyl chain length also indicates that the probe molecule experiences a less polar environment in the early part of the dynamics. Rotational dynamics of C153 are also analyzed by using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED), Gierer-Wirtz (GW), and Dote-Kivelson-Schwartz (DKS) theories. Analyses of the results seem to suggest decoupling of the rotational motion of the probe from solvent viscosity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds
Tao Zhao
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.
Variational lower bound on the scattering length
Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1975-01-01
The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable
Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan
ESVELT, C.A.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation
Track length estimation applied to point detectors
Rief, H.; Dubi, A.; Elperin, T.
1984-01-01
The concept of the track length estimator is applied to the uncollided point flux estimator (UCF) leading to a new algorithm of calculating fluxes at a point. It consists essentially of a line integral of the UCF, and although its variance is unbounded, the convergence rate is that of a bounded variance estimator. In certain applications, involving detector points in the vicinity of collimated beam sources, it has a lower variance than the once-more-collided point flux estimator, and its application is more straightforward
Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing
Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune
1990-01-01
It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...
Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature
Adam Gh.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.
Neutron chain length distributions in subcritical systems
Nolen, S.D.; Spriggs, G.
1999-01-01
In this paper, the authors present the results of the chain-length distribution as a function of k in subcritical systems. These results were obtained from a point Monte Carlo code and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code, MC++. Based on these results, they then attempt to explain why several of the common neutron noise techniques, such as the Rossi-α and Feynman's variance-to-mean techniques, are difficult to perform in highly subcritical systems using low-efficiency detectors
Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...
This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...
Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control
Jacob Keeling
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.
Turbulence closure for mixing length theories
Jermyn, Adam S.; Lesaffre, Pierre; Tout, Christopher A.; Chitre, Shashikumar M.
2018-05-01
We present an approach to turbulence closure based on mixing length theory with three-dimensional fluctuations against a two-dimensional background. This model is intended to be rapidly computable for implementation in stellar evolution software and to capture a wide range of relevant phenomena with just a single free parameter, namely the mixing length. We incorporate magnetic, rotational, baroclinic, and buoyancy effects exactly within the formalism of linear growth theories with non-linear decay. We treat differential rotation effects perturbatively in the corotating frame using a novel controlled approximation, which matches the time evolution of the reference frame to arbitrary order. We then implement this model in an efficient open source code and discuss the resulting turbulent stresses and transport coefficients. We demonstrate that this model exhibits convective, baroclinic, and shear instabilities as well as the magnetorotational instability. It also exhibits non-linear saturation behaviour, and we use this to extract the asymptotic scaling of various transport coefficients in physically interesting limits.
ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH
Vidyullatha Shetty
2015-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length
Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation
Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter
2005-01-01
The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...
Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.
Nadia Vazirpanah
Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.
Bolel, Priyanka; Datta, Shubhashis; Mahapatra, Niharendu; Halder, Mintu
2012-08-30
Formation of ion pair between charged molecule and protein can lead to interesting biochemical phenomena. We report the evolution of thermodynamics of the binding of tartrazine, a negatively charged azo colorant, and serum albumins with salt. The dye binds predominantly electrostatically in low buffer strengths; however, on increasing salt concentration, affinity decreases considerably. The calculated thermodynamic parameters in high salt indicate manifestation of nonelectrostatic interactions, namely, van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. Site-marker competitive binding studies and docking simulations indicate that the dye binds with HSA in the warfarin site and with BSA at the interface of warfarin and ibuprofen binding sites. The docked poses indicate nearby amino acid positive side chains, which are possibly responsible for electrostatic interaction. Using the Debye-Hückel interionic attraction theory for binding equilibria, it is shown that, for electrostatic binding the calculated free energy change increases linearly with square root of ionic strength. Also UV-vis, fluorescence, CD data indicate a decrease of interaction with salt concentration. This study quantitatively relates how ionic strength modulates the strength of the protein-ligand electrostatic interaction. The binding enthalpy and entropy have been found to compensate one another. The enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC), general property of weak intermolecular interactions, has been discussed.
Dimitrov, S.
1977-01-01
The effect of irradiation of White Leghorn eggs with ultraviolet rays on their embryonal development, egg hatchability, viability of hatched chicks and their liveweight, is studied. Irradiation length was 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40 and 60 min in two experiments and 2, 4, 16 and 256 min in one trial. It was established that egg irradiation with ultraviolet rays affected positively egg hatchability and viability of the chicks, the irradiation effect being strongest in the range of 2 to 40 min. No significant difference was established between liveweight of chicks obtained from irradiated and nonirradiated eggs. It was further found that the length of incubation period was shortened by 2 to 5 hrs with increase in irradiation length over 5 min. (author)
Influence of recording length on reporting status
Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse
2009-01-01
: To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...
Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR
Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.
1988-05-01
Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs
Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR
Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.
1988-01-01
Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2015-01-01
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.
2015-01-01
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble
Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length
Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)
2015-01-15
A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.
Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.
Schuijer, J
1990-01-01
With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.
Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service
Zbigniew Śliwiński
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.
Father Loss and Child Telomere Length.
Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Schneper, Lisa; Garfinkel, Irv; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Notterman, Daniel
2017-08-01
Father loss during childhood has negative health and behavioral consequences, but the biological consequences are unknown. Our goal was to examine how father loss (because of separation and/or divorce, death, or incarceration) is associated with cellular function as estimated by telomere length. Data come from the 9-year follow-up of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of children in 20 large American cities ( N = 2420). Principal measures are as follows: salivary telomere length (sTL), mother reports of father loss, and polymorphisms in genes related to serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling. At 9 years of age, children with father loss have significantly shorter telomeres (14% reduction). Paternal death has the largest association (16%), followed by incarceration (10%), and separation and/or divorce (6%). Changes in income partially mediate these associations (95% mediation for separation and/or divorce, 30% for incarceration, and 25% for death). Effects are 40% greater for boys and 90% greater for children with the most reactive alleles of the serotonin transporter genes when compared with those with the least reactive alleles. No differences were found by age at father loss or a child's race/ethnicity. Father loss has a significant association with children's sTL, with the death of a father showing the largest effect. Income loss explains most of the association between child sTL and separation and/or divorce but much less of the association with incarceration or death. This underscores the important role of fathers in the care and development of children and supplements evidence of the strong negative effects of parental incarceration. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Concept of formation length in radiation theory
Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.
2005-01-01
The features of electromagnetic processes are considered which connected with finite size of space region in which final particles (photon, electron-positron pair) are formed. The longitudinal dimension of the region is known as the formation length. If some external agent is acting on an electron while traveling this distance the emission process can be disrupted. There are different agents: multiple scattering of projectile, polarization of a medium, action of external fields, etc. The theory of radiation under influence of the multiple scattering, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect, is presented. The probability of radiation is calculated with an accuracy up to 'next to leading logarithm' and with the Coulomb corrections taken into account. The integral characteristics of bremsstrahlung are given, it is shown that the effective radiation length increases due to the LPM effect at high energy. The LPM effect for pair creation is also presented. The multiple scattering influences also on radiative corrections in a medium (and an external field too) including the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron and the polarization tensor as well as coherent scattering of a photon in a Coulomb field. The polarization of a medium alters the radiation probability in soft part of spectrum. Specific features of radiation from a target of finite thickness include: the boundary photon emission, interference effects for thin target, multi-photon radiation. The theory predictions are compared with experimental data obtained at SLAC and CERN SPS. For electron-positron colliding beams following items are discussed: the separation of coherent and incoherent mechanisms of radiation, the beam-size effect in bremsstrahlung, coherent radiation and mechanisms of electron-positron creation
SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING
Masoud Asgharian
2010-12-01
Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.
Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B
2012-10-25
In an attempt to find out whether the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation has a bearing on solute rotation, temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropies of three structurally similar solutes have been measured in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides. Solute-solvent coupling constants obtained from the experimentally measured reorientation times with the aid of Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic theory indicate that there is no influence of the length of the alkyl chain on the rotation of nonpolar, anionic, and cationic solutes 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA), fluorescein (FL), and rhodamine 110 (R110), respectively. It has also been noticed that the rotational diffusion of 9-PA is closer to the predictions of slip hydrodynamics, whereas the rotation of negatively charged FL and positively charged R110 is almost identical and follows stick hydrodynamics in these ionic liquids. Despite having similar shape and size, ionic solutes rotate slower by a factor of 3-4 compared to the nonpolar solute. Interplay of specific and electrostatic interactions between FL and the imidazolium cation of the ionic liquids, and between R110 and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, appear to be responsible for the observed behavior. These results are an indication that the length of the alkyl chain on the imidazolium cation does not alter their physical properties in a manner that has an effect on solute rotation.
Goh Li Teng
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.
Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle
Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.
2005-01-01
The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed
Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution
Barbara Hemforth
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information
Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.
Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano
2011-12-01
This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography
Pinkl, W.
1998-01-01
This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic
Chen, Yuehua; Wang, Huiyong; Wang, Jianji
2014-05-01
Thermodynamic dissociation constants of the Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) are important for their catalytic and separation applications. In this work, a series of imidazolium bromides with one carboxylic acid substitute group in their alkyl chain ([{(CH2)nCOOH}mim]Br, n = 1,3,5,7) have been synthesized, and their dissociation constants (pKa) at different ionic strengths have been determined in aqueous and aqueous organic solvents at 0.1 mole fraction (x) of ethanol, glycol, iso-propanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide by potentiometric titrations at 298.2 K. The standard thermodynamic dissociation constants (pKa(T)) of the ILs in these solvents were calculated from the extended Debye-Hückel equation. It was found that the pKa values increased with the increase of ionic strength of the media and of the addition of organic solvent in water. The pKa(T) values also increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length of cations of the ILs. In addition, the effect of solvent nature on pKa(T) values is interpreted from solvation of the dissociation components and their Gibbs energy of transfer from water to aqueous organic solutions.
Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics
O. Gutynska
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.
We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 R_{E} in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.
Telomere length maintenance--an ALTernative mechanism.
Royle, N J; Foxon, J; Jeyapalan, J N; Mendez-Bermudez, A; Novo, C L; Williams, J; Cotton, V E
2008-01-01
The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanism is utilised by approximately 10% of human tumours and a higher proportion of some types of sarcomas. ALT+ cell lines and tumours show heterogeneous telomere length, extra-chromosomal circular and linear telomeric DNA, ALT associated promyelocytic bodies (APBs), a high frequency of post-replication exchanges in telomeres (designated as telomere-sister chromatid exchanges, T-SCE) and high instability at a GC-rich minisatellite, MS32 (D1S8). It is clear that there is a link between the minisatellite instability and the mechanism that underpins ALT, however currently the nature of this relationship is uncertain. Single molecule analysis of telomeric DNA from ALT+ cell lines and tumours has revealed complex telomere mutations that have not been seen in cell lines or tumours that express telomerase. These complex telomere mutations cannot be explained by T-SCE but must arise by another inter-molecular process. The break-induced replication (BIR) model that may explain the observed high frequency of T-SCE and the presence of complex telomere mutations is reviewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full length prototype SSC dipole test results
Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.
1987-01-01
Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench
Relation between axial length and ocular parameters
Xue-Qiu Yang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.
Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics
O. Gutynska
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.
Information Cost, Memory Length and Market Instability.
Diks, Cees; Li, Xindan; Wu, Chengyao
2018-07-01
In this article, we study the instability of a stock market with a modified version of Diks and Dindo's (2008) model where the market is characterized by nonlinear interactions between informed traders and uninformed traders. In the interaction of heterogeneous agents, we replace the replicator dynamics for the fractions by logistic strategy switching. This modification makes the model more suitable for describing realistic price dynamics, as well as more robust with respect to parameter changes. One goal of our paper is to use this model to explore if the arrival of new information (news) and investor behavior have an effect on market instability. A second, related, goal is to study the way markets absorb new information, especially when the market is unstable and the price is far from being fully informative. We find that the dynamics become locally unstable and prices may deviate far from the fundamental price, routing to chaos through bifurcation, with increasing information costs or decreasing memory length of the uninformed traders.
Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Pržulj Novo
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.
Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion
Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun
2008-01-01
Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column
Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination
Lumnije Kqiku
2011-01-01
Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.
Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects
Ramakers, Anke; Apel, Robert; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Dirkzwager, Anja; Van Wilsem, Johan
2014-01-01
This study considers the relationship between imprisonment length and employment outcomes. The data are a unique prospective, longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees (N = 702). All subjects thus experience prison confinement of varying lengths, although the durations are relatively short
Optical Arc-Length Sensor For TIG Welding
Smith, Matthew A.
1990-01-01
Proposed subsystem of tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding system measures length of welding arc optically. Viewed by video camera, in one of three alternative optical configurations. Length of arc measured instead of inferred from voltage.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi
2017-01-01
In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...
Melek Özpiçak
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.
Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.
Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R
1998-01-01
Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.
Critical lengths of error events in convolutional codes
Justesen, Jørn
1994-01-01
If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...
Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes
Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl
1998-01-01
If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...
Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet is an ancient legume species whose immature pods serve as a vegetable in south and south-east Asia. The objective of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with quantitative traits such as inflorescence length, peduncle length from branch to axil, peduncle length from ...
How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?
Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy
2014-01-01
season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...
Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor (K constant) of ...
Abstract—Length-weight relationships and condition factors of Sparidae along the. Kenyan coast are unknown. This study investigated the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes, 1830, a sparid, found in. Malindi, Kenya, from June to August 2008. The length-weight coefficients ...
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception
Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2014-01-01
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,
Advantages and risks in increasing cyclone separator length
Hoffmann, AC; de Groot, M; Peng, W; Dries, HWA; Kater, J
The effect of cyclone length on separation efficiency and pressure drop has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by varying the length of the cylindrical segment of a cylinder-on-cone cyclone. Experimental results based on cyclone lengths from 2.65 to 6.15 cyclone diameters showed a
LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...
Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.
Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.
Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S
2014-12-01
To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.
Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele
2009-07-01
One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.
Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.
2008-01-01
We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering
Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model
Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.
2005-01-01
This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)
Automated path length and M56 measurements at Jefferson Lab
Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.
1997-01-01
Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M 56 ) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 μs pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M 56 has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.
Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L
2014-01-24
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.
Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B
2013-10-10
Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (τr) have been measured as a function of viscosity (η) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation τr = A(η/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight.
Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J
2015-09-01
Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.
Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S
2015-01-01
Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.
Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection
Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.
2013-01-01
Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data
Thermal significance of fission-track length distributions
Crowley, K.D.
1985-01-01
The semi-analytical solution of an equation describing the production and shortening of fission tracks in apatite suggests that certain thermal histories have unique length-distribution 'signatures'. Isothermal-heating histories should be characterized by flattened, length-shortened distributions; step-heating histories should be characterized by bimodal track length distributions; and linear-cooling histories should be characterized by negatively skewed, length-shortened distributions. The model formulated here to investigate track length distributions can be used to constrain the thermal histories of natural samples for which unbiased track length data are available - provided that the geologic history of the system of interest can be used to partially constrain one of the unknowns in the model equations, time or temperature. (author)
Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants
Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.
2009-01-01
-growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...
Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys
Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.
1997-01-01
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras
Markova, Ol'ga V
2009-01-01
By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.
Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids
Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng
2013-01-01
The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign
Finite fission chain length and symmetry around prompt-criticality
Xie Qilin; Yin Yanpeng; Gao Hui; Huang Po; Fang Xiaoqiang
2012-01-01
Probability distribution of finite fission chain length was derived by assuming that all neutrons behave identically. Finite fission chain length was also calculated using a zero-dimension Monte-Carlo method based on point kinetics. Then symmetry of finite fission chain length probability distribution around prompt-criticality was deduced, which helps understanding the emission rate of delayed neutrons and initiation of fission chain in super-prompt-critical system. (authors)
Cervical length measurement: comparison of transabdominal and transvaginal approach
Westerway, Sue C; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon
2015-01-01
to external cervical os. Bland- Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate differences between TA and TV measurements. Results: The validity of the TA method depended on cervical length. Although the TA method underestimated cervical length by 2.0 mm on average (P ... plots showed an inverse trend with shorter cervixes. In women with a cervix test to detect cervical length
Potts ferromagnet correlation length in hypercubic lattices: Renormalization - group approach
Curado, E.M.F.; Hauser, P.R.
1984-01-01
Through a real space renormalization group approach, the q-state Potts ferromagnet correlation length on hierarchical lattices is calculated. These hierarchical lattices are build in order to simulate hypercubic lattices. The high-and-low temperature correlation length asymptotic behaviours tend (in the Ising case) to the Bravais lattice correlation length ones when the size of the hierarchical lattice cells tends to infinity. It is conjectured that the asymptotic behaviours several values of q and d (dimensionality) so obtained are correct. Numerical results are obtained for the full temperature range of the correlation length. (Author) [pt
Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring
Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.
1993-05-01
The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed
Universal and idiosyncratic characteristic lengths in bacterial genomes
Junier, Ivan; Frémont, Paul; Rivoire, Olivier
2018-05-01
In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes. Since bacteria live in very different physico-chemical conditions and since their genomes lack translational invariance, whether larger, universal characteristic lengths exist is a non-trivial question. Here, we examine this problem by leveraging the large number of fully sequenced genomes available in public databases. By analyzing GC content correlations and the evolutionary conservation of gene contexts (synteny) in hundreds of bacterial chromosomes, we conclude that a fundamental characteristic length around 10–20 kb can be defined. This characteristic length reflects elementary structures involved in the coordination of gene expression, which are present all along the genome of nearly all bacteria. Technically, reaching this conclusion required us to implement methods that are insensitive to the presence of large idiosyncratic genomic features, which may co-exist along these fundamental universal structures.
The relationship of protein conservation and sequence length
Panchenko Anna R
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins. However, additional evolutionary forces that affect the length of a protein may be revealed by studying the length distributions of proteins evolving under weaker functional constraints. Results We performed sequence comparisons to distinguish highly conserved and poorly conserved proteins from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. For all organisms studied, the conserved and nonconserved proteins have strikingly different length distributions. The conserved proteins are, on average, longer than the poorly conserved ones, and the length distributions for the poorly conserved proteins have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the conserved proteins whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. For the two prokaryotes studied, the poorly conserved proteins approximate the minimal length distribution expected for a diverse range of structural folds. Conclusions There is a relationship between protein conservation and sequence length. For all the organisms studied, there seems to be a significant evolutionary trend favoring shorter proteins in the absence of other, more specific functional constraints.
Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.
2018-04-01
In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.
Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.
Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A
2018-05-19
Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2 = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2 = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age
Mutia Farah Fawziah
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Background Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.
Crandall, David Lynn
2011-08-16
Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.
Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand
Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2014-01-01
The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...
The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception
Kirkwood, Brent Christopher
Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...
The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception
Kirkwood, Brent Christopher
2005-01-01
Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...
The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports
Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.
2011-01-01
Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s
Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...
Scanning was performed with a 3.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the supine position. The ultrasonographic appearance of the kidneys we measured was normal. The maximum length of each kidney was measured. The renal length was correlated with somatic parameters including age, body height and weight. Regression ...
Design Matters: The Impact of CAPI on Interview Length
Watson, Nicole; Wilkins, Roger
2015-01-01
Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) offers many attractive benefits over paper-and-pencil interviewing. There is, however, mixed evidence on the impact of CAPI on interview "length," an important survey outcome in the context of length limits imposed by survey budgets and concerns over respondent burden. In this article,…
length-weight relationship of hepsetus odoe in lapai - agaie ...
Ibrahim Usman
biometric relationship so that data collected from the field can be transform into appropriate indices (Ecoutin et al., 2005). Length and weight are two useful parameters used especially in fisheries assessment. This relationship known as length-weight relationship (LWR), is commonly used in the analysis of fisheries data.
Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory
Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne
2007-01-01
The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…
Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka
Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...
A Small Crack Length Evaluation Technique by Electronic Scanning
Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Jae Hoon
2009-01-01
The results of crack evaluation by conventional UT(Ultrasonic Test)is highly depend on the inspector's experience or knowledge of ultrasound. Phased array UT system and its application methods for small crack length evaluation will be a good alternative method which overcome present UT weakness. This study was aimed at checking the accuracy of crack length evaluation method by electronic scanning and discuss about characteristics of electronic scanning for crack length evaluation. Especially ultrasonic phased array with electronic scan technique was used in carrying out both sizing and detect ability of crack as its length changes. The response of ultrasonic phased array was analyzed to obtain the special method of determining crack length without moving the transducer and detectability of crack minimal length and depth from the material. A method of crack length determining by electronic scanning for the small crack is very real method which has it's accuracy and verify the effectiveness of method compared to a conventional crack length determination
EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON CYCLE LENGTH IN ATRIAL-FLUTTER
VANDENBERG, MP; CRIJNS, HJGM; SZABO, BM; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI
Objective-To examine the effect of exercise on cycle length in atrial flutter. Patients-15 patients with chronic atrial flutter. Seven patients were taking digoxin and six verapamil; two were not taking medication. Methods-All patients underwent bicycle ergometry. Flutter cycle length was measured
Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...
The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...
Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...
The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...
Optimization of fracture length in gas/condensate reservoirs
Mohan, J.; Sharma, M.M.; Pope, G.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)
2006-07-01
A common practice that improves the productivity of gas-condensate reservoirs is hydraulic fracturing. Two important variables that determine the effectiveness of hydraulic fractures are fracture length and fracture conductivity. Although there are no simple guidelines for the optimization of fracture length and the factors that affect it, it is preferable to have an optimum fracture length for a given proppant volume in order to maximize productivity. An optimization study was presented in which fracture length was estimated at wells where productivity was maximized. An analytical expression that takes into account non-Darcy flow and condensate banking was derived. This paper also reviewed the hydraulic fracturing process and discussed previous simulation studies that investigated the effects of well spacing and fracture length on well productivity in low permeability gas reservoirs. The compositional simulation study and results and discussion were also presented. The analytical expression for optimum fracture length, analytical expression with condensate dropout, and equations for the optimum fracture length with non-Darcy flow in the fracture were included in an appendix. The Computer Modeling Group's GEM simulator, an equation-of-state compositional simulator, was used in this study. It was concluded that for cases with non-Darcy flow, the optimum fracture lengths are lower than those obtained with Darcy flow. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 22 figs., 1 appendix.
Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...
Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...
Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors
Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M D
2013-01-01
Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells. (paper)
Length-weight relationship and condition factor of clarias gariepinus ...
Length-Weight relationship and condition factor of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia Zillii were studiedin lake Alau and Monguno hatchery, both in Borno State of Nigeria, for a period of two weeks. A total of 98 C. gariepinus and 140. T. zillii were measured. The length-weight regression coefficient (b) for both fishes in lake Alau ...
Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding
Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare
1996-01-01
In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....
Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory
Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie
2013-01-01
This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…
Prediction of the mixing length in effluent transport in rivers
Szpilowski, S.
1983-01-01
Studies have been performed on estimating the transverse mixing length of effluents discharged into rivers. The proposed method is based on measured values of the dispersion coefficient. Field investigations were carried out in the River Vistula in the Warsaw area using radiotracer methods. The procedure can be used for predicting the mixing length in designing sewage systems. (author)
Climate reconstructions derived from global glacier length records
Klok, E.J.; Oerlemans, J.
2004-01-01
As glacier length fluctuations provide useful information about past climate, we derived historic fluctuations in the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) on the basis of 19 glacier length records from different parts of the world. We used a model that takes into account the geometry of the glacier,
Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations
Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy
Impact of Cyclic Prefix length on OFDM system Capacity
Rom, Christian; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard
2005-01-01
This paper is a study on the impact of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) length on the downlink Capacity in a base-band synchronized SISO-OFDM context. To measure this impact, the capacity, measured in bits per second per hertz, is chosen as quality parameter. The study shows how the lengthening of the CP......) the useful OFDM symbol duration, 2) the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver and 3) the channel Power Delay Profile (PDP). Depending on the values of these parameters different optimum CP lengths are obtained. For a system using only one value of CP length we suggest an optimum value to be 4us...... for an OFDM symbol length of 40us and 6us for an OFDM symbol length of 80us....
Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)
Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Goodman, Brett Alexander
2011-01-01
Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.
Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj
2013-03-01
Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)
Berumen, Michael L.
2011-06-17
Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population
Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.
Verhoeven, J.W.; Aken, J. van; Weerdt, G.P. van der
Intraoral radiograms can be made according to the long tube paralleling technique utilizing aiming devices. An important factor in the design of these instruments is the length of the teeth to be radiographed. Reliable data regarding the length of the teeth in the different regions of the mouth are
James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin
1999-01-01
The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...
Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.
2005-01-01
We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other
Marinus, E.; de Jong, P.F.
2010-01-01
The marked word-length effect in dyslexic children suggests the use of a letter-by-letter reading strategy. Such a strategy should make it more difficult to infer the sound of digraphs. Our main aim was to disentangle length and digraph-presence effects in word and pseudoword reading. In addition,
Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults
Maria Regina Rachmawati
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults
Maria Regina Rachmawati
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Information content versus word length in random typing
Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín
2011-01-01
Recently, it has been claimed that a linear relationship between a measure of information content and word length is expected from word length optimization and it has been shown that this linearity is supported by a strong correlation between information content and word length in many languages (Piantadosi et al 2011 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108 3825). Here, we study in detail some connections between this measure and standard information theory. The relationship between the measure and word length is studied for the popular random typing process where a text is constructed by pressing keys at random from a keyboard containing letters and a space behaving as a word delimiter. Although this random process does not optimize word lengths according to information content, it exhibits a linear relationship between information content and word length. The exact slope and intercept are presented for three major variants of the random typing process. A strong correlation between information content and word length can simply arise from the units making a word (e.g., letters) and not necessarily from the interplay between a word and its context as proposed by Piantadosi and co-workers. In itself, the linear relation does not entail the results of any optimization process. (letter)
Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths
Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.
2016-01-01
This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.
Evaluation of Efficient Line Lengths for Better Readability
Zahid Hussain
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the major findings of a formal experiment about onscreen text line lengths are presented. The experiment examined the effects of four different line lengths on the reading speed and the reading efficiency. Efficiency is defined as a combination of reading speed and accuracy. Sixteen people between the age of 24 and 36 participated at the experiment. The subjects had to read four different texts with an average line length around 2000 characters. The texts contained substitution words, which had to be detected by the subjects to measure reading accuracy. Besides objective measures like reading speed and accuracy, the subjects were asked to subjectively vote on their reading experience. The results from our objective measures show strong similarities to those of the work done previously by different researchers. The absolute reading speed grows when the line length grows from CPL (Characters Per Line 30-120. The measured reading efficiency, however, doesn\\\\\\'t grow steadily, although a growing trend can be seen. This is due to the fact, that the test persons found in average more substitution words from the 60 CPL text than they did from the 30 and 90 CPL texts. The reading speed seems to increase while the line length increases but the overall comprehension seems to peak at medium line lengths. As in the previous studies, our test persons also prefer the medium (60 and 90 CPL line lengths, although they perform better when reading longer lines. In the overall subjective opinion 13 out of 16 test persons selected the 60 or 90 CPL line length as their favorite. The literature doesn\\\\\\'t truly provide a scientific explanation for the difference between the objective performance and the subjective preference. A natural hypothesis would be that the line length that is the fastest to read would also feel most comfortable to the readers but in the light of this and the earlier research it seems like this is not the case.
Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?
Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne
2018-02-01
In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.
Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation
Osama Shaeer
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.
Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.
Vít Třebický
Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.
Length Contraction Should not be Independent of Time
Smarandache, Florentin
2013-10-01
In Special Theory of Relativity it looks that the length contraction along the direction of the motion is independent of time, i.e. if a rocket flies one second, or the rocket flies one year the rocket's along-the-motion length contraction is the same, since the contraction factor C (v) =√{ 1 -v2/c2 } depends on the rocket's relativistic speed (v) and on the light speed in vacuum (c) only. We find this as unrealistic, incomplete. It is logical that flying more and more it should increase the length contraction. What about the cosmic bodies that continuously travel, do they contract only once or are they continuously contracting?
Modes in a nonneutral plasma column of finite length
Rasband, S. Neil; Spencer, Ross L.
2002-01-01
A Galerkin, finite-element, nonuniform mesh computation of the mode equation for waves in a non-neutral plasma of finite length in a Cold-Fluid model gives an accurate calculation of the mode eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. We report on studies of the following: (1) finite-length Trivelpiece-Gould modes with flat-top and realistic density profiles, (2) finite-length diocotron modes with flat density profiles. We compare with the frequency equation of Fine and Driscoll [Phys Plasmas 5, 601 (1998)
Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths
Braaten, Eric
2012-01-01
The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.
Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths
Sears, V F
1985-06-01
We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed.
Local-field refinement of neutron scattering lengths
Sears, V.F.
1985-01-01
We examine the way in which local field effects in the neutron refractive index affect the values of coherent scattering lengths determined by various kinds of neutron optical measurements. We find that under typical experimental conditions these effects are negligible for interferometry measurements but that they are significant for gravity refractometry measurements, producing changes in the effective scattering length of as much as two or three standard deviations in some cases. Refined values of the scattering length are obtained for the thirteen elements for which data are presently available. The special role of local field effects in neutron transmission is also discussed. (orig.)
Minimal Length Effects on Tunnelling from Spherically Symmetric Black Holes
Benrong Mu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate effects of the minimal length on quantum tunnelling from spherically symmetric black holes using the Hamilton-Jacobi method incorporating the minimal length. We first derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for scalars and fermions, both of which have the same expressions. The minimal length correction to the Hawking temperature is found to depend on the black hole’s mass and the mass and angular momentum of emitted particles. Finally, we calculate a Schwarzschild black hole's luminosity and find the black hole evaporates to zero mass in infinite time.
Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation
Nguyen, D.C.
1997-05-12
The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime.
Hydrogen atom in momentum space with a minimal length
Bouaziz, Djamil; Ferkous, Nourredine
2010-01-01
A momentum representation treatment of the hydrogen atom problem with a generalized uncertainty relation, which leads to a minimal length ΔX imin =(ℎ/2π)√(3β+β ' ), is presented. We show that the distance squared operator can be factorized in the case β ' =2β. We analytically solve the s-wave bound-state equation. The leading correction to the energy spectrum caused by the minimal length depends on √(β). An upper bound for the minimal length is found to be about 10 -9 fm.
Electron Bunch Length Diagnostic With Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation
Nguyen, D.C.
1997-01-01
The authors have designed a new technique for measuring subpicosecond electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. This new diagnostic technique involves passing the electron beam in close proximity of a grating with a period comparable to the electron bunch length. The emitted Smith-Purcell radiation will have a coherent component whose angular position and distribution are directly related to the electron bunch length and longitudinal profile, respectively. This new diagnostic technique is inherently simple, inexpensive and non-intercepting. The authors show that the new technique is also scaleable to femtosecond regime
Mesoscopic Length Scale Controls the Rheology of Dense Suspensions
Bonnoit, Claire; Lanuza, Jose; Lindner, Anke; Clement, Eric
2010-09-01
From the flow properties of dense granular suspensions on an inclined plane, we identify a mesoscopic length scale strongly increasing with volume fraction. When the flowing layer height is larger than this length scale, a diverging Newtonian viscosity is determined. However, when the flowing layer height drops below this scale, we evidence a nonlocal effective viscosity, decreasing as a power law of the flow height. We establish a scaling relation between this mesoscopic length scale and the suspension viscosity. These results support recent theoretical and numerical results implying collective and clustered granular motion when the jamming point is approached from below.
An Assessment of the Length and Variability of Mercury's Magnetotail
Milan, S. E.; Slavin, J. A.
2011-01-01
We employ Mariner 10 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Mercury to estimate the rate of magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Hermean magnetosphere. We derive a time-series of the open magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere. from which we can deduce the length of the magnetotail The length of the magnetotail is shown to be highly variable. with open field lines stretching between 15R(sub H) and 8S0R(sub H) downstream of the planet (median 150R(sub H)). Scaling laws allow the tail length at perihelion to be deduced from the aphelion Mariner 10 observations.
Cervical length at 23 weeks' gestation - relation to demographic ...
significance of differences in median cervical lengths between subgroups was calculated according to maternal age, ethnic origin, maternal body mass ... and mortality worldwide, with major health care and economic consequences.u In South ...
The compound microscope: optical tube length or parfocalization?
Simon, J M; Comastri, S A
2005-01-01
In various well-known textbooks for undergraduate students of physics, the compound microscope is described as having a standardized 'optical tube length'. On the other hand, in order to fulfil the parfocalization condition required by the human visual system to understand the relation between what is viewed with and without the microscope, the distance between the object and its image through the objective must remain constant as objectives are interchanged. In this paper, we show that these two requirements are not compatible in microscopes containing a revolver with various objectives and that the 'optical tube length' (which differs from the mechanical tube length) cannot be standardized. Moreover, we consider the Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN) and the Japanese Industry Standards (JIS) norms employed in the microscope industry for standardization of the object-to-intermediate image distance, the parfocal distance and the mechanical tube length
Length scale of secondary stresses in fracture and fatigue
Dong, P.
2008-01-01
In an attempt to provide a consistent framework for the analysis and treatment of secondary stresses associated with welding and thermal loading in the context of fracture mechanics, this paper starts with an effective stress characterization procedure by introducing a length-scale concept. With it, a traction-based stress separation procedure is then presented to provide a consistent characterization of stresses from various sources based on their length scale. Their relative contributions to fracture driving force are then quantified in terms of their characteristic length scales. Special attention is given to the implications of the length-scale argument on both analysis and treatment of welding residual stresses in fracture assessment. A series of examples is provided to demonstrate how the present developments can be applied for treating not only secondary stresses but also externally applied stresses, as well as their combined effects on the structural integrity of engineering components
Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...
Administrator
Processes in complex chemical systems, such as macromolecules, electrolytes, interfaces, ... by processes operating on a multiplicity of length .... real time. The design and interpretation of femto- second experiments has required considerable ...
From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length
Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P Jr
2013-01-01
The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct
Naloxone fails to prolong seizure length in ECT.
Rasmussen, K G; Pandurangi, A K
1999-12-01
Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) in animals has been shown to enhance endogenous opiate systems. The anticonvulsant effects of ECS are also partially blocked by the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone, leading some investigators to postulate that the anticonvulsant effects of ECS are mediated by activation of endogenous opiates. If such a phenomenon occurs in humans, then naloxone might prolong seizure length in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In the present study, nine patients were given 2.0 mg intravenous (i.v.) naloxone 2 minutes prior to one-half of their ECT treatments. Motor seizure length was measured via the cuff technique. EEG tracings were read by an investigator blind to naloxone status. There was no difference between the two groups in either EEG or nonblindly evaluated motor seizure length. It is concluded that a dose of 2 mg naloxone does not effectively increase seizure length in ECT.
Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease
Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty
2011-01-01
Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...
Ultrasonographic assessment of renal length in 310 Turkish children ...
Ultrasonography is a non-invasive modality that can be used to measure RL.[2] ... cases were selected for inclusion in the study. Ultrasonography was ... Linear regression equations for predicting a variable (renal length) from independent ...
Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules
Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata
2014-01-01
The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.
Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules
Amin, Talha
2014-02-14
The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.
The Distribution of Lightning Channel Lengths in Northern Alabama Thunderstorms
Peterson, H. S.; Koshak, W. J.
2010-01-01
Lightning is well known to be a major source of tropospheric NOx, and in most cases is the dominant natural source (Huntreiser et al 1998, Jourdain and Hauglustaine 2001). Production of NOx by a segment of a lightning channel is a function of channel segment energy density and channel segment altitude. A first estimate of NOx production by a lightning flash can be found by multiplying production per segment [typically 104 J/m; Hill (1979)] by the total length of the flash s channel. The purpose of this study is to determine average channel length for lightning flashes near NALMA in 2008, and to compare average channel length of ground flashes to the average channel length of cloud flashes.
The length of the glaciers in the world
Machguth, Horst; Huss, M.; Huss, M.
2014-01-01
a fully automated method based on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for the same area as well as for Alaska, and eventually applied to all ∼ 200000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation...... highlights accurately calculated glacier length where DEM quality is good (East 10 Greenland) and limited precision on low quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers...... are longer than 10km with Bering Glacier (Alaska/Canada) being the longest glacier in the world at a length of 196 km. Based on model output we derive global and regional area-length scaling laws. Differences among regional scaling parameters appear to be related to characteristics of topography and glacier...
Minimal length uncertainty and generalized non-commutative geometry
Farmany, A.; Abbasi, S.; Darvishi, M.T.; Khani, F.; Naghipour, A.
2009-01-01
A generalized formulation of non-commutative geometry for the Bargmann-Fock space of quantum field theory is presented. The analysis is related to the symmetry of the simplistic space and a minimal length uncertainty.
Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths
Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2009-01-01
We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.
Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths
Hoferichter, Martin [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kubis, Bastian [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: kubis@itkp.uni-bonn.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2009-07-06
We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.
Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length
York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...
The screening length of interatomic potential in atomic collisions
Yamamura, Y.; Takeuchi, W.; Kawamura, T.
1998-03-01
In computer studies on the interaction of charged particle with solids, many authors treat the nuclear collision by the Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. For better agreement with experiment, the screening length is modified sometimes. We investigate the theoretical background for the correction factor of the screening length in the interatomic potential which can be deduced from two steps. The first step is to select the correction factor of an isolated atom so as to match the average radius of the Thomas-Fermi electron distribution with that of the Hartree-Fock electron distribution, where we use the Clementi and Roetti's table. The second step is to determine the correction factor of the screening length of the interatomic potential by using a combination rule. The correction factors obtained for the screening length are in good agreement with those determined by the computer analysis of the Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ICISS) data. (author)
Length-weight relationship of Giant Oyster, Crassostrea gyphoides (Schlotheim)
Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.
Relationship between shell length and total weight, shell weight and meat weight of giant oyster, Crassostrea gryphoides revealed that the growth of these parameters is very fast and significant. It indicates the suitability of the species concerned...
Spin-Charge Separation in Finite Length Metallic Carbon Nanotubes
Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2017-01-01
Using time-dependent density functional theory, we study the optical excitations in finite length carbon nanotubes. Evidence of spin-charge separation is given in the spacetime domain. We demonstrate that the charge density wave is due to collective
Predicting the Liquid Lengths of Heavy Hydrogen Fuels
Hoogterp, Laura L
2003-01-01
.... Using models formulated by previous researchers as well as the thermodynamic properties for three fuel surrogates the liquid length can be determined for diesel fuel, JP8 as well as provide a model...
Reasonable designing method for fillet welding leg length
Kiso, T; Michiyuki, T; Nagao, S; Yoshikawa, M; Miyazaki, S
1976-12-01
In VLCC and ULCC vessels, the scantling of structural members, especially the thickness of web plate, increases naturally. The present rule of each classification society generally prescribes that welding leg length should be based on the thickness of the web plate. Welding leg length between this web plate and skin plate such as shell plate, deck plate, etc., or face plate, increases according to increase of the thickness of the web plate. We investigated the method to decide reasonable welding leg length and its programming by using the results of finite element method structural analysis, without adhering to the above rule about welding leg length. As a result of applying this method to actual ships under classification societies' approval, the amount of welding decreased by from about 10 percent to 15 percent compared with that required by the above rule. The rationality of the method has been already confirmed by successful results of the application to several vessels in service.
Understanding the length dependence of molecular junction thermopower
Karlström, Sven Olov Harald; Strange, Mikkel; Solomon, Gemma
2014-01-01
Thermopower of molecular junctions is sensitive to details in the junction and may increase, decrease, or saturate with increasing chain length, depending on the system. Using McConnell's theory for exponentially suppressed transport together with a simple and easily interpretable tight binding...... model, we show how these different behaviors depend on the molecular backbone and its binding to the contacts. We distinguish between resonances from binding groups or undercoordinated electrode atoms, and those from the periodic backbone. It is demonstrated that while the former gives a length......-independent contribution to the thermopower, possibly changing its sign, the latter determines its length dependence. This means that the question of which orbitals from the periodic chain that dominate the transport should not be inferred from the sign of the thermopower but from its length dependence. We find...
Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine
Agnieszka Kozłowska
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.
Telomere length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues.
Cadile, Casey D; Kitchell, Barbara E; Newman, Rebecca G; Biller, Barbara J; Hetler, Elizabeth R
2007-12-01
To determine the mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in normal and neoplastic canine tissues. 57 solid-tissue tumor specimens collected from client-owned dogs, 40 samples of normal tissue collected from 12 clinically normal dogs, and blood samples collected from 4 healthy blood donor dogs. Tumor specimens were collected from client-owned dogs during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, whereas 40 normal tissue samples were collected from 12 control dogs. Telomere restriction fragment length was determined by use of an assay kit. A histologic diagnosis was provided for each tumor by personnel at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Illinois. Mean of the mean TRF length for 44 normal samples was 19.0 kilobases (kb; range, 15.4 to 21.4 kb), and the mean of the mean TRF length for 57 malignant tumors was 19.0 kb (range, 12.9 to 23.5 kb). Although the mean of the mean TRF length for tumors and normal tissues was identical, tumor samples had more variability in TRF length. Telomerase, which represents the main mechanism by which cancer cells achieve immortality, is an attractive therapeutic target. The ability to measure telomere length is crucial to monitoring the efficacy of telomerase inhibition. In contrast to many other mammalian species, the length of canine telomeres and the rate of telomeric DNA loss are similar to those reported in humans, making dogs a compelling choice for use in the study of human anti-telomerase strategies.
To the problem of the coherence length of neutrons
Varga, P.
1992-11-01
The challenge of the high accuracy of certain optical measurements, the long coherence length of light provokes one to search for possibilities to enlarge the neutron coherence length. A proposal is made to achieve this by using a five or a four plate Bonse-Hart interferometer. A further problem is, whether the neutron beam is composed of wave packets or of overlapping independent monochromatic waves; it is considered that the former is more likely. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs
The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health
Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
2014-01-01
We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...
Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length
Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A
1999-01-01
The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.
Treatment options for tank farms long-length contaminated equipment
Josephson, W.S.
1995-01-01
This study evaluated a variety of treatment and disposal technologies for mixed waste (MW) meeting the following criteria: 1. Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank System (tank farms) equipment and other debris; 2. length greater than 12 feet; and contaminated with listed MW from the tank farms. This waste stream, commonly referred to as tank farms long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE), poses a unique and costly set of challenges during all phases of the waste management lifecycle
Determinants for Labour Contract Length: A French Microeconometric Study
Ben Halima, Mohamed; Ben Halima, Bassem
2008-01-01
International audience; Two types of analyses are conducted to explain the determinants of labour contracts length. The first analysis emphasizes on the contracting costs and the level of uncertainty. The second analysis focuses on the incentive and selection effect of the contract length. This paper test the determinants for contract duration by means of econometric duration models. The estimates are carried out from French data (TDE). An econometric treatment of the endogeneity of the labou...
In vivo myograph measurement of muscle contraction at optimal length
Ahmed Aminul
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current devices for measuring muscle contraction in vivo have limited accuracy in establishing and re-establishing the optimum muscle length. They are variable in the reproducibility to determine the muscle contraction at this length, and often do not maintain precise conditions during the examination. Consequently, for clinical testing only semi-quantitative methods have been used. Methods We present a newly developed myograph, an accurate measuring device for muscle contraction, consisting of three elements. Firstly, an element for adjusting the axle of the device and the physiological axis of muscle contraction; secondly, an element to accurately position and reposition the extremity of the muscle; and thirdly, an element for the progressive pre-stretching and isometric locking of the target muscle. Thus it is possible to examine individual in vivo muscles in every pre-stretched, specified position, to maintain constant muscle-length conditions, and to accurately re-establish the conditions of the measurement process at later sessions. Results In a sequence of experiments the force of contraction of the muscle at differing stretching lengths were recorded and the forces determined. The optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was established. In a following sequence of experiments with smaller graduations around this optimal stretching length an increasingly accurate optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was determined. This optimum length was also accurately re-established at later sessions. Conclusion We have introduced a new technical solution for valid, reproducible in vivo force measurements on every possible point of the stretching curve. Thus it should be possible to study the muscle contraction in vivo to the same level of accuracy as is achieved in tests with in vitro organ preparations.
The Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with minimum length
Louzada, H. L. C.
2018-05-01
We study the Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with the deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimum length, with the intention to find and estimate the corrections in this theory, clarifying whether or not it is possible to obtain, by means of the minimum length, a theory, in D=4, which is causal, unitary and provides a massive graviton. Therefore, we will calculate and analyze the dispersion relationships of the considered theory.
Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-01-01
Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.
Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests
Kaipainen, Terhi; Liski, Jari; Pussinen, Ari; Karjalainen, Timo
2004-01-01
Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1-6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon
Stalk-length-dependence of the contractility of Vorticella convallaria
Gul Chung, Eun; Ryu, Sangjin
2017-12-01
Vorticella convallaria is a sessile protozoan of which the spasmoneme contracts on a millisecond timescale. Because this contraction is induced and powered by the binding of calcium ions (Ca2+), the spasmoneme showcases Ca2+-powered cellular motility. Because the isometric tension of V. convallaria increases linearly with its stalk length, it is hypothesized that the contractility of V. convallaria during unhindered contraction depends on the stalk length. In this study, the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria cells of different stalk lengths were evaluated using a fluid dynamic drag model which accounts for the unsteadiness and finite Reynolds number of the water flow caused by contracting V. convallaria and the wall effect of the no-slip substrate. It was found that the contraction displacement, peak contraction speed, peak contractile force, total mechanical work, and peak power depended on the stalk length. The observed stalk-length-dependencies were simulated using a damped spring model, and the model estimated that the average spring constant of the contracting stalk was 1.34 nN µm-1. These observed length-dependencies of Vorticella’s key contractility parameters reflect the biophysical mechanism of the spasmonemal contraction, and thus they should be considered in developing a theoretical model of the Vorticella spasmoneme.
Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system
Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M
2017-01-01
AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed......: Computation of colorectal length from capsule passage was possible in 60 of the 67 3D-Transit recordings. Length of the colorectum measured with MRI and 3D-Transit was respectively 95 cm (75-153 cm) and 99 cm (77-147 cm), P = 0.15. Coefficient of variation (CV) between MRI and 3D-Transit was 7.8%. Apart from...... the cecum / ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). Length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 cm (73-119 cm) and 103 cm (75-123 cm), P = 0.67. CV...
Chemical theory and modelling through density across length scales
Ghosh, Swapan K.
2016-01-01
One of the concepts that has played a major role in the conceptual as well as computational developments covering all the length scales of interest in a number of areas of chemistry, physics, chemical engineering and materials science is the concept of single-particle density. Density functional theory has been a versatile tool for the description of many-particle systems across length scales. Thus, in the microscopic length scale, an electron density based description has played a major role in providing a deeper understanding of chemical binding in atoms, molecules and solids. Density concept has been used in the form of single particle number density in the intermediate mesoscopic length scale to obtain an appropriate picture of the equilibrium and dynamical processes, dealing with a wide class of problems involving interfacial science and soft condensed matter. In the macroscopic length scale, however, matter is usually treated as a continuous medium and a description using local mass density, energy density and other related property density functions has been found to be quite appropriate. The basic ideas underlying the versatile uses of the concept of density in the theory and modelling of materials and phenomena, as visualized across length scales, along with selected illustrative applications to some recent areas of research on hydrogen energy, soft matter, nucleation phenomena, isotope separation, and separation of mixture in condensed phase, will form the subject matter of the talk. (author)
Television Watching and Telomere Length Among Adults in Southwest China.
Xue, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qian-Qian; Tian, Guo; Quan, Li-Ming; Zhao, Yong; Cheng, Guo
2017-09-01
To explore the independent associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with telomere length among Chinese adults. Data on total time of sedentary behavior, screen-based sedentary behavior (including television watching and computer or phone use), moderate to vigorous physical activity, and dietary intake of 518 adults in Chengdu, Guizhou, and Xiamen in China (54.25% women) aged 20 to 70 years were obtained between 2013 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index and percentage of body fat. Telomere length was measured through Southern blot technique. Television watching was inversely related to adjusted telomere length (-71.75 base pair; SE = 34.40; P = .04). Furthermore, a similar trend between telomere length and television watching was found in the group aged 20 to 40 years after adjusting for all covariates. Adults aged 20 to 40 years in the highest tertile of daily time spent on watching television had 4.0% shorter telomere length than adults in the lowest tertile (P = .03). Although the association is modest, television watching is inversely related to telomere length among Chinese adults, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies.
Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers
Ehab I. El-Amin
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.
Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults
Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-15
To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography
Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin
2009-09-01
Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.
Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.
2016-02-01
The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.
Kalynych, Sergei; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Cygler, Miroslaw
2011-08-01
The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with nonrandom (modal) chain length distribution. The number of the repeat O units in each individual O-antigen polymer depends on the Wzz chain length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) family. Different Wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units), despite having remarkably conserved structural folds. The molecular mechanism responsible for the selective preference for a certain number of O units is unknown. Guided by the three-dimensional structures of PCPs, we constructed a panel of chimeric molecules containing parts of two closely related Wzz proteins from Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri which confer different O-antigen chain length distributions. Analysis of the O-antigen length distribution imparted by each chimera revealed the region spanning amino acids 67 to 95 (region 67 to 95), region 200 to 255, and region 269 to 274 as primarily affecting the length distribution. We also showed that there is no synergy between these regions. In particular, region 269 to 274 also influenced chain length distribution mediated by two distantly related PCPs, WzzB and FepE. Furthermore, from the 3 regions uncovered in this study, region 269 to 274 appeared to be critical for the stability of the oligomeric form of Wzz, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Together, our data suggest that chain length determination depends on regions that likely contribute to stabilize a supramolecular complex.
Engel, Benjamin D; Ludington, William B; Marshall, Wallace F
2009-10-05
The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly.
Hannah S Bender
Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.
[Renal length measured by ultrasound in adult mexican population].
Oyuela-Carrasco, J; Rodríguez-Castellanos, F; Kimura, E; Delgado-Hernández, R; Herrera-Félix, J P
2009-01-01
Renal length estimation by ultrasound is an important parameter in clinical evaluation of kidney disease and healthy donors. Changes in renal volume may be a sign of kidney disease. Correct interpretation of renal length requires the knowledge of normal limits, these have not been described for Latin American population. To describe normal renal length (RL) by ultrasonography in a group of Mexican adults. Ultrasound measure of RL in 153 healthy Mexican adults stratified by age. Describe the association of RL to several anthropometric variables. A total of 77 males and 76 females were scanner. The average age for the group was 44.12 +/- 15.44 years. The mean weight, body mass index (BMI) and height were 68.87 +/- 11.69 Kg, 26.77 +/- 3.82 kg/m2 and 160 +/- 8.62 cm respectively. Dividing the population by gender, showed a height of 166 +/- 6.15 cm for males and 154.7 +/- 5.97 cm for females (p =0.000). Left renal length (LRL) in the whole group was 105.8 +/- 7.56 mm and right renal length (RRL) was 104.3 +/- 6.45 mm (p = 0.000.) The LRL for males was 107.16 +/- 6.97 mm and for females was 104.6 +/- 7.96 mm. The average RRL for males was 105.74 +/- 5.74 mm and for females 102.99 +/- 6.85 mm (p = 0.008.) We noted that RL decreased with age and the rate of decline accelerates alter 60 years of age. Both lengths correlated significantly and positively with weight, BMI and height. The RL was significantly larger in males than in females in both kidneys (p = 0.036) in this Mexican population. Renal length declines after 60 years of age and specially after 70 years.
Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution
Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of
Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980
Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.
2017-12-01
Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a
Determination of Onramp Weaving Length for Resolving Merging Dilemma
Chiu Liu
2012-03-01
Full Text Available It is physically known that onramp merging may turn out to be difficult if the onramp (weaving/merging length is too short because a driver under certain driving circumstances may find that either merging ahead or merging behind a neighboring vehicle on the adjacent highway lane cannot be completed. Various existing guidelines or design manuals provide no clear physical understanding and explanations to the design onramp weaving length but often based on evolved empirical experiences. By integrating human factors, vehicle dynamic characteristics, roadway surface condition, and the onramp weaving design into a single unified analytic framework, the onramp length required for a driver to merge into the highway traffic successfully is determined exactly with formulas and physical solutions to avoid the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety at highway interchanges. The design onramp weaving length is examined and evaluated with various foreseeable merging scenarios and physical examples. This analytic framework sheds light on the understanding of the onramp weaving the first time strictly on a physical human-vehicle-roadway interaction setting. Practitioners can easily apply these user friendly formulae and equations derived from the unified framework to calculate the onramp weaving length to resolve the merging dilemma and enhance driving safety for any highway interchanges.
Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors
Tatiana Tatarinova
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.