LaCaille, Rick A.
Misconceptions of psychological phenomena are widespread and often not easily eliminated--even among students completing college-level psychology courses. As part of a research methods psychology course, students developed public-service-announcement-style posters as part of a psychology myth-debunking campaign and presented these to students…
Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.
Climate science myths are often effective and pervasive because they are "sticky" - simple, concrete, and seemingly credible. For example, "there's no consensus" and "global warming stopped in 1998" are appealing myths because they present a simple alternative narrative to the threat posed by anthropogenic global warming. In order to effectively debunk these types of myths, sticky ideas must be replaced with even stickier and accurate alternative explanations. The seeming limitations of social media may actually be considered an asset, requiring that our messaging be simple, brief, and sticky. Here some examples of successful debunkings of scientific myths using social media are presented and examined. The 'no consensus' myth was effectively debunked through simple messaging of Cook et al. (2013), which found 97% consensus among papers taking a position in the peer-reviewed literature on human-caused global warming. This simple and sticky '97% consensus' has been communicated widely through social media, including twice by President Obama's Twitter account. The 'global warming stopped' myth has been frequently and effectively debunked by a simple animated graphic titled 'The Escalator', which has been used on the floor of the US Senate and in a PBS documentary. Here we examine how these debunkings via social media were successful, and how scientists can replicate their success. President Obama tweet of the 97% consensus message The Escalator
This new bestseller from leading economist Mariana Mazzucato – named by the ‘New Republic’ as one of the ‘most important innovation thinkers’ today – is stirring up much-needed debates worldwide about the role of the State in innovation. Debunking the myth of a laggard State at odds with a dynamic private sector, Mazzucato reveals in case study after case study that in fact the opposite situation is true, with the private sector only finding the courage to invest after the entrepreneurial State has made the high-risk investments. Case studies include examples of the State’s role in the ‘green revolution’, in biotech and pharmaceuticals, as well as several detailed examples from Silicon Valley. In an intensely researched chapter, she reveals that every technology that makes the iPhone so ‘smart’ was government funded: the Internet, GPS, its touch-screen display and the voice-activated Siri. Mazzucato also controversially argues that in the history of modern capitalism the State has not on...
Bedford, D. P.
Research in sociology (e.g. Hamilton, 2011) and social psychology (e.g. Kahan et al., 2012) suggests that there is no basis to an assumption common among educators that higher education levels lead to more rational decision making. Indeed, there is growing evidence that views on climate change, for just one significant example, become more polarized at higher education levels, rather than converging on the scientific consensus. Some research points to improved facility at filtering information according to preconceptions at higher education levels as a possible explanation for this phenomenon. Misinformation about subjects that are perceived to be contentious, such as anthropogenic climate change, is therefore potentially easily accepted despite-- or even because of-- higher levels of education. Thus, explicitly addressing misinformation about climate change may be an important strategy for use in the classroom. Fortunately, misinformation provides a valuable opportunity to turn a challenging situation to educational advantage and, in effect, make lemonade out of lemons. This presentation provides a case study of efforts explicitly to debunk climate change myths in the college classroom. The approach outlined here utilizes material on the psychology of the acceptance of misinformation for the popular audience, combined with examples of misinformation itself. Qualitative assessment of the effectiveness of these efforts is also presented. Hamilton, L. 2011. Education, political and opinions about climate change: evidence for interaction effects. Climatic Change vol. 104 no. 2, 231-242.. Kahan, D.M., E. Peters, M. Wittlin, P. Slovic, L. Larrimore Ouellette, D. Braman and G. Mandel. 2012. The polarizing impact of science literacy and numeracy on perceived climate change risks. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/nclimate1547.
Roberts, G.D. Jr.
During the decade of the 1990's and beyond, natural gas is expected to be the fuel of choice for a significant portion of new generation capacity. Natural gas already enjoys a greater than 50% market share as a fuel source in the non-regulated cogeneration and Independent Power Producer market. With the new administration in Washington, increased environmental focus will likely increase the attractiveness of natural gas based capacity expansions. While these various issues may appear to contribute to making this decade, the decade for natural gas, there are a number of challenges that must be met if the natural gas and power generation industries are going to satisfy the ever increasing needs of the marketplace. These challenges include: (1) myths of natural gas supply availability, (2) transportation and operational coordination issues, (3) uncertainty of price and reliability, and (4) natural gas for NO x and SO 2 compliance. The author believes that these challenges are actively being met and that there are existing solutions already being offered and incorporated into contracts by natural gas suppliers. The focus of this paper is how electric utilities need to become comfortable with the new natural gas industry and how services can be structured to meet these challenges of serving the electric market requirements
Tomšič, Marija; Domajnko, Barbara; Zajc, Melita
Background Through the concept of ageism, we highlight and explain how the society prejudices the elderly. WHO classifies 12 most common stereotypes pertaining to old age. Elderly people are being excluded from social life due to their chronological age rather than any actual reduced physical and/or mental ability. Some of these stereotypes are directly related to the (un)willingness and the ability of the elderly to use technology in everyday life. Objectives The study presented in this article aims to explain the phenomenon of technology use among elderly people who had had a stroke. Method A qualitative study, namely a qualitative content analysis, was performed. Six in-depth interviews with older people who have suffered a stroke were conducted and explored their views on the daily use of technology. Results All older people included in this study used different technologies, which have been divided into technologies that support mobility, technologies for personal care, technologies that support household chores, and technologies for maintaining a social network. An elderly person's attitude toward the use of technology is connected to their social network and assistance from professional staff, as well as the severity of their physical disability. We have found that using various technologies, elderly people are developing various coping strategies. Conclusions After a stroke, a certain degree of physical deterioration can be expected. Nonetheless, our participants managed to compensate for this also with the help of assistive devices and technologies, which negates the myth of simply "surrendering" to the aging process.
Crompton, Joseph G; Bone, Curt; Oyetunji, Tolulope; Pollack, Keshia M; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Villegas, Cassandra; Stevens, Kent; Cornwell, Edward E; Efron, David T; Haut, Elliott R; Haider, Adil H
There has been a repeal of the universal helmet law in several states despite definitive evidence that helmets reduce mortality, traumatic brain injury, and hospital expenditures. Opponents of the universal helmet law have successfully claimed that helmets should not be required because of greater torque on the neck, which is thought to increase the likelihood of a cervical spine injury. There is currently insufficient evidence to counter claims that helmets do not increase the risk of cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of motorcycle helmets on the likelihood of developing a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. We reviewed cases in the National Trauma Databank (NTDB) v7.0 involving motorcycle collisions. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the independent effect of helmets on cervical spine injury. Cases were adjusted for age, race, sex, insurance status, anatomic (Injury Severity Score) and physiologic injury severity (systolic blood pressure 3). Between 2002 and 2006, 62,840 cases of motorcycle collision were entered into the NTDB; 40,588 had complete data and were included in the adjusted analysis. Helmeted riders had a lower adjusted odds (0.80 [CI 0.72 to 0.90]) and a lower proportion of cervical spine injury (3.5% vs 4.4%, p Helmeted motorcyclists are less likely to suffer a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. This finding challenges a long-standing objection to mandatory helmet use that claims helmets are associated with cervical spine injury. Re-enactment of the universal helmet law should be considered in states where it has been repealed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
of the feet and binding caused gait, spine and infection prob- lems, and was ultimately banned in 1912 but persisted secretly for another 50 years or so until both education of women and social norms progressed to the point that it was no longer toler- ated. Despite laws in many African countries prohibiting female cir-.
Full Text Available In the last two centuries, conservatives and liberals have offered two mutually exclusive visions of Spanish history, each with distinct myths, symbols, and heroes. The conservative image, formed in the Middle Ages, was based on the myth of the Reconquest and the need to restore (or keep the homogeneity of a country characterized by its Christian religion and Latin culture. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, faced with Napoleon’s invasion, Spanish liberals understood the danger of associating their modern ideas with France and invented a progressive and democratic Spanish tradition. According to their interpretation, the most authentic Spain was not the one identified with the Reconquest and the Empire, but the Spain of all those who had been excluded from the nation-building process because of their religion or ideas: the tolerant al-Andalus Muslims, the freedom-fighter comuneros and the defenders of the democratic medieval fueros . The great success of the transition to democracy and the Constitution of 1978 resided in the ability of all different tendencies and parties to overcome this division, to build bridges and create a common national project. For the first time in history, Spaniards managed to build a successful society based on consensus, pluralism and democracy. However, as a reality based on agreements, its nature is fragile. What is at stake now in Spain is to strengthen the viability of this model.
... multiethnic state, the problem of scientific definition of nations, ethnic groups, national and ethnic consciousness has a special practical significance. In Russia and the post-Soviet space, the activation of mythological thinking has its own specifics. Keywords: Nations, Ethnicity, National consciousness, Myth, Globalization ...
Full Text Available Myth has become a fundamental frame of reference for Western thinking. This paper explores the term and category “myth” from the perspective of folklore studies, with concern for the use of myth as a tool in research. The ways in which myth has been used in both academic and popular discourses are discussed. These are viewed in a historical perspective against the backdrop of the origins of the modern term. Attention is given to how historical patterns of use have encoded “myth” with evaluative stance-taking, building an opposition of “us” versus “them” into myth as something “other people” have, in contrast to us, who know better. Discussion then turns to approaching myth as a type of story. The consequences of such a definition are explored in terms of what it does or does not include; the question of whether, as has often been supposed, myth is a text-type genre, is also considered. Discussion advances to aesthetic evaluation at the root of modern discussions of myth and how this background informs the inclination to identify myth as a type of story on the one hand while inhibiting the extension of the concept to, for example, historical events or theories about the world or its origins, on the other. Approaching myth as a type of modeling system is briefly reviewed—an approach that can be coupled to viewing myth as a type of story. Finally, discussion turns to the more recent trend of approaching mythology through mythic discourse, and the consequences as well as the benefits of such an approach for understanding myth in society or religion. There are many different ways to define myth. The present article explores how different approaches are linked to one another and have been shaped over time, how our definition of myth and the way we frame the concept shape our thinking, and can, in remarkably subtle ways, inhibit the reflexive application of the concept as a tool to better understand ourselves.
Foong Soon Cheong
Full Text Available This paper finds the weekend effect to be a remarkably robust anomaly and refutes the widespread belief that the weekend effect is due to data-mining or a consequence of some unusual/rare events. Out-of-sample analysis finds both the mean and median return on Monday is lower than that on Friday in nearly all years. It also reconciles and explains how some prior studies reached such an erroneous conclusion.
Orwenjo, Daniel Ochieng
Arguments that have been advanced against multilingual education in Kenya and Africa in general are not new. Most post-colonial African governments have stuck to the pre-colonial education policies which have no relevance to the present day Africa and were, at best, guided by the interests of the colonial power. Unfortunately, most of the claims…
Battistella, Melania; Carlino, Cristiana; Dugo, Valentina; Ponzo, Patrizia; Franco, Elisabetta
Thanks to vaccinations the incidence of many seriously debilitating or life threatening diseases and the resulting infant mortality or disability have been drastically reduced. In populations, who are no more aware of the risk of these infections, the attitude of suspicion and fear towards the vaccinations is expanding and in some cases reaches a worldwide media coverage as was the case for the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). In 1998, a British doctor, Andrew Wakefield, and co-authors, published in "Lancet" a study in which he suggested the existence of "a new variant of autism" associated with intestinal inflammation. He proposed the administration of the MMR vaccine as a possible. cause of the inflammatory process. The hypothesis suggested by Wakefield led to a drastic drop in vaccination coverage in the UK and to the failure to achieve adequate levels of immunization in many countries, with a consequent increase in the incidence of measles and its complications. Wakefield work stimulated a broad discussion in the scientific community and many studies conducted over the next few years contradicted the research results of the English physician. In 2004, journalist Brian Deer conducted an accurate investigation that revealed how the Wakefield research presented many not regular aspects and was performed with predominantly economic objectives. In 2010, Wakefield was expelled from the General Medical Council, while the "Lancet" retracted the paper. The scientific research conducted in recent years confirm the inconsistency of the relationship between MMR vaccine and autism. The possible association with other factors, such as autoimmune processes, hyperactivation of mast cells in the hypothalamus, use of paracetamol in genetically predisposed children are currently investigated.
The Victorian wholesale gas spot market has operated effectively and trouble-free for over two years. VENCorp's Executive Manager of Energy Markets, reflects on the market experiences to date, and argues that Victoria's physical pipeline system characteristics require its market to be 'different' from those in the other States in Australia. The Victorian gas transmission system in not predominantly comprised of a single point-to-point pipeline; it is rather a 'meshed' network, with multiple point of supply. Gas flow on substantial sections of the transmission pipeline can be bi-directional, depending on market and demand conditions. Consequently, Victoria's wholesale spot market has been designed to address operational and market issues due to the physical characteristics of the Victorian gas pipeline system
to farmers (Keller 2009) and fellow Africans. REFERENCES. Bayart, J.-F., Ellis, S. and Hibou, B. 1999. The Criminalization of the State in. Africa. International African Institute, London. Corson, C. 2012. From rhetoric to practice: How high profile politics impeded community consultation in Madagascar's new protected areas.
tipping point occurred to redefine the concept of the strategic corporal. Malcolm Gladwell provides a useful framework in his best selling book The...empowered individual struck right at the heart of the millennia) generations’ high self-esteem and narcissistic tendencies. In her 2006 book , Generation...the story to the world on November 12, 1969. 8 In the weeks that followed, more reports and eyewitness accounts along with graphic pictures of the
After more than three decades of describing, explaining, and tackling deforestation in Madagascar, the problem persists. Why do researchers, practitioners, politicians, and farmers remain perplexed about this problem? This essay offers that our collective thinking of the past three decades has inadvertently perpetuated ...
Miller, Raegen; Epstein, Diana
It's hard to debunk a myth that's not a myth, but Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation has given it a try in his recent backgrounder, "The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Financing." The report suggests that public education spending is broadly similar across racial and ethnic groups, and it has found a predictably receptive…
Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.
The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.
The idea that schools seldom change is debunked as a myth and discussed in terms of two types of change (incremental and fundamental) that have marked the history of public schools. This myth has also affected the education of children with disabilities, particularly concerning judgment of the success or failure of innovations. Suggestions for…
Myth of Greater Albania In outlining the frontiers of Albania it has been often necessary to disregard ethnography for larger reasons; but there is...outbreak of a world war.”29 In 1986 the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts compiled another platform to deal with Albanians. The platform entitled “On...Academy of Science and Arts , On the Political, Economic and Constitutional Position of Serbia in the Yugoslav Federation (Belgrade: Duga, 1986), 55. 31
Harden, Ronald M
The introduction of a European licensing examination or national examinations, where these do not already exist, offers significant advantages. These are more than offset, however, by the disadvantages and the collateral damage incurred. Five myths about centralizing examinations are explored. Myth 1: The claim that a central examination will ensure that candidates are assessed in important areas of medical practice is unfounded. What tends to be assessed are learning outcomes that can be easily assessed. These are often not the important outcomes related to the overall competence of a doctor. Myth 2: It is claimed that a central examination will lead to improvements in assessment practice. The evidence is that this is not the case and that, in fact, a central examination stifles change and inhibits innovation. Myth 3: A central examination, it is suggested, will meet a need for greater uniformity. There is also an important need to recognize diversity. Myth 4: Central examinations are seen as an indicator that will track the performance of the system. The limitations of the data, however, are usually not recognized and there maybe unfortunate and unintended consequences if the results are used in this way. Myth 5: Finally, a major argument proposed for a European or national examination is that it will lead to safer medical practice and that this will protect the patient from substandard practitioners. There is, in fact, no evidence to support this argument. There is a need for further work and new initiatives on standards and quality improvement in assessment approaches. This can be achieved in a number of ways including monitoring the assessment process and sharing tools and assessment approaches between schools.
Examines forces motivating reform in mental health services, suggesting that mental health practitioners and researchers have relied on traditional and apparently unsuccessful methods (with little or no scientific support) to ensure service quality and effectiveness; debunking six myths about mental health services; and suggesting that…
Hord, Shirley M.
Based on a study of change facilitation in eight high schools, this article debunks three common myths concerning administrative organization as an obstacle to managing high school change. Tentative guidelines are provided to help determined managers cure stagnation and thwart bureaucratic intransigency. (MLH)
Dr. Adam Possner, an assistant professor of general internal medicine at George Washington University, reads and discusses his poem, "Myth Dispelled.". Created: 3/20/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 3/21/2013.
There is a considerable and growing body of research investigating reading development in children with Down syndrome. However, there appears to be a common gap between the research evidence and instructional practices. It has been argued that teachers have insufficient information to enable them to implement effective literacy instruction with…
Atkinson, Robert D.
Given the promise that artificial intelligence (AI) holds for economic growth and societal advancement, it is critical that policymakers not only avoid retarding the progress of AI innovation, but also actively support its further development and use. This report provides a primer on artificial intelligence and debunks five prevailing myths that,…
... home. Myth 3: Only older people can get Alzheimer's Reality: Alzheimer's can strike people in their 30s, ... Myth 7: Silver dental fillings increase risk of Alzheimer's disease Reality: According to the best available scientific ...
Abel Ignacio López
Full Text Available El uso político de la edad media. Geary, Patrick, The Myth of Nations. The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp: 199. El libro de Patrick Geary es una brillante crítica a los abusos que políticos e incluso historiadores han hecho a propósito de la temprana Edad Media. En efecto, este historiador norteamericano muestra que ideólogos del nacionalismo europeo de nuestro tiempo se han basado y aún se basan en un conocimiento erróneo de la época medieval para fundamentar sus propios prejuicios y exclusiones. Según esa interpretación, los pueblos modernos de hoy se constituyeron por primera vez en el período posterior a la caída del Imperio Romano y a la consolidación en Europa de los llamados pueblos germanos.
Guzel Mrtazovna Ibatullina
Full Text Available Traditional interpretations of the story of N.S. Leskov "Lefty" accentuate primarily its etnophilosophical, psychosocial, spiritual and moral problematics, while the Leskov's concept of story remains a poorly studied aspect. The proposed article is devoted to the study of the ideas of writer’s historiosophical ideas, embodied in mythopoetic paradigms from the analyzed work; this approach due to the relevance and novelty of the work.Considering genre–motive and the plot structures of the story, explaining their symbolic and metaphorical functions, the author redesigns of the image- semantic contexts of the national historical myth recreated in the art system of "Lefty". This historiosofical concept is defined as an expression of the original the Leskov view to sustainable cultural opposition "Russia - Europe", "East - West". Writer’s fiction explication of the stable ideologems and mythologems opens up the possibility of a new, universal and philosophical understanding of the meaning of these oppositions. Historical fate of Russia and Europe and related with it contradictions and conflicts are explained through the paradigms of the solar- chthonic myth and central for it objective reality opposition "Chaos - Space". Symbolic representatives of this paradigm in the story become images-doubles, inherently ambivalent: steel flea and the official bureaucracy of St.Petersburg. Drama of the Lefty in the image of Leskov grows, so from socio- psychological and spiritual and moral to deeply existential, as it becomes a reflection of the inner ambivalence being and its fundamental principles.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-4-2
... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Diabetes Myths On behalf of the millions of Americans ... or obese, you will eventually develop type 2 diabetes. Fact: Being overweight is a risk factor for ...
In November 1813 Napoleonic rule in the Dutch provinces collapsed after the defeat of the imperial armies near Leipzig. The Prince of Orange returned from England, where he had been exiled. The establishment of the monarchy is falsely presented as a national liberation after a period of foreign
history. Henceforth myths were invented and manufactured in the same sense and according to the same methods as machine guns or airplanes. And they were...By keeping direction and ownership of the nuclear program within the military, while specifically denying input from the political wing, Pakistani... ownership of the program to all of Pakistan, cementing support and tying Pakistan’s defense to every citizen. The result fell in lock step with the
Mandel, David R.; Tetlock, Philip E.
The scientific community often portrays science as a value-neutral enterprise that crisply demarcates facts from personal value judgments. We argue that this depiction is unrealistic and important to correct because science serves an important knowledge generation function in all modern societies. Policymakers often turn to scientists for sound advice, and it is important for the wellbeing of societies that science delivers. Nevertheless, scientists are human beings and human beings find it difficult to separate the epistemic functions of their judgments (accuracy) from the social-economic functions (from career advancement to promoting moral-political causes that “feel self-evidently right”). Drawing on a pluralistic social functionalist framework that identifies five functionalist mindsets—people as intuitive scientists, economists, politicians, prosecutors, and theologians—we consider how these mindsets are likely to be expressed in the conduct of scientists. We also explore how the context of policymaker advising is likely to activate or de-activate scientists’ social functionalist mindsets. For instance, opportunities to advise policymakers can tempt scientists to promote their ideological beliefs and values, even if advising also brings with it additional accountability pressures. We end prescriptively with an appeal to scientists to be more circumspect in characterizing their objectivity and honesty and to reject idealized representations of scientific behavior that inaccurately portray scientists as value-neutral virgins. PMID:27064318
John J Farmer III
Full Text Available Much has been learned about Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, and other pathogenic bacteria. Until this happens infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when contaminated product is ingested.
David R. Mandel
Full Text Available The scientific community often portrays science as a value-neutral enterprise that crisply demarcates facts from personal value judgments. We argue that this depiction is unrealistic and important to correct because science serves an important knowledge generation function in all modern societies. Policymakers often turn to scientists for sound advice, and it is important for the wellbeing of societies that science delivers. Nevertheless, scientists are human beings and human beings find it difficult to separate the epistemic functions of their judgments (accuracy from the social-economic functions (from career advancement to promoting moral-political causes that feel self-evidently right. Drawing on a pluralistic social functionalist framework that identifies five functionalist mindsets—people as intuitive scientists, economists, politicians, prosecutors, and theologians—we consider how these mindsets are likely to be expressed in the conduct of scientists. We also explore how the context of policymaker advising is likely to activate or de-activate scientists’ social functionalist mindsets. For instance, opportunities to advise policymakers can tempt scientists to promote their ideological beliefs and values, even if advising also brings with it additional accountability pressures. We end prescriptively with an appeal to scientists to be more circumspect in characterizing their objectivity and honesty and to reject idealized representations of scientific behaviour that inaccurately portray scientists as value-neutral virgins.
Perfect, Michelle M.; McClung, Ashley A.; Bressette, Keri A.
Clinical hypnosis, defined as a "therapeutic technique in which clinicians make suggestions to individuals who have undergone a procedure designed to relax them and focus their minds" (American Psychological Association, n.d.), is a relaxation-based tool that has uses in the treatment of anxiety, pain, and a range of stress-related…
Sterns, P.; Tennen, L.
The increasing role of the private sector in space creates virtually limitless opportunities. It is axiomatic that activities in space must be conducted in compliance with the applicable requirements of the corpus juris spatialis. Unfortunately, in their zeal to manufacture a profit, some proponents give insufficient consideration to the implications and ramifications of their ventures vis- a -vis the extant law of outer space, particularly in relation to the non-appropriation principle. Still other purveyors of proposals are more disingenuous, proffering elaborate yet analytically inadequate rationales to justify either abrogating or disregarding the legal framework applicable to activities in space, especially in regard to assertions of so called "property rights" in space, on the Moon, and on other celestial bodies. This article examines the fallacies of these propositions, and demonstrates that such claims of property rights are both unnecessary and counterproductive to the development of commercial space.
Examines the role of the hero in U.S. culture and how the social studies have treated heroes. Urges teachers to explore the ethical dimensions of superheroes. Indicates how Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King, Jr., for example, need to be understood in their own cultural context and in the fullness of their humanity. (CH)
Hubbard, Erin E.
Though few students realize it, many things in today's culture exist because of mythology. This article argues that library media specialists and teachers can teach mythology but it must be applied to the 21st century and shown its relevance in today's world. The article demonstrates that mythology studies are alive and well when the new AASL…
Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina
Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.
as the norm. Before long, this led to social experimentation and the imposition of strict policies protecting aberrant sexual behavior in the ranks...conservative, naturally they were; partisans, homophobes , extremists, —hard right, Rush Limbaugh Republicans.“22 The premise of a partisan officer corps was...Sound morals and ethical behavior cannot be established or created in a day, a semester… or a year. They must be institutionalized within our
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...
"Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…
Ambrosini, Alessandra; Stanghellini, Giovanni
This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.
Young, Robert D; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T
Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980-2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.
Robert D. Young
Full Text Available Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance, Shangri-La Myth (geographic, Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism.
Abdurrahman Misno Bambang Prawiro
Full Text Available Indonesia is a land of many tribes, with each tribe having different customs. However they have a bond in the form of the state motto, Bhineka Tunggal Ika. This motto is based on a philosophy embraced by every tribe in the form of the teachings passed down from the ancestors such as pantun (Malay poetic form, rhyme, guguritan (Sundanese literary works, history and myths. Myths here are stories about things that happened in the past in the form of the history of the origins of man and nature, or the origin of a nation. Myths as a local wisdom are believed to be the truth by every member of the tribe applied in everyday life. This includes the myth that tells about human cultural diversity (plurality, and the community will implement its content. What about the Baduy community in Banten, do they have myths and apply the myths that deal with pluralism in their life? The Baduy are one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia who have myths about the creation of the universe, human origins, and even myths about the events that will occur. The myth about the origin of humans in the Baduy community begins with the creation of Adam as the first human, and then he had children that gave birth to the whole nation in the world. Because every human in the world is the great-grandsons of Adam, the Baduy believe that all humanity is dulur (brother despite differences in customs and religion. The reality of social life of the Baduy community, either Baduy Dalam (inner baduy or Baduy Luar (outer baduy is that they greatly respect all mankind despite the different cultures and religions. Prohibition to enter the Baduy traditional village for foreigners is because of historical factors, namely the agreement made by their ancestors with the Dutch. This research concluded that the Baduy society is a society that understands the plurality of cultures; it is based on a myth that they believe and apply in their life about tolerance of other religions. Key Word: Pluralism
Jul 8, 2016 ... Society's, and in this case, specifically the. Church's need for myth, necessitates the interpretation of ancient New Testament myths in such a way that it weaves a new or evolved, existentially meaningful symbolic universe. This is the challenge as I understand it, which Jung has put to modern Christianity.
Storrs, Alex; Slater, T. F.; CAPER Team
Good teaching demands that faculty establish students’ prior knowledge and beliefs and use this to guide instruction. One of the most important beliefs many students bring with them into science instruction is religious faith. Over 80% of undergraduates claim some sort of religious affiliation (Lindholm 2004) and a fifth of these rely on a literal interpretation of the Bible. Instructors must acknowledge the deep convictions of many undergraduates, and not dismiss them as “unscientific”. It is our position that teaching a science course while pretending that human affairs and convictions do not impact the scientific enterprise is not only misguided, but ineffective at providing students a liberal undergraduate education. While including “Intelligent Design” (ID) in public school classes has been thoroughly repudiated (e.g Kitzmuller v. Dover) many students equate ID to “God”. Debunking ID thus appears to prove that “God” doesn’t exist. When faced with a choice between beliefs developed over a lifetime and a single science course, the natural position for students will be to discard science when it seems in direct conflict. We propose a short discussion at the start of the first class which elicits and values student perspectives. This can defuse some of the tension experienced by students of faith and allow them to learn more science, developing better attitudes toward science. This is in contrast to simply telling students that “there is no room for faith in the objective pursuit of science.” At minimum we should provide students with references to modern discussions of science and religion issues and examples of scientists of faith who are able to fully resolve seemingly disparate issues between their scientific life and their religious convictions, even when full exploration of these topics is beyond the scope of the course. References: Lindholm, J. (2004): http://www.spirituality.ucla.edu/Publication%20&%20Reports/Lindholm%20USC%20
Full Text Available Accounting is not only a technical apparatus, but also manifests a societal dimension. Thispaper proposes that accounting is a protean and complex form of myth making, and as suchforms a cohesive tenet in societies. It is argued that there are intrinsic parallels between thetheoretical attributes of myth and accounting practice, and that these mythicalcharacteristics sustain the existence and acceptance of accounting and its consequences insocieties over time. A theoretical exploration of accounting as a form of myth revealsaccounting as pluralistic and culturally sensitive. Such an analysis challenges theoreticalexplanations of accounting that are presented as a “grand narrative” universalunderstanding of accounting. Manifestations of the attributes of myth are described in thecalculus and artefacts of accounting practice to demonstrate how accounting stories andbeliefs are used as a form of myth by individuals to inform and construe their worldpicture.
Evolutionary debunking arguments (EDAs) purport to show that robust moral realism, the metaethical view that there are non-natural and mind-independent moral properties and facts that we can know about, is incompatible with evolutionary explanations of morality. One of the most prominent
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Global Warming: A Myth? - Anomalous Temperature Trends Recorded from Satellites and Radiosondes. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 43-52 ...
and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....
J. K. UKWAYI
Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to
Dodson, Suzanne C., Ed.; Menges, Gary L., Ed.
The 56 papers in this proceedings are divided into three groups--theme, alternative format, and contributed papers. Myths and realities are explored in the first group as they relate to university, college, community, and junior college libraries, and to private sector information utilities. The conference wrap-up session is included in this…
Breen, Myles; Corcoran, Farrel
Reflecting the ideas of Roland Barthes, this paper examines the nature and importance of myth as a type of speech. The investigation proceeds by discussing myth from the perspectives of both traditional and contemporary disciplines, then considers the universality of myth, its religious impulse, and its functions. Using examples from television…
This paper presents and discusses the results of an exploratory case study of secondary school pupils’ information behaviour. According to Rowlands et al. (2008) many myths exist about the Google Generation (those born after 1993) that tend to overestimate the positive impact of ICTs on the young...... in an educational practice. The research on young people’s information behaviour by Rowlands et al. was carried out in 2007. To determine whether the picture of the Google generation is consistent with reality a number of the myths investigated in 2007 were explored among 43 Danish secondary school pupils in 2009...... (1g) and 23 pupils from their third and final year of studying (3g) – all representatives of the Google Generation. Two identical surveys were handed out in class to all the 43 participants. The survey addressed demographic issues as well as myths about the pupils’ information behavior. The survey...
Lund, Karen; Kirkebæk, Mads Jakob
) the myth about ‘the only thing’ (the method), (4) the myth about “we tried that before”, (5) the myth about “one people and one teaching method, (6) the myth about easy and difficult languages, and (7) the myth about students with no competences and a worthless past. The article suggests language teachers...... to use a ‘myth-detector’ to detect, reflect on and possibly reject myths they may meet in their profession. The ‘myth-detector’ consists of four simple questions, namely (1) Where do we know it from? (2) What is it built on? (3) What views on learning, language and culture lie behind? and (4) Who (gets......In the article the authors have selected seven myths about beginners’ language for discussion, reflection and possible rejection. These are (1) the myth about the necessity of mastering the system before being able to speak the language, (2) the myth about limited capacity on the ‘hard disc’, (3...
Lund, Karen; Kirkebæk, Mads Jakob
) the myth about ‘the only thing’ (the method), (4) the myth about “we tried that before”, (5) the myth about “one people and one teaching method, (6) the myth about easy and difficult languages, and (7) the myth about students with no competences and a worthless past. The article suggests language teachers......In the article the authors have selected seven myths about beginners’ language for discussion, reflection and possible rejection. These are (1) the myth about the necessity of mastering the system before being able to speak the language, (2) the myth about limited capacity on the ‘hard disc’, (3...... to use a ‘myth-detector’ to detect, reflect on and possibly reject myths they may meet in their profession. The ‘myth-detector’ consists of four simple questions, namely (1) Where do we know it from? (2) What is it built on? (3) What views on learning, language and culture lie behind? and (4) Who (gets...
De héroes, naciones milenarias y guerras fratricidas. Tres mitos fundacionales en tres relatos historiográficos de la nación mexicana About heroes, ancient nations and fratricidal wars: Three foundational myths in three Mexican nation's historiographic stories
Óscar Javier Linares Londoño
Full Text Available La interpretación canónica de la independencia de México explica los hechos que van de 1810 a 1821 como la emancipación de la nación mexicana, pueblo milenario que remonta su identidad nacional a los mexicas, habitantes del Valle de México, antes de la llegada de los españoles. Por trescientos años el pueblo fue oprimido bajo el yugo español, y logra su independencia gracias al movimiento nacionalista de sus héroes. Esta interpretación construida por los relatos historiográficos del siglo XIX, está basada en lo que llamaré los mitos fundacionales de la nación: el mito de la nación milenaria, el mito de los héroes y el mito de la pugna irreconciliable entre criollos y españoles. La historiografía decimonónica difundirá estos mitos con la firme intención de legitimar el movimiento independentista y de dotar de un relato homogéneo a la naciente nación.The canonical interpretation of the independence of Mexico explains the facts that go from 1810 to 1821 as the emancipation of the Mexican nation, ancient nation that traced back its national identity to the Mexican people, inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico before the Spanish arrived. Oppressed for three hundred years under Spanish rule, the Mexican nation achieves its independence through nationalist movement of its heroes. This interpretation, built by the nineteenth-century historiographical tales, is based on what we call the nation founding myths: the myth of the ancient nation, the myth of the heroes, and the myth of irreconcilable conflict between Creoles and Spanish people. Nineteenth-century historiography will spread these myths with the firm intention of legitimizing the independence movement and give a consistent story to the emerging nation.
Bhattacharya, Gargi; Stockdale, Margaret S
This study examined the critique in public discourse that sexual harassment (SH) victim advocates, particularly women and feminists, ignore the quality of evidence in a SH claim and are reluctant to find evidence of a false accusation. To balance the inquiry, the study also examined whether right wing authoritarians (RWAs) also ignore evidence quality and presume such claims are false accusations. Participants were 961 U.S. adults (51% female) who completed an online experiment in which they read either a gender harassment (GH) or unwanted sexual attention (USA) scenario of hostile work environment SH and rated the scenario on severity, perceived guilt of the accused, belief that the accused should receive negative job consequences, and likelihood that the claimant was making a false accusation. Scenarios varied by the strength of the evidence in support of the SH claim. Participants completed measures of identification with and support for feminism, RWA, and demographic variables. Results found that contrary to expectations, evidence had a stronger effect on women's, feminists', and feminism supporters' perceptions and to a lesser extent RWAs' perceptions of the scenarios. When evidence was weak, women and feminists, compared to others, were less supportive of the prosecution, but when evidence was strong they were more supportive of the prosecution than were others. These findings address criticisms that advocates for gender equity and victim's rights, particularly women and feminists, are unable to reach fair judgments of SH complaints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Farmer, John J.
Much has been learned about organism in the Cronobacter/Enterobacter sakazakii complex since I first named and described Enterobacter sakazakii in 1980. However, there are still wide knowledge gaps. One of the most serious is that are still many uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk posed by these bacteria, particularly in neonatal meningitis. Over the last few decades, Cronobacter contamination of commercial powdered infant formula products has apparently been reduced, but it is still an ongoing problem. The powdered infant formula industry still cannot produce powdered formula that is free of bacterial contamination with Cronobacter, other Enterobacteriaceae, other pathogenic bacteria, and other microorganisms. Until this happens, infants and other will be at risk of becoming infected when they ingest contaminated formula. PMID:26640778
Sterns, P. M.; Tennen, L. I.
The increasing role ofthe private sector in space creates virtually limitless opportunities. It is axiomatic that activities in space must be conducted in compliance with the applicable requirements of the body of space law. Unfortunately, in their zeal to manufacture a profit, some proponents give insufficient consideration to the implications and ramifications of their ventures vis-a-vis the extant law of outer space, particularly in relation to the non-appropriation principle. Still other purveyors ofproposals are more disingenuous, proffering elaborate yet analytically inadequate rationales to justify either abrogating or disregarding the legal framework applicable to activities in space, especially in regard to assertions of so called "property rights" in space, on the Moon, and on other celestial bodies. This article examines the fallacies of these propositions, and demonstrates that such claims of property rights are both unnecessary and counterproductive to the development of commercial space.
Sigakis, Matthew J G; Bittner, Edward A
The aim of this article is to expose common myths and misconceptions regarding pain assessment and management in critically ill patients that interfere with effective care. We comprehensively review the literature refuting these myths and misconceptions and describe evidence-based strategies for improving pain management in the ICU. Current peer-reviewed academic journals, as well as standards and guidelines from professional societies. The most current evidence was selected for review based on the highest degree of supportive evidence. Data were obtained via medical search databases, including OvidSP, and the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database via PubMed. After a comprehensive literature review, conclusions were drawn based on the strength of evidence and the most current understanding of pain management practices in ICU. Myths and misconceptions regarding management of pain in the ICU are prevalent. Review of current evidence refutes these myths and misconceptions and provides insights and recommendations to ensure best practices.
Ana María Sánchez Tarrío
Full Text Available This papers gives a breif overview of research in its initial phases, which examines, from the perspective of the construction of national identity, the traditional theme of the enduring and timeless nature of Classical myths and in particular the ancient myth, which is the subject of Borges’s sharp irony in his short-story “The immortal”. The reception of the Argonauts myth in Slovenian culture, initiated by the work of Janez Vajkard or Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor (1641–1693, offers a significant case-study, which also highlights the relevance of Humanist and Baroque culture in the critical history of European nationalism. Writing before the emergence in Europe of the Hegelian conception of “Volkgeist”, the polymath writer applied a humanistic approach to patriotic themes, revealing Slovene culture, hybrid from its origins, to the wider world. A characteristic feature of his approach was the fusion of earlier textual tradition with contemporary oral material. Both in Slovenia and in the rest of Europe the comparison of the nineteenth century treatment of material dealing with national identity with its earlier treatment and transmission by humanist writers highlights the importance of the 16th and 17th centuries in the configuration of the different national faces of Europe as well as the significant role of common Greek and Latin roots. As a result, the myth of the Argonauts in Ljubljana, against the backdrop of idealistic or essentialist nationalist faiths, has the not inconsiderable virtue of underscoring the contaminatio that is characteristic of the construction of national identity.
with the librarian at FG to get background information and information on pupils’ behavior as experienced by her. The interview data were recorded on tape and transcribed. It was found that the information behaviour of secondary school pupils to a large extent confirm the negative myths of the Google Generation...
Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.
This issue on gender and the media contains the following (1) "Home, Home on the Remote"; (2) "Dads Through the Decades" (Mark Crispin Miller); (3) "The New Man: That's Entertainment!" (John Lehrer); (4) "Singing Men's Songs" (Kerry Skorlich); (5) "Media Myths and Men's Work" (Ian Harris); (6) "Why Are There No Asian Male Anchors?" (Ben…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. The Myth about Einstien. Sushanta Dattagupta. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 63-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/01/0063-0078. Keywords.
Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.
Day, Frederick A.
Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…
Full Text Available ... taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...
chartered Lieutenant Colonel Burton H. Catledge, USAF, is a student in the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy . In...nations are losing control of businesses as they become more transnational through overseas direct investment. If Walmart were a country, it would...be China’s eighth largest trading partner.40 The Walmart example emphasizes the difficulty the United States would have in imposing restrictions
Basch, L; Lerner, G
This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.
Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E
Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.
This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)
There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV - New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.
Kieffer, H. Scott
This article addresses some of the common myths in the field of exercise physiology. Some of the myths are misconstrued facts that have developed over time, such as the myth of localized fat reduction. Other myths are unproved or collective beliefs used to justify a social institution; we see this occur in the form of "fitness fads." Society is…
Defining myth as a cultural narrative in symbolic form that articulates a world view and offers consensus with that view, this paper uses a brief "New York Times" report on the Soviet shooting down of South Korean airline flight 007 as the basis for comparison of international news and myth. Following a review of the literature on myth…
Full Text Available The first thing that one realises in trying to grasp the semantic implications of myth is that myth can cover an extremely wide field. The way in which the term myth is commonly used reveals, too, that the word is loaded with emotional overtones. These overtones creep not only into common parlance but also, somewhat surprisingly, into scientific usage. That myth does, in fact, carry emotional overtones in this way is perhaps most easily seen if we think of terms such as prayer, liturgy, ritual drama, spell: they are all used for different religious genres but would seem to be more neutral than myth. It appears to be difficult for many scholars to discuss myth simply as a form of religious communication, as one genre among other genres. If one differentiates between four levels, namely, form, content, function and context, it is much easier to encounter the varied uses which the concept has acquired in scientific literature. By this it is possible to delimit and yet be flexible at the same time. There is no need to welcome with open arms just any traditions into the fold of myth research: but nor is it necessary to exclude, for example, studies of myth where the context criterion, i.e. a context of ritual, is not fulfilled. The degree of flexibility that can be achieved is dependent on the approach that the scholar has chosen.
Onelio Olivera Blanco
Full Text Available The next job leads to some reflections on one of the oldest myths of humanity: the myth of the cultural superiority of what bourgeois historiography called the West as opposed to the alleged low level of development than the same conception calls East. Illustrative examples the fallacy of this view is shown.
Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Astrup, Arne; Birch, Leann L.; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Foster, E. Michael; Heymsfield, Steven B.; McIver, Kerry; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P.K.; Pate, Russell; Rolls, Barbara J.; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L.; Thomas, Diana M.; Allison, David B.
BACKGROUND Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and an unproductive allocation of research resources and may divert attention away from useful, evidence-based information. METHODS Using Internet searches of popular media and scientific literature, we identified, reviewed, and classified obesity-related myths and presumptions. We also examined facts that are well supported by evidence, with an emphasis on those that have practical implications for public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. RESULTS We identified seven obesity-related myths concerning the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals for weight loss, rapid weight loss, weight-loss readiness, physical-education classes, breast-feeding, and energy expended during sexual activity. We also identified six presumptions about the purported effects of regularly eating breakfast, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight cycling, snacking, and the built (i.e., human-made) environment. Finally, we identified nine evidence-supported facts that are relevant for the formulation of sound public health, policy, or clinical recommendations. CONCLUSIONS False and scientifically unsupported beliefs about obesity are pervasive in both scientific literature and the popular press. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:23363498
Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.
Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi
Myths and misconceptions about TB can serve as a barrier to efforts at reducing stigmatisation of people infected and affected by the disease. Understanding such drivers of myths and misconceptions is important for improving information, education and communication (IEC) efforts of national control and preventive interventions. This study therefore assesses the influence of interaction of spatial, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on myths and misconceptions. Data was drawn from male (N = 4,546) and female (N = 4,916) files of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. A myth and misconception variable was created from five-related constructs with internal consistency score of r = 0. 8802 for males (inter-item correlation: 0.5951) and for females, r = 0. 0.9312 (inter-item correlation: 0.7303). The Pearson Chi-square was used to test the bivariate relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. Logistic regression was subsequently used to explore the factors determining myths and misconceptions of TB transmission. Majority of Ghanaians (males: 66.75%; females: 66.13%) did not hold myths and misconceptions about TB transmission. Females resident in the Upper East (aOR = 0.31, CI = 0.17-0.55) and Upper West (aOR = 0.41, CI = 0.24-0.69) and males resident in the Northern (aOR = 0.23, CI = 0.13-0.39) and the Greater Accra (aOR = 0.25, CI = 0.16-0.39) regions were independently associated with no misconceptions about TB transmission. Significant differences were also found in education, ethnicity and age. That spatial and other socioeconomic difference exists in myths and misconceptions suggest the need for spatial, socioeconomic and demographic segmentations in IEC on TB. This holds potentials for reaching out to those who are in critical need of information and education on the transmission processes of TB.
Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.
The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.
. However, one does not do justice to the topic by restricting it to the exile in Babylon after 587 BCE. In recent years, it has become clear that there are several discrepancies between biblical and extra-biblical sources on invasion and deportation in Palestine in the 1st millennium BCE. Such discrepancy...... confirms that the theme of exile in the Hebrew Bible should not be viewed as an echo of a single traumatic historical event, but rather as a literary motif that is repeatedly reworked by biblical authors. Myths of Exile challenges the traditional understanding of ‘the Exile’ as a monolithic historical...
Menezes, Ritesh G; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Marakala, Vijaya; Lasrado, Savita; Al Tamimi, Dalal M
This article seeks to address and dispel some of the popular myths and misconceptions surrounding authorship of a scientific publication as this is often misconstrued by beginners in academia especially those in the developing world. While ethical issues in publishing related to authorship have been increasingly discussed, not much has been written about the myths and misconceptions of who might be an author. Dispelling these myths and misconceptions would go a long way in shaping the thoughts and plans of students, junior faculty and researchers in academia especially in the developing world.
Full Text Available The resurgence of religious violence at the start of the twenty-first century has reinforced the myth of secular tolerance – the notion that whereas religious believers are instinctively intolerant, tolerance comes naturally to the secular mind. This article challenges the myth. It suggests that secular people are not immune from the temptation to persecute and vilify others, and argues that the Christian Gospel fostered the rise of religious toleration. Facing the rise ‘new secularism’ since 2008 it is important to go to the roots of the myth of secular tolerance.
Liliana G. VOȘ
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to explain the concept of otherness as a mythical dimension of the man as a creator in the context of contemporary drama. The approach is a hermeneutics one, but the intention is to extend the analysis towards an interdisciplinary approach due to the multiple ways that otherness reveals on the background of the insular space of the theater as interface of cultural and social. We wish to draw attention to the mythical-symbolic elements that catalyzes the relation between drama and its putting on stage . In our point of view the importance of the drama is the revealing the way that a prototype lives in everyone and the myth is a generating center of identities and otherness in a World of correlations. Mythical models are bringing the imaginary and objectivity into a manageable collaboration that resonate a sense of reality in order to make seen the unseen by ritual as a link between myth and culture.
Many African states are in dire political distress. During the political struggle for freedom and the immediate aftermath of political independence, leaders were able to mobilize the citizenry on the banner of the myth of the common nation state, a veritable paradise on earth. The stark reality now is that a combination of factors ...
... Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Holiday Suicides: Fact or Myth? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Developing and evaluating prevention programs. Learn More About Suicide CDC’s Overview of Suicide CDC’s Strategic Direction for ...
Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.
1968] 1980)1 ... program and consider combining their contributions for theological hermeneutics. Ricoeur on myth and demythologising. Read online: Scan this QR ... cosmology to the New Testament texts (Bultmann .
... Unbreakable Spirit® OI Golf Classic Awareness Week Fine Wines Strong Bones Bone China Tea Blue Jeans for Better Bones Upcoming Events Online Store Facts About OI Types of OI Myths About OI OI ...
A legend, a man ahead of his time or an overrated insignificance? These three historical portrayals of Roger Bacon should be put to rest, argues Brian Clegg, who travels to Oxford to uncover the medieval philosopher's true identity.
... Pinterest Email Print What are some myths about sleep? There are several common myths about sleep, including ... 2: You can "cheat" on the amount of sleep you get. Despite popular belief, when people are ...
De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.; Hulshof, Casper
In this book, the most common popular myths relating to learning and education are discussed with respect to whether there is any truth in the myth and what good educational and psychological research has to say about them. Examples of such myths range from: learning styles to neuromyths such as
Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.
In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.
Full Text Available A striking difference between the folk-narrative genres of legend and folktale is how the human characters respond to supernatural, otherworldly, or uncanny beings such as ghosts, gods, dwarves, giants, trolls, talking animals, witches, and fairies. In legend the human actors respond with fear and awe, whereas in folktale they treat such beings as if they were ordinary and unremarkable. Since folktale humans treat all characters as belonging to a single realm, folklorists have described the world of the folktale as one-dimensional, in contrast to the two-dimensionality of the legend. The present investigation examines dimensionality in the third major genre of folk narrative: myth. Using the Greek and Hebrew myths of primordial paradise as sample narratives, the present essay finds—surprisingly—that the humans in these stories respond to the otherworldly one-dimensionally, as folktale characters do, and suggests an explanation for their behavior that is peculiar to the world of myth.
Deconstructing career myths and cultural stereotypes in a context of low resourced township communities. ... Career misconceptions were grouped according to Stead and Watson's (1993) career myths, namely: 1) test myths; 2) misconceptions of exactitude; 3) self-esteem myths; and 4) career anxiety myths.
Defense AT&L: November–December 2015 46 The Myth of Data Rights Peter A. Czech Czech is a Professor of Program Management in the School of Program...Chrysler Corp. The mystery surrounding data rights stems from the fact that intel-lectual property (IP) and data rights are among the more complex issues in...following: What are data rights ? How can we remove some of the myths surrounding them? What can we do if we don’t own the data rights ? Before we answer
Hyman, David A; Silver, Charles
We identify five myths of medical malpractice that have wide currency in medical circles. The myths are as follows: (1) Malpractice crises are caused by spikes in medical malpractice litigation (ie, sudden rises in payouts and claim frequency), (2) the tort system delivers "jackpot justice," (3) physicians are one malpractice verdict away from bankruptcy, (4) physicians move to states that adopt damages caps, and (5) tort reform will lower health-care spending dramatically. We test each assertion against the available empirical evidence on the subject and conclude by identifying various nonmythical problems with the medical malpractice system.
... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...
Bennahum, David S.
Although some see cyberspace as a transcendent medium that will naturally and inevitably usher in a Golden Age, allowing us to ascend to a higher plane of consciousness, the history of computer science refutes this myth. Instead of being the product of an evolutionary process, cyberspace has been deliberately designed by individual people. (PEN)
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...
Ungar, Michael T.
The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)
Full Text Available The article analyzes some of the political and electoral myths of the post-communist transition, myths that have occupied the political agenda and the public debate throughout this period. Myths are seen as simple or complex narratives that have an explanatory and justificatory function in relation to social life, focused on Romanian society’s problems. They define and legitimizes a certain way to solve them and guides the development of society on the basis of some axiomatic principles. The article analyzes such myths, older or more recent, such as the myth of changing the electoral system, the myth of renewing the political class, the myth of the fundamental power of the referendum, the myth of the reform of the state, or of the constitutional amendments. The proposed analysis highlights the negative effects of using myths as instruments of the political and social changing on public policies and more generally on governance, and also the long-term harmful effects of the use of myths in defining political vision and Romania’s governmental development strategies.
Е Н Панин
Full Text Available The theme researched by the author has important historical-political significance. The author showed the essence of the «Latvian national opposition during the Second World War that played an auxiliary role for Hitler Germany in its plans for world domination - in bloody crimes against humanity. Being covered by «noble slogans of protection of Latvia from bolshevism», Latvian nationalists and fascists were the instrument in the war against the Soviet Union.
Full Text Available Partant d’une phrase énigmatique datant de 1858 et puisée dans la Correspondance de Flaubert, cet article s’interroge sur la relation entre soleil et mythe, qui constituera l’un des éléments clefs de la dimension mythologique de Salammbô. Il se propose d’examiner la façon dont cette question apparaît dans deux ouvrages représentatifs des études mythographiques : d’une part, L’Origine de tous les cultes de Charles-François Dupuis, d’autre part, Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., publié sous les noms de Frédéric Creuzer et de son adaptateur français, Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. La version française de la grande synthèse de Creuzer, assortie d’une série importante de planches, a été richement exploitée par Flaubert au cours de la genèse du roman carthaginois. Dans Salammbô, le mythe apparaît sous de multiples formes. L’analyse de ce texte peut nous amener à réfléchir sur le « bon usage » du mythe auquel chaque créateur (et chaque lecteur se trouve nécessairement confronté.Starting from an enigmatic phrase in Flaubert’s correspondence, dating from 1858, this article examines the relation between the Sun and myth, which constitutes one of the key elements of the mythological dimension of Salammbô. It especially focuses on the treatment of this question in two representative works of mythographic studies, The Origin of All Religious Worship by Charles-François Dupuis, and Les Religions de l’Antiquité..., the French adaptation of Frédéric Creuzer’s Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker by Joseph-Daniel Guigniault. The French version of Creuzer’s great synthesis, supplied with a remarkable set of prints, was abundantly consulted by Flaubert when writing his Carthaginian novel. In Salammbô, myth takes on various forms. Analyzing this text might lead one to reconsider “the right way” to use myths — a problem all writers (and readers find themselves confronted with.
This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)
Full Text Available Nationalism in the sense of symbols or actions glorifying the fatherland can be detected in many Chinese commercials today. In the form of a mythical narration, various aspects of an idealized China image are communicated, an image designed to bring about a sense of identity for all Chinese people. While first and foremost serving consumer preferences, these emotionally charged constructions of a “super nation” can also be interpreted in an ideological sense. Seen against the background of the public discourse on patriotism underway since 1989, this “Sinization” of advertising suggests the more or less subtle influence of party-state propaganda. In analysing TV commercials and interpreting their content, the ambivalent position and general background of advertisers must, however, be kept in mind. Even as they attempt to address and leverage popular trends, these advertisers are part of the community that has shaped the worldviews and values (some of them ideological that are also reflected in the ads. Nationalismus im Sinne von Symbolen und Handlungen, die das Vaterland glorifizieren, kann heutzutage in vielen chinesischen Werbespots gefunden werden. In der Form von mythischen Erzählungen werden viele Aspekte eines idealisierten Chinabildes verbreitet.
The Myth of Science is the idea that complex phenomena in Nature can be reduced to a set of equations based on the fundamental laws of physics. The Myth of the IMF is the notion that the observed distribution of stellar masses at birth (the IMF) can and must be explained by any successful theory of star formation. In this contribution I argue that the IMF is the result of the complex evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, and that as such the IMF preserves very little information, if any, about the detailed physics of star formation. Trying to infer the physics of star formation from the IMF is like trying to understand the personality of Beethoven from the power-spectrum of the Ninth Symphony!
Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd
The brief addresses some of the myths, which have induced an institutional resistance at the political and military decision levels against understanding and considering special operations as a valuable strategic tool in contemporary and future conflict prevention, crisis management, and conflict...... management. The brief gives a generic overview over what special operations factually are, thus focusing on developing a broader understanding of the usefulness of special operations in the strategy of a small state....
The purpose of this essay is to help tutors understand that myths about the writing process are hurting students and their writing. Peer tutors are in a unique position to teach students the truth about the writing process. Many students feel incapable of writing well because they struggle with the writing process. Helping students recognize false beliefs about writing and understand the truth will do more to improve student writing and confidence than teaching writing mechanics. When student...
Wasti, Harihar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash
Science and myth have been closely linked and argued upon by philosophers, educationalists, scientists, enthusiasts and the general public. Faith healing, when added as an adjuvant or alternative aid to medical science, will not necessarily be confined to mere arguments and debates but may also give rise to series of complications, medical emergencies and even result in death. We present an unusual case where reliance on faith healing led to the death of a young man. © The Author(s) 2015.
The paper argues that through their novels, postcolonial African writers attempt to reconstruct the myths of their nations by metho-poetically interpreting the nations' origins, experiences and aspirations or destiny. Using the case of the Malawian novelist, James Ng'ombe, the paper observes that collectively, Sugarcane with ...
Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Atroszko, Paweł A
Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.
With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)
Dorling, Danny; Tomlinson, Sally
The old myth about the ability and variability of potential in children is a comforting myth, for those who are uneasy with the degree of inequality they see and would rather seek to justify it than confront it. The myth of inherent potential helps some explain to themselves why they are privileged. Extend the myth to believe in inherited ability…
Lappe, Frances Moore; Collins, Joseph
Although there are a number of complex political, economic, and ecological issues at the root of world hunger, a number of myths have been perpetuated to explain why hunger exists. One myth says that people are hungry because of scarcity; in fact, hunger exists in the face of plenty. The earth is producing more than enough to nourish every human…
Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara
Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually…
Full Text Available A cult normally develops around myths and rituals. In this article myth as phenomenon will be investigated. Different types and categories of myths will be listed, while research done in the past on myths will also be dealt with. Furthermore, the issue of ritual accompanying the myth will be briefly discussed. This article wants to promote the notion that one does not need any particular worldview, be it mythological, orthodox, fundamentalistic, or biblisistic, to use, understand, and appreciate myths. Even in a postmodern world the value of myths can be appreciated.
In 1941 Margaret Mayall, the future director of the AAVSO, and Harvard colleague Bart Bok authored a critical study of astrology and its impact on society entitled "Scientists Look at Astrology." They chastised the scientific community for thinking the debunking of astrology to be "below the dignity of scientists." In contrast, they opined that it is one of the duties of scientists to "inform the public about the nature and background of a current fad, such as astrology, even though to do so may be unpleasant." Fast-forward 68 years in the future, and the astronomical community now faces a pseudoscientific enemy just as insidious as astrology, yet just as ignored by the general professional and amateur community as astrology had been when Mayall and Bok took up the charge in 1941. The pseudoscience in question is the well-publicized "prediction" that the Mayan calendar will end on December 21, 2012, causing the end of civilization in concert with one of a number of possible astronomical calamities, including (but not limited to) the gravitational pull of the center of the Milky Way (somehow enhanced by an "alignment" with our solar system), the near-approach by a mythical 10th planet (often named Nibiru), large-scale damage to the planet by solar flares larger than those ever recorded, or the shifting of the earth's axis of rotation (often confused with a proposed sudden and catastrophic reversal of the earth's magnetic polarity). As a scientific and educational organization, the AAVSO and its members have a responsibility to follow in Mayall's footsteps, shining the light of reason and knowledge on the dark corners of ignorance which far too often permeate the Internet, radio and television programming, and recent films, most notably 2012. This talk will highlight some of the basic premises of the 2012 hysteria and suggest ways that the AAVSO and its members can use variable stars and the history of the AAVSO to counteract some of the astronomical misinformation
Estes, J.E.; Mooneyhan, D.W. [Univ. Space Research Assoc, Washington, DC (United States)
For many areas of both the developed and developing world, the spatially accurate data required to effectively support environmental planning, resources management, and public policy decision making do not exist. There are a variety of reasons for this lack of map data. Mapping is neither easy nor cheap. Issues of both national security and national sovereignty are involved. There is a need to reinvigorate and expand our mapping programs to make them national in focus but global in scope. It is also essential that a civil agency be given a load role in global mapping. There is a need to work to break down the barriers that inhibit the open flow of map information that does exist, garner the resources required to fill in where there are gaps, and support efforts to increase funding for research in mapping and spatial analysis. All this must be done if we are to improve our understanding of our rapidly changing world. 20 refs.
Peterson, Tarla Rai
Demonstrates the value of studying organizational myths through dramatistic analysis of public relations materials. Uses rhetorical theory to critique the symbolic realities created by myth. Applies dramatistic criticism to Grand Teton National Park's interpretive literature to disclose organizational myths that permeate its public relations…
Paper presented at the UNU-WIDER (United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research) Project Conference on African Development: Myths and Realities Accra, Ghana, 10-11 December 2009
Brown, Marilyn A.; Gumerman, Etan; Sun, Xiaojing; Sercy, Kenneth; Kim, Gyungwon
This paper identifies six myths about clean electricity in the southern U.S. These myths are either propagated by the public at-large, shared within the environmental advocacy culture, or spread imperceptibly between policymakers. Using a widely accepted energy-economic modeling tool, we expose these myths as half-truths and the kind of conventional wisdom that constrains productive debate. In so doing, we identify new starting points for energy policy development. Climate change activists may be surprised to learn that it will take more than a national Renewable Electricity Standard or supportive energy efficiency policies to retire coal plants. Low-cost fossil generation enthusiasts may be surprised to learn that clean generation can save consumers money, even while meeting most demand growth over the next 20 years. This work surfaces the myths concealed in public perceptions and illustrates the positions of various stakeholders in this large U.S. region. - Highlights: ► Clean energy myths help lock Southern energy policy in the status quo. ► Efficiency and renewable measures could meet most projected electricity growth without escalating rates. ► Cost-effective efficiency and renewable energy policies alone will not retire coal plants. ► Energy modeling can move energy policy debate beyond misconceptions and illustrate common ground for moving forward.
Bijelić Tatjana P.
Full Text Available Focusing on the most revisited ancient mother-daughter myth, that of Demeter and Persephone, the paper engages with some of Demeter-centered appropriations of the myth in contemporary poetry written by women. Through continual reworkings of the archetypal story about the strongest primary bond between two biologically related females and their forced separation due to male intervention, women poets are increasingly addressing the qualities of Demeter's new-era powers to regain her progeny and restore abundance. While concerned with possibilities of revival and regeneration, contemporary poetic renditions of the mythic framework offer a whole array of plots and images that tend to both perpetuate and challenge original versions of the myth by reassessing the dynamics of mother-daughter disengagement and reunion. The aim of the paper is to examine and juxtapose the strategies of performing the Demeter-Persephone myth in six contemporary Demetrian poems in which their authors extend the mythic space to incorporate other benevolent female characters and their journeys (Fainlight, situate their speakers and Persephones within a national tradition or a familiar setting (Boland, celebrate the birth of a new Persephone (Duffy, embrace the era of contradictions and its impacts on the female body (Ostriker, and fragmenting the myth through the use of various discourses to simulate instant yet profound interplays of deaths and revivals (O'Rourke.
Newton, Philip M; Miah, Mahallad
The basic idea behind the use of 'Learning Styles' is that learners can be categorized into one or more 'styles' (e.g., Visual, Auditory, Converger) and that teaching students according to their style will result in improved learning. This idea has been repeatedly tested and there is currently no evidence to support it. Despite this, belief in the use of Learning Styles appears to be widespread amongst schoolteachers and persists in the research literature. This mismatch between evidence and practice has provoked controversy, and some have labeled Learning Styles a 'myth.' In this study, we used a survey of academics in UK Higher Education ( n = 114) to try and go beyond the controversy by quantifying belief and, crucially, actual use of Learning Styles. We also attempted to understand how academics view the potential harms associated with the use of Learning Styles. We found that general belief in the use of Learning Styles was high (58%), but lower than in similar previous studies, continuing an overall downward trend in recent years. Critically the percentage of respondents who reported actually using Learning Styles (33%) was much lower than those who reported believing in their use. Far more reported using a number of techniques that are demonstrably evidence-based. Academics agreed with all the posited weaknesses and harms of Learning Styles theory, agreeing most strongly that the basic theory of Learning Styles is conceptually flawed. However, a substantial number of participants (32%) stated that they would continue to use Learning Styles despite being presented with the lack of an evidence base to support them, suggesting that 'debunking' Learning Styles may not be effective. We argue that the interests of all may be better served by promoting evidence-based approaches to Higher Education.
This digest investigates seven of the most prevalent and damaging myths about literacy in the United States. In response to various claims about American elementary and secondary students' test score declines in reading achievement, the author interprets data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the International…
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do you ... false assumptions can be dangerous to your heart. Cardiovascular disease kills more Americans each year than any other ...
Casazza, Krista; Fontaine, Kevin R; Astrup, Arne
Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations...
Rickey, V. Frederick
This article was written in part to celebrate the anniversaries of landmark mathematical works by Newton and Descartes. It's other purpose is to dispel some myths about Sir Isaac Newton and to encourage readers to read Newton's works. (PK)
... Step in the Right Direction Some Myths about Nutrition & Physical Activity Are you overwhelmed by daily decisions ... of your daily calories from saturated fats . Try cutting back on solid-fat foods. Use olive oil ...
Husemann, Bernd; Harrison, Chris M.
Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remains controversial despite its wide acceptance as necessary to regulate massive galaxy growth. Consequently, we held a workshop in October 2017, at Leiden's Lorentz Center, to distinguish between the reality and myths of feedback.
Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine
The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....
This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…
Boffeli, Troy J; Thongvanh, Kerri L; Evans, Sarah J Horst; Ahrens, Clay R
Physicians are continually encouraged to be more productive while providing higher levels of patient satisfaction. It is a common presumption that the two goals are somewhat exclusive-that higher productivity must entail a sacrifice in patient satisfaction or vice versa. Moreover, physicians seeking tested, evidence-based approaches to improving satisfaction have had relatively little to go on, and they commonly have justifiable concerns about how ineffective changes may hurt their productivity for no benefit. For our large specialty practice, we plotted physicians into quadrants on a scattergram: strong performers on productivity and patient satisfaction, those who are weak in both areas, and those who are strong in one and weak in the other. We performed an observational study to investigate behaviors and work processes associated with a range of performance levels in productivity and patient satisfaction. The observation yielded clear, discrete sets of common characteristics for physicians and staff in each quadrant. In our organization, these findings have provided practical assistance for physicians performing at any level to assess their own situation and chart a path, on their own or with coaching, that leads to improvement. The findings help dispel commonly held myths about the exclusivity of productivity and patient satisfaction, suggesting that 1) there are many physicians who excel in both areas simultaneously, and 2) there are different characteristics associated with varying levels of performance. The study encourages the further development of evidence-based methods for improving the patient experience while enhancing-not sacrificing-productivity.
Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller; Stahl, Rune Møller
This paper argues that the Left should move beyond the commonplace understanding – upheld by Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek - that parliamentary democracy is essentially of a bourgeois nature. We show first how the introduction of parliamentary democracy – defined as constitutionalization of state...... representative democracy - not abolish it. Third, we highlight how Leninists and liberals have unknowingly colluded to sustain the myth that parliamentary democracy is essentially liberal. Finally, turning our attention to the current neoliberal conjuncture, we argue that Badiou’s and Žižek’s notion......’ policies across the globe, the Left condemns itself to political irrelevance if it follows Badiou and Žižek in denying the relevance of representative democratic institutions. The common denominator of protest movements of the post-crisis world is precisely the demand for real democratic representation...
Nunez-Selles, Alberto J.
New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)
Nunez-Selles, Alberto J. [Center of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: email@example.com
New terms such as oxidative stress, antioxidant products or pro-oxidant risks are becoming familiar and an increasing number of international scientific conferences and the publication of thousands of scientific articles is an indication of the growing interest that the subject awakens. The most publicized example is perhaps the French paradox, based on the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis attributed to the regular consumption, by the French, of red wine and/or grape juice. Flavonoids, and other phenolic substances contained in red wine, are assigned with antioxidant properties, which lower the oxidation of low density lipoproteins and consequently, the risk of atherogenic diseases. Other examples are the aging process and its correlation with an increase of free radicals, and the correlation between the initiation and promotion of cancer and tissue injury by free radicals, which has induced the intake of antioxidant products as chemical factors that prevent the onset of the disease. Currently, the incidence of oxidative stress on the onset and evolution of more than 100 diseases is claimed by several researchers. All these are 'realities', which on the other hand, are lacking of more clinical evidence, are considered by both physicians and health regulatory bodies, either as 'myths' or of 'secondary' importance. In the attempts to destroy those myths, results of chemical, pre-clinical, and clinical works with a crude extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark, which has been developed in Cuba, are reviewed, with a strong experimental evidence of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. (author)
Pity and Fear: Myths and Images of the Disabled in Literature Old and New = Lastima y Miedo: Mito e Imagenes del Invalido en la Literatura Antigua y Moderna = La Pitie et la Peur: Mythes et Images des Infirmes dans la Literature Ancienne et Moderne. Proceedings of a Literary Symposium Sponsored by ICD-International Center for the Disabled in Collaboration with the United Nations (October 27, 1981).
Fiedler, Leslie A.; And Others
The booklet (also in Spanish and French) presents an edited transcript of a conference dealing with images of the disabled in literature and the arts. L. Fielder's keynote paper traces the evolving role of disabled people by examining, in films and novels, the role of myth in society, the debilitating use of euphemisms, the unsatisfactory attempts…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Allen, Mike; And Others
Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…
Full Text Available Theatre today speaks for a new type of cultural manifoldness, for a broad range of new differences that are developing. Creolisation is the intermingling of two or several formerly discrete traditions or cultures; it is an interweaving of similar and different threads of various colours, deriving from myths shared throughout the Mediterranean basin. Within such an understanding of culture theatre needs to speak out not only against domination but also needs to highlight the importance of marginality, otherness, and local contexts. It should not be hemmed in by literary-minded applications. As Benjamin Lee writes, “we have reached a time when no values from any single cultural perspective can provide frameworks adequate to understanding the changes affecting all of us”, which entails the decolonisation of cultural practices. We must think globally and act locally, be aware of universal myths, while remaining aware of the local circumstances and myths that surround us. In other words, a fruitful dialectical relation can ensue. In Slovenia, scholars often complain that, aside from specialists, nobody is “internationally” interested in local myths or national topics. This is not true: what is necessary is to find an appropriate way to present local or national topics within an international and global setting.
Full Text Available The present paper depicts alterations undergone by the sleeping king motif (sebastianism in the writings of Fernando Pessoa. The data to conduct the study were collected in thematic anthologies and several unpublished pieces. The myth of the King Sebastian was given a congregational dimension by Pessoa, thus conveying his cultural and identity project subsumed under the metaphor of the spiritual empire. Pessoa introduces some readjustments in the way the historical king is to be conceived of. In his theory, Sebastian becomes the figure of the individual effort on the way towards the national renewal. The messianic character of D. Sebastião is defeated in this theory despite having been associated with the figures of either Jesus or the Antichrist. The messiah of the Portuguese foundation myth is replaced with the idea of great man and the task to be carried out in this field, included the metaphor of the Fifth Empire, gains a cultural character. That is why Pessoa’s theories must no longer be interpreted in messianic terms. The Pessoa’s transformations of the sebastianism analyzed in this article are the starting point for the new national narration in the poetic cycle of "Mensagem".
Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul
The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…
Efren A. Alverio II
Full Text Available The advent of logical positivism contributed to the sharp definitional demarcation between what we consider mythical (mythos and what we take to be a true account (logos. This essay attempts to go back to one of the sources of such a supposed distinction. By analyzing the Gorgias, I will show that even Plato did not make such a distinction. In fact, Plato even constructed a theory of justice that made use of myth as its medium. The Platonic Myth in the Gorgias was used as true logos in order to justify Socrates' use of the myth as the paradigm of a life that is philosophical in contrast to that of his accusers who espoused mere sophistry. By using the concept of historia in relation with the concept of mythos, Plato regarded the futuristic afterlife in the myth as a sufficient condition to live a just life. This sufficient condition exemplified by the Myth in the Gorgias is a measuring rod by which we can compare our present system of justice.
Alejandro Rodríguez Díaz del Real
Full Text Available The interest in Greece that Jose Ortega y Gasset and María Zambrano share is clear and demonstrable even if a reader is only a little familiar with these authors. Less similar is the approach they take to myth as a specific subject in their writings. Unlike Ortega's relative indifference - if one dares think anything could be indifferent to him - Zambrano takes myth as what Duch calls an "in-wording" element by linking it with autobiographical forms of writing, such as her characteristic deliriums. She re-envisions mythical figures in an intimate way, as in her play La tumba de Antígona. This article examines some of the key relationships of Greek myth with the "razón poética" in Zambrano's writing, focusing primarily on El hombre y lo divino (1955.
Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.
Marcia Reami Pechula
Full Text Available When we speak in myth, we think about the origin of the things; when we speak in daily life, we think about the present of which these things are covered. However, in order to understand, sometimes, expressions used by the people it is necessary to know the narratives that tell us the origin of the world where we live. So, in a modern way, we can say that the myth survives in calendars, in the liturgy, in official ceremonies, tied to the rituals that command such incidents, in the advanced societies in which the man bent under the tecnicism weight and of the mecanicist barbarity, is subjugated by the cruel progress that hems it in and makes it fulfill the paper of wizard's apprentice. So, if our current words are intertwined to the myth, this will also have to be present in the school and in the contents worked by it for what pupils and teachers could understand and update the established relations, along the time, between the historical facts and the narratives that report them. With this objective the Project “To narrate histories, to interchange experiences”, financed by UNESP Nucleus of Teaching, was developed in partnership with the Rio Claro General office of Education, in the school “Sérgio Hernani Fittipaldi”. There were eleven meetings, in which the art of counting histories, way of knowledge who we are and how we are connected with our similars and with the world around us, was presented to the teachers of Basic Education. While tackling the type fiction, we gave distinction, in the childlike literature, to the myths and its transpositions for the literary narrative. In this form, the first part of this article is constituted by the approach to the conceptual field about the myth. The second part illustrates the literary creations that retake the myths, like the childlike work of Monteiro Lobato.
Full Text Available This is a survey of some cosmogonic myths that explicitly raise the question of the beginnings in terms of enigma. Mud, light, desire, dream, illusion, such are some of the disturbing ways to begin a persuasive story. Something has to be said, a story to be made, and these myths are working in the same way as the story of the big bang addressed today to those who cannot understand it. But these stories are offering, still and always, a serious reflection on what is most simply human.
Minbaeva, Dana; Collings, David G.
The challenges associated with managing talent on a global scale are greater than those faced by organisations operating on a domestic scale. We believe that the former relate to the fact that a number of key myths regarding talent management may undermine talent management's contribution...... to multinational corporation effectiveness and retard the development of management practice in this regard. Our aim is to unpack some of those myths and offer some suggestions for advancing the practice of talent management on the basis of insights from both practice and academic thinking in this area....
the farmboys waved and Cassada, a god , arm resting on the cockpit railing, raised it and waved back. He was at last all he had dreamed of.’.22...However, the fact that Heller inverts the military myth is not in and of itself meaningless. He is trying to make a point about war, and about God . When he...military myth to make a point about the horror of war. Later, when Yossarian impersonates a dead so ldier when that soldier’s parents come to visit, the
Howard-Jones, Paul A
For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005, was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-square tests and at the multivariate level using logistic regression.Results: Key myths and misinformation about family planning having significant negative effects on contraceptive use included: “contraception makes women become promiscuous”, “it is expensive to practice family planning”, and “family planning causes cancer”. Factual information having significant positive effects on contraceptive use includes the messages that family planning methods are effective and not against religious teaching. The type of people with whom respondents discussed family planning had a significant effect on use of contraception. Respondents who discussed family planning with their spouse, friends, and health workers were more likely to use contraception than those who discussed it with religious leaders. Other significant predictors of contraceptive use were region of residence, gender, and socioeconomic status.Conclusion: Family planning programs should focus on eliminating myths and misinformation, while strengthening factual information. Contraception programs should factor in the role of significant others, particularly spouses and friends.Keywords: contraceptive use, family planning, logistic regression, misconceptions, myths
Full Text Available ... community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...
Focuses on the article by Elliot W. Eisner (1971) in which Eisner identified seven myths held by art educators. Considers which myths are still alive today and the reasons that art education seems doomed to always have myths. (GEA)
Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.
Feasley, Florence G.
Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…
A discussion of "Asterix," the comic book series, and an analysis of its use of myths and stereotypes usually associated with the French. Some of these are: their love of food, individualism and spirit of resistance, sense of "Frenchness," and "esprit." Goscinny succeeds in making these stereotypes universal in application. (AMH)
Woodcock, Brian A.
"The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is…
Kelly, Joan B.
The author examines seven myths, such as: divorce is preferable to an unhappy home; children anticipate divorce; turmoil ends with separation; and divorce damages children. She concludes that divorce initiates a prolonged and often difficult transition for children, which may benefit or harm them depending on how parents handle it. (SJL)
Responds to Alan Davies's review article "Ironising the Myth of Linguicism," summarizing principles for the analysis of linguistic imperialism and demonstrating that the phenomenon is far from mythical. The article responds to some of the points raised by Davies to show that his generalizations are not justified. (41 references)…
DeBell, Camille S.; Harless, Debra K.
Reports research results concerning beliefs about B. F. Skinner's psychological theories. Examines beliefs in the myths that Skinner: (1) discounted physiological and genetic roles in behavior; (2) believed that any behavior could be conditioned; (3) discounted individual uniqueness; (4) viewed punishment as the preferred form of behavior control;…
Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep
, as specific ways of framing and seeing organizational reality, to which it gives rise. While observations and evidence can always be adduced to challenge a particular set of metaphors, the endogenous force of the myth may sustain the overall project. This process is explained with a detailed analysis...
Ragsdale, Ronald G.
A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…
Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1048-1053. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1048-1053 ...
In this article, the author discusses the resilient myth that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. It is widely known that it was Columbus' journey to the New World that proved that the world was round. However, Thomas Kuhn in "The Copernican Revolution" showed clearly in 1957 that the idea of a flat…
Christensen, L.T.; Cornelissen, J.P.
Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from this
Jaja, Jones M.
Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…
Guzel Mrtazovna Ibatullina
Full Text Available A Historiosophical problematic of the cycle of I.S. Turgenev “A Sportsman's Sketches " is one of the least studied aspects of the writer's work. The main purpose of this article is to research mithopoetic forms of the embodiment of Turgenev’s philosophy of the history in the literally system of the story “Bezhin Lea”, which is the key for the cycle. Scientific relevance and novelty of the work is determined by the new possibilities of interpretation of Turgenev’s textbook. The analysis of symbolic overtones of the story finds here the artistic encoded concept of the historical fates of Russia and of humanity as a whole; empirically observed development of the human society is explained by Turgenev through the logic of sacred metahistory.The author concludes that Turgenev’s history model is implemented in the system works as a myth through a series of associative and symbolic images and motives. However, the mythologized view of the world does not destroy the essay and factual nature of the story. Myth and reality live here in the dialogue, opening each other both for themselves and for the reader. In the context of this dialogue, the national historical myth is inextricably linked with the myth of the Fall and with the eschatological myth, and in the processes of dialogue mutual reflections each of them not only plays its traditional content, but also substantially enriches it.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-3
Full Text Available This paper addresses the largely prevalent practice of architectural pedagogy in India. There may be few exceptions to these predominant trends and they stand as important beacons of hope. The predominant pedagogy suffers from many ‘myths’ or fallacies. This paper identifies three of these myths as fundamentally deadly which need to be urgently exploded in order to pave the way to reform the education. The first myth deals with the ‘content’ or ‘what’ is taught. The second has to do with ‘how’; i.e. pedagogic bias. The third has to do with the overall philosophy of knowledge or "epistemology". The myths are: Myth 1: Architectural education = Design education = Iconic form-making. Myth 2: One can pull up average competence levels across the class by concentrating on a few geniuses in the studio. Myth 3: Delivery of knowledge can be fragmented. Integration of knowledge happens ‘automatically’ inside learners.
The expansion of English worldwide tends to be both seen and marketed uncritically, as a universally relevant lingua franca and medium of education. The post-1945 expansion of English was a deliberate policy of the US and UK governments, foreseen in a speech by Churchill. Elsewhere Churchill...... endorsed university academic freedom and autonomy, which neoliberal forces currently constrain. Imperial languages are promoted by means of linguicism, which many contemporary policies exemplify. Increased use of English results in a macro-sociolinguistic tension between national linguistic capital...... accumulation or dispossession. European colonisation was legitimated by the fraudulent myth of terra nullius. Americanisation worldwide is furthered by projecting US norms and lifestyle as a cultura nullius for all. English is marketed as a lingua nullius, for instance in British promotion of English worldwide...
The pervasive influence of the Oedipus complex on world culture is a given, yet throughout the long history of motion pictures only one major filmmaker has tackled the literary source that inspired Freud. The film, Edipo Re, directed by Italian poet, novelist, and social and political activist Pier Paolo Pasolini, not only reconstructs the myth and adapts Sophocles' tragedy, but uses both as a basis of cinematic autobiography. This paper is a detailed analysis of the formal, stylistic, and thematic dimensions of this film, illustrating the complex manner in which Pasolini interweaves myth, play, and autobiography into a unique cinematic achievement. This analysis is followed by speculations on the implications of the film's structure and techniques and on what they reveal about Pasolini's character, his sexual profile, and the ignominious murder that ended his life.
This book offers a detailed and fascinating picture of the astonishing astronomical knowledge on which the Roman calendar, traditionally attributed to the king Numa Pompilius (reign 715-673 BC), was based. This knowledge, of Mesopotamian origins, related mainly to the planetary movements and to the occurrence of eclipses in the solar system. The author explains the Numan year and cycle and illustrates clearly how astronomical phenomena exerted a powerful influence over both public and private life. A series of concise chapters examines the dates of the Roman festivals, describes the related rites and myths, and places the festivals in relation to the planetary movements and astronomical events. Special reference is made to the movements of the moon and Venus, their relation to the language of myth, and the particular significance that Venus was considered to have for female fertility. The book clearly demonstrates the depth of astronomical knowledge reflected in the Roman religious calendar and the designated...
In the last ten years we have seen an impressive growth of electrical generation by wind power. However this increase cannot be explained by an advance of the technology or by the improvement of the economic factors. The explanation of the boom is based mostly on environmental aspects instead of strategic considerations on energy supply. In Argentina wind power is promoted as a kind of economically viable panacea based on four myths: the explosive growth of wind power, the decrease of costs as a function of the power increase, the wind power potential of Patagonia, the analogy with conventional technologies. The analysis of these myths shows that the global wind power production is very low and it is concentrated in few developed countries, it is supported by environmental interests and protected by important subsidies. In Argentina this support cannot be justified neither by environmental considerations nor by economic reasons
Smith, J C; Weisstub, David N
Social order, to remain stable, needs the voluntary compliance of the majority of the population. Such consent requires normative justification. The rational foundation of the rule of law and the democratic state rests on the presumption of the equality of every citizen. Male domination of females nevertheless remains universal even in the most advanced democratic nation states because it is legitimized by the shared assumption that patriarchy reflects the will of God or is dictated by nature. Freud's diagnosis of patriarchy as a collective neurosis of the group mind negates every possible normative justification that can be made for gender hierarchy. Freud made extensive references to myth in developing his analysis of the neurotic foundations of social order. An analysis of the structure of myth suggests that ideological seduction rather than God, nature or biology determines male dominance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
V. D. Solovey
Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.
N V Plotichkina
Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.
The conquest of the New World gave way to the myth of the Good Savage. For the Renaissance intellectuals, the ancient ideas about the Golden Age (an ideal society promising an unending bliss) seemed to be brought back to life at last. Sharply contrasting with the European exacerbated unrest of the time, America stood for a redeeming hope, a symbol of a better future. The myth of the Good Savage assumes people to be naturally good, but civilization has led them into the realm of violence, hatred, and cruelty. Besides being naturally good, nice-minded people, "good savages" were also useful, obedient people, most likely to be easily exploited by Europeans--a source for the historical drama to come. On the verge of freeing itself from the Spanish rule, Latin America--fighting its way toward independence, had three enlightened mentors: Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. There, again, another deep contrast arose between the abstract characteristics of Latin American aims to perfection, and people's actual behaviors. The former "good savage" became the modern "Latin American" embodying an utopia as well as a hope in his eagerness for setting up a plural, and humanized culture. The myth of the Good Savage represents a deep longing for an objectivation of the ego-ideal: it has been used, so to speak, in collective mobilizations as well as dogmatic crystallizations, to escape from ignominous realities or to project alternatives for a better socially-shared life.
... sheet. Accessed Nov. 1, 2016. Science fact or science fiction? – 9 common cancer myths. Cancer.Net. http://www.cancer.net/blog/2015-03/science-fact-or-science-fiction-%E2%80%93-9-common-cancer-myths. Accessed ...
The book of Genesis contains two creation myths which have corollaries in the Igbo creation myth, as in other ethnic groups in Africa. This is particularly in the area of sanctity of life. The first Genesis creation mythexplicitly states that man was created in the image (Hebrew צֶלֶם ) of God, and after His likeness, (Genesis 1: ...
The use of myth and superstition is an integral part of indigenous communities in Africa. It is used as a traditional approach for sustainable use and management of natural resources. The use of myths has significantly played a role in preserving biodiversity in the traditional Vhavenda community. Certain trees are forbidden ...
Both males and females are mythologized in children's literature. The internalization of these myths has been found to have far-reaching implications for intellectual achievement and individual functioning in a democracy. Numerous studies have indicated that these sexual myths are destructive to females' self-image. Eleanor Maccoby, in her study…
A previous article investigated Ricoeur's stance on myth and demythologising. The intersection of Ricoeur and Bultmann's work in this field was noted and a future comparison was envisaged with a view to a possible merger. This study is a follow-up and proposes a way in which Ricoeur and Bultmann's views on myth and ...
Discusses seven myths about literacy in the United States, demonstrating that the best evidence indicates that no crisis exists on average in reading. These prevalent myths, which focus on claims of poor reading achievement, actually distract from things that should be of real concern. (SLD)
Vealey, Robin S.
What often seems intuitive and well-meaning as a mental game strategy may be ineffective or detrimental to athletes, based on the evolution of knowledge in sport psychology. This article describes three popular ideas about the mental game and identifies them as myths, based on experience and research. These myths are (1) mental training should…
The persistence of gendered learning myths in educational contexts and the wider imaginary continues to trouble feminist educational researchers and practitioners. The tracing of such myths and the categories they create through authoritative and elite discourses of the past suggests how they have functioned across different fields to preserve a…
Kalolo, John Fungulupembe
There has been widespread concern about the provision of quality education (QE) for all learners in all contexts, but research evidence to inform this debate is quite divergent and in most of cases the question about achieving this desire seems to be full of myths. This paper examines a selection of embedded myths about QE in Tanzanian education…
This work argues for the evaluation of myths within the context of their role as a means of social control through the transmission of cherished cultural values and norms, using Igbo mythology as a case study. It argues that the epistemic credentials of myths are largely determined by their historical and cultural contexts; ...
The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…
Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.
The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…
McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence
Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…
It is not so much the objective reality of the individual, but the myths created around the reality that provides the framework for the personal experience of meaning and a direction in life. Therefore a prerequisite to a meaningful existence is personal engagement in myths. International Journal of Humanistic Studies Vol.
Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continents history and culture. This paper examines the concept of myth in African ...
Existing literature have posited that the problem of rape aggravates if it is unacknowledged as a result of the influence of rape myth acceptance. Being an understudied phenomenon, the present study sought to explore rape myths and examine situational factors that appear to differentiate women who experience various ...
Passi, Michael M.
Asserts that the history of white ethnics has been written far too long as the story of disorganization and disintegration. Argues that the themes of rebirth and creativity should be explored, discarding the myth of the American as a new man emerging after stripping away Old World traditions and institutions. (Author/RJ)
Full Text Available During a mythical quest, a typical hero undergoes certain ordeals to achieve the heroic goal which sets him/her on the path of adventure in the first place. Facing the difficulties, the narrator offers help not only through the internal powers of the hero’s soul but also through a variety of external forces (natural/supernatural. In Greek and Persian mythology, heroes sometimes receive help from nature as a source of independent power which can bring about changes. The current study aims to hold out a few cases of natural changes in legendary quests that take ordinary natural phenomena out of their path affecting the quest results. Joseph Campbell’s list of stages of a myth is to be used for juxtaposing the natural phenomena in the myths in order to decide about the part of the legend where nature leaves a mark. The result of the study is expected to categorize different types of heroes that appear in Greek and Persian myths. Furthermore, the relationship between heroes and nature will be examined; as the Persian hero receives the natural interference during the ongoing stages of their quest as help, while the Greek hero receives the effect of nature after their death. All these are supposed to reveal the reward mechanism and how it reflects on the type of measures taken by nature. Keywords: Archetypes, Mythical Hero, Structure of Myths, Reward, Persian Hero, Greek Hero
Hepburn, Mary A.
Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)
Shargal, M.; Houseman, D.
Renewable energies use natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from wind power, hydroelectricity, wave, solar, biomass, and biofuels. While most renewable energy sources do not produce pollution directly, the materials, industrial processes, and construction equipment used to create them may generate waste and pollution. This paper discussed the myths and realities of these energy applications. The following were described as being myths: plug-in cars could help reduce air pollution; current electric infrastructure can support the growth in plug-in cars; transmission grid can support the transportation of renewable electricity generated in rural areas to homes and business that need it in large metropolitan areas; there is a shortage of renewable energy sources on earth; biofuels do not have environmental issues; renewable energy facilities last forever; biofuel and biomass energy positively influence greenhouse gas; and greater efficiency results in lower energy consumption, resulting in energy independence. The paper also addressed the myth that ethanol is an eco-friendly fuel, and that if the United States tapped into its vast coal reserves effectively with clean and efficient coal-to-liquids technology, America would achieve energy independence. The paper also discussed the transformation from surplus fossil fuel resources to constrained gas and oil carriers, and subsequently to new energy supply and conversion technologies. Specifically, the paper addressed carbon offsets and allowance, cow power, and innovative experiments. It was concluded that the world is not on course to achieve a sustainable energy future. The global energy supply will continue to be dominated by fossil fuels for several decades. In order to reduce the resultant greenhouse gas emissions, a transition to zero and low-carbon technologies will be required. 10 refs
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)
Gardner, Deborah B
Politics in a democracy requires governance through debate. Nurses are an important part of the voting public and we need to assess our own anger, expectations, and values for this election. Recognizing four myths during this election season can improve the political conversation. This conversation must acknowledge different groups, interests, and opinions and then seek ways to balance or reconcile those interests. Using this as a mental model to define our politics rather than succumbing to divisive rhetoric, we can take a major step toward building a better political system.
Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly
The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Australia's record as one of the higher performing nations on therecent PISA tests occasioned more interest internationally than domestically. Not with standing this success however, it is argued that its overall national success on the PISA tests is something of a myth, masking wide differences between the overall majority, and certain disadvantaged minorities. Disaggregating the performance data reveals the actual situation with respect to indigenous Australians, certain ethnic minorities and the effects of social class, which in each case is complemented with analysis of test performance differentials from PISA and NAPLAN. This examination reveals the reality that Australia is less successful than several other countries in extending high levels of school performance to key minorities. Given this failure, the myth of Australian high performance needs to be re-examined: much more needs to be done to boost the educational success of disadvantaged minorities.Los resultados de Australia, como uno de los países como uno de los países con los mejores resultados en el reciente estudio PISA han interesado más fuera de sus fronteras que dentro de ellas. A pesar de este éxito, sin embargo, se argumenta que los buenos resultados nacionales en los test de PISA encierran algo de mito y enmascara amplias diferencias entre la inmensa mayoría y ciertas minorías desaventajadas. Realizando un examen desagregado de los datos de Australia se pone de manifiesto la situación actual respecto a los indígenas de ese continente, ciertas minorías étnicas y el efecto de la clase social que se complementa en cada caso con el análisis de los diferenciales de rendimiento entre PISA y NAPLAN. El examen revela que Australia en realidad es menos exitosa que algunos de otros países a la hora de extender elevados niveles de rendimiento escolar a determinadas minorías clave. Ante este fracaso, el mito del alto rendimiento australiano necesita ser revisado: es
Josep Maria Terricabras
Full Text Available Denying from the start that Humanities are in crisis, the author examines certain aspects of this statement, reflecting on what is meant by stating that the Humanities are in crisis, arguing for the growing interest in human sciences and looking more closely at the concept of myth and its use. From this basis, he examines the aim of this myth of the crisis in Humanities and reaches the conclusion that it may be used to discredit the Humanities as a knowledge system that stands alone and to subordinate them to science and technology and the principles of use and profitability controlled by power.Faced with this, Terricabras wonders how the debate on Humanities can be opened today whilst avoiding the error of identifying the Humanities in terms of the arts and creating conflict between the arts and the sciences, given that society, as it becomes more scientific and technological, needs more study into language, communication, history, philosophy, ethics, etc. This line of thought brings us ultimately to his recommending that, in contrary to the prejudices of specialisation, global understanding and a humanistic education be proposed which does not exclude mathematics, physics, biology or technology, as it is in the interrelation and the understanding of the difference that we can reencounter the sense of humanity.
Harris, Douglas H
The author presents and discusses discoveries and developments contributing to enhanced electronics maintenance performance. This body of research is viewed from the vantage point of Nick Bond's 1970 Ely Award-winning article in Human Factors, "Some Persistent Myths About Military Electronics Maintenance." Bond identified a set of myths and summarized research that not only produced information and techniques leading to demonstrably improved maintenance performance but also exploded many unfounded beliefs that were commonly held before the research had been conducted and the findings disseminated. The period from 1964 through 1986, as reflected by publications in the journal, was a productive period of research that led to greater understanding of human factors in electronics maintenance and to numerous advances that contributed, ultimately, to more effective maintenance performance. Technological advances, combined with what we learned about maintenance performance, have substantially reduced the maintenance burden and enhanced the maintenance of electronic systems. Some of the principal lessons learned from this research on electronics maintenance apply to understanding the effects of equipment complexity, providing an optimal role for automation, designing more appropriate on-the-job training, and enhancing troubleshooting skills.
Glaser, Rebecca; Dimitrakakis, Constantine
Although testosterone therapy is being increasingly prescribed for men, there remain many questions and concerns about testosterone (T) and in particular, T therapy in women. A literature search was performed to elucidate the origin of, and scientific basis behind many of the concerns and assumptions about T and T therapy in women. This paper refutes 10 common myths and misconceptions, and provides evidence to support what is physiologically plausible and scientifically evident: T is the most abundant biologically active female hormone, T is essential for physical and mental health in women, T is not masculinizing, T does not cause hoarseness, T increases scalp hair growth, T is cardiac protective, parenteral T does not adversely affect the liver or increase clotting factors, T is mood stabilizing and does not increase aggression, T is breast protective, and the safety of T therapy in women is under research and being established. Abandoning myths, misconceptions and unfounded concerns about T and T therapy in women will enable physicians to provide evidenced based recommendations and appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Spanish press treatment of the Muslim world reflects a change of tone from unsympathetic to enthusiastic, although the information is still marred by confusion and ignorance. This change of attitude has occurred in other Western countries as well, and it is due in part to immigration trends, control over oil resources, and the relativism of official discourses towards the Third World. In the case of Spain, however, there is an additional internal element at play: the mass-media reinvention of a mythical al-Andalus as a tolerant and pluralistic society. This idealized interpretation of seven centuries of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is fraught with ignorance and distortion of the historical record but is not new. The mystification of al-Andalus has its precedent in romantic accounts that saw in “Muslim Spain” a differential fact that reinforced the exotic image of the country. It can be attributed also to the strategy to “hispanicize” al-Andalus employed by Arabists and historians to make the subject matter appealing to unsympathetic Spanish audiences conditioned by the myth of the Reconquest. Intended or not, the manipulation of the myth of al-Andalus as a historical fact has ideological and political implications that demand an objective and balanced consideration.
From the Myth of Level Playing Fields to the Reality of a Finite Planet: Comment on "A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent".
Despite the mythology that the global economy with its trade rules creates a 'level playing field,' international trade has never involved 'level players.' The inequalities in outcomes generated by the more powerful winning more frequently has led to innovative ideas for ex post redistribution to make the matches between the players both fairer, and in the analogy to basketball used by the authors, more interesting and even more competitive. The proposal for a Global Social Protection Fund, financed by a small tax on the winners to enhance social protection spending for the losers, presumably increasing the latter's capabilities to compete more effectively in the global market game, is one such idea. It has much to commend it. Several problems, however, stand in its way, apart from those inherent within nations themselves and to which the authors give some attention. First, much global trade is now intra-firm rather than international, making calculations of which nations win or lose exceedingly difficult. Second, tax havens persist without the transparency and global regulatory oversights that would allow a better rendering of where winnings are stashed. Third, pre-distribution inequalities (those arising from market activities before government tax and transfer measures apply) are still increasing as labour's power to wrestle global capital into some ameliorative social contract diminishes. Fourth, there are finite limits to a planet on the cusp of multiple environmental crises. These problems do not diminish the necessity of alternative policy playbooks such as the proposed Fund, but point to the need to embrace the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a single set, such that economic growth for the bottom half of humanity includes deep structural reforms to both pre-distribution and redistribution, if the targets for environmental survival are to be met. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Full Text Available This article considers the term "currency war", its meaning and the present situation in the world economy. It also contains research and analysis of HSBC's operations in different countries in the devaluation race grouping them according to the participation in currency wars. Along with the benefits of the devaluation of its own currency the actual disadvantages that may reveal afterwards have been identified. This article highlights the different versions of events put forward by the experts in the global economy and analysts. The authors mention the possible problems of ordinary citizens in case of their country's aggressive policy to reduce their national currency. The behavior of the Russian ruble was also discussed in detail according to which the recommendations were given to depositors of banks about their future action in the circumstances. Devaluation race in any case cannot be completed safely but it is possible to avoid excessive losses if the countries achieve international agreement by establishing a new currency regime.
Nariddh, M C
HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.
Bon, E.; Ćirković, M.; Stojić, Igor; Gavrilović, Nataša
In the old myths and iconographies there are some motives that indicate at least one cataclysmic event that influenced many old religions and myths, that could be linked to the impact of the celestial object. We investigate the hypothesis of coherent catastrophism put forward in recent years by Clube, Bailey, Napier and others from both astrobiological and culturogical points of view. The conventional idea that the quasi-periodic break-up of celestial bodies influence terrestrial conditions can today be placed in both wider (astro-biological) and deeper (historico-culturological) context. In particular, we point out that the link between the Neolithic history of astronomy, and origin of Mithraism. We speculate that the main icon of Mithraic religion could pinpoint an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. We also, link some motives in other old religions and myths to the same event, or to some similar events that inspired those myths.
Abstract. Book Title: Adolf Hitler. Legende, mythe, werkelijkheid. Book Author: Werner Maser. Uitgeverij De Arbeiderspers, Amsterdam, 1973, pp. 531. Met aantekeninge [pp. 429 - 506] en bibliografie [pp. 507 - 531].
Full Text Available This article aims to show that some of the New Testament interpretations of the "son of man" phrase appear to be, according to B Lindars “a myth, created, not by the thinkers of the New Testament times, but by modern critical scholarship.” This view is substantiated in two ways: the first deals with an exegesis of the expression "son of man", while the second highlights some exegetical myths about "son of man". The first part includes sections on the linguistic origin of "son of man", "son of man" in the history of religions, and "son of man" as a historical figure according to Mark and Q. The second part comprises the sections dealing with the understanding of myth, and the myth of the "son of man" as a messianic title adopted by Jesus and by the early Church.
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians. Preventing the protection provided by vaccination or administration of mercury-chelating agents may cause real damage to autistic individuals and to innocent bystanders who as a result may be exposed to resurgent diseases that had already been "extinguished. " That such myths flourish is a consequence of the authority of scientific evidence obtained by scientific methodology losing ground to alternative truths and alternative science. This article presents a narrative of the origin of the myths around autism.
Sara Castelo Branco
Full Text Available Eduardo Lourenço has focused some of his research on the historical-mythical relationship of the Portuguese with their country, claiming that they have been living in a kind of hyper-identity, incorporating an obsession with the past, which co-exists with a waiting utopian by future, as is demonstrates the Sebastianism myth. Focused on the representations of trans-temporality, identity, collective memory and myth, The Portuguese Cinema, Trans-temporality and the Myth, concentrated especially in Eduardo Lourenço's work to propose a research on how the identity myths – created and disseminated by Portuguese literature over the centuries – earned imagistic representations in the twentieth and twenty-first century’s, through a cinema that built or deconstructed these historical and patriotic mythological, inscribing image capacities to continually rebuild one mythologized common heritage.
Long before astronomy was a science, humans used the stars to mark time, navigate, organize planting and dramatize myths. This encyclopaedia draws on archaeological evidence and oral traditions to reveal how prehistoric humans perceived the skies and celestial phenomena.
Full Text Available Civic myths and their role in the expression of political identity can be seen to be parodied in Acharnians (the cause of the Peloponnesian War, the conquest of Eleusis and Birds (foundation legends, the Athenian kings.
Civic myths and their role in the expression of political identity can be seen to be parodied in Acharnians (the cause of the Peloponnesian War, the conquest of Eleusis) and Birds (foundation legends, the Athenian kings).
Full Text Available In Vladimir Solovyov’s works myth is presented in two ways: as the authorial myth, which is a part of the future “universal religion”, and as an object of theoretical reﬂ ection in the process of philosophical and religious research. In both cases myth is understood as an actual process of theogony, and so Solovyov’s “religious studies” turn out to be a part of his religious metaphysics. The philosopher marks three periods in mythological process: uranic – solar – phallic, and maintains such development to be a law. Solovyov’s theory of the origin of religion is based upon the idea of the essential analogy between cosmic and theogonic processes. These two processes are diﬀerent ways in which the same conscious principle of the world manifests itself; in Solovyov’s religious doctrine this principle is described as the “universal soul” which strives for the divine unity. The theory of mythological process by Solovyov is compared with a similar conception of bishop Chrysanthus (Retivtsev, who also appeals to primeval monotheism as the basic form of religion. In contrast to Solovyov’s theory, Chrysanthus understands the genesis of the ancient religion as a development of tribal psychology, which is localized entirely in the consciousness of a collective religious subject.
There are stories of sun god, the moon with a deity, pools, seas, rivers and forests having their own deities or gods and these falls under nature myths. To account for why the face of the moon is not bright as that of the sun or why the moon does not emit enough light like the sun, the Igbos tell this myth. In the time past,.
Hoy, M A
Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natu...
Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but eff...
Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.
Full Text Available Being only rarely mentioned in the text, the myth might seem an anecdotal and trivial detail. The study of the myth of Echo and Narcissus in Twelfth Night shows us however that it is a decisive element in the reading and the understanding of the play. The references are numerous and often implicit. The characters themselves alternately play the roles of Echo and Narcissus. The play is structured as if it were a mirror in which the characters endlessly duplicate each other and echo their own words. Shakespeare plays with the different versions of the myth that he often blends with subtlety. For the sake of comedy, he dares to parody and demythologize Ovid’s story. The myth seems to divert our attention from the direction of the text but closer analysis suggests the reverse and invites us to find the meaning of the play which can be seen as a real labyrinth.
Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Chien-Huei
Pain is a common, normal, and healthy physical phenomenon during childbirth. However, widely held public and clinical perspectives treat pain as a pathologic process and consider labor pain in a negative context. These perspectives ignore the positive effects of pain in the domains of protection, new life, expectation, purpose, preparation, and progression. The pain interpretation and pain experience of new mothers deeply impact their mental health, maternal-infant relationship, and transition to motherhood. This paper introduces the common myths related to labor pain, the three stages of pain transmission, and the current approaches to pain management. The authors hope childbirth caregivers may accept labor pain as a meaningful, pleasant, and positive gift, which is the first and most important step toward effective pain management.
Manners, Ian James
Thinking about European foreign policy (EFP) can be frustrated by the uncertainties of terms and definitions, as well as by the exclusive tendencies of foreign policy analysis. The uncertainties over how to interpret EFP are multiplied in a more global era reconfigured by globalising...... and transnational policy processes. This analysis includes the consideration of the foreign policies of EU and non-EU states, as well as the impact of the European integration processes on both members and non-members alike. In a similar vein, the chapter seeks to review the literature on collective European......, multilateralising and multipolarising processes. In order to make greater sense of EFP in a global political-cultural context, this chapter will consider the ways in which political theories and cultural myths co-constitute each other in both symbolic and substantive terms. EFP is understood here to involve...
Maria Christine Muyco
Full Text Available Age-old tales, epic chants, and even contemporary television soap operas tell about the binukot, the well-kept maiden of the Panay Bukidnon, the highland inhabitants of Panay, Philippines. This article examines the binukot through myths and practices found in the people’s expressive culture: from the sugidanon (epic chants/chanting, to the tigbabayi (solo woman’s dance of the binanog (hawk-eagle music and dance tradition, to panubok (traditional embroidery, where the binukot is illustrated or exemplified. From various representations, the article moves to essay the binukot’s actual practice, including her present life living as a nabukot,1 a transformed status she gains when she gets married. I interlace my ethnographic observations regarding these states as part of a reconsideration of feminism from both Western and indigenous perspectives.
Román, Gustavo C
Significant progress in the field of VaD resulted from publication of the NINIDS-AIREN Diagnostic Criteria for VaD (G.C. Roman, T.K. Tatemichi, T. Erkinjuntti, et al., Vascular dementia (VaD): diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 43 (1993) 250-260). Epidemiological studies confirmed the importance of VaD as the second most common cause of dementia in the elderly, representing 15-20% of all cases of dementia. In Europe and North America, Alzheimer's disease (AD) predominates over VaD in a 2:1 ratio; in contrast, in Japan and China VaD accounts for almost 50% of all dementias. Case-control studies have identified risk factors for VaD including ageing, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, recurrent stroke, cardiac disease, smoking, sleep apnea, and more recently, hyperhomocysteinemia, among others. Hypertension treatment may prevent VaD and AD. This finding has enormous importance from the Public Health viewpoint to decrease the future number of patients with dementia in the elderly. Along with advances in the field of VaD came a number of controversies and damaging misconceptions and myths. Myth no. 1--Vascular dementia is a non-entity: The false idea that VaD does not exist is particularly destructive because it creates the perspective that VaD is unworthy of study or research. A condition that either does not exist or represents only a minute proportion of all cases of dementia in the elderly, lacks public health relevance and becomes a low priority for research by funding agencies and industry. In fact, vascular brain lesions are the commonest and most important component of dementia in the elderly. Myth no. 2--Vascular dementia is so difficult to diagnose that only experts can recognize and identify it accurately: VaD does exist and the diagnosis of post-stroke VaD, in particular is straightforward. Most cases fulfill NINDS-AIREN criteria for probable VaD; i.e., (1) there is acute onset
Panek, Paul E.
Describes a study which investigated whether college students enrolled in introductory psychology of aging courses believe 10 common myths about aging. Results showed that students did not subscribe to the myths. (AM)
Full Text Available In this article, we aim to focus on and deal with two main myths about refugees. The first one is the myth that asylum seekers are allegedly law-breakers or even criminals, due to illegally crossing borders. The second myth that we address in the article is regarding the size of social assistance provided to asylum seekers and refugees. Both myths are found in host societies and are often invoked by xenophobic speakers in public debate.
The present study investigates stereotypical beliefs about cyber bullying in terms of myths, a well applied concept in the study of beliefs concerning sexual aggression. The level of acceptance of cyber bullying myths (low vs. high) and the relation of myth acceptance to a number of demographic variables such as gender, field of studies, frequency…
Furnham, Adrian; Hughes, David J.
This study examined the prevalence of psychological myths and misconceptions among psychology students and within the general population. In total, 829 participants completed a 249-item questionnaire designed to measure a broad range of psychological myths. Results revealed that psychological myths and misconceptions are numerous and widely held.…
Myth is a linguistic component. Features of myth are replete in every speech community, in the literatures of every land and clime. It is also a salient feature of the culture of a people. As a cultural element, myth straddles ideological and sociological culture of every speech community. We yield to the mythic issues of our ...
Dorsey, Leroy G.
States that the Frontier Myth has been used by rhetorical presidents to inspire audiences and energize policies. Investigates how Theodore Roosevelt linked the Frontier Myth to conservation policy. Demonstrates how he altered the myth, replacing the conqueror hero with a farmer hero. Concludes that conservation under Roosevelt's administration was…
Andersen, Boris; Larsen, Morten Hedegaard
This reflection piece addresses and dismantles five myths strongly associated with the food cultures of yesteryears in most developed countries. The myths are: (1) The decline of the family meal; (2) The myth of the happy (nuclear) family eating together; (3) The “kitchen illiterate” children...
This paper aims to advance European integration research by exploring the emotional appeal of political myths in day-to-day EU politics with a special focus on the reception and reproduction of myths among pan-European Union non-governmental organisations. I investigate myths associated with ‘EUR...... policy positions and continually mobilise desires around utopian ideals to secure organisational survival....
Gómez-Rázuri, Katherine; Ballena-López, José; León-Jiménez, Franco
To explore the myths regarding organ donation at a national hospital in Lambayeque, Peru during 2014. A qualitative-phenomenological study was performed using 24 unstructured in-depht interview of health personnel, potential recipients and relatives of potential donors. Sampling was intentional opinion-based, completed by theoretical saturation in each group. An interview guide was used, which was assessed by five experts, and data triangulation was performed. Twenty-three interviewees (95,8%) reported a favorable attitude towards organ donation. On their National Identification Document, thirteen (54,2%) had marked "no" for donation. The myths were: age or illness can preclude donation; that the recipient may experience the donor's behaviours and lives in it; brain death is undestood as the immobility of the body and a reversible state; religions do not accept organ donation because it affects physical integrity and resurrection; and that there are preferences on the organ donor waiting list and that organ trafficking taxes place. Myths explored in this study involved religious, socio-cultural, psychological and ethical misperceptions. The apparent lack of knowledge of the brain death diagnosis is the starting point of the donation process. Therefore, the presence of a hospital coordinator, the role of spiritual leaders and the correct information provided by media would be key parts to dispell these myths.
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Valera, Luca; Tambone, Vittoradolfo
Posthumanism is a myth. This does not mean to say that it constitutes a narrative devoid of any foundation, inspired by mere fantasy, far from it. The myth, as shown by Ries, Eliade and Lévi Strauss on several occasions, is based on something real and true, and appeals to conceptual structures that keep it away from a mere scientific report: having had to do with the essence of things, it does not even have a purpose of classification in a given place or time. In this sense, the posthuman myth lives outside of time and out of the common space of existence, or perhaps, it lives in its own time and in its own space. Just like the myth, posthumanism lives in consciousness: to prove this assumption, we will discuss in greater depth the spatial and temporal coordinates of posthumanism, as well as its cosmological and anthropological point of view. Once demonstrated its mythical essence, it will therefore be easier to remember how the posthuman myth - despite intending to present itself as a radically innovative and progressive thought, makes no more than re-emerge some coordinates that have always been present in the history of philosophy.
Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah
The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming. © The Author(s) 2016.
Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M
Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.
Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till
Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.
Myths or misconceptions concerning hypnosis are regarded among the major barriers to effective implementation of hypnosis. Contemporary hypnotherapists are expected to elicit patients' misconceptions and to provide explanations that distinguish between mystical and scientific perceptions of hypnosis and that offer a picture of the state of the art of hypnosis. Dealing with misconceptions on a rational and cognitive level seems to have the ability to change a patient's conscious knowledge and understanding of hypnosis. Nevertheless, deeply rooted and emotionally saturated misbeliefs with historical-cultural origins still prevail. This article focuses on the prehypnotic phase of therapy and proposes remythification to deal with the myth of hypnosis. This approach aims to promote the hypnotherapeutic process by utilizing myth-related misconceptions.
Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Alcón Belchí, Carolina
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is internationally considered an affront to human rights and an act of violence against women and young girls. Furthermore, it hierarchizes and perpetuates inequality and denies women and girls the right to physical and psychosexual integrity. The aim of this study is to detect the weak points and false premises underlying male justification of FGM and to present demythologization as a health education tool. We used a qualitative methodology with an ethonursing focus via semistructured individual and group interviews in 25 men associated with FGM. Our results found that nine myths and their mythologization are presented through the masculine voices of those associated with this tradition. These myths are used as justification by men and women in order to uphold the practice of FGM. Demythologization as a nursing intervention based on reorienting or restructuring models of cultural care allows us to work against the false premises making up the myths which act to protect this tradition.
Schmid Roland M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various studies reported remarkable high incidence rates of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Pancreatic cancer is still one of the malignancies with the worst prognosis and therefore it seems quite logical that it is one of the malignancies with the highest incidence rates of major depression. However, what about the scientific background of this relationship? Is depression in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer just due to the confrontation with a life threatening disease and its somatic symptoms or is depression in this particular group of patients a feature of pancreatic cancer per se? Discussion Several studies provide evidence of depression to precede the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and some studies even blame it for its detrimental influence on survival. The immense impact of emotional distress on quality of life of cancer patients enhances the need for its early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Knowledge about underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is required to provide the optimal therapy. Summary A review of the literature on this issue should reveal which are the facts and what is myth.
Wetzstein, M.; Wetzstein, H.
The rapid growth of biofuels has elicited claims and predictions concerning the current and future role of these fuels in the U.S. vehicle-fuel portfolio. These assertions are at times based on a false set of assumptions concerning the biofuel's market related to the petroleum and agricultural commodities markets, and the nonmarket consequences of our automobile driving. As an aid in clarifying these market relations, the following four biofuel myths are presented: (1) biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil, (2) biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving, (3) biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue), and (4) biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel. - Highlights: → Biofuels will be adopted because we will soon run out of oil. → Biofuels will solve the major external costs associated with our automobile driving. → Biofuels cause food price inflation (the food before fuel issue). → Biofuels will become a major vehicle fuel.
Hinz, Andreas M; Petr, Ciril
The solitaire game “The Tower of Hanoi" was invented in the 19th century by the French number theorist Édouard Lucas. The book presents its mathematical theory and offers a survey of the historical development from predecessors up to recent research. In addition to long-standing myths, it provides a detailed overview of the essential mathematical facts with complete proofs, and also includes unpublished material, e.g., on some captivating integer sequences. The main objects of research today are the so-called Hanoi graphs and the related Sierpiński graphs. Acknowledging the great popularity of the topic in computer science, algorithms, together with their correctness proofs, form an essential part of the book. In view of the most important practical applications, namely in physics, network theory and cognitive (neuro)psychology, the book also addresses other structures related to the Tower of Hanoi and its variants. The updated second edition includes, for the first time in English, the breakthrough reach...
Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.
Full Text Available A study designed to investigate the level and type of rape myths that are endorsed among middle school youth in terms of gender and socioeconomic background is reported in this paper. Participants were 582 seventh and eighth grade students who took part in Project Equality, a rape and sexual assault prevention curriculum that took place during eight, one and a half-hour sessions. The modified Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was administered to students before and after Project Equality. Results indicate that males endorse higher levels of rape myth acceptance, both before and after the intervention, although the number of endorsed myths decreased. Rape myth endorsement decreased following the intervention among participants of differing socioeconomic backgrounds. Males and females showed lower levels of rape myth acceptance following the intervention. Implications include finding more effective ways to target male youth and that Project Equality works to lower rape myths among middle school youth.
Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.
This article aims to show that some of the New Testament interpretations of the "son of man" phrase appear to be, according to B Lindars “a myth, created, not by the thinkers of the New Testament times, but by modern critical scholarship.” This view is substantiated in two ways: the first deals with an exegesis of the expression "son of man", while the second highlights some exegetical myths about "son of man". The first part includes sections on the linguistic origin of "son of man", "son of...
Full Text Available Bioequivalence (BE has always been an important pharmaceutical area, particularly (but not solely in Mediterranean region, where the use of generic drugs is a relatively recent development. The lack of new therapeutic molecules has concentrated primary research in the hands of a few large pharmaceutical companies. For smaller companies, this has created opportunities for the development of new formulations of existing drugs (orodispersible tablets that dissolve in the mouth, extended-release tablets, transdermal delivery systems, generic drugs. These applications take advantage of the Abridged New Drug Application (ANDA procedure, which exempts them from a series of expensive investigations and limits the requirement for clinical testing to bioequivalence trials. Since 1991, bioequivalence trials have been regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA guidelines that provide precise indications on the most specific procedures to be adopted. In spite of these guidelines, however, some aspects of the process have not been fully defined, the most important of which regards the management of endogenous substances. Additional problems are how to manage bioequivalence protocols with drugs that have long half-lives and those whose clearance is characterized by high intrinsic variability. The view that bioequivalence data would be more reliable if they were based on studies in target populations is a myth to be discredited. The present paper reviews issues relative to pharmacokinetics (PK, bioavailability (BA, and bioequivalence, also from an historical viewpoint, and includes a stimulating “questions and answers” section on some key aspects of the bioequivalence of generic drugs.
Sandra Rubin Glass
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School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.
The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.
Burying Nutrition Myths and Activating Choices for our Children's Development. Lawrence Haddad. Abstract. (Af. J. of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development: 2003 3(1): 56-59). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Grubb, W. Norton
The Money Myth is the contention that any education problem requires increased spending and, conversely, that reform is impossible without more funding. However, increased funding works for only certain kinds of school resources. Many reforms require resources that money cannot buy. What is needed are reforms that build the capacity of schools to…
Common myths and misconceptions about Blacks in American history and evidence that refutes them are presented. Issues addressed include Black enslavement patterns, social status within the Black community based on skin color, the legality of slaves learning to read, resistance to slavery, African influences in modern Black culture, Black names and…
Linguistics As A Subversive Activity: Exploding Myths And Misconceptions In The Language Classroom. E Hilton Hubbard. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.5842/21-0-549 · AJOL African ...
Career beliefs can limit individuals' abilities to make effective career decisions and hence it is important to identify such beliefs during counselling. Two hundred and sixty grade 8 to 11 high school learners completed the Career Myths Scale, which is a measure of dysfunctional beliefs. The data were subjected to a ...
"MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These…
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.
The Motherhood Inventory (MI), a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth, revealed that education produced the most pronounced effect, with more liberal attitudes held by college graduates. Presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, August 1978. (Author)
Harnack, William J.
Considers the dichotomy between the cosmic perspective and the creationist view. Presents an overview of various current explanations of the origin and nature of the universe, including scientific explanations, fundamentalist beliefs, and creation myths from other cultures. The article is based on comments made by Carl Sagan at the American…
Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.
Pollock, Katina; Lopez, Ann; Joshee, Reva
This case disrupts some of the prevalent myths about families from low-income and poor households held by educators. Recognizing the inherent tensions, this case demonstrates the importance of creating equitable and inclusive learning environments. We presented some of the challenges faced by Marcus, a progressive principal, as he attempts to…
Notes that J.R.R. Tolkien's work is commonly supposed to be greatly influenced by Norse mythology and legend. Compares Tolkien's account of the creation of Middle Earth to the Norse myth of Yggdrasil. Concludes that Tolkien took qualities of language, a code of bravery and honor, and many incidental Norse details and absorbed them into a very…
Jul 8, 2016 ... Dreyer, P.S., 1990, 'Die filisofie van Immanuel Kant en die Protestants-teologiese denkstrukture', HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 46(4), 582–595. Dunn, J.D.G., 1977, 'Demythologizing – The problem of myth in the New Testament', in I.H. Marshall (ed.), New Testament interpretafion. Essays in ...
Teething myths among nursing mothers in a Nigerian community. Opeodu Olanrewaju Ige, Popoola Bamidele Olubukola. Abstract. Background: Many symptoms had been associated with teething in children with the possibility of overlooking potentially fatal condition. Symptoms that had been associated with teething ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 8. Albert Einstein-The Man Behind the Myths. John Stachel. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 76-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/08/0076-0092. Author Affiliations.
The myth of Orpheus has been re-written several times by Amélie Nothomb, Belgian author of the 20th and 21st centuries. Intertextuality as described by Julia Kristeva involves re-writing based on readings by an author. Postmodern writing, largely based on intertextuality, gives us a better insight in the reasons for the ...
Myths and Realities in 'Self-Executing Treaties'. Amos O Enabulele, Eric Okojie. Abstract. There appears to be very few doctrines in contemporary international law that are in such a problematic state as the doctrine of self-executing treaties. It would appear that its usefulness is more in the debate it engenders than in its ...
... stratification and preoperative evaluation of such patients will be developed. The indications and available options for anaesthetic management will also be reviewed. Myths about the perioperative management of such patients will be highlighted, specifically flow-volume spirometry and standby cardiopulmonary bypass.
Manners, Ian James
to smart growth with more effective investments in education, research and innovation. But at the same time the strategy also mobilises around the myth of green Europe with an emphasis on sustainable growth with targets for a resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy. Thirdly the strategy...
Different forms of literature over the years have expressed mankind's views, thoughts, notions, beliefs, and inclinations. The feelings of futility, negativity, absurdism, nihilism expressed in the myth of Sisyphus is just one of the numerous representations that literature can offer. But not all literary expressions are posers of ...
Although currently expressed in terms of linear and intuitive halves of the brain, the concept of androgyny (the integration of male and female characteristics within each person) is central to ancient myths and religions. Most accounts concern an initial separation of the sexes and subsequent efforts to unite male and female forces. For example,…
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.; Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.
This introductory chapter focuses on myth and its multiple relationships with the concepts of truth and narrative, both within Herodotus' Histories and between the work and its context. First, it discusses the problematic reception in modern history of the material deemed mythical in Herodotus'
Myth which comprises of stories, tales and ideas that try to account about the origin of things and answer important questions about how certain phenomenon came into existence has become necessary and significant in the analysis of the worldview, outlook, general belief, custom, tradition, culture and perception of a ...
Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.
Dalton's law for gas mixtures provides one method for predicting the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of a gas mixture from the PVT behavior of the individual pure gases that comprise it. An attempt is made to separate fact from myth, to enlarge on a treatment of possible cases for application, and to provide contemporary means on…
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
La libre circulation des personnes au sein de l’espace de la C.E.M.A.C : entre mythes et réalités Free movement of people within the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community : between myths and reality
Full Text Available La question de la libre circulation des personnes est une des pierres d’achoppement entre les Etats membres de la Communauté Economique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (C.E.M.A.C. Cette mésentente est liée à une multitude de raisons, dont certaines participent de constructions imaginaires développées en particulier au Gabon et en Guinée équatoriale. Trois grands mythes sous-tendent le refus manifeste de ces deux Etats d’appliquer le principe communautaire de la libre circulation des personnes ; il s’agit des mythes de l’invasion démographique, de la spoliation économique et de la perversion sociale associée à la délinquance d’origine étrangère. Fortement ancrées dans les consciences nationales, ces représentations s’expriment à travers des politiques migratoires et des pratiques frontalières particulièrement discriminatoires à l’égard des ressortissants de la sous-région.The issue of free movement of people is one of the stumbling blocks between the Members of the Central Africa Economic and Monetary Community (C.A.E.M.C. This disagreement is related to many reasons, some of which are part of imaginary constructions developed especially in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Three great myths are underlying the apparent reluctance of these two states to apply the principles of free movement of people: the myth of demographic invasion and the myths of economic and social perversion associated with the crime of foreign origin. Deeply rooted in the national consciousness, these representations are expressed through migration policies and border practices which are particularly discriminatory against nationals of the sub region.
Full Text Available All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema (blood on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion. The Hellenes (Greeks especially have always known hema as the well-known red fluid of the human body. Greek scientific considerations about blood date from Homeric times. The ancient Greeks considered hema as synonymous with life. In Greek myths and historical works, one finds the first references to the uninterrupted vascular circulation of blood, the differences between venous and arterial blood, and the bone marrow as the site of blood production. The Greeks also speculated about mechanisms of blood coagulation and the use of blood transfusion to save life.
Full Text Available Who dares to portray the demigod Hercules as an inadequate, i mpotent failure? Who dares to mock tragic heroines like Antigone? Who dares to mock the biblical Judith and her bravery? Who would portray an ideal emperor as one who betrays and sacrifices his empire? The Swiss author Friedrich Dürrenmatt, reconstitutes t hese famous ancient myths, motifs, symbols and archetypes in his works of art and literature in order to provoke reconsideration of modern - day values such as sacrifice, value of human life, patriotism and bravery. I n doing so, he also touches upon issues s uch as globalization, nationalism and bureaucratization as everyday problems that the individual to rise to his/her heroic potential. The research focuses on Dürrenmatt’s recurring motifs with special emphasis on mythic, historical and biblical figures in t he plays Romulus the Great and Hercules and the Augean Stables.
Full Text Available Who dares to portray the demigod Hercules as an inadequate, impotent failure? Who dares to mock tragic heroines like Antigone? Who dares to mock the biblical Judith and her bravery? Who would portray an ideal emperor as one who betrays and sacrifices his empire? The Swiss author Friedrich Dürrenmatt, reconstitutes these famous ancient myths, motifs, symbols and archetypes in his works of art and literature in order to provoke reconsideration of modern-day values such as sacrifice, value of human life, patriotism and bravery. In doing so, he also touches upon issues such as globalization, nationalism and bureaucratization as everyday problems that the individual to rise to his/her heroic potential. The research focuses on Dürrenmatt’s recurring motifs with special emphasis on mythic, historical and biblical figures in the plays Romulus the Great and Hercules and the Augean Stables.
"Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature" will explore how English literature has contributed to the formation and development of what Susan Brownmiller calls "male myths of rape". This essay, "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature, Part Two", will mainly examine Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891) and "The Company of Wolves" in The Bloody Chamber (1979). When Thomas Hardy represented rape as relations between the sexes wherein ...
Potvin, Jacqueline Marie
In this paper, I examine how maternal myths are deployed in popular development literature. Using critical discourse analysis and working within a feminist postcolonial framework I analyse five texts produced by development organizations for popular consumption. I identify how maternal myths are constructed in each text and conduct a contextual analysis of four myths to identify their ideological significance within the development sector. I conclude that that in their construction of materna...
C. Addei; R.K. Amankwah
In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...
Full Text Available This article investigates the critical views of Efo Kodjo Mawugbe on some African traditional customs which deny identity and welfare to women and his literary endeavor to unravel the patriarchal legacy in his In the Chest of a Woman. It examines the dictates of patriarchy that militate against females’ emancipation and lay a foundation for their marginalization and oppression. It attempts to read Mawugbe’s call for gender balance and equal treatment for men and women in modern society. Two sexist practices are targeted: the denial of inheritance rights to female children and the capital punishment of those who go against tradition by becoming pregnant out of customary wedlock. The study asserts that if modern African society should experience a participatory socio-economic development it is urgent to end sexism and gender oppression in families and society, and to give men and women equal opportunities to emerge as fulfilled free beings. Keywords: debunk, patriarchy, gender oppression, sexism, education. // EL DESCRÉDITO DEL LEGADO PATRIARCAL EN EL CONTEXTO AFRICANO TRADICIONAL: IN THE CHEST OF A WOMAN DE EFO KODJO MAWUGBE. Este artículo investiga las visión crítica de Efo Kodjo Mawugbe sobre las tradiciones africanas que niegan la identidad y el bienestar a la mujer y analiza su interés literario por desactivar la herencia patriarcal en la obra de teatro In the Chest of a Woman. La obra examina los dictados del patriarcado que operan en contra de la emancipación de la mujer y fundamentan su marginación y opresión. En el presente artículo se aprecia la defensa de Mawugbe del equilibrio entre sexos y el tratamiento equitativo para hombres y mujeres en la sociedad moderna. Se apuntan también dos prácticas sexistas: la negación del derecho a heredar de las niñas y la pena capital impuesta a aquellas mujeres que se oponen a la tradición quedando embarazadas fuera del matrimonio. El estudio concluye que, para que la sociedad
Full Text Available Au début du XXe siècle, dans une Allemagne en plein bouleversement politique, une nouvelle problématique des récits voit le jour. L’époque tente de se définir dans le miroir des histoires. Deux auteurs, un philosophe (Theodor Lessing et un ethnologue (Leo Frobenius, envisagent le récit comme terrain d’expérimentation. Leurs approches marquent par leur lucidité sur les potentialités parfois dangereuses de l’exploitation des récits. Entre grands mythes historiques ayant dominé le siècle précédent et débuts de la communication politique à grande échelle fondée sur l’appel aux réflexes et aux affects, la maîtrise du discours devient un enjeu de pouvoir que Lessing a diagnostiqué très tôt. Quant à Frobenius, il cherche à retrouver dans les contes africains la spontanéité que l’Occident a perdue. Cet article cherche à analyser les points de rencontre de ces deux penseurs, en faisant la part entre ce qu’il y a de novateur dans leur conception des récits et ce qui relève de la recherche trouble d’une troisième voie, dans une nostalgie mythique.Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts, in einem Deutschland inmitten des politischen Umbruchs, stellt sich eine neue Problematik bezüglich der Erzählkunst. Die Epoche versucht sich im Spiegelbild von Geschichten zu definieren. So ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass in dieser Zeit zwei Autoren, ein Philosoph (Theodor Lessing und ein Ethnologe (Leo Frobenius, die Erzählung als ein neues Forschungsgebiet betrachten. Ihr Ansatz überzeugt durch seine Klarheit über die (manchmal gefährlichen Möglichkeiten der Verwendung von Erzählungen. Zwischen den großen historischen Mythen, die das vorangehende Jahrhundert bestimmten, und den Anfängen der politischen Kommunikation im großen Stil, die sich auf den Appell an Reflexe und Affekte stützt, wird die Beherrschung des Diskurses zur Machtfrage. Lessing erkennt dies schon sehr frühzeitig. Frobenius seinerseits versucht in den
National Research Council Staff; National Research Council; Mathematical Sciences Education Board
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Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.
Full Text Available Cinematographic productions in Africa often draw on the oral and written literature that is part of the continent’s immense cultural heritage, offering not only new hermeneutic keys to ancestral tales but also reflections on the dynamics of contemporary African society in the light of the individual and collective stories and of the precepts contained in these tales. The purpose of this essay is to provide an interpretation of the myth of Sundiata Keita, founder of the greatest pre-colonial empire in western sub-Saharan Africa, through considerations on the dynamics of collective memory, the role assigned to griots, the modes of narrative and the connections between myth and rite.
Mormann, Megan; Gilbertson, Carolyn; Milavetz, Gary; Vos, Susan
To discuss information surrounding the erroneous association between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to provide pharmacists with information to dispel vaccine myths. Pharmaceutical and medical literature and public media (e.g., newspapers). The diagnosis of ASDs is on the rise, and many speculations have been made as to the cause, including the MMR vaccine. A small case series article published in The Lancet in 1998 and later retracted has been the center of the controversy over whether the MMR vaccine causes ASDs. New definitive research demonstrates no link, and medical organizations state that evidence does not support a link between the MMR vaccine and ASDs. Pharmacists can play a role in providing up-do-date information to patients to dispel myths concerning vaccine safety. Accurate peer review remains an important step to ensure correct information is given to health care providers and the public.
Marina Berzons McCoy
Full Text Available Plato uses the myth of Er in the Republic in order to carve out space for political freedom and responsibility for human freedom in the ordinary polis. While much of the Republic concentrates on the development of an ideal city in speech, that city is fundamentally a mythos presented in order for Socrates and his friends to learn something about political and individual virtue. The city in which Socrates and his friends exist is an imperfect city and myth of Er is intended for those audience members. Its emphasis on the necessity for personal responsibility in the midst of freedom can be understood as a political claim about the place of individual choice in a world that is constrained by both political and cosmic "necessity".
MacCarron, Máirín; MacCarron, Pádraig
With an emphasis on exploring measurable aspects of ancient narratives, Maths Meets Myths sets out to investigate age-old material with new techniques. This book collects, for the first time, novel quantitative approaches to studying sources from the past, such as chronicles, epics, folktales, and myths. It contributes significantly to recent efforts in bringing together natural scientists and humanities scholars in investigations aimed at achieving greater understanding of our cultural inheritance. Accordingly, each contribution reports on a modern quantitative approach applicable to narrative sources from the past, or describes those which would be amenable to such treatment and why they are important. This volume is a unique state-of-the-art compendium on an emerging research field which also addresses anyone with interests in quantitative approaches to humanities.
Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J
Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.
Full Text Available Not all healthcare professionals (HCPs are aware of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and various myths still exist in the society and among HCPs. The medical challenge in treating T1DM is the confusion between T1DM and T2DM and its management, which is very common and is observed with both general practitioners and parents of children with diabetes. There are multiple medical and social myths associated with diabetes, especially T1DM, prevalent in society. Diabetes management requires support and collaboration from family, school and society, which is sometimes difficult, as they are more discouraging than positive. The launch of the Changing Diabetes in Children program in India has created a lot of awareness and is helping patients and their parents understand the disease.
Schwartz, James S. J.
This paper discusses the ;myth; that we have an innate drive to explore or to migrate into space. Three interpretations of the claim are considered. According to the ;mystical interpretation,; it is part of our ;destiny; as humans to explore and migrate into space. Such a claim has no rational basis and should play no role in rationally- or evidence-based space advocacy. According to the ;cultural interpretation,; exploration and migration are essential features of human culture and society. These are not universal features because there are cultures and societies that have not encouraged exploration and migration. Moreover, the cultures that have explored have seldom conducted exploration for its own sake. According to the ;biological interpretation; there is a psychological or genetic basis for exploration or migration. While there is limited genetic evidence for such a claim, that evidence suggests that genes associated with exploratory behavior were selected for subsequent to migration, making it unlikely that these genes played a role in causing migration. In none of these senses is it clearly true that we have an innate drive to explore or migrate into space; and even if we did it would be fallacious to argue that the existence of such a drive justified spaceflight activities.
The belief that HIV/AIDS can be cured as a result of having sex with a virgin has been identified as a possible factor in the rape of babies and children in South Africa. While the prevalence of this myth has been a matter of concern in local communities for some time, there have been recent attempts to discern the extent to ...
"Such is history. A play oflife and death is sought in the calm telling of a tale, in the resurgence and denial of the origin, the unfolding of a dead past and result of a present practice. It reiterates, under another rule, the myths built upon a murder of an originary death and fashions out of language the forever - remnant trace of a ...
Olson, Tonia; Bowen, Angela
Increasing attention is being paid to the possible connection between infant feeding practices and postpartum depression. Nurses caring for women and their families in the postpartum period might wonder how to best support the breastfeeding relationship if a woman has a history of depression. Using evidence from the scientific literature, this article dispels some myths regarding breastfeeding and depression, and provides suggested dialogue nurses can use when counseling women about depression and breastfeeding. © 2014 AWHONN.
Full Text Available Tambakan Village Community, District Kubutambahan, Buleleng believe the tradition of myth sampi bulu geles text contained in that village that vows payment using calf (bulu geles as offerings at Pura Dalem. Text tradition believed myth sampi bulu geles existence for generations. Currently not only Tambakan villagers who professed and offer bulu geles, but is also done by people from outside the village of Tambakan. This text of myth bulu geles tradition passed down from older generations to younger generation until now. Text of myth bulu geles contain bulu geles, I dewa offering. This kind of offering appear when troops from Buleleng kingdom and padanguah people lost in battle with Bangli kingdom and hide beneath the forest in Belong area. Belong area is the origin of Tambakan Village. The kind of this research is qualitative with source of primary and secondary data. Data is collected using observation, interview, and literature study technique. Text of myth Bulu geles tradition need to reviewed because this text of myth is unique and the review is focused in four matter there are first the structure of text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village? Second text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village function? Third text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village meaning? Fourth the bequeathing system of text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village? In term of issues reviewed, function, semiotic, and transmission theory are used. The result of the analysis gained that text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village has a narrative structure that is straight plot, primary and secondary figure, contain offering theme with place and time background. The sequence of ceremony in text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village that is cow release ceremony, calling process, catching and ended with bulu geles slaughter in mungkah wali ceremony. The function text of myth bulu geles in Tambakan Village that connected with context consist of rite function, social
Neyro, José Luis; Cristóbal, Ignacio; Celis-González, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez, Miriam; Miguel Ángel Elorriaga; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina
For a woman uses contraception acceptance not only required but also the possibility of minimal or no side effects, comfort and tranquility of their safety. There are women who find it inconvenient not taking the pill daily, but for many other yes, what follows that notwithstanding their safety, do not suit the need of women. IUDs have reached high fees clinical efficacy and safety for use in any group of women, including gilts. A search for original articles and systematic reviews published in the last ten years in the PubMed database, specifically study reversible long-term hormonal contraception was made. They were included in the various search engines, the words: Long-Acting Reversible Contraception, intrauterine contraceptive method, contraceptive implants and intrauterine, myths About IUDs, and others. We selected the highest level of evidence and documents were analyzed and 76 of these myths and realities were located around the long-term contraception. There are too many myths accepted as paradigms and perceptions about IUDs, especially about its indication to nulliparous women, who do not stand by the scientific evidence. The clinical efficacy of intrauterine contraception in nulliparous women is equal in multiparous; though probably more painful insertion in the former, but not harder.
Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.
A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...
Juara R. Ginting
Full Text Available The Karo people in North Sumatra (Indonesia consider areas in the Karo regency and those in other regencies as part of Taneh Karo (the Karolands, despite the fact that these areas comprise different administrative territories. This paper focuses on how the idea of Taneh Karo is articulated in a special Karo myth. Scholarly research has discovered that the notion of Taneh Karo originated in pre-colonial times, but an analysis of a local myth which established the concept of Taneh Karo remains an interesting anthropological study. This study is significant as it endeavours to comprehend the traditional ways of life of the Karo people, and it is a crucial attempt to map out the inter-group relations in the Karo area, where the Acehnese, the Batak, and the Malay people take part. It is interesting to note that the myth of Karo has positioned the Karo community and land in a distinctive site within the network of inter-related groups. This is precisely the position which would determine the formation of the Karolands.
Written for teachers, librarians, students, parents, and other storytellers, this book emphasizes the value and enchantment which children can find in the fabulous stories of four main European traditions--Greek myths and legends, Northern myths and legends, Arthurian Romances, and fairy tales. The four chapters contain (1) discussions of myths,…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.
This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…
This paper evaluates the role myth and memory play in understanding the 1994. Rwandan genocide, within the context of structuralism and functionalist thinking. It argues that the Hamitic frame of reference and colonial administration of this country underscore the notion of myth-making in colonial Rwanda. The paper ...
Elliott, Charlene; Cook, Brian
Rising rates of childhood obesity have led to a greater concern over the impact of food advertising on children's health. Although public policy interventions seek to mitigate the impact of advertising on children, several pervasive myths often sidetrack effective discussions. This Perspective outlines and responds to ten common myths.
The debate on the Clean Air Act's allowance trading program since the 1990 act amendments has been clouded by myths that obscure clear thinking on the subject. If there is hope to see the program's potential realized, these myths have to be vetted and scrapped
Book review of: Matthew Crabbe: Myth-Busting China's Numbers: Understandig and Using China's Statistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. 268 pp.......Book review of: Matthew Crabbe: Myth-Busting China's Numbers: Understandig and Using China's Statistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. 268 pp....
Rawlins, Jacob D.
This article explores how rhetorical myth can be used as a tool for persuading employees to accept change and to maintain consensus during the process. It defines rhetorical myth using three concepts: "chronographia" (a rhetorical interpretation of history), epideictic prediction (defining a present action by assigning praise and blame…
Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Schoffeleers, J.M.
The myth, the author focus upon, is that of Sidi Mhammad, a local saint venerated in N.W. Tunisia. After presenting the myth and briefly indicating the relatively ahistorical elements, the author builds up a framework which opens out the historical content for analysis. This framework is informed by
Book Review - No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities by Senzo Ngubane No-Party Democracy in Uganda, Myths and Realities - Mugaju, Justus and Oloka-Onyango (eds.)2000. Uganda: Fountain Publishers, 158 pp. Reviewed by Senzo Ngubane, Research Officer, ACCORD ...
Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C
Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.
Sedigheh Sherkat Moghaddam
Full Text Available The prevalent question raised in literary theories has been the quiddity of literature. However, the question of “what is literature?” is a philosophical issue. On the other hand, the relationship between myth and literature has always been raised by most scholars and many have considered literature a subtype of myths. In this paper, while pointing transiently to the concepts and definitions of myth from the perspective of the great thinkers, with a different view, the role of myth in creation of artistic works is discussed. In this review, the critic attempts to interpret the literary work - or some sources in the text - to its prototype or archetype with its deep structure. With the help of this method, tracing the old or new mythology, distorted or worn, it is understood how they have passed over the whole cultural field and have found their specific formation. Keywords: Literature, Myth, Creation, Imagination, Démythologisation, Remythification, Gilbert Durand
Kettrey, Heather Hensman
This longitudinal investigation analyzes the manner in which rape myths are conveyed through textual material published in Playboy. Results indicate that Playboy (a) portrays rape as a gender-neutral issue, ignoring patriarchal roots of sexual violence against women, and (b) promulgates ambiguous discourse, which is equally likely to endorse and refute rape myths. Interestingly, readers' contributions are most often the source of refutations of rape myths. Overall, findings suggest that little progress has been made over time in deconstructing rape myths promulgated to men, as this particular men's publication has consistently painted a gray picture in which refutations have remained unsuccessful in disempowering rape myths.
Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Catherine S. Jarnevich; Curtis Flather; John Kartesz
Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed saturated when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA...
A review of research showed that school feeding programs (SFP) in elementary schools of developing nations do have a positive impact on student enrollment and school attendance. However, research studies examining the impact of SFP's on academic performance were inconclusive. Research findings are used to make recommendations for SFP design. (RM)
Full Text Available The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression scale measures contemporary beliefs about sexual aggression that tend to blame victims and exonerate perpetrators. A Greek version of the thirty-item AMMSA scale was administered to two diverse convenience samples, one in Greece and one in Cyprus. Convergent and discriminant construct validity were assessed via correlations with other constructs that were hypothesized to be strongly related to AMMSA (Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance; hostile sexism or moderately related (benevolent sexism; social dominance orientation; right-wing authoritarianism. It was found that the Greek AMMSA was unidimensional, highly internally consistent, normally distributed, and showed good construct validity. When sociodemographic data were analyzed, age, gender, and nationality turned out to be significant predictors of AMMSA, with a U-shaped trend for age, higher scores for men than women, and higher scores for Cypriots than Greeks. In sum, the Greek AMMSA scale provides a highly useful instrument for further research on sexual aggression myths, their correlates, and effects on judgment and behavior.
Schleim, Stephan; Quednow, Boris B.; ter Meulen, Ruud; Mohamed, Ahmed; Hall, Wayne
In this chapter we argue that the use of stimulant drugs as performance enhancers is neither new nor more common than it was decades ago. Our literature analysis of scientific sources from the 1960s–80s shows that stimulant consumption of drugs such as amphetamines for enhancement purposes was
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the mythical ‘first’ national Aboriginal debutante ball, held in Australia in 1968 in celebration of the successful referendum a year earlier. On the fortieth anniversary of the event this paper explores the memories and meanings of that time to those women who debuted in front of the Prime Minister on a balmy evening in July and the significance of that time today.
This article attempts to provide empirical validation of financial globalization. First, we will give an idea about the reorganization of global companies and production functions will emphasize the extent of the phenomenon. Similarly, we will talk if the importance of the size reflects the law of the strongest. Then we will discuss the implications for the use of multi-nationalization and offshoring in the North and in the South. how to define the relocation? What are the main reasons for ou...
Florence Tushabe; Venansius Baryamureeba
There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no formal records about this type of crime for Uganda. Could this mean that it does not exist there? The author conducted an independent research to ascertain whether cyber crimes h...
In this working paper, Robert Pollin responds to critics who purport to debunk “myths” about recent studies on the employment effects of investments in the clean energy economy. These papers are written as a response to what they term the “rapidly gaining popularity” of four studies that attempt to show the employment gains that can emerge from investments in building a clean energy economy in the United States, including Green Recovery, co-published by the Center for American Progress and PE...
Grever, Maria; van der Vlies, Tina
National narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history education, albeit in ways that differ from how the topic was used…
M.C.R. Grever (Maria); T. Van der Vlies (Tina)
textabstractNational narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history
M.C.R. Grever (Maria); Vlies, T.
textabstractNational narratives have often served to mobilize the masses for war by providing myths and distorted interpretations of the past, while conversely wars were major sources for producing national narratives. Because national history is very likely to remain a central topic in history
in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal......This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...
Jones, Raya A
Post-modern psychology embodies two core themes, the social mind and the narrative self. Whereas the social-mind thesis seems diametrically opposed to Jung's position regarding human nature, the narrative-self thesis is associated with research and theorizing about personal myth and mythmaking in ways that could make contact with Jung's concerns. Jung's view is examined here with particular attention to McAdams' theory of narrative identity. It is suggested that the ostensible differences between Jung and post-modern psychology might reflect divergent interests, rather than necessarily irreconcilable worldviews.
Petraglia, Felice; Bettini, Maurizio
Conception, gestation, and birth, including maternal-fetal health, have been the subject of narrative and art since early human history. Myth and histories related to pregnancy were represented by sculptors and painters as well as the subject of several operas: the mystery of reproduction was always a fascinating theme. This mystery was commonly represented across cultures and time, in the old world, from Egypt to India, to Greece and Rome continuing until the Renaissance and the Modern period. To be an artist meant also to be a scientist in several societies. The current paper reports 12 examples of the fusion of art and reproductive science.
A myth about the origins of money has long organized modern approaches to the medium. According to that creation story, money is the natural product of human exchange. It can be analogized to a commodity like silver that comes to hand out of the decentralized activity of trading or a convention like language that arises out of a consensus about the value of an item. But if we consider clues about money’s origins and extrapolate from its continuing practice, another story comes into focus. It ...
In the global-warming debate, definitive answers to questions about ultimate causes and effects remain elusive. In Global Warming: Myth or Reality? Marcel Leroux seeks to separate fact from fiction in this critical debate from a climatological perspective. Beginning with a review of the dire hypotheses for climate trends, the author describes the history of the 1998 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many subsequent conferences. He discusses the main conclusions of the three IPCC reports and the predicted impact on global temperatures, rainfall, weather and climate, while highlighting the mounting confusion and sensationalism of reports in the media.
Glaucia Muniz Proença LARA
Full Text Available In this paper, we examine two Indian myths from Brazil, tryingto emphasize their systematicity in relation to the values they convey. Focusing on the theme of the emergence of the moon, we attempt to demonstrate that such narratives form a coherent and organized whole of meaning, which includes elements frequently taken as evidence of the chaos present in mythical discourse. In order to do so, we used the theoretical and methodological approach of French Semiotics, a theory concerned, specially, with the intradiscursive mechanisms of meaning construction.
Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm
Economic growth depends on the presence of an innovative and dynamic business sector, including the business players' ability to discover and exploit new business opportunities. Consequently, entrepreneurship has received increased attention within industrial policy. Entrepreneurs and their motives...... are, however, just as diverse as the rest of the population, thus making it impossible to apply a 'one-size-fits-all' principle when promoting entrepreneurship. This paper deals with a special kind of entrepreneurs - the high-tech entrepreneurs - in order to puncture the myths concerning their growth...
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Flather, Curtis; Kartesz, John
Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed ‘saturated’ when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA where colonization (i.e. invasion by exotic species) exceeds extirpation by roughly a 24 to 1 margin. We report an alarming temporal trend in plant invasions in the Pacific Northwest over the past 100 years whereby counties highest in native species richness appear increasingly invaded over time. Despite the possibility of some increased awareness and reporting of native and exotic plant species in recent decades, historical records show a significant, consistent long-term increase in exotic species (number and frequency) at county, state and regional scales in the Pacific Northwest. Here, as in other regions of the country, colonization rates by exotic species are high and extirpation rates are negligible. The rates of species accumulation in space in multi-scale vegetation plots may provide some clues to the mechanisms of the invasion process from local to national scales.
Social groups, and the social identities which people develop as part of them, are often experienced as stable and continuous over time. Thus, countries experiencing rapid socio-political change often face the challenge of re-constructing the meaning of the social group to adapt to the demands of the present, while simultaneously making this re-construction appear as a natural progression of 'our' historical journey. In the present paper, I ask the question of how, in times of socio-political change, the past is used in the present, and the implications this has for how individuals represent their nation's future. Drawing on Serbia and its political movement towards EU integration, the present article illustrates how developed and legitimized historical narratives, linked to the myth of origin of a nation, become utilized to frame present challenges. In doing so, it allows for uncertainties in the present to become anchored in established historical narratives, which in turn have consequences for which political actions are deemed acceptable and legitimate for the future.
Dillingham, Theodore Cooke
The questions that cosmology seeks to answer are those same questions about the mysteries of the universe that myths have spoken about since antiquity. The basic desire to understand the origin of the universe is equally fundamental in the earliest astronomical, philosophical, and mythic narratives. This work shows how mythic stories can be used as a tool for educating nontechnical audiences. By means of a re-mythologizing of the relationship between Western science and myth, the shared philosophical legacy of both becomes apparent. This review of the history of science, philosophy, and mythology thereby presents a perspective that is pro-myth and pro-science at the same time. By differentiating the mythic perspective and the scientific perspective, the reality of the non-oppositional intimate relationship one has with the other is clarified. Cosmologists have long known that 96% of the universe is invisible to human sensing apparatus. They call this unseen visible element, the stuff that holds the universe together, "dark matter." Coining the phrase "the speed of dark," this dissertation metaphorically illustrates the power of myth, like the power of dark matter, to inform and direct human inquiry into the origins and destiny of the universe. Myth is imagined psychologically to operate at the speed of dark, faster than the speed of light. The unseen visible aspect of myth is shown as the desire of humans to know the origins of creation and the ultimate destiny of the universe. This work examines the rich legacy inherited by contemporary scientists from ancient mythic philosophical traditions. Traces of Aristotle and Thales are seen clearly in the questions that current cosmologists explore today. The variety of answers to these questions displays the equal influence of myth on ancient inquiry and contemporary scientific theoretical development. By examining what myth does, rather than what myth is, the work weaves together a story of mystery and discovery that is
Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.
The term 'mid-stream asset business' implies custom processing and gathering, meaning that a gas producer sells his gas at the wellhead, thereby transferring the business of gathering, processing and marketing of the gas and liquids to a third party. The concept is popular in the United States, but is not yet common in Canada. In Canada, producers own the gas gathering and processing systems. The mid-stream asset business was claimed to be more user friendly than the old custom processing business. Three myths about the mid-stream asset business were challenged: (1) all the risk is on the producer, the processor takes no risk, (2) the mid-stream asset business is an expensive means of financing further exploration, and (3) owning and operating gathering and processing facilities is an integral part of a producer's business. Arguments were brought forth to dispel these myths and to emphasize that a processor should be prepared to accept risks associated with the commodity, prices, production and operations. To be operationally effective, the producer's flexibility and strategic advantages must approach the same level as if he were the owner of the facility
Full Text Available The world, or worlds, in which we live, contain symbols as well as real objects. We use symbols both to refer to real objects and to speak of fictions (as in works of art, games, rituals, or dreams. In this paper, I will introduce some elements for a semantic approach to fiction. I will depart from an inscriptional theory of fiction, and will apply this theory to different fields, covering myths, dreams and works of art. Many of the ideas I advance here are inspired by the philosophy of Nelson Goodman. However, in this paper I will extend to myths and dreams some ideas he applies only to the arts. Scheffler's idea of mention - selection which he introduced for the treatment of fictions and applied also to ritual practices will be a resource in the development of my approach. I use some conceptual tools to gain a better understanding of Freud's treatment of dreams, taking into account Wittgenstein's criticism of psychoanalysis. In the final section of this paper, I will evaluate some alternatives to the proposal developed here, so we can best appreciate the advantages of the semantic approach, or at least how it can complement the pragmatic approach.
Full Text Available A rather cross time aspect that is to be addressed by this research is the appropriation of the illustration by classic arts or by what is called new media, as they are defined by the work Remediation (Bolter & Grusin, 2000. Starting from new media and how they are created and function nowadays, analyzing the fascination induced by the new technologies, Bolter and Grusin initiate a theory of remediation which is meant to challenge the so called novelty of the creations of the contemporary digital culture. By discussing the remediation as one of the most important characteristics of new media, Bolter and Grusin prove that this is a sine qua non condition of every work of art. Starting from this theory, we are interested in analyzing the equation encompassing illustrations, myths and their relation with the reality layers that they remediate. We will try to answer the question: how does myths and illustration build layers towards the public and what are the forms they embrace today? We will base our research on a corpus of images (illustrations where mythical representations are present.
The EU and Italian institutions have recently reiterated their commitment to harmonize and implement vaccination policies as a fundamental strategy for public health. Nonetheless, vaccines are losing public confidence. False myths related to vaccine adverse reactions and commercial interests, combined with the recent judgements of the Court and the "Fluad® episode", are fuelling vaccine hesitancy. In such a context, a lively debate is ongoing in Italian scientific community. Aim of this contribution is to recall the available solid scientific evidence demonstrating that vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools ever invented and recall the economic data that support the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation. As every other medicine, vaccines are registered after large and solid clinical trials have been conducted. Immunization schedules are proposed by experts in the field of clinical medicine, epidemiology and public health on the basis of the available scientific evidence, and then implemented by policy makers also taking into consideration resources allocation and financial sustainability. The false myth that vaccines are offered because of economic interests is to be dispelled;moreover, researchers, policy makers, scientific societies and the healthcare community at large should renew commitment to invest in health education and communication on vaccines, always disclosing potential conflicts of interests.
Full Text Available In post-modernity, the millenarian search for mythical sites has become a tourist attraction and the process of culturalization of consumption has created and is creating a new global heritage. Places already celebrated for leisure have been reinvented as mythical and archaeological sites. A good example is the Atlantis Hotel on Paradise Island, in the Bahamas. Here, Plato’s mythical Atlantis has inspired an underwater pseudo-archaeological reconstruction of a civilization that most likely had never existed. The myth-making force of the sea transforms the false ruins and affects how they are perceived. This is quite consistent with a tourism where authenticity has lost its traditional value and sensory gratifications have replaced it. A more recent Atlantis Hotel in Dubai and another one under construction in China show the vitality of this myth and the strength of the thematization of consumption. Other examples confirm this tendency in even more grotesque ways. At the core of this process there is the body: the tourist’s and the consumer’s body. The post-modernity has enhanced its use as tool and icon of consumption.
Full Text Available Since the publication of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus in 1818, the idea of life creation and the guests of the novel have arise a lot of interest, both in the literary and cinema fields. The present paper reviews the historical background in which the novel was written, as well as the medical context of the time in order to better understand its main features. Among the more than hundred of films that were inspired by the Shelley’s work, we have chosen Frankenstein (James Whale, 1931 and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (Kenneth Branagh, 1994, as the most pertinent examples to discuss the ideas of the novel and because they are clearly different in showing the Frankenstein myth. The Whale’s movie clearly depicted horror elements and the crazy scientist role. By contrast, Branagh preferred to follow Shelley’s original ideas and introduce the ethical controversies associated to Frankenstein’s experiments. Finally, we discuss the contemporary importance of the Frankenstein myth still has, as well as the interest of the films to show it, with special focus in the discussion around genetic engineering.
Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we
Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Larsen, Christian Albrekt
It is a predominant assumption in contemporary political and academic debates that gender roles and attitudes supporting women’s paid work among immigrants are deep-rooted and stable over time. However, the actual work–family orientations among immigrants are rarely studied. The purpose of this a......It is a predominant assumption in contemporary political and academic debates that gender roles and attitudes supporting women’s paid work among immigrants are deep-rooted and stable over time. However, the actual work–family orientations among immigrants are rarely studied. The purpose...... of this article is to study to what extent and at what pace immigrants in general adapt to the attitudes towards women’s paid work that prevail in the host countries. A cross-national research strategy is applied using the European Social Survey rounds 2 (2004), 4 (2008) and 5 (2010), allowing us to compare...... and analyse attitudes towards women’s paid work among 13,535 foreign-born individuals resident in 30 European countries. The results indicate that immigrants’ attitudes towards women’s paid work are highly structured by the institutional and cultural context of the host country. Both male and female...
Overpopulation in underdeveloped countries has previously been cited as the cause of economic poverty; however, underdevelopment may result from imperialism and exploitation of the Third World nations. Limiting population is not the solution for underdeveloped countries since the North American population increased from 26-167 million people from 1850-1950 at which time economic growth was significantly stimulated. Instead, it is the capitalist countries that own the means and resources to develop countries that choose to exploit underdeveloped countries by exporting more than 7 billion dollars more than they send to those countries. In addition, much of the land that could be used for agricultural purposes is owned by wealthy industrialists so that the majority of food supplies are provided by 2% of the farms. Moreover, underdeveloped countries export items such as fishmeal to capitalist countries for them to use as catfood rather than feeding their own malnourished people. It seems that developed and industrialized countries undergo a decrease in population; therefore, underdeveloped countries should not be initiating birth control programs with the hope of developing economically.
Spencer, Jeanne P; Trondsen Pawlowski, Ruth H; Thomas, Stephanie
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely free of adverse effects or the risk of complications. Family physicians should be aware of the risks and benefits of recommended immunizations. Thimerosal is currently used only in multidose vials of influenza vaccine, and exposure through vaccines is not associated with adverse neurologic outcomes. The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine is not associated with autism. Vaccines are associated with local reactions, such as pain and erythema. The rotavirus vaccine minimally increases the rate of intussusception, whereas other vaccines minimally increase the risk of syncope. Although immunization with the human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended for all boys and girls, vaccination rates remain low. Physicians should guide parents to credible resources if they are considering vaccine refusal. If a recommended vaccine is refused, proper documentation is essential. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program track adverse events and allow compensation for documented harms from vaccinations.
Salvagno, Gianluca; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Lippi, Giuseppe
The potential for cross-contamination of additives among evacuated blood tubes has led to the development of the order of draw. This practice, however, is mainly based on scarce, anecdotal, and mostly outdated literature data. Therefore, the goal of this investigation was to definitely establish whether or not the indication of a specific order of draw is still justified. The study population consisted of 57 outpatients referred to the outpatient oral anticoagulant (OA) clinic of the Academic Hospital of Verona and 58 healthy volunteers enrolled from the laboratory personnel. In OA outpatients, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a buffered sodium citrate tube and another serum tube. In the healthy volunteers, one serum tube was collected immediately after needle insertion, followed by a potassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2-EDTA) tube and another serum tube. After separation, the serum was tested for potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the first and second serum tubes. No significant difference could be observed between the first and the second serum tubes for any of the parameters. The bias calculated with Bland-Altman plots did not achieve statistical significance when the serum tube was collected after either a K2-EDTA or a sodium citrate tube. According to our data, revision of national and supranational recommendations on blood collection by venipuncture should consider that the order of draw exerts a negligible effect on sample quality, and this aspect should no longer be considered a quality criterion when evaluating the performance of phlebotomists.
Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Within the last two decades, Modeling and Simulation (M&S) has become the tool of choice to investigate the behavior of complex phenomena. Successes encountered in 'hard' sciences are prompting interest to apply a similar approach to Computational Social Sciences in support, for example, of national security applications faced by the Intelligence Community (IC). This manuscript attempts to contribute to the debate on the relevance of M&S to IC problems by offering an overview of what it takes to reach 'predictability' in computational sciences. Even though models developed in 'soft' and 'hard' sciences are different, useful analogies can be drawn. The starting point is to view numerical simulations as 'filters' capable to represent information only within specific length, time or energy bandwidths. This simplified view leads to the discussion of resolving versus modeling which motivates the need for sub-scale modeling. The role that modeling assumptions play in 'hiding' our lack-of-knowledge about sub-scale phenomena is explained which leads to discussing uncertainty in simulations. It is argued that the uncertainty caused by resolution and modeling assumptions should be dealt with differently than uncertainty due to randomness or variability. The corollary is that a predictive capability cannot be defined solely as accuracy, or ability of predictions to match the available physical observations. We propose that 'predictability' is the demonstration that predictions from a class of 'equivalent' models are as consistent as possible. Equivalency stems from defining models that share a minimum requirement of accuracy, while being equally robust to the sources of lack-of-knowledge in the problem. Examples in computational physics and engineering are given to illustrate the discussion.
The following sections are included: * A Methodological Preface * `Identical Particles' and the Myth of Substance * Non-Individual Particulars or Quanta * Fields of Trope Structures? * Fields as Free Processes? * Conclusion * References
Brown, Michael H.
Written for counselors who must help clients deal with bulimia, this article reviews bulimia's most obvious physical signs and symptoms, etiology, and behavioral characteristics. Considers innovative counseling approaches including Transpersonal Psychology, relaxation training, imagination, fantasy, hypnosis, myths, and rituals. (Author)
Full Text Available The paper examines how the classical myth of Actaeon was adopted in the post-Renaissance period by two anti-Classicist authors, Bruno and Marino, whose approaches to the myth differ despite their common rejection of the Classicist aesthetic paradigm. In one of the sonnets making up Giordano Bruno’s dialogue De gli eroici furori (1585, the Actaeon myth is invested with a new, philosophical meaning, and used to represent a new gnoseological concept. An idyll, on the other hand, included in Giovan Battista Marino’s La Sampogna collection (1620, displays a tendency to hyperliterariness and a taste for surprise effects, proposing a version of the myth which admits a metatextual interpretation. The present study compares each author’s writing practice to their respective poetological positions and analyses it in the light of intertextual references.
Alessandra Ambrosini; Giovanni Stanghellini
OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct...
Natale, Simone; Ballatore, Andrea
This article discusses the role of technological myths in the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies from 1950s to the early 1970s. It shows how the rise of AI was accompanied by the construction of a powerful cultural myth: the creation of a thinking machine, which would be able to perfectly simulate the cognitive faculties of the human mind. Based on a content analysis of articles on Artificial Intelligence published in two magazines, the Scientific American and the New Sc...
Atif, Khaula; Naqvi, Syeda Sarwat; Hassan Naqvi, Syed Abid; Ehsan, Karishma; Niazi, Saleem Asif; Javed, Annam
To analyse the prevalence of myths pertinent to healthcare issues of females of reproductive age. This cross-sectional, simple descriptive, knowledge, attitude and practices-education research was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from February to August 2016. A 30-item self-designed questionnaire was applied, collecting demographic details and answers to 21 close-ended questions encompassing the prevalence of myths pertinent to reproductive health issues of women in Pakistan.Every question had three options, Yes(myth), No(correct answer) and Don't Know(unsure). SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. There were 594 participants in the study. The overall mean age was 35.11±12.711 years and the mean duration of education was 9.41±6.353 years. Besides, >50% answers positive for myths and <50% answers positive for myths were given by 326(54.9%) and 268(45.1%) respondents, respectively. The prevalence of myths was directly proportional to age (p=0.004), and inversely proportional to education (p<0.001) and socio-economic class(p<0.001); impact of education was stronger than socio-economic class(Pearson's chi-square being 74.189 and 48.672, respectively). Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-based respondents harboured more myths (p=0.024). There was no significant impact of marital status (p=0.099). The participants held significant amount of myths regarding health issues in reproductive age.
Mark J.P. Wolf
Full Text Available Video games theory has advanced far enough that we can use it to reevaluate film theory as a result, en route to broader, transmedial theorizing. This essay looks particularly at how video games can be seen as participating in and advancing Andre Bazin’s “Myth of Total Cinema”, and perhaps recontextualzing it as the Myth of Simulated Lived Experience.
Anna Carolyna Ribeiro Cardoso; Sueli Maria de Regino
Myths are primordial ancient stories and they always transform people’s lives, but they have even a stronger effect in children and teenagers. This essay main objective is to establish analogies between the myth of Perseus and two of its updated versions: the young adult novel Percy Jackson and the Olympians by Rick Riordan and its homonym film version, using the theoretical concepts from Eliade, Campbell and Meletínski.
San Martín Varela, Pablo
This thesis traces the changing conceptions and uses of myth in the poetry and prose of Percy Shelley. Its main argument is framed from a critical-theoretical perspective inspired by Dialectic of Enlightenment by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer. From this methodological standpoint, the study of myth can be related to other aspects of Shelley’s work, like his understanding of history and the problem of necessity and agency. The body of the dissertation is divided into three...
dos Santos, Luciano Gomes
This article aims to analyze the Modern Rationality and Legal Method in the light of Plato's Myth of the Cave. The structure of the Myth of the Cave presents the awakening of common sense to science. The journey made by the prisoner symbolizes the changing historical context: the Christian Middle Ages to modernity. The modern rationality emerges with new philosophical and scientific perspective. In this context, thinkers such as Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Gaston Bachelard and Karl Popper,...
Anna Carolyna Ribeiro Cardoso
Full Text Available Myths are primordial ancient stories and they always transform people’s lives, but they have even a stronger effect in children and teenagers. This essay main objective is to establish analogies between the myth of Perseus and two of its updated versions: the young adult novel Percy Jackson and the Olympians by Rick Riordan and its homonym film version, using the theoretical concepts from Eliade, Campbell and Meletínski.
Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Esposito, Vincenzo [Institute of Anatomy, Second University of Naples, Via L. Armanni 5, 80138 Naples (Italy); Fonda, Claudio [Pediatric Radiology Section, Meyer' s Children Hospital, Florence (Italy); Russo, Anna [Institute of Anatomy, Second University of Naples, Via L. Armanni 5, 80138 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Via L. Armanni 5, 80138 Naples (Italy)
Mermaid or sirens have been part of the cultural tradition of the sailors during the first expeditions in the western world. The Siren's Myth appeared for a first time with Homer, who described in the Odyssey some singing creatures that lured the enchanted sailors to death. More frequently described with a bird body and a female head, sometimes the female part was extended to torso, with arms prolonged in sturdy claws. In the Latin literature Publius Ovidius Naso presented in the Metamorphoses these creatures. Proposed ethimology for the word 'siren' seems to confirm the prerogatives of these creatures, related to magnetism, seduction, charm. The first figuration of Sirens resembling to fish-women was in the second century BC. Hans Christian Andersen provided to leave us the strongest legend of Siren in the well-known fairy tale 'The Little Mermaid'. Following this story, Sirens are definitely considered as beautiful half-fish women who lived in the bottom of the sea, having a lovely voice to be used when they rise up to allow sweeter the agony of the wrecked sailors. Beyond the Myth, may the Siren really exist? It can be hypothesized that these creatures probably were individuals affected by sirenomelia. In our literature and medical review, we describe the etiology of the disease, and we illustrated the anatomical features of fetuses affected by this pathology using MDCT 3D reconstructions. Syrenomelia is a condition not compatible with the normal life, however nine cases of 'mermaid' survived to reconstructive surgery have been reported until now. In our report we also presented a case of survival baby girl affected by sirenomelia, before and after surgery, with correlative radiologic imaging findings. The most important characteristic that seems to allow survival of the affected individuals is the presence of one functional kidney, displaced in pelvis. As so dramatically tragic was the history of the Andersen Little Mermaid
Romano, Stefania; Esposito, Vincenzo; Fonda, Claudio; Russo, Anna; Grassi, Roberto
Mermaid or sirens have been part of the cultural tradition of the sailors during the first expeditions in the western world. The Siren's Myth appeared for a first time with Homer, who described in the Odyssey some singing creatures that lured the enchanted sailors to death. More frequently described with a bird body and a female head, sometimes the female part was extended to torso, with arms prolonged in sturdy claws. In the Latin literature Publius Ovidius Naso presented in the Metamorphoses these creatures. Proposed ethimology for the word 'siren' seems to confirm the prerogatives of these creatures, related to magnetism, seduction, charm. The first figuration of Sirens resembling to fish-women was in the second century BC. Hans Christian Andersen provided to leave us the strongest legend of Siren in the well-known fairy tale 'The Little Mermaid'. Following this story, Sirens are definitely considered as beautiful half-fish women who lived in the bottom of the sea, having a lovely voice to be used when they rise up to allow sweeter the agony of the wrecked sailors. Beyond the Myth, may the Siren really exist? It can be hypothesized that these creatures probably were individuals affected by sirenomelia. In our literature and medical review, we describe the etiology of the disease, and we illustrated the anatomical features of fetuses affected by this pathology using MDCT 3D reconstructions. Syrenomelia is a condition not compatible with the normal life, however nine cases of 'mermaid' survived to reconstructive surgery have been reported until now. In our report we also presented a case of survival baby girl affected by sirenomelia, before and after surgery, with correlative radiologic imaging findings. The most important characteristic that seems to allow survival of the affected individuals is the presence of one functional kidney, displaced in pelvis. As so dramatically tragic was the history of the Andersen Little Mermaid, so unattended pleasant would be the
Genevieve F. Waterhouse
Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.
...Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681, et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 6501 note, et seq.), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, and Delegation of Authority No. 236-3 of August 28, 2000, I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Man, Myth, and Sensual Pleasures: Jan Gossart's Renaissance,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, from on or about October 5, 2010, until on or about January 17, 2011, and at possible additional exhibitions or venues yet to be determined, is in the national interest. Public Notice of these Determinations is ordered to be published in the Federal Register.
Full Text Available Capoeira is a cultural manifestation widely known as part of Brazilian identity and culture both by Brazilians and foreigners. Nevertheless, for being originally a black popular culture, it must be understood in relation to the dominant culture, where elements of resistance and consent are present (HALL, 2013. In the nineteenth and in the beginning of the twentieth century, capoeira was strongly repressed by the State, driving the blacks away from the construction of national identity based on racial and ethnic grounds (REIS, 2000. In the 30's, a new narrative of Brazilian identity, known as Brazilian racial democracy, treasured the cultural and biological integration of the three existing races in Brazil (SCHWARZ, 2012; MUNANGA, 1996. Along with other cultural and religious manifestations, capoeira is now valued and integrated into the State (PIRES, 2010. The text aims at raising aspects that allow a reappraisal of how the Angola capoeira relates to racial and ethnic issues, based on questioning the myth of racial democracy and the contribution of cultural studies (MUNANGA, 1996; CARONE; BENTO, 2002; HALL, 2013.
Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna
Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung
The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs.
Vonderhaar, Rebecca L; Carmody, Dianne Cyr
Utilizing data from an online survey of 979 university students, this study explores the relationship between prior sexual assault victimization experiences, belief in a just world, and acceptance of rape myths. Results indicated that men, younger respondents, and those with less education were more likely to support rape myths. Support for just world beliefs and rape myths were also positively associated, while rape victims exhibited less support for rape myths than non-victims. Implications for future studies are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
This handbook is a guide to exploring the night sky and its wonderful telescopic sights. All eighty-eight officially recognized constellations in both hemispheres are presented in natural groups, related by their origin and location. The author, a former astronomy instructor and planetarium director, has for over thirty-five years, researched myths from all over the world to identify the most memorable stories which link multiple constellations in a single story. Thus, the interested observer may discover that it will be easier to use already known constellations to locate and remember new constellations. The author has found that showing each constellation figure with a simple line drawing is helpful for remembering each constellation. He includes photographs of many of the brighter celestial objects, as well as many accompanying drawings which illustrate how the telescopic views differ from the photographs. One way to use this handbook, which is useful to beginners as well as experienced astronomers, is to ...
Full Text Available This article explores perceptions and representations of Nigeria and Nigerians in the popular global imaginary. It analyses selected popular media narratives in order to foreground contradictions and paradoxes in the ways in which the country and people of Nigeria are discursively constructed. By doing so, it interrogates stereotypes of corruption and criminality as well as myths of exceptionalism about Nigeria and Nigerians originating from both within and outside the country. The analysis reveals that the generalised portrayal of Nigeria and Nigerians as exceptional social subjects is characterised by contradictions and inaccuracies in dominant representational practices and cannot be justified by the verifiable empirical information available on the country and its people.
Full Text Available La « nouvelle économie » est partout dans les médias nord-américains, comme européens. L’ouvrage de Jean Gadrey est rafraîchissant, car il présente une critique et une analyse minutieuse du concept, de son apparition, des développements qui y sont associés, des thèses et idées défendues au nom de la « nouvelle économie ».Comme il le note bien « les mythes mobilisateurs fleurissent, mais la réflexion sur les contours de cet âge et sur les risques sociaux à prévenir est inexistante : les formul...
Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J
The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement.
Full Text Available In the deep, dark forests and in the lush green valleys, worshippers of Dionysus celebrated the eternal cycles of death and rebirth, symbolized in the sacred mask of the wild god. Drunk and intoxicated, wearing the mask of Dionysus, the actor is at once the shaman and the priest. Channeling the presence of the fearsome divinity, he drinks the sacred wine and eats the raw flesh of his prey. In this eternal moment, he becomes one with the god and the beast residing inside of him. Within Ancient Greek culture, the sacred rites of Dionysus have been appropriated and transformed to theatre performances. The shaman became the actor, the participants became the audience, the sacred altar became the stage. From myth as a ritual performance emerged the theatre of tragedy, in which the undying spirit of Dionysus, majestic and terrifying, speaks to us even today.
L’histoire de Samson reste énigmatique tant pour son origine que pour sa signification. Il apparaît que le récit doit être qualifié de récit héroïque ou de mythe. En effet, Samson est typique de la figure du héros, qu’il s’agisse d’Héraklès comme de Gilgamesh : c’est à l’origine un demi-dieu accumulant les fautes. Il est contestable d’affirmer que le récit est grec car on retrouve dans le texte des motifs propres aux guerriers du livre des Juges et des livres de Samuel. Parmi les titres du hé...
Full Text Available The article seeks to critically analyze and disprove, using solid statistical evidence, five myths that circulate in the Romanian public sphere about the state pension system. The argument shows that in Romania a large proportion of pensioners are actually fairly ‘young’. Their life expectancy is higher than some claim it is, and, on average, they are less poor than young people, children, and the average population, their pension reasonably replaces their salary income, and, despite its public support, the lower retirement age for women compared to that of men leads to disadvantages for the female pensioners. The article seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the pension system and its challenges, and to outline some implicit solutions for amending/supporting it by eliminating pressures (based on populism or ignorance on the public pension system, in particular in the context of the current economic crisis and the pronounced aging of the population.
Chaliand, G.; Jafalian, A.
Using a series of regional studies, this collective book proposes to evaluate the strategic dimensions of the oil dependence and to determine its geopolitical impacts in the Middle East, Russia, China, USA and Europe. Content: the oil stakes at the beginning of the 21. century; in the center of the oil scene: the Middle East; oil dependence and US foreign policy: beyond myths; the Russian oil, instrument of influence and of alliances re-knitting; China and oil: security feelings and strategic approach; towards a European supply strategy; beyond petroleum: what alternatives; 150 years of petroleum history; the energy dependence; energy economy; automotive fuels and pollution abatement; limitation of greenhouse gas emissions; glossary; bibliography; index; Web links. (J.S.)
Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen
When discussing tectonics, the book Studies in tectonic culture by Kenneth Frampton (2001) is often mentioned for linking the ethics of architecture with a focus on structural genius. Another reference is the paper The tell-the-tale detail by Marco Frascari (1984), which in addition to Frampton put...... emphasis on both the physical construction and mental construing of architecture. With this dual perspective Frascari established a discourse in tectonic thinking which brings the tectonic expression beyond structural genius into socio-cultural realms of storytelling, myth and ritual. However, in everyday...... architecture like hospitals this perspective of construing is often neglected. In this paper, I explore if it is possible through a re-reading of Frascari’s words to inspire for a re-construction of everyday tectonics? Based on project MORE at Aalborg Hospital, I argue that the perspective of construing...
Orekhovsky Petr, A.,
Full Text Available After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most economists and sociologists have concluded that humanity finally found the optimum, the highest form of political and economic structure. Francis Fukuyama was proclaimed "the end of history". Such representation is directly related to the entered Hobbes dichotomy of "state" and "society", which also marked the beginning of the New Age. B. Latour argues that this dichotomy lies at the basis of the division of science into "natural" and "social" and is wrong. M. Gefter distinguishes models "Homo mythicus" and "Homo historicus". The model of "Homo oeconomicus" is a kind of myth and used to transform the axial time scale of classification societies in size wealth. Liberalism rejects the notion of a political, not a basis for the positive content of the concept of the state. Use of liberalism as an ideology, paradoxically, may lead to a growth rather than decline conflict and increase the danger of war.
Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P
Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.
Full Text Available Consumers of culture can often view history subjectively, perceiving people and events through an idealistic memory to satisfy their perception of ‘great’, heroic people. The image of American writer Ernest Hemingway was partly created by favorable media imagery and celebrity culture. With the advent of newer media technologies in the twentieth century, writers such as Hemingway, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Emile Zola and Ford Maddox Ford (often called the Lost Generation [generation perdue] were able to carefully manipulate their audience through their writing and the Romantic image that was circulated by the public. The idealized way in which these authors were viewed is reminiscent of the period of Romanticism, when authors such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lord Byron were revered as geniuses. Through films such as Woody Allen’s Midnight in Paris (2011, the Hemingway Myth – in which various attributes and details about the author were exaggerated to fuel Hemingway’s image – has endured well into the twenty-first century. This paper will examine the progress and transformation of the Hemingway Myth, i.e., how it contradicted the man himself. Cultural memory is especially fostered through literature and film, and Allen’s film, along with the 2012 Hemingway and Gellhorn, not only aids this image, of Hemingway as a passionate, romantic gentleman, but it greatly embellishes it. Hemingway’s own works, moreover, facilitated the romanticized manner in which he was received by his public, only later to be solidified in his appearances in various American magazines. This paper will argue that in the field of literature, celebrity authors particularly benefit from the flattering outcome of cultural memory, in which figures such as writers and artists are enamored by their public. By existing in an overwhelmingly artistic industry, it is no surprise that the memory many of these writers leave behind, to this very
Reports on a project by a reading teacher that combines reading and science while debunking the myth of the big, bad wolf. Related activities include making animal tracks, writing, and measurement activities. (DDR)
Berglas, Nancy F; Gould, Heather; Turok, David K; Sanders, Jessica N; Perrucci, Alissa C; Roberts, Sarah C M
The extent that state-mandated informed consent scripts affect women's knowledge about abortion is unknown. We examine women's endorsement of common abortion myths before and after receiving state-mandated information that included accurate and inaccurate statements about abortion. In Utah, women presenting for an abortion information visit completed baseline surveys (n = 494) and follow-up interviews 3 weeks later (n = 309). Women answered five items about abortion risks, indicating which of two statements was closer to the truth (as established by prior research) or responding "don't know." We developed a continuous myth endorsement scale (range, 0-1) and, using multivariable regression models, examined predictors of myth endorsement at baseline and change in myth endorsement from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, many women reported not knowing about abortion risks (range, 36%-70% across myths). Women who were younger, non-White, and had previously given birth but not had a prior abortion reported higher myth endorsement at baseline. Overall, myth endorsement decreased after the information visit (0.37-0.31; p knowledge about the effects of abortion is common. Knowledge of information that was accurately presented or not referenced in state-mandated scripts increased. In contrast, inaccurate information was associated with decreases in women's knowledge about abortion, violating accepted principles of informed consent. State policies that require or result in the provision of inaccurate information should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ten years after the Chernobyl accident, this paper takes stock on the past situation, the radiation doses measured and tries to explain the myth of ''a cloud stopped at the frontier''. The media and government attitudes are analyzed. (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available In May 2011, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, head of the International Monetary Fund and a prominent member of the French Socialist Party, was charged with attempted rape. Extensive media coverage led people across the globe to speculate about intentions and responsibilities. While the case was pending, we conducted two parallel Internet surveys, with French and German participants (N= 1,314. We examined how strongly exoneration of the alleged perpetrator depended on acceptance of modern myths about sexual aggression (AMMSA and identity attributes that are temporarily salient as a function of local context (gender, political left-right orientation, nationality. AMMSA was a global predictor of exonerating the alleged perpetrator across national sub-samples, whereas the predictive power of gender and left-right orientation varied locally: For French respondents, left-wing political attitudes predicted exoneration of the alleged perpetrator, whereas only for German respondents, being male predicted exoneration. We conclude that the interplay of global (sexual aggression myths and local (social identification factors affects the lay assessment of ambiguous cases of sexual violence.
Kassing, Leslee R.; Prieto, Loreto R.
Surveyed counselors-in-training regarding their acceptance of rape myths and their willingness to make blame-based attributions toward a male victim of rape. Results suggested male counselor trainees tended to endorse the greatest degree of acceptance of rape myths. Trainees of both sexes thought that a male rape victim who showed no resistance to…
Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise; Kristensen, Peter Lommer
To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol.......To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol....
Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung
The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…
Hoy, M A
Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to
Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.
Rajesh K Chudasama
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women takes many forms – physical, sexual, psychological and economic. Violence against women harms families and communities across generations and reinforces other violence prevalent in society. Rape myths encompass a set of (false beliefs about rape that places the blame on the victim and not the perpetrator. Objective: to assess the prevailing attitudes on rape myths among the medical students. Methods: The study was conducted after taking informed consent among 346 undergraduate medical students of P D U Government Medical College, Rajkot, India from January to June, 2013 by using previously validated questionnaire using updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Results: The age range of 346 medical students was 17 to 23 years with 172 male and 174 female students. Total 24.4% male and 23% female students had very good positive attitude. One fourth of male and one fifth of female students had a more negative attitude. No relation was observed for rape myth acceptance among medical students for residential or socio-economic status. Conclusion: The present study provides insight to the prevalence of attitude and rape myths towards rape among medical students. Introduction of education on gender violence with introduction of courses on ‘sexual violence’ in medical curriculum may help to decrease rape incidence and for better management of victims.
Full Text Available The author treats the problem of ritual studies as relevant to the study of religion. Mytho-ritual is a relatively new concept, unfamiliar to many specialists. The author tries to define this concept, trace its origin and essential characteristics, and finally, on the basis of all this, posit a link uniting myth and ritual. Importance is given to the functional analysis of ritual, highlighting the essential role of ritual and rite. The theories of the Bielefeld and Moscow schools, the theory of V. N. Toporov regarding religious ritual, and those regarding ritual and rite proposed by A. K. Baiburin and K. S. Saringulyan are examined. The author then proceeds to an analysis of the functions of myth and examines the theories of M. Eliade and the Cambridge School. Finally the author compares the various functions of myth and ritual and fi nds that the number of actual functions of myth proposed by Russian and foreign experts, sociologists, ethnologists and folklorists, is rather small and closer in number to that of the functions of religion rather than of ritual. The author enumerates 36 functions of ritual as compared to only 12 functions of myth and 24 functions of religion
Full Text Available Two myths persist concerning the role played by Charles Darwin as a geologist in Africa during his epic voyage around the world (1831–1836. The first myth is that Darwin was a completely self-taught geologist, with no formal training. The second myth is that it was Darwin who finally solved the problem of the granite–schist contact at the famous Sea Point coastal exposures in Cape Town, after deliberately setting out to prove his predecessors wrong. These myths are challenged by the now ample evidence that Darwin had excellent help in his geological education from the likes of Robert Jameson, John Henslow and Adam Sedgwick. The story of Darwin and his predecessors at the Sea Point granite contact has become confused, and even conflated, with previous descriptions by Basil Hall (1813 and Clark Abel (1818. Here, the historical record is unravelled and set straight, and it is shown from the evidence of his notebooks that Darwin was quite unaware of the outcrops in Cape Town. His erudite account of the contact was a result of the 8 years spent in writing and correspondence after his return to England and not because of his brilliant insights on the outcrop, as the myth would have it. While there has been little to indicate Darwin’s landfalls in Africa, a new plaque now explains the geology of the Sea Point Contact, and includes a drawing of Darwin’s ship, the Beagle, and quotes from his work.
Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J
Myths are not uncommon in the history of neuroscience and their tenacity even when faced with suitable correctives is impressive. The possible origins and transmission of one such myth is examined: the oft repeated quotation, attributed to Luigi Galvani, that he was the "frog's dancing master." The statement does not occur in Galvani's writing and appears to have accrued features in the early nineteenth century, largely from French writers. In the 1870s, the quotation was used by William Crookes, the discoverer of thallium and inventor of Crookes' tube, in implicit support of his investigations into spiritualist phenomena. Crookes arranged séances with the psychic Daniel Dunglas Home and, being unable to explain them, introduced the concept of psychic force. A related myth concerns Galvani's accidental discovery of the neuromuscular action of electricity in the course of preparing a beneficial broth for his ailing wife. The two myths became entwined in the tangled web woven by commentators of Galvani's work. The myth-information is magnified by the World Wide Web.
Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions.Objectives: To identify the difference in perceptions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions.Study Design - Community based cross sectional study.Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was undertaken in an urban area of Jhansi.Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife.Sample size - 417 couples of the area.Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptionsOutcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night.Statistical analysis - By chi - square test.Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%.Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions.Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.
Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray
A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.
Robinder Kaur Sehdev
Full Text Available The myth of the Maid of the Mist of Niagara Falls is a settler story of an Indigenous woman who kills herself by piloting her canoe over the cataract. This is presented not as a tragedy, but as a cultural necessity. So compelling was this settler myth that until recently it was the focus of settler cultural production at Niagara. I argue that the creation and subsequent fixation upon the myth attempted to displace Indigenous stories, and the centrality of Indigenous women to Indigenous epistemologies and in decolonial action. The recent move to banish the myth from tourist audiences does further violence by moving colonial cultural production to the fringes of visibility and away from critical interrogation. The myth and the ways it is called upon and subsequently banished indicates the normalizing practices of settler colonialism and must be pulled from the brink of unnameability and unknowability into critical discourse.
V. V. Ivanenko
The central point of the issue is the phenomenon of «ukrainofilstvo» (the utmost love to Ukraine, which this outstanding but controversial official kept to. We specifically study the essence, components and consequences of the historical process known as «the light thaw» of P. Shelest. This process was particularly obvious in very concrete though discrepant steps done by the official towards Ukrainian national interests and rights protection. Among the priorities were the basics of the Ukrainian identity, such as the language, education and culture. As a devoted communist, a supporter of the Soviet Union’s «brotherhood» and a determined bearer of the communist ideas and ideals (especially in the struggle against dissidence, the Ukrainian leader, at the same time, opposed as he could the Kremlin dictatorship in particular segments of humanitarian and economical policy. It partly prevented extensive implementation of the Russian language, which had a tendency to substitute Ukrainian (the process of Russification, as well as resisted to total destruction of the Ukrainian national landscape uniqueness for the sake of Moscow’s political and ideological pressure. Simultaneously we stress, that existing myths about «autonomy», «national communism» or the program of the so called «second Ukrainisation» of P. Shelest are not proved by documents, which means these facts do not correspond to the real state of events at the mentioned historical period.
Frederick A. de Armas
Full Text Available One of the classical myths that are present in Cervantes’ interpolated tale of El curioso impertinente, the rape of Danaë, has not receive much critical attention.. The many visual images in the cervantine tale recall the use of ekphrasis to portray the myth in Terence’s Eunuch, where the painting is one of the causes of Pánfila’s rape. The cervantine tale evokes the controversy triggered by the ancient play, starting with Saint Augustine and continuing into the Spanish Golden Age, with writers such as Juan de Mariana and Juan de Pineda. This study of Terence’s comedy along with the painting of Danae, sent by Titian to Philip II, serves to the underline the structural and thematic importance of the myth in Cervantes’ tale. Through the story of Danaë, Cervantes enters into the debate on the impact of the visual arts at the time of the Counterreformation.
Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee
Although cloud computing is still in its infancy, it is rapidly becoming one of the most used buzzwords in the IS/IT field and ERP-systems are one of the fastest growing SaaS cloud applications. However, given the relative newness of ERP cloud computing, and the lack of empirical research...... on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... understanding about the true challenges related to ERP cloud computing, it is important to examine these myths in an effort to dispel or support them. In this paper, we attempt to achieve that. Specifically, we explore eight myths related to cloud-based ERP systems through a study involving in-depth interviews...
LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L
This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.
Nagy, Peter; Wylie, Ruth; Eschrich, Joey; Finn, Ed
Reflecting the dangers of irresponsible science and technology, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein quickly became a mythic story that still feels fresh and relevant in the twenty-first century. The unique framework of the Frankenstein myth has permeated the public discourse about science and knowledge, creating various misconceptions around and negative expectations for scientists and for scientific enterprises more generally. Using the Frankenstein myth as an imaginative tool, we interviewed twelve scientists to explore how this science narrative shapes their views and perceptions of science. Our results yielded two main conclusions. First, the Frankenstein myth may help scientists identify popular concerns about their work and offer a framework for constructing a more positive narrative. Second, finding optimistic science narratives may allow scientists to build a better relationship with the public. We argue that by showing the ethical principles and social dimensions of their work, scientists could replace a negative Frankenstein narrative with a more optimistic one.
Geissler, Erhard; Sprinkle, Robert Hunt
When in May 1983 the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first securely attributed to a virus, eventually called the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many controversies arose. Among these was one centering on HIV's origin. A startling hypothesis, called here the "HIV-from-Fort-Detrick myth," asserted that HIV had been a product, accidental or intentional, of bioweaponry research. While its earliest identifiable contributors were in the West, this myth's most dynamic propagators were in the East. The Soviet security service, the KGB, took "active measures" to create and disseminate AIDS disinformation beginning no later than July 1983 and ending no earlier than October 1987. The East German security service, a complex bureaucracy popularly known as "the Stasi," was involved, too, but how early, how deeply, how uniformly, how ably, and how successfully has not been clear. Following German reunification, claims arose attributing to the Stasi the masterful execution of ingenious elements in a disinformation campaign they helped shape and soon came to dominate. We have tested these claims. Was the HIV-from-Fort-Detrick myth a Stasi success? Primary sources were documents and photographs assembled by the Ministry of State Security (MfS) of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany), the Ministry of Interior of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and the United States Department of State; the estate of myth principals Jakob and Lilli Segal; the "AIDS box" in the estate of East German literary figure Stefan Heym; participant-observer recollections, interviews, and correspondence; and expert interviews. We examined secondary sources in light of primary sources. The HIV-from-Fort-Detrick myth had debuted in print in India in 1983 and had been described in publications worldwide prior to 1986, the earliest year for which we found any Stasi document mentioning the myth in any context. Many of the myth's exponents were seemingly independent conspiracy
This publication denounces some myths and, as answers, states some realities regarding France, the World and coal, i.e.: Through its reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, France is an example in the struggle against climate change at the international level (whereas France still supports the development of very emitting projects like coal-fired plants in France and abroad); The construction of new coal plants would comply with the objective defined by the international community to limit world mean temperature rise below 2 deg. C (whereas such a construction does not actually comply with this objective); To be against coal is to go against poverty eradication (whereas there are better alternatives than coal to promote access to energy and eradicate poverty); It's better to replace old existing coal plants by new and more efficient coal plants (whereas great economic powers are now closing coal plants to replace them with renewable energies); As China is not yet ready to struggle against climate change, there is no use to withdraw support to coal projects (whereas China is now implementing measures to struggle against climate change)
Mango, Steve; Castro, Luiz
As NDE operation - particularly radiographic testing - ransition form analog to digital technologies such as computed radiography (CR), users are learning that there's more to digital image quality than meets the eye. In fact, there are ultiple factors that determine the final perceived image quality of a computed radiograph. Many of these factors are misunderstood, and some are touted as the ''key parameter'' or ''magic bullet'' in producing optiumum image quality, In reality, such claims are oversimplified, and are more marketing hype than reality. The truth?. Perceived image quality results form the cascaded effects of many factor - such as sharpness, system noise, spot size and pixel size, subject contrast, bit depth, radiographic technique, and so on. Many of these factors are within the control of rdiographers or designers of equipment and media. This paper will explain some of these key factors, dispel some of the myths surrounding them, and will show that qualities such as bigger, smaller, more, or less are not always better when it comes to CR image quality. (authors)
Dubanoski, R A; Inaba, M; Gerkewicz, K
In many countries, corporal punishment of school children continues to be an officially or unofficially sanctioned form of institutional child abuse. Continuing support for the use of corporal punishment is related to the following factors: (1) widely held beliefs regarding the effectiveness of corporal punishment, (2) an unawareness of problems resulting from the use of physical punishment, and (3) a lack of knowledge about effective disciplinary alternatives. The purpose of this paper is threefold: One is to show that many of the beliefs are myths, e.g., corporal punishment is not needed to build character. The second purpose is to show that physical punishment can lead to more problems than it appears to solve, e.g., the punitive teacher is avoided, and thus, is not a positive factor in the child's education and development. The third purpose is to discuss two types of alternatives to punishment, the social learning approach and communication skills training. These positive methods of discipline not only enhance classroom behavior, but also facilitate learning. In an atmosphere free of abusing and demeaning acts and in a classroom characterized by positive mutual regard, teachers can maximize their effectiveness as teachers and students can maximize their effectiveness as learners.
Full Text Available The media’s and society’s prejudice in favor of ‘ablesim’ propagates the myth of body perfection. As a result we pursue perfection – the concept of ableism invades our minds as well as our culture and we all succumb to it’s lure. Disability is socially constructed; it is ableism that compels people to believe that perfection is normal. This belief is nothing less than social oppression. Even the rehabilitation therapies send out strong signals that persons with disabilities are ‘deficient’ and ‘abnormal’, and that to become a "valued" person they would have to overcome their disabilities. Since the physical component of self-concept is important in maintenance of health and in identity formation, such pressures can lead to a distortion of self-concept. The desire for human perfection can lead to medical conditions such as obsessive compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, or depression. It can also impact our understanding of what it means to be human and what signifies a perfect or happy life. This article expounds on why we must achieve, value, and polish psychological maturity through awareness, self-regulation, and honesty.
Full Text Available The existence of ‘Learning Styles’ is a common ‘neuromyth’, and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analysing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for Learning Styles with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use.The overwhelming majority (89% of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research.
Jevtović Zoran B.
Full Text Available Reporting is usually seen as a process in which different facts get sense and specific meaning in a society. The complex nature of media discourse turns occurrences, conflicts, processes and individuals into news, reports, interviews an other genres. The whole process was for a long time followed by a conception of objectivity as one of the most crucial postulates in journalism. During the centuries, a specific myth of good journalism was developed, that promoted honesty, balance, fair play, impartiality, in a word - objectivity. However, globalization and the digital revolution, supported by corporate capital, pointed out the manipulative context and ideological construct of contemporary mediapractice, one that subordinated the structuring and distribution of information to the interests of the ruling elites. In that new journalism, visible and invisible are blended in a convincing narrative, constructed images make critical thinking impossible, and ideological concepts are hidden by lexical meaning. Between an archaic desire to transmit the truth, with full consideration of professional standards, and clientelistic journalism, which develops a close relationship with advertisers and media owners, grows an unbridgeable gap, which significantly changes the character of journalism across the globe.
This book is an amateur astronomer’s guide to the mythology and symbolism associated with the celestial bodies in the Solar System, and even includes some of the legendary tales of people who had or have a connection with these objects. It explores different cultures (for example, the Greco-Roman and the Norse) and different times and how stories were used to explain the worlds they saw above them. You’d be amazed how much of our world today reflects the myths and stories of these cultures! Most amateur astronomers are familiar with the various Solar System objects, but they will be only peripherally aware of what ancient cultures thought of these other worlds. In fact, the mythology of the planets challenges many twenty-first century concepts and beliefs There are other books available on astromythology, but this one focuses mostly on our own Solar System, as opposed to the constellations and deep sky objects. Alexander offers a new angle on timeless subjects and is exciting, informative and dramatic...
Newton, Philip M
The existence of 'Learning Styles' is a common 'neuromyth', and their use in all forms of education has been thoroughly and repeatedly discredited in the research literature. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that their use remains widespread. This perspective article is an attempt to understand if and why the myth of Learning Styles persists. I have done this by analyzing the current research literature to capture the picture that an educator would encounter were they to search for "Learning Styles" with the intent of determining whether the research evidence supported their use. The overwhelming majority (89%) of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education. These papers are dominated by the VAK and Kolb Learning Styles inventories. These presence of these papers in the pedagogical literature demonstrates that an educator, attempting to take an evidence-based approach to education, would be presented with a strong yet misleading message that the use of Learning Styles is endorsed by the current research literature. This has potentially negative consequences for students and for the field of education research.
Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Basavaraju, Navya; Jadaan, Dima Y; Devitt, Aiden T; McCabe, John P
Low back pain remains major public health problem in the Western industrialized world. The known prevalence of low back pain in Ireland is approximately 13 %. It is one of the leading causes of sickness compensation and disability pension in our justification. We hypothesized that there is a widespread misconception about the perception of low back pain among the Irish population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the "Myths" of low back pain existed among the Irish population. We carried out a cross-sectional study in the Republic of Ireland from April 2013 to August 2013. The Irish population who visited Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland, was contacted randomly at point of entry to the hospital. During the survey, the authors obtained verbal consent before handing the questionnaire, which contained the Deyo's seven myths. The responders were asked to mark their response in a three-point scale (agree, unsure, disagree) to the seven statements. Out of 500 responders, 59 (11.8 %) people answered none of the questions correctly. Fifty-six (11.2 %) answered one question correctly, 106 (21.2 %) answered two questions correctly, 85 (17 %) people disagreed with three myths, 88 (17.6 %) disagreed with four myths, 55 (11 %) people answered five questions correctly, and 34 (6.8 %) answered six questions correctly. Therefore, only 17 (3.4 %) people disagreed with all the seven myths. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that myths of low back pain widely exist among Irish population studied . The level of education played an important role. The findings from this study suggest that public health information regarding low back pain is inadequate and has not affected attitudes to low back pain in an Irish population.
Full Text Available In the last years the Awajún people, settled in the Río Cenepa watershed (Department of Amazonas, Peru are struggling to defend their land from the impact of the mining activities in the Cordillera del Condor mountains. The myth of Kumpanan, an ancestor associated to the homonymous pick, located in the mining area, has been revitalized, with a new meaning, mirroring the current social and environmental contingency of the area. This contributes to rethink the linkages existing between «history» and «myth».
Achadiat, Ryan Aditya
The use of Internet memes in the websites is believed to be a new media to disseminate important ideologies and cultural values which represent the current norms of people in today's life. Dealing with this issue, this study entitled “The Representation of Americanization Myths in the Internet Memes on the 9GAG Comedy Website” is aimed at investigating the Myths of Americanization of 9GAG Internet memes in the Hot Page of the website where the popular Internet memes are provided. The data con...
In Freud's art collection, the myth of Oedipus, a central tenet of psychoanalysis, is represented by several Greek statues and vases, as well as a reproduction of Ingres' painting. Originally a protective male Egyptian deity, in Greek myth, the Sphinx was female and associated with death. In addition, Freud had sculptures of Medusa the Gorgon, a terrifying winged female, and of provocative Baubo, both also figuring in his writings. By describing these works of art and some of their mythological ramifications, the author suggests that they represented aspects of feminity not really covered by Freud's theories.
Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A
An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M
We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.
Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd
The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.
Hornsey, Matthew J; Harris, Emily A; Fielding, Kelly S
Strengthening of antivaccination movements in recent decades has coincided with unprecedented increases in the incidence of some communicable diseases. Many intervention programs work from a deficit model of science communication, presuming that vaccination skeptics lack the ability to access or understand evidence. However, interventions focusing on evidence and the debunking of vaccine-related myths have proven to be either nonproductive or counterproductive. Working from a motivated reasoning perspective, we examine the psychological factors that might motivate people to reject scientific consensus around vaccination. To assist with international generalizability, we examine this question in 24 countries. We sampled 5,323 participants in 24 countries, and measured their antivaccination attitudes. We also measured their belief in conspiracy theories, reactance (the tendency for people to have a low tolerance for impingements on their freedoms), disgust sensitivity toward blood and needles, and individualistic/hierarchical worldviews (i.e., people's beliefs about how much control society should have over individuals, and whether hierarchies are desirable). In order of magnitude, antivaccination attitudes were highest among those who (a) were high in conspiratorial thinking, (b) were high in reactance, (c) reported high levels of disgust toward blood and needles, and (d) had strong individualistic/hierarchical worldviews. In contrast, demographic variables (including education) accounted for nonsignificant or trivial levels of variance. These data help identify the "attitude roots" that may motivate and sustain vaccine skepticism. In so doing, they help shed light on why repetition of evidence can be nonproductive, and suggest communication solutions to that problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Analytical and statistical method of research is used in current study. After discovering and classifying of symbols and myths, they categorized into five areas which derived from nature, positive and negative characters, animals and other items which with regard to their essence cannot be included among natural, characteristic and animal areas. Then functional range of these sections and variety and ingenuity of the poet in the use of these concepts will be examined in this study and we'll try to answer to these questions that how much quantity range of symbol , mask and myth elements are used in Aminpoor's poetry and what kinds of concepts are included in his poetry? Poetry of war in early years, had fallen into a slogan Poets policy was improvement of speech toward imaginary horizons. The use of symbolic speech is one way of emergence, consolidation and spread of the poetic imagination in the war poem (Poorjafi., 1384: p 22. Identity, ambiguity and seeking a path to literary and artistic richness are the major trends of Aminpoor in the use of symbolic elements. Mythic approach and using of historic characters, which became a part of nation's history (Abbas, 1992: p 125, in Aminpoor's poetry are used to create a hero and heroism in his poetry and expressing resistance ideas as well. Hence, poets by recreating historical, national and religious characters, according to the needs of the community, strengthen a sense of strength, durability against foreign domination and flatter their power and steady to their enemies (Lak, 1384: pp. 64, 69. However, in mask poetry, Aminpoor uses historical, religious and Sufi figures and with recreating these characters, impose his own thoughts and perspectives upon them completely (Ahmad Ali El Zobaidi, 2008: pp. 140 & Ashari Zayed, 1978: p 93. "from the countless names of your martyr / Abel was the first name / anymore / do not remember these days / Abel / was my other name" (A. M., 1388: p
Full Text Available Â Abstract Analytical and statistical method of research is used in current study. After discovering and classifying of symbols and myths, they categorized into five areas which derived from nature, positive and negative characters, animals and other items which with regard to their essence cannot be included among natural, characteristic and animal areas. Then functional range of these sections and variety and ingenuity of the poet in the use of these concepts will be examined in this study and we'll try to answer to these questions that how much quantity range of symbol , mask and myth elements are used in Aminpoor's poetry and what kinds of concepts are included in his poetry? Â Poetry of war in early years, had fallen into a slogan Poets policy was improvement of speech toward imaginary horizons. The use of symbolic speech is one way of emergence, consolidation and spread of the poetic imagination in the war poem (Poorjafi., 1384: p 22. Identity, ambiguity and seeking a path to literary and artistic richness are the major trends of Aminpoor in the use of symbolic elements. Â Mythic approach and using of historic characters, which became a part of nation's history (Abbas, 1992: p 125, in Aminpoor's poetry are used to create a hero and heroism in his poetry and expressing resistance ideas as well. Hence, poets by recreating historical, national and religious characters, according to the needs of the community, strengthen a sense of strength, durability against foreign domination and flatter their power and steady to their enemies (Lak, 1384: pp. 64, 69. Â However, in mask poetry, Aminpoor uses historical, religious and Sufi figures and with recreating these characters, impose his own thoughts and perspectives upon them completely (Ahmad Ali El Zobaidi, 2008: pp. 140 & Ashari Zayed, 1978: p 93. Â "from the countless names of your martyr / Abel was the first name / anymore / do not remember these days / Abel / was my other
Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.
Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on
Muller, F. A.
The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.
Full Text Available Aristotle said that where the historian tells us what took place, the poet tells us how it came about. More recently, Gore Vidal defined ‘memoir’ as how one remembers one’s own life as distinct from an autobiography which is history, requiring research into dates and facts which must be double-checked. Memory and Myth play an important role in memoir, allowing the writer to incorporate the real underpinnings of a story that has been lived through rather than simply the account of a sequence of actual events. It might also be argued that the patina of memory that coats the ‘memoir’, as distinct from autobiography, might indeed add its own dimension, taking the account of something very real into a more surreal space. What I call my Rora stories published in Spanish under the title Todas Esas Guerras-- All Those Wars – have never appeared as a collection in English but have been published separately in literary journals. These stories, the very closest I think I will ever come to writing autobiography, grew out of a need to explore my own background – so fragmented in terms of geography, history and culture – at a time when, as a writer, I felt the desperate need to find out exactly who this multicultural person with her mixed baggage might be. The Queen of Dreams, one of the stories in the collection, uses the memory of the child Rora as she attempts to understand the drama and magic of sexuality and love in a grown-up, intolerant world at war. While the story explores the child’s personal history, it also reflects the psyche of Australia at that particular moment.
Juan Antonio Álvarez-Pedrosa
Full Text Available This article aims to improve and complete some reconstructive proposals already existing that relate the myth of the Roman God Mithras' birth from a rock with other traditions, namely some Hittite myths or some legends from Minor Asia. By including data from Hittite Theogony and Rig- Veda and integrating them in a set together with the iconographic information from Roman Mithraism and Sassanid Persia, I propose an Indo-European origin for the myth of the God born from a rock.
Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.
Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…
Albien, Anouk J.; Naidoo, Anthony V.
The current research presents the voices of black adolescents struggling to emerge from the shadow of the Apartheid legacy, focusing on the career beliefs that are perpetuated in low socio-economic communities and negatively influence career opportunities. Inaccurate information can result in career myths, which can have a negative impact on…
Gaze, Catherine M.
The present study investigates the frequency and confidence with which college students endorse popular psychological myths, contrasting introductory psychology students (at the beginning and end of the course) with upper-level psychology majors and students who have never taken Introduction to Psychology. This study builds on the existing…
Folklore is the traditional art, literature, knowledge and practice that are disseminated largely through oral communication. It consists of the things that a given set of people traditionally believe, do, know and say; their worldview and outlook to life, handed over to them from generation to generation orally. Myth is an ...
Brand, Bethany L; Sar, Vedat; Stavropoulos, Pam; Krüger, Christa; Korzekwa, Marilyn; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Middleton, Warwick
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients. The absence of research to substantiate these beliefs, as well as the existence of a body of research that refutes them, confirms their mythical status. Clinicians who accept these myths as facts are unlikely to carefully assess for dissociation. Accurate diagnoses are critical for appropriate treatment planning. If DID is not targeted in treatment, it does not appear to resolve. The myths we have highlighted may also impede research about DID. The cost of ignorance about DID is high not only for individual patients but for the whole support system in which they reside. Empirically derived knowledge about DID has replaced outdated myths. Vigorous dissemination of the knowledge base about this complex disorder is warranted.
Success of programs aimed at teaching racial tolerance depends on ability to confront three misconceptions about racism: life is good for racial minorities; racism is declining; and America can be a color-blind society. These myths have been absorbed into beliefs and attitudes of well-educated, open-minded people. Today's Gallup Polls actually…
Full Text Available The debate about religious experiences has recently been shaped by the question of whether they exist or if they are a myth. One of the most compelling arguments for the non-existence of religious experience was put forward by Nick Zangwill. In his “The myth of religious experience” (2004 he argued that God can be perceived neither by our ordinary five senses nor by some special sixth sense. While I agree with Zangwill that God cannot be perceived with our ordinary five senses (or a sixth religious sense, I do not think his argument shows that religious experience - based on Zangwill’s own understanding of the term - is a myth. In this paper, I offer in two steps a philosophical defence - in the analytical tradition - of the possible existence of religious experience as perceptual experiences. In the first step, I adumbrate Zangwill’s argument for the myth of religious experience, which fails because it ultimately begs the question - as I argue in the second step, by presenting a Berkelean answer to Zangwill’s challenge.
Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W
Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The paper used the hermeneutic and analytical methods to x-ray the views of Claude Levi-Straus, Karl Popper, including the extremely complex knowledge of astronomy of the Dogon people of Mali to arrive at the conclusion that myths remain pivotal categories for the development of science especially for developing ...
The author maintains that the discourse of critical pedagogy is based on rationalist assumptions that give rise to repressive myths. She reflects on her role as a White, middle-class woman and professor developing an antiracist course with a diverse group of students. She critiques the concepts of empowerment, student voice, dialogue, and critical…
Jorgensen, Estelle R.
In probing the interrelationship of myth, meaning, and education, the author offers a case in point, notably, Peter Jackson's film adaptations and Howard Shore's musical scores for J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings trilogy"--"The Fellowship of the Ring," "The Two Towers," and "The Return of the King." Intersecting literature, film, and…
Pawar, Mohan N; Suryawanshi, Deodatta M; Kumar, J Praveen
Medico-legal autopsies are conducted as a part of necessary investigation in all unnatural deaths. In India, the awareness about medico-legal autopsies among the population is still at incipient stage. The procedure is largely stigmatised due to various myths and misconceptions. Apprehension about the procedure brings about various emotional reactions of relatives. Hence the study was carried out to know those myths and misconceptions. To find out the various myths and misconceptions about the medico-legal autopsies among the people. To make a lay person aware of the importance of medico-legal autopsies. This is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in central part of Tamilnadu, India. About 600 participants of age 18 to 80 years were included. Their responses were obtained by semistructured questionnaires. There is a significant difference noted on various views among this population. Administration should strive to rescind these misapprehensions and myths. The medical staff, mass and electronic media should also come forward to educate them. Stipulation of health education about the medico-legal autopsies is must for a lay person. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Abreu, Roberto L.; McEachern, Adriana G.; Kenny, Maureen C.
Although schools are thought to be safe environments for all students, sexual minority and gender expansive (i.e., LGBTQ) students often feel unsafe and unwelcome as a result of misconceptions about their identity. This paper explores eight commonly held myths and misconceptions about LGBTQ youth. The role of professional school counselors (PSCs)…
This is where, from a literary perspective, “words with power”, such as Édouard Glissant's, are called into the work-play (Frye 1990) of resistance and opposition, reconstructing history in “another way” (Benitéz-Rojo 1996), articulating meaningful cross-road connections between history, memory, identity, myth and writing.
van der Helm, P.; Beld, M.; Stams, G.J.
The enduring myth that punishment aids upbringing in residential youth care. In secure residential youth care, a negative coercive cycle of aggression and punishment is often detrimen-tal for the children but also for staff as living group climate deteriorates. In this review of the available
Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.
The aim of this paper is to demystify some of the popular myths related to tropical soil fertility management that have gained hold in the development community and are often being promulgated by NGO's and development agencies in the tropics. Negative nutrient balances at farm scale or at larger
Joret, B.; Viegas, S.; Teixeira, M.T.
In this essay, I intend to elucidate the ontological implications of André Bazin’s integral realism: "a recreation of the world in its own image." The connection that he draws between the world and the image is in harmony with his mythical project for cinema, which argues that an imaginative myth
Aroyo, Lora; Welty, Chris
Big data is having a disruptive impact across the sciences. Human annotation of semantic interpretation tasks is a critical part of big data semantics, but it is based on an antiquated ideal of a single correct truth that needs to be similarly disrupted. We expose seven myths about human annotation,
Background: Different communities associate children's ailments with their developmental milestones and they have beliefs on a variety of causes of the ailments. The objective of this study was to determine the diseases and conditions falsely linked with “nylon teeth” myth among Tanzanian adults. Methods: A cross ...
Full Text Available A meaningful sample of the short allusions to the myth of Troy in the plays of Lope de Vega enable one to part into relief how numerous they are and the part they play in the dramatist’s writing both an ornamental and sometimes a functional point of view.
Desert ethics, myths of nature and novel form in the narratives of Ibrahim al-Koni. This broadly comparative essay contrasts environmentalism in the fiction in English translation of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al- Koni, with dominant trends in contemporary environmentalism. An analysis of three of the most ecocritically ...
Bohner, G.; Danner, U.; Siebler, F.; Samson, G.B.
Processing strategies in risk assessment were studied in an Internet experiment. Women (N = 399) who were either low or high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) were asked to recall either two or six behaviors that either increase or decrease the risk of being sexually assaulted. Later they judged their
Borrajo, Erika; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther
Distorted beliefs about violence and love are often associated with the presence of violence in dating relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between beliefs that justify violence and myths about love in two types of cyber dating abuse (control and direct aggression). The sample consisted of 656 young people between the ages of 18 and 30 years (79.5% women). Regression analysis showed that justification of cyber dating abuse was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of direct aggression in online dating relationships. Myths about love were associated with a greater likelihood of control in online dating relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between justification of cyber dating abuse and perpetration of direct aggression was stronger in women. The relationship between myths about love and perpetration of online control was stronger among the youngest individuals. The justification of abuse and myths about love are important aspects in the development of different kinds of online abuse among young couples. This finding has important implications for the prevention of and intervention in these behaviors.
Levine, Allan G.
Argues that the conflict between elevator and railway operators and the grain farmers of western Canada was not so one-sided as typically presented in high school textbooks. Concludes that the 'courts' of Canadian history have promoted a 'rural myth' of the grain growers associations, the cooperative spirit of the 'Wheat Pools,' and the political…
Written for teachers, for students who intend to be teachers or librarians, and for storytellers in general, this book interprets the familiar legends and tales (Greek, Scandinavian, German, and Celtic myths and legends; Arthurian romances; the Old Testament; and fairy tales) and describes how they can best be told to children. Parallel accounts…
quale la distinzione fra io e mondo, fra soggetto e oggetto, fra io e tu si rivela fittizia. Several contemporary Italian women writers of fiction have resorted to fabulous or parabolic forms as modes which lend themselves to a mimesis of subjective, internalized reality. The element of myth in the works of these writers is not only a.
Lambin, E.F.; Turner, B.L.; Geist, H.J.; Agbola, S.B.; Angelsen, A.; Bruce, J.W.; Coomes, O.T.; Dirzo, R.; Fischer, G.; Folke, C.; George, P.S.; Homewood, K.; Imbernon, J.; Leemans, R.; Xiubin Li,; Moran, E.F.; Mortimore, M.; Ramakrishnan, P.S.; Richards, J.F.; Skanes, H.; Steffen, W.; Stone, G.D.; Svedin, U.; Veldkamp, A.; Vogel, C.; Jianchu Xu,
Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are
Dramatistic analysis suggests that the "New York Times" portrayals of the 1985 terrorist killing of Leon Klinghoffer, the 69 year old American tourist on the Achille Laurs, may contain a mythic dimension. Through the myth of the hero, the news stories invoked the symbol of the self, inviting intense identification of the individual…
Albinism has the potential to affect young people both emotionally and psychologically. Their condition is unique and is surrounded by myths and stereotypes. The unusual appearance of children with oculocutaneous albinism draws attention to them and their vision impairment can impact on their development of social skills and peer relationships. In…
This paper analyses myths associated with birds as they are presented in two collections of short stories by Mozambican writer Mia Couto, Vozes Anoitecidas and Cada Homem é uma Raça. This is a writer with whom many readers living outside the Lusophone world may not be familiar, despite the fact that he is well known ...
Braakhuis, Hyacinthus Edwinus Maria
“Xbalanque’s Marriage” examines the Sun and Moon myth of the Q’eqchi’ Mayas from the perspective of marriage alliance and hunting ideology. On the negative side, the relationship between a tapir and the old adoptive mother of Xbalanque and his older brother can be read as the denial of alliance,
Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.
Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…
Bannon, R. Sean; Brosi, Matthew W.; Foubert, John D.
Sorority women and fraternity men are more likely than other students to be survivors and perpetrators of sexual assault, respectively. The present study examined sorority and fraternity members' rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential sexual assault situations. Sorority women were more rejecting of…
This paper looks at the implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria, whether it\\'s a myth or a reality. The present forms of Education for children with special needs such as special and integrated schools were critically evaluated. This is because, the implementation of inclusive education would depend on the ...
Full Text Available The paper analyses the figure of the poet in two works by the contemporary Italian writer Claudio Magris: in the short prose text Lei dunque capirà (You Will Therefore Understand and the novel Alla cieca (Blindly. In both works the figure of the poet is constructed through the eyes of the other as well as through the prism of mythological narration. In Lei dunque capirà, the image of the poet is shaped by Eurydice's voice, which filters the Orpheus myth, actualising and perhaps banalizing it. The novel, on the other hand, uses the Argonauts myth, intertwined with the Odysseus and Orpheus myths, to reflect on the nature of the narrating voice. The novel questions whether autobiographical narration can at all be reliable or whether it is to be considered – along with mythological narration – as nothing more than “réclame”, representing a deformed view of personal, historical and mythological memory. Magris questions the existence of a stable narrative voice in contemporary fiction, since it appears fragmented and unsure about its own identity. Both works include myth as the central element facilitating reflection on fundamental metaliterary issues. “Looking at the Myth” thus becomes “looking through the myth”, as well as, in Eurydice's narration, looking at a reflection: “I haven't seen myself, I do not know myself. But if you tell me about this, I shall know it and will be able to narrate it”.
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Anne Holden Rønning
Full Text Available Against a background of theoretical reflections on myth, history and memory this paper will discuss their use as narrative strategies in texts from Australia and New Zealand. Scholars differ as to the meaning of myth whether it is formed by “contradictory narratives, which become involved in one another like threads of a tapestry, too intertwined to summarize adequately, and endless” as Bidermann and Scharfstein suggest (1993, 9; “a system of communication” (Barthes 1972; or the expression of “man’s understanding of himself in the world in which he lives.” (Bultman 1993. I shall argue that in Malouf`s Remembering Babylon the myth of Aborigine life is central to an understanding of Gemmy, and memory gives a false almost mythical picture of life in the old country, a situation found in many postcolonial texts from settler countries. That myth is not only associated with the past is evident in Oodgeroo´s Stories from the Old and New Dreamtime which raises some interesting questions about the use of myth. The boundaries between history and memory are often blurred and fluid in fiction, as is evident in the work of the New Zealand writer, Yvonne du Fresne. Historical memory is a determining feature of her texts, where the boundaries between historical facts and memories of life in Denmark haunt her protagonists. In Frederique this intertwining becomes a strategy for investigating Frédérique d’Albert’s situation, a young woman of both French and Danish origin whose memories, fictional and real, determine many of her actions and show the tenuous link between memory and dreams.
Full Text Available L’auteure appréhende la communication gouvernementale canadienne à la lumière des apports théoriques de Jacques Ellul sur les mythes modernes du 20e siècle et sur la propagande. Il ressort de l’analyse des propos des sujets parlants et des images de 26 vidéos diffusées sur le site Internet de l’armée canadienne, destinées au recrutement de jeunes de 18 à 34 ans (2010, une typologie de mythes fondateurs (Science, Histoire, Progrès et de mythes secondaires connexes (progrès technique, technicien performant, formation et carrière idéales, réalisation du bonheur matériel, fratrie, valeurs supérieures, héros exemplaire, vie rêvée, jeunesse promise à des lendemains qui chantent. Ces mythes supportent l’idée que le métier des armes est un métier comme un autre tout en occultant sa finalité guerrière et létale. Constitutifs de communications publicitaires largement financées et diffusées par le gouvernement conservateur de Steven Harper, via le ministère de la Défense nationale, en poussant les jeunes Canadiens à s’engager dans l’armée, ces mythes qui assurent l’efficacité orthopraxique de ces communications, apparentent ces dernières à de la propagande.
Gods and heroes of Greek myths have been of interest to psychoanalysts, who find them as symbols of human intrapsychic life, evolution, and conflicts. Many of these gods and heroes, like Oedipus, Electra, Eros, and Narcissus, have had their names given to psychological situations, conflicts, and diseases. Freud picked the myth of Narcissus as a symbol of a self-absorbed person whose libido is invested in the ego itself, rather than in other people. The term narcissistic personality disorder, also taken from the myth, describes a self-loving character with grandiose feelings of uniqueness. In this article, I reevaluate the myth of Narcissus and present a different psychoanalytic concept for this story. I view Narcissus as a symbol of a youth who seeks the image of anima or a feminine mental image in interpersonal love relationships, an image that can never be found in the real external world. This misguided quest for an imaginary love object only results in solitude.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight", and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God
Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Oscar
It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme that even an
Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan
Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible
Pickton, David W.; Wright, Sheila
Marketing is accused of poor management practice. This paper argues that this is grounded in a confusion of marketing thinking and marketing action which results from widely held beliefs and myths that surround the marketing management process, making it difficult for marketing to develop as a coherent management discipline and profession. Barriers to its successful implementation are created at both strategic and tactical levels. The paper presents an exploration of four myths which are oft...
Joel Zito Araújo
Full Text Available The myth of the Brazilian racial democracy still remains among the cinema and soap opera industry, even though it is greatly criticized by several sectors of the black population. The myth is characterized as a powerful curtain that enables the perception of negative stereotypes about African-Brazilians and provokes the lack of recognition of black actors and actresses throughout the country’s history of cinema and television.
Nisar, N.; Khan, I.A.; Qadri, M.H.; Sher, A.
To determine the myths and misconception about diabetes mellitus among non-diabetics attending primary health care centers of Gadap town, Karachi. Data was collected from four primary health care centers, located at Gadap Town, Karachi, and about 198 non-diabetic patients, above 18 years of age, and resident of Gadap Town, coming consecutively during the month of July 2005, were interviewed after taking the informed consent by using a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire regarding prevailing myths about diabetes mellitus. The data collected was entered and analyzed by using a statistical package SPSS 11.0. Myths are defined as stories shared by a group, as part of the cultural identity. There were 198 participants in the study. Mean age of study participants was 40 years with standard deviation of 13, while approximately two thirds, 62.6%, were females. About 39% had history of type II diabetes mellitus in family. Overall myths related to diabetes mellitus were common among the individuals, males reported myths pre-dominantly contagiousness of diabetes (p= <0.03), diabetics becoming more ill (p=<0.009) and belief in spiritual treatment for permanent cure of diabetes (p=<0.006). People having 5- 16 years of education were less misconceived as compared to illiterates. The variables that showed significant difference were overeating, causing diabetes (p= <0.006), diabetics falling ill more than others (p=<0.04), eating less starch (p=< 0.0006) and alternative treatment like spiritual treatment (p=<0.00001). Family history of diabetes was also found significantly associated with reporting myths. Frequency of reporting myths was significantly high in this study with preponderance of males, family history of diabetes mellitus and educational status. Education serves as protective factor, hence efforts should be made to promote education and health awareness regarding the disease, with more emphasis on addressing myths regarding diabetes mellitus. (author)
We show that the myth of Ares defeated by the giants Aloads is a description of how the planet Mars appears in the sky during its synodic revolution. This criptoscientific myth reported by Homer holds enough astronomical information to make sound this archaeoastronomical interpretation.The tale accounts for the length of the semiperiod of the Martian revolution and presents the notion that Mercury is the only planet which is always visible when Mars recovers after the solar conjunction.
This article uses Claude Lévi-Strauss's linguistic theories to examine the intersection of superheroic and feminine myths in Neil Gaiman and Dave McKean's Black Orchid. It reveals how this text substitutes traditionally feminine tropes (such as mothering, passivity and purity) and taboos for the more usual elements underlying the superhero myth, and explores the effects of this replacement. It is the contention of this article that, to date, the superheroine myth has followed a similar struct...
Grenadier Events HURON LANDING/DIAMOND ACE, MINI JADE, TOMME/MIDNIGHT ZEPHYR, MIDAS MYTH/ MILAGRO , and MISTY RAIN 23 September 1982 - 6 April 1985...MINI JADE TOMME MIDNIGHT ZEPHYR MIDAS MYTH MILAGRO MISTY RAIN ii SECURITY CLASSIFKATION OFTHIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY Six Department of...and in close proximity (40 feet apart). TOMME/MIDNIGHT ZEPHYR and MIDAS MYTH/ MILAGRO were also somewhat different. TOMME was a Lawrence Livermore
Full Text Available Une mutation importante s'est opérée dans le monde arabe entre les deux « Saladin », d'un côté le prince idéal imposant un pouvoir unitaire, l'homme du juste jihäd dont l'image s'est forgée au VII/XIIIe siècle et de l'autre côté le héros des grandes causes arabes contemporaines ; l'évolution remonte aux dernières années du siècle dernier et aux premières décennies du XXe siècle, période qui coïncide avec l'entrée de Saladin dans la littérature arabe moderne par le truchement des genres nouveaux (théâtre et fiction romanesque. C'est cette phase toute particulière de l'histoire du mythe de Saladin qu'éclaire l'article, centré sur une œuvre qui a joué un rôle important dans cette mutation : la pièce de théâtre composée en 1914 par Farah Antūn, al-Sultän Saläh al-din wa-mamlakat Urüshalim [Le Sultan Saladin et le royaume de Jérusalem]. Écriture, création et réception de la pièce sont analysées pour montrer comment naît la figure mythique autour d'un récit fondateur, et comment se construit l'image du chef vertueux, libérateur et unificateur : du prince musulman idéalisé par les sources anciennes, Farah Antūn a fait une figure mythique de type politico-héroïque proposée aux attentes du psychisme collectif du monde arabe.
Thiago Bernardo Borges
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o regime de competência de forma simples e objetiva, e discute como pode ser aplicado às organizações públicas no Brasil. Para tanto, usa a experiência do governo do estado de Minas Gerais no processo de preparação para a adoção do regime de competência puro, que desde 2001 estuda a possibilidade de adoção do regime. Esse processo foi acelerado em 2009 pela iminência de convergência às normas internacionais de contabilidade para o setor público, demandada pela Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional e pelo Conselho Federal de Contabilidade. A análise apresenta os incentivos à iniciativa da adoção do regime, mesmo antes da exigência legal, e os potenciais impactos de tal adoção no processo decisório. O processo de reforma administrativa no caso de Minas Gerais, incentivado primariamente pela necessidade de saneamento fiscal, levou à adoção do conceito de contratualização, o que passou a demandar informação de desempenho. Apesar dos benefícios em potencial do regime de competência para decisão e accountability, o Estado necessitará enfrentar questões como capacitação, adequação de sistemas e incertezas quanto aos parâmetros da Lei de Responsabilidade FiscalThis paper presents accrual basis accounting in a straight and objective way, and how it can be applied to the Brazilian public sector. The State of Minas Gerais has been preparing itself to adopt the accrual accounting since 2001. This process has been improved since 2009 as a consequence of the joint work between the Brazilian Treasury and the National Institute of Chartered Accountants that aim to converge the Brazilian public sector accounting standards to the International Public Sector Accounting Standards. The analysis presents the incentives to the adoption of the accrual accounting, even before it becomes mandatory, and the potential effects of that adoption on decision making. The Minas Gerais public reform was a consequence of
greenhouse gas emissions, and shortages of fresh water and arable land. The potential for widespread ecological breakdown, popularly characterized as...troubling trajectory of continuing consumption of coal and other fossil fuels, population growth, and unabated greenhouse gas emissions, any “progress...nature, to police 88 Nancy Roberts. “Tackling Wicked Problems in Indonesia : A Bottom-Up Design Approach to Reducing Crime and Corruption,” (paper
Masse, W. B. (William Bruce)
Major natural catastrophes (e.g., 'universal' floods, fire, darkness, and sky falling down) are prominently reflected in traditional South American creation myths, cosmology, religion, and worldview. We are now beginning to recognize that cosmogonic myths represent a rich and largely untapped data set concerning the most dramatic natural events and processes experienced by each cultural group during the past several thousand years. Observational details regarding specific catastrophes are encoded in myth storylines, typically cast in terms of supernatural characters and actions. Not only are the myths amenable to scientific analysis, but also some sets of myths encode multiple catastrophes in meaningful relative chronological order. The present study considers more than 4200 myths, including more than 260 'universal' catastrophe myths from cultural groups throughout South America. These myths are examined in light of available geological, paleoenvironmental, archeological, and documentary evidence. Our analysis reveals three possible ultra-plinian volcanic eruptions, two in Columbia and the other in the Gran Chaco, the latter likely associated with a poorly dated late Holocene eruption of Nuevo Mundo in central Bolivia. Our analysis also identifies a set of traditions likely linked with the well-known Campo del Cielo iron meteorite impact in northern Argentina originally hypothesized to have occurred around 4000 years ago. Intriguingly, these traditions strongly suggest that the Campo del Cielo impact triggered widespread mass fires in the Gran Chaco region and possibly in the Brazilian Highlands. Several other potential cosmic impacts, distinct from Campo del Cielo, are hinted at in the mythology of other locations in South America. The numerous catastrophe myths in the Gran Chaco region exhibit the most coherent chronological sequence of any South American region. The sequence begins with a 'Great Flood,' by far the most widespread
The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women’s work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother’s career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality. PMID:29315326
Shafer, Autumn; Ortiz, Rebecca R; Thompson, Bailey; Huemmer, Jennifer
A greater understanding of how college men's gendered beliefs and communication styles relate to their sexual consent attitudes and intentions is essential within the shifting context of negative to affirmative consent policies on college campuses. The results of this study can be used to help design more effective sexual consent interventions. Three hundred seventy undergraduate college men completed cross-sectional online surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression examined how hypermasculinity, token resistance, rape myth acceptance, and sexual communication assertiveness were associated with consent-related attitudes, intentions, and interpretations. Bivariate correlations among all variables were significant. In multivariate analyses, sexual communication assertiveness was positively associated with all consent outcomes, and token resistance and rape myth acceptance were negatively associated with some. Hypermasculinity was not a significant factor. Programs seeking to improve sexual consent communication among college men should reduce destructive beliefs and encourage sexually assertive communication. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira; Selli, Lucilda
To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysis followed the content analysis. The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women's lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn's integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women's daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.
Full Text Available The article argues that theories of economic development are metaphors which have a strong mythical content, albeit unacknowledged by social scientists. The policies derived from such theories have two agendas: a “positive” agenda that states which problems should be tackled and how; and a “negative” agenda that contains issues and policies to be avoided. This approach is used to interpret the hegemonic view of development, as stated by the Washington Consensus, showing that such view contains all ingredients of a millenary myth – the crossing of the Desert towards a Promised Land. The two agendas of this view of development, which have ruled the Brazilian development strategy of the second half of the nineties, are then analyzed as applied to the Brazilian case. Finally, the article discusses alternative approaches to the present view of development, arguing for open-ended metaphors, as expressed by the Ulysses myth.
Verniers, Catherine; Vala, Jorge
The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women's work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother's career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality.
Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd
A representative sample of German residents (N = 5397) was surveyed with the aim of studying their acceptance of contemporary rape myths (RMA), using items from the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale [AMMSA; Gerger et al., 2007] in relation to demographic variables (e.g., gender, age), intolerant belief systems (e.g., sexism, islamophobia), the ideologies of rightwing authoritarianism (RWA), and social dominance orientation (SDO), as well as gender identification. Age showed a U-shaped relationship with RMA, whereas gender was unrelated to RMA. For men (women), greater identification with their gender was associated with higher (lower) RMA. Substantial correlations of RMA with intolerant belief systems support the idea of a schema of intolerance. Although RWA and SDO were both related to RMA, only RWA explained unique variance beyond the effects of intolerant belief systems. Results are discussed in comparison to prior studies using mainly student samples. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Takase, Miyuki; Maude, Phillip; Manias, Elizabeth
Job dissatisfaction and turnover are recurring themes in nursing. The current international nursing shortage has resulted in increased interest in investigating the causes of nurses' job dissatisfaction and turnover, and in developing countermeasures to address these issues. This paper involves a review of quantitative nursing studies, which investigated the causes of nurses' job dissatisfaction and turnover intention, and identifies commonly held myths that may inhibit more nurse-centered strategies from being developed. These myths are based on an assumption that a nurse-environment relationship is a one-way interaction in which nurses passively respond to their environment. The paper introduces the person-environment fit theory as an alternative framework, which challenges the assumption by suggesting it is the relationship between person and environment, rather than environmental characteristics alone, that affects nurses' occupational behavior. This theory enables nurse researchers to develop a more mutual approach involving the nurse and environment.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to some specific 'area between' interpretative achievements of Freud, Jung and Bachelard. The imagination and myth problems are involved in more general perspective of philospophical conception of man in their works. Different models of human reason and imagination idealizing forces influenced procedures of an imaginal thinking and image itself interpretations. The basis of comparation is the unconscious (Freudian 'repressed unconscious', Jungian collective unconsciuos, complex and archetype conceptions as some kind of instruments to understand image formating process, phantasies, mythical and poetical image. An example of these differences is their interpretations of Promethean myth. A way of understand dream image, Anima and Animus archetypes refer to their specific theoretical frames.
Gasparini, R; Panatto, D; Lai, P L; Amicizia, D
In modern society, a potentially serious adverse event attributed to a vaccination is likely to be snapped up by the media, particularly newspapers and television, as it appeals to the emotions of the public. The widespread news of the alleged adverse events of vaccination has helped to create the "urban myth" that vaccines cause serious neurological disorders and has boosted antivaccination associations. This speculation is linked to the fact that the true causes of many neurological diseases are largely unknown. The relationship between vaccinations and the onset of serious neuropsychiatric diseases is certainly one of coincidence rather than causality. This claim results from controlled studies that have excluded the association between vaccines and severe neurological diseases, therefore it can be said, with little risk of error, that the association between modern vaccinations and serious neurological disorders is a true "urban myth". © Copyright by Pacini Editore SpA, Pisa, Italy.
Jitse Schuurmans; Lee F. Monaghan
The word Casanova is often treated as a synonym for womaniser, variously interpreted in a positive or negative light depending upon the audience. The Seduction Community (SC) largely comprises young heterosexual men who follow and adapt the teachings of commercial pickup artists, typically in an effort to embody the Casanova-myth. This paper reports and analyses findings from a qualitative study of the SC. Drawing from life history interviews (n=29) and understandings generated during fieldwo...
Worthen, Meredith G F
Although there is a wealth of existing research on various correlates and patterns of rape myth acceptance (RMA), including how RMA relates to homophobia (i.e., antigay and antilesbian perspectives) and negativity toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women rape victims, no research to date has specifically focused on RMA among LGB and "mostly heterosexual" men and women. The current study examines how gender, sexual identity, personal experiences with rape (i.e., knowing/being a survivor), feminist identity, patriarchal gender norms, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and the interactions among these relate to LGB college students' ( n = 389; 24% gay/lesbian, 19% bisexual, 57% mostly heterosexual) RMA using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form. Findings show that being a woman, being LGB, identifying as a feminist, and knowing/being a survivor are all negatively related to RMA, whereas patriarchal gender norms are positively related to RMA. Attitudes toward LGBT people had differing effects whereby attitudes toward gay men were unassociated with RMA, attitudes toward lesbian women and trans men were negatively associated with RMA, and attitudes toward bisexual men and women and trans women differed depending on the comparison reference group (exclusive heterosexuals, n = 1,551, mostly heterosexuals, n = 222). Furthermore, the interacting effects of these identities, experiences, and perspectives also revealed significant findings that add complexity to these relationships. Overall, this research seeks to fill the gaps in the literature, expand our knowledge about rape myths, and contribute to new lines of inquiry that focus on LGB people's perspectives to work toward a deeper understanding of rape myths, so that ultimately, these damaging perspectives can be dispelled.
Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Universidad de Granada, España; L. Megías, Jesús; Universidad de Granada, España
In this paper we attempt to show the most significant aspects in the literature on sexual assaults in college students. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of alcohol and the myths or beliefs about rape, as some of these factors produce great negative impact on victims, decreasing their motivation to report incidents, and increasing self-blaming. The work is organized in three sections: a) reviewing the problem, b) the role of alcohol in the occurrence of sexual violence, and c) the...
Wilson Eduardo Gómez Pulgarin
Full Text Available Despite cultural, linguistic and geographic differences, the Witoto and Tikuna indigenous peoples share mythical episodes, which happen to be at the base of their everyday activities and their rituals of relationship with the forest and its masters. This text highlights some similarities in the myths of origin of both groups, which moves us to find out more about the complementarity between actions of the mythical twins, and the restoration and organization of the world for human survival, knowledge and values.