WorldWideScience

Sample records for debris impact features

  1. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  2. The ecological impacts of marine debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A.J.; Franeker, Van Jan A.; Thompson, Richard C.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological

  3. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A. J.; Chapman, M. G.; Williams, Rob; Thompson, Richard C.; van Franeker, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to disease and mortality, and (ii) debris is considered non-hazardous by policy-makers, possibly because individuals can be injured or removed from populations and assemblages without ecological impacts. We reviewed the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to assemblages and populations. Using plastic, we show microplastics reduce the ‘health’, feeding, growth and survival of ecosystem engineers. Larger debris alters assemblages because fishing-gear and tyres kill animals and damage habitat-forming plants, and because floating bottles facilitate recruitment and survival of novel taxa. Where ecological linkages are not known, we show how to establish hypothetical links by synthesizing studies to assess the likelihood of impacts. We also consider how population models examine ecological linkages and guide management of ecological impacts. We show that by focusing on linkages to ecological impacts rather than the presence of debris and its sublethal impacts, we could reduce threats posed by debris. PMID:25904661

  4. Feature test report for the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Equipment Engineering group performed feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) in the 305 Cold Test Facility from January 30, 1995, to February 1, 1995. Feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) was performed for the following reasons: To assess the feasibility of using ''drop-out'' vessels to collect small debris (<2.5 cm) in MK-II fuel canisters while transferring sludge to the Weasel Pit. To evaluate system performance under conditions similar to those in the K-Basins (e.g. submerged under 4.9 meters of water and operated with long handled tools) while using a surrogate sludge mixed with debris. To determine if canister weight could be used to predict the volume of sludge and/or debris contained within the canisters during system operation

  5. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A J; Chapman, M G; Williams, Rob; Thompson, Richard C; van Franeker, Jan A

    2015-05-22

    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to disease and mortality, and (ii) debris is considered non-hazardous by policy-makers, possibly because individuals can be injured or removed from populations and assemblages without ecological impacts. We reviewed the mechanisms that link effects of debris across lower levels of biological organization to assemblages and populations. Using plastic, we show microplastics reduce the 'health', feeding, growth and survival of ecosystem engineers. Larger debris alters assemblages because fishing-gear and tyres kill animals and damage habitat-forming plants, and because floating bottles facilitate recruitment and survival of novel taxa. Where ecological linkages are not known, we show how to establish hypothetical links by synthesizing studies to assess the likelihood of impacts. We also consider how population models examine ecological linkages and guide management of ecological impacts. We show that by focusing on linkages to ecological impacts rather than the presence of debris and its sublethal impacts, we could reduce threats posed by debris. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis Of The 2009 July Impact Debris In Jupiter'S Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; García-Melendo, E.; Gómez, J. M.; Rojas, J. F.; Orton, G. S.; Wesley, A.; IOPW International Outer Planet Watch Team

    2009-09-01

    We report the analysis of images obtained by the contributors to the International Outer Planet Watch (IOPW) of the debris left in the atmosphere of Jupiter by the object that impacted the planet between 18 and 19 July 2009. The discovery images by Anthony Wesley in July 19.625 and the first two days of its tracking, shows a dark debris spot (continuum wavelength) located at planetocentric latitude -55.1 deg and 304.5 deg System III longitude. The imaging survey indicates that the spot was not present in July 18.375, so the impact occurred during a window between both dates. The main spot had a size of about 4,500 km and to its Northwest a thin debris halo of similar size was initially observed. Methane band images at a wavelength of 890 nm shows the spot to be bright indicating that the debris aerosols are highly placed in the atmosphere relative to surrounding clouds. At the central latitude of the impact, the Jovian flow has nearly zero speed but anticyclonic vorticity bounded by jets at -51.5 deg (directed westward with velocity -10 m/s) and at -57.5 deg (directed eastward with velocity 25 m/s). The morphology in the continuum and the spot brightness in the methane band strongly suggest that the feature was caused by a cometary or asteroidal impact, similar in behaviour to the SL9 impacts of 1994. This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. RH acknowledges a "Ramón y Cajal” contract from MEC.

  7. A probabilistic approach for debris impact risk with numerical simulations of debris behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Naoto; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Fujii, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic approach for evaluating the impact risk of tsunami debris through Monte Carlo simulations with a combined system comprising a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model and a discrete element model customized to simulate the motions of floating objects such as vessels. In the proposed method, first, probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis is carried out, and the exceedance probability of tsunami height and numerous tsunami time series for various hazard levels on the offshore side of a target site are estimated. Second, a characteristic tsunami time series for each hazard level is created by cluster analysis. Third, using the Monte Carlo simulation model the debris impact probability with the buildings of interest and the exceedance probability of debris impact speed are evaluated. (author)

  8. Impact Forces from Tsunami-Driven Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, H.; Cox, D. T.; Riggs, H.; Naito, C. J.; Kobayashi, M. H.; Piran Aghl, P.

    2012-12-01

    Debris driven by tsunami inundation flow has been known to be a significant threat to structures, yet we lack the constitutive equations necessary to predict debris impact force. The objective of this research project is to improve our understanding of, and predictive capabilities for, tsunami-driven debris impact forces on structures. Of special interest are shipping containers, which are virtually everywhere and which will float even when fully loaded. The forces from such debris hitting structures, for example evacuation shelters and critical port facilities such as fuel storage tanks, are currently not known. This research project focuses on the impact by flexible shipping containers on rigid columns and investigated using large-scale laboratory testing. Full-scale in-air collision experiments were conducted at Lehigh University with 20 ft shipping containers to experimentally quantify the nonlinear behavior of full scale shipping containers as they collide into structural elements. The results from the full scale experiments were used to calibrate computer models and used to design a series of simpler, 1:5 scale wave flume experiments at Oregon State University. Scaled in-air collision tests were conducted using 1:5 scale idealized containers to mimic the container behavior observed in the full scale tests and to provide a direct comparison to the hydraulic model tests. Two specimens were constructed using different materials (aluminum, acrylic) to vary the stiffness. The collision tests showed that at higher speeds, the collision became inelastic as the slope of maximum impact force/velocity decreased with increasing velocity. Hydraulic model tests were conducted using the 1:5 scaled shipping containers to measure the impact load by the containers on a rigid column. The column was instrumented with a load cell to measure impact forces, strain gages to measure the column deflection, and a video camera was used to provide the debris orientation and speed. The

  9. Electron microscope observations of impact crater debris amongst contaminating particulates on materials surfaces exposed in space in low-Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Rivas, J. M.; Quinones, S.; Niou, C.-S.; Advani, A. H.; Marquez, B.

    1993-01-01

    Debris particles extracted from a small sampling region on the leading edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft have been examined by analytical transmission electron microscopy and the elemental frequency observed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and compared with upper atmosphere (Earth) particle elemental frequency and the average elemental compositions of interplanetary dust particles. A much broader elemental distribution was observed for the exposed spacecraft surface debris milieu. Numerous metal microfragment analyses, particularly aluminum and stainless steel, were compared with scanning electron microscope observations-of impact crater features, and the corresponding elemental spectra on selected LDEF aluminium tray clamps and stainless steel bolts. The compositions and melt features for these impact craters and ejecta have been shown to be consistent with microcrystalline debris fragments in the case of aluminum, and these observations suggest an ever changing debris milieu on exposed surfaces for space craft and space system materials.

  10. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, M.A.; Underwood, A.J.; Chapman, M.G.; Williams, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated contamination of habitats with debris has caused increased effort to determine ecological impacts. Strikingly, most work on organisms focuses on sublethal responses to plastic debris. This is controversial because (i) researchers have ignored medical insights about the mechanisms that

  11. The ecological impacts of marine debris: unraveling the demonstrated evidence from what is perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Browne, Mark Anthony; Underwood, A J; van Franeker, Jan A; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic debris contaminates marine habitats globally, leading to several perceived ecological impacts. Here, we critically and systematically review the literature regarding impacts of debris from several scientific fields to understand the weight of evidence regarding the ecological impacts of marine debris. We quantified perceived and demonstrated impacts across several levels of biological organization that make up the ecosystem and found 366 perceived threats of debris across all levels. Two hundred and ninety-six of these perceived threats were tested, 83% of which were demonstrated. The majority (82%) of demonstrated impacts were due to plastic, relative to other materials (e.g., metals, glass) and largely (89%) at suborganismal levels (e.g., molecular, cellular, tissue). The remaining impacts, demonstrated at higher levels of organization (i.e., death to individual organisms, changes in assemblages), were largely due to plastic marine debris (> 1 mm; e.g., rope, straws, and fragments). Thus, we show evidence of ecological impacts from marine debris, but conclude that the quantity and quality of research requires improvement to allow the risk of ecological impacts of marine debris to be determined with precision. Still, our systematic review suggests that sufficient evidence exists for decision makers to begin to mitigate problematic plastic debris now, to avoid risk of irreversible harm.

  12. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  13. DebriSat Hypervelocity Impact Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    public release; distribution unlimited.  Targets: Scaled Multishock Shield, DebrisLV, and DebriSat  500-600 g hollow aluminum and nylon projectile... insulation . DebriSat’s internal components were structurally similar to real flight hardware but were nonfunctional. AEDC-TR-15-S-2 6...structures with an AL 5052 honeycomb core and M55J carbon fiber face sheets. The basic system characteristics of the DebriSat are given in Table 1

  14. Andic soil features and debris flows in Italy. New perspective towards prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Solange; Calcaterra, Domenico; Iamarino, Michela; Langella, Giuliano; Orefice, Nadia; Vingiani, Simona; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows are dangerous hazards causing fatalities and damage. Previous works have demonstrated that the materials involved by debris flows in Campania (southern Italy) are soils classified as Andosols. These soils have peculiar chemical and physical properties which make them fertile but also vulnerable to landslide. In Italy, andic soil properties are found both in volcanic and non-volcanic mountain ecosystems (VME and NVME). Here, we focused on the assessment of the main chemical and physical properties of the soils in the detachment areas of eight debris flows occurred in NVME of Italy in the last 70 years. Such landslides were selected by consulting the official Italian geodatabase (IFFI Project). Andic properties (by means of ammonium oxalate extractable Fe, Si and Al forms for the calculation of Alo+1/2Feo) were also evaluated and a comparison with soils of VME was performed to assess possible common features. Landslide source areas were characterised by slope gradient ranging from 25° to 50° and lithological heterogeneity of the bedrock. The soils showed similar, i.e. all were very deep, had a moderately thick topsoil with a high organic carbon (OC) content decreasing regularly with depth. The cation exchange capacity trend was generally consistent with the OC and the pH varied from extremely to slightly acid, but increased with depth. Furthermore, the soils had high water retention values both at saturation (0.63 to 0.78 cm3 cm-3) and in the dryer part of the water retention curve, and displayed a prevalent loamy texture. Such properties denote the chemical and physical fertility of the investigated ecosystems. The values of Alo+1/2Feoindicated that the soils had vitric or andic features and can be classified as Andosols. The comparison between NVME soils and those of VME showed similar depth, thickness of soil horizons, and family texture, whereas soil pH, degree of development of andic properties and allophane content were higher for VME soils. Such

  15. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    required. These data also help in the analysis and interpretation of impact features on returned spacecraft surfaces. 4) Mitigation - Controlling the growth of the orbital debris population is a high priority for NASA, the United States, and the major space-faring nations of the world to preserve near-Earth space for future generations. Mitigation measures can take the form of curtailing or preventing the creation of new debris, designing satellites to withstand impacts by small debris, and implementing operational procedures ranging from utilizing orbital regimes with less debris, adopting specific spacecraft attitudes, and even maneuvering to avoid collisions with debris. Downloadable items include several documents in PDF format and executable software.and 5) Reentry - Because of the increasing number of objects in space, NASA has adopted guidelines and assessment procedures to reduce the number of non-operational spacecraft and spent rocket upper stages orbiting the Earth. One method of postmission disposal is to allow reentry of these spacecraft, either from orbital decay (uncontrolled entry) or with a controlled entry. Orbital decay may be achieved by firing engines to lower the perigee altitude so that atmospheric drag will eventually cause the spacecraft to enter. However, the surviving debris impact footprint cannot be guaranteed to avoid inhabited landmasses. Controlled entry normally occurs by using a larger amount of propellant with a larger propulsion system to drive the spacecraft to enter the atmosphere at a steeper flight path angle. It will then enter at a more precise latitude, longitude, and footprint in a nearly uninhabited impact region, generally located in the ocean.

  16. Debris impact on emergency coolant recirculation - summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhagwat; Hsia, Anthony; Armand, Yves; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Hyvaerinen, Juhani; Maqua, Michael; Puetter, Bernhard; Sandervaag, Oddbjoern; Vandewalle, Andre; Tombuyses, Beatrice; Pyy, Pekka; Royen, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    to two orders of magnitude because of strainer clogging. Consequently, the CSNI decided to continue its previous efforts in the area. The overall purpose of the 2004 Workshop was to discuss the impact of new information made available since 1996 and to promote consensus among member countries on identification of remaining technical issues important to safety, and on possible paths for their resolution. The specific purposes of the Workshop were: a. To review the knowledge base and in particular information developed after 1999, and to consider the validity of the conclusions drawn. b. To exchange information on the current status of research related to debris generation, debris transportation, and sump strainer clogging and penetration phenomena, in particular for PWRs, and to assess uncertainties. c. To exchange and disseminate information on recent and current activities and practices in these areas. d. To identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety. e. To identify technical issues and programs of interest for international collaborative research and develop an Action Plan outlining activities that CSNI should undertake in the area of strainer or sump screen clogging during the next few years. Summary of the main findings: a. The safety significance of the sump strainer clogging depends on the plant design (e.g. sump strainer, ECCS) and backfitting measures performed. b. The following are examples of PWR design features that could influence the debris impact on the ECCS sump performance: - Type of insulation (material, combination of materials, protection). - Break size to be postulated. - Transport in containment with or without containment spray system (CSS). - Degree of turbulence and flow velocities in the sump influenced by CSS, water level, break flow location and sump geometry. - Redundancy of sumps and residual heat removal system (RHRS). - Strainer design (area, mesh size). - Positioning of recirculation pumps and vortex

  17. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoni, Leandro; Krause, Ligia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Dept. de Zoologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Petry, Maria Virginia [Universidade do Rio dos Sinos, Museu de Zoologia, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtle (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. The ingestion of anthropogenic debris accounted for the death of 13.2% of the green turtles examined. Signs of damage over the body and carapace indicated that fishing activities caused the death of 13.6% (3/22) of loggerheads and 1.5% (1/56) of green turtles. Therefore, it appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters. Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well a the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action. (Author)

  18. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the sub-millimeter to millimeter size regime in the near Earth space environment. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a serious threat to human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m × 0.5 m independent panels, but the dimensions of the panels can easily be modified to accommodate different payload constraints. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine three particle impact detection concepts to maximize information that can be extracted from each detected impact. The first is a resistive grid consisting of 75-micrometer-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 75 micrometer gaps on a 25-micrometer thin film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it would penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second concept is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the thin film to provide the impact timing information. From the different signal arrival times at different acoustic sensors, the impact location can be calculated via triangulation algorithms. The third concept employs a dual-layer film system where a second 25-micrometer film is placed 15 cm behind the resistive-grid film. Multiple PVDF acoustic sensors are also attached to the second film. The combination of impact timing and location information from the two films allows for direct measurements of the impact direction and speed. The DRAGONS technology development has been funded by several NASA organizations since 2002, first

  19. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  20. Protecting AREVA ATRIUM™ BWR fuel from debris fretting failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Steven E.; Garner, Norman L.; Lippert, Hans-Joachim; Graebert, Rüdiger; Mollard, Pierre; Hahn, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, debris fretting has been the leading cause of fuel rod failure in BWR fuel assemblies, costing the industry millions of dollars in lost generation and negatively impacting the working area of plant site personnel. In this paper the focus will be on recent BWR fuel product innovation designed to eliminate debris related failures. Experience feedback from more than three decades of operation history with non-line-of-sight FUELGUARD™ lower tie plate debris filters will be presented. The development and relative effectiveness of successive generations of filtration technology will be discussed. It will be shown that modern, state of the art debris filters are an effective defense against debris fretting failure. Protective measures extend beyond inlet nozzle debris filters. The comprehensive debris resistance features built into AREVA’s newest fuel design, the ATRIUM™ 11, reduce the overall risk of debris entrapment as well as providing a degree of protection from debris that may fall down on the fuel assembly from above, e.g., during refueling operations. The positive recent experience in a debris sensitive plant will be discussed showing that the combination of advanced fuel technology and a robust foreign material exclusion program at the reactor site can eliminate the debris fretting failure mechanism. (author)

  1. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  2. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  3. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. -C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Burchell, M.; Hamilton, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the millimeter or smaller size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but are still large enough to be a serious safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of a DRAGONS unit is 1 m2, consisting of several independently operated panels. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine different particle impact detection principles to maximize information that can be extracted from detected events. After more than 10 years of concept and technology development, a 1 m2 DRAGONS system has been selected for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2016. The project team achieved a major milestone when the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was completed in May 2015. Once deployed on the ISS, this multi-year mission will provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the MMOD detection capability of the DRAGONS technologies and to collect data to better define the small MMOD environment at the ISS altitude.

  5. Fault-tolerant feature-based estimation of space debris rotational motion during active removal missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Gabriele; Mauro, Stefano; Pastorelli, Stefano; Sorli, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    One of the key functionalities required by an Active Debris Removal mission is the assessment of the target kinematics and inertial properties. Passive sensors, such as stereo cameras, are often included in the onboard instrumentation of a chaser spacecraft for capturing sequential photographs and for tracking features of the target surface. A plenty of methods, based on Kalman filtering, are available for the estimation of the target's state from feature positions; however, to guarantee the filter convergence, they typically require continuity of measurements and the capability of tracking a fixed set of pre-defined features of the object. These requirements clash with the actual tracking conditions: failures in feature detection often occur and the assumption of having some a-priori knowledge about the shape of the target could be restrictive in certain cases. The aim of the presented work is to propose a fault-tolerant alternative method for estimating the angular velocity and the relative magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia of the target. Raw data regarding the positions of the tracked features are processed to evaluate corrupted values of a 3-dimentional parameter which entirely describes the finite screw motion of the debris and which primarily is invariant on the particular set of considered features of the object. Missing values of the parameter are completely restored exploiting the typical periodicity of the rotational motion of an uncontrolled satellite: compressed sensing techniques, typically adopted for recovering images or for prognostic applications, are herein used in a completely original fashion for retrieving a kinematic signal that appears sparse in the frequency domain. Due to its invariance about the features, no assumptions are needed about the target's shape and continuity of the tracking. The obtained signal is useful for the indirect evaluation of an attitude signal that feeds an unscented Kalman filter for the estimation of

  6. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.A.; Barros, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee ingests debris while feeding. From 1978 through 1986, 439 salvaged manatees were examined. Debris was in the gastrointestinal tract of 63 (14.4%) and four died as a direct result of debris ingestion. Monofilament fishing line was the most common debris found (N=49). Plastic bags, string, twine, rope, fish hooks, wire, paper, cellophane, synthetic sponges, rubber bands, and stockings also were recovered. Entanglement in lines and nets killed 11 manatees from 1974 through 1985. Numerous free-ranging manatees have missing or scarred flippers from entanglements, or debris still encircling one or both flippers. We recommend local cleanups, education of the public, and fishing restrictions in high use areas to significantly reduce harm to manatees.

  7. ABB. CASE's GUARDIANTM Debris Resistant Fuel Assembly Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. J.; Wohlsen, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    ABB CE's experience, that 72% of all recent fuel-rod failures are caused by debris fretting, is typical. In response to this problem, ABB Combustion Engineering began supplying in the late 1980s fuel assemblies with a variety of debris resistant features, including both long-end caps and small flow holes. Now ABB CAE has developed an advanced debris resistant design concept, GUARDIAN TM , which has the advantage of capturing and retaining more debris than other designs, while displacing less plenum or active fuel volume than the long end-cap design. GUARDIAN TM design features have now been implemented into four different assembly designs. ABB CASE's GUARDIAN TM fuel assembly is an advanced debris-resistant design which has both superior filtering performance and uniquely, excellent debris retention, Retention effectively removes the debris from circulation in the coolant so that it is not able to threaten the fuel again. GUARDIAN TM features have been incorporated into four ABB. CAE fuel assembly designs. These assemblies are all fully compatible with the NSLS, and full-batch operation with GUARDIAN TM began in 1992. The number of plants of both CAE and non-CAE design which accept GUARDIAN TM for debris protection is expected to grow significantly during the next few years

  8. Dynamics of Unusual Debris Flows on Martian Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Beyer, Ross A.; Bourke, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Gullies that dissect sand dunes in Russell impact crater often display debris flow-like deposits in their distal reaches. The possible range of both the rheological properties and the flow rates are estimated using a numerical simulation code of a Bingham plastic flow to help explain the formation of these features. Our simulated results are best explained by a rapid debris flow. For example, a debris flow with the viscosity of 10(exp 2) Pa s and the yield strength of 10(exp 2) Pa can form the observed deposits with a flow rate of 0.5 cu m/s sustained over several minutes and total discharged water volume on the order of hundreds of cubic meters, which may be produced by melting a surface layer of interstitial ice within the dune deposits to several centimeters depth.

  9. Marine debris: global and regional impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Torres N,Daniel; Berguño B,Jorge

    2011-01-01

    A synthesis on the Marine Debris problem is given upon de basis of the general knowledge on the matter as well as that obtained at Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. It is suggested to improve the database on marine debris through permanent scientific research as well as with monitoring activities. It is necessary to coordinate key groups to apply strategies to identify types, sources, amount, interactions and socio-economic aspects of this global and regional probl...

  10. DebriSat: The New Hypervelocity Impact Test for Satellite Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    To replicate a hyper-velocity fragmentation event using modern-day spacecraft materials and construction techniques to better improve the existing DoD and NASA breakup models: DebriSat is intended to be representative of modern LEO satellites. Major design decisions were reviewed and approved by Aerospace subject matter experts from different disciplines. DebriSat includes 7 major subsystems. Attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), electrical power system (EPS), payload, propulsion, telemetry tracking and command (TT&C), and thermal management. To reduce cost, most components are emulated based on existing design of flight hardware and fabricated with the same materials. center dotA key laboratory-based test, Satellite Orbital debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), supporting the development of the DoD and NASA satellite breakup models was conducted at AEDC in 1992. Breakup models based on SOCIT have supported many applications and matched on-orbit events reasonably well over the years.

  11. GEO Debris and Interplanetary Dust: Fluxes and Charging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graps, A. L.; Green, S. F.; McBride, N. M.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Bunte, K. D.

    2005-08-01

    A population of cosmic dust mixed with a population of man-made debris exists within the Earth's magnetosphere. Measurements of these provide the data samples for studies of the interplanetary dust particles that travel through our magnetosphere from the outside and for studies of the local byproducts of our space endeavours. Even though instruments to detect natural meteoroids and space debris particles have been flown in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and on interplanetary missions, very little information on the particle environment for Earth orbits above about 600 km altitude have been available. In particular, knowledge about particles smaller than 1 m in the geostationary (GEO) region was largely unknown before GORID. In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into GEO as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris from the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Here we present some results of that study. We give GORID flux distributions for debris and IDPs and then present intriguing debris clustering features that might be the result of electrostatic fragmentation of the rocket slag particles.

  12. DebriSat Project Update and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  13. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow.

  14. Newly Discovered Silicate Features in the Spectra of Young Warm Debris Disks: Probing Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.; Rieke, G.

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial planets form by the collisional accretion of planetesimals during the first 100 Myr of a system’s lifetime. For most systems, the terrestrial regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging (e.g. with HST, MagAO, or LBTI) and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers (e.g. ALMA). Mid-infrared excess spectra—originating from the thermal emission of the circumstellar dust leftover from these collisions—remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. The spectra of most debris disks are featureless, taking the shape of (modified) blackbodies. Determining the properties of debris disks with featureless spectra is complicated by a degeneracy between the grain size and location (large grains near the star and small grains farther from the star may be indistinguishable). Debris disk spectra that exhibit solid state emission features allow for a more accurate determination of the dust size and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). We report here a successful search for such features. We identified our targets with a preliminary search for signs of emission features in the Spitzer IRS spectra of a number of young early type stars known to harbor warm debris disks. We fit to each target a physically-motivated model spectrum consisting of the sum of the stellar photosphere (modeled as a blackbody) and thermal emission from two dust belts. Each belt was defined by 6 parameters: the inner and outer orbital radii (rin and rout), the index of the radial surface density power law (rexp), the minimum and maximum grain sizes (amin and amax), and the index of the grain size distribution power law (aexp). aexp was fixed to -3.65 and amax was fixed to 1000 μm for all models; all other parameters were allowed to

  15. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  16. Mechanical properties of glasses impacted by debris or micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Wiedlocher, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical strength measurements on five glasses and one glass ceramic exposed on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have revealed no damage exceeding experimental limits of error after exposure. The measurement technique subjected less than 5 percent of the sample surface area to stresses above 90 percent of the failure strength. Seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred at locations which were not in that portion of the sample subjected to greater than 90 percent of the applied stress. In consequence of this, the impact events on the sample were not detected in mechanical strength measurements. The physical form and structure of the impact sites was carefully examined to determine the influence of those events upon stress concentration associated with the impact and the resulting mechanical strength influence. The size of the impact site insofar as it determines flaw size for fracture purposes was examined. Surface topography of the impacts reveals that six of the seven sites display impact melting. The classical melt crater structure is surrounded by a zone of fractured glass. Residual stresses arising from shock compression and from cooling of the impact fused zone cannot be included in fracture mechanics analyses based on simple flaw size analyses. Strategies for refining estimates of mechanical strength degradation by impact events are presented.

  17. Debris thickness patterns on debris-covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2018-06-01

    Many debris-covered glaciers have broadly similar debris thickness patterns: surface debris thickens and tends to transition from convex- to concave-up-down glacier. We explain this pattern using theory (analytical and numerical models) paired with empirical observations. Down glacier debris thickening results from the conveyor-belt-like nature of the glacier surface in the ablation zone (debris can typically only be added but not removed) and from the inevitable decline in ice surface velocity toward the terminus. Down-glacier thickening of debris leads to the reduction of sub-debris melt and debris emergence toward the terminus. Convex-up debris thickness patterns occur near the up-glacier end of debris covers where debris emergence dominates (ablation controlled). Concave-up debris thickness patterns occur toward glacier termini where declining surface velocities dominate (velocity controlled). A convex-concave debris thickness profile inevitably results from the transition between ablation-control and velocity-control down-glacier. Debris thickness patterns deviating from this longitudinal shape are most likely caused by changes in hillslope debris supply through time. By establishing this expected debris thickness pattern, the effects of climate change on debris cover can be better identified.

  18. A deployable mechanism concept for the collection of small-to-medium-size space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, David; Sharf, Inna; Sagnières, Luc; Gosselin, Clément

    2018-03-01

    Current efforts in active debris removal strategies and mission planning focus on removing the largest, most massive debris. It can be argued, however, that small untrackable debris, specifically those smaller than 5 cm in size, also pose a serious threat. In this work, we propose and analyze a mission to sweep the most crowded Low Earth Orbit with a large cupola device to remove small-to-medium-size debris. The cupola consists of a deployable mechanism expanding more than 25 times its storage size to extend a membrane covering its surface. The membrane is sufficiently stiff to capture most small debris and to slow down the medium-size objects, thus accelerating their fall. An overview of the design of a belt-driven rigid-link mechanism proposed to support the collecting cupola surface is presented, based on our previous work. Because of its large size, the cupola will be subject to significant aerodynamic drag; thus, orbit maintenance analysis is carried out using the DTM-2013 atmospheric density model and it predicts feasible requirements. While in operation, the device will also be subject to numerous hyper-velocity impacts which may significantly perturb its orientation from the desired attitude for debris collection. Thus, another important feature of the proposed debris removal device is a distributed array of flywheels mounted on the cupola for reorienting and stabilizing its attitude during the mission. Analysis using a stochastic modeling framework for hyper-velocity impacts demonstrates that three-axes attitude stabilization is achievable with the flywheels array. MASTER-2009 software is employed to provide relevant data for all debris related estimates, including the debris fluxes for the baseline mission design and for assessment of its expected performance. Space debris removal is a high priority for ensuring sustainability of space and continual launch and operation of man-made space assets. This manuscript presents the first analysis of a small

  19. The Fifteen-Year Attitude History of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Radiator and Collection Efficiencies for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Cooke, William J.; Koehler, H.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was a distinct biasing of the largest 45 impact features towards one side of the radiator, in contrast to an approximately uniform distribution of smaller impacts. Such a distribution may be a consequence of the HST s attitude history and pointing requirements for the cold radiator, or of environmental effects, such as an anisotropic distribution of the responsible population in that size regime. Understanding the size-dependent spatial distribution of impact features is essential to the general analysis of these features. We have obtained from GSFC a 15 minute temporal resolution record of the state vector (Earth Centered Inertial position and velocity) and HST attitude, consisting of the orientation of the velocity and HST-sun vectors in HST body coordinates. This paper reviews the actual state vector and attitude history of the radiator in the context of the randomly tumbling plate assumption and assesses the statistical likelihood (or collection efficiency) of the radiator for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environments. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Meteoroid Environment Model is used to assess the micrometeoroid component. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) is used to model the orbital debris component. Modeling results are compared with observations of the impact feature spatial distribution, and the relative contribution of each environmental component are examined in detail.

  20. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  1. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-09-26

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  2. Uncertainty propagation for statistical impact prediction of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, R.; Mooij, E.; Geul, J.

    2018-01-01

    Predictions of the impact time and location of space debris in a decaying trajectory are highly influenced by uncertainties. The traditional Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to perform accurate statistical impact predictions, but requires a large computational effort. A method is investigated that directly propagates a Probability Density Function (PDF) in time, which has the potential to obtain more accurate results with less computational effort. The decaying trajectory of Delta-K rocket stages was used to test the methods using a six degrees-of-freedom state model. The PDF of the state of the body was propagated in time to obtain impact-time distributions. This Direct PDF Propagation (DPP) method results in a multi-dimensional scattered dataset of the PDF of the state, which is highly challenging to process. No accurate results could be obtained, because of the structure of the DPP data and the high dimensionality. Therefore, the DPP method is less suitable for practical uncontrolled entry problems and the traditional MC method remains superior. Additionally, the MC method was used with two improved uncertainty models to obtain impact-time distributions, which were validated using observations of true impacts. For one of the two uncertainty models, statistically more valid impact-time distributions were obtained than in previous research.

  3. Simulation of Micron-Sized Debris Populations in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Matney, M.; Liou, J.-C.; Hyde, J. L.; Prior, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The update of ORDEM2000, the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, to its new version . ORDEM2010, is nearly complete. As a part of the ORDEM upgrade, this paper addresses the simulation of micro-debris (greater than 10 micron and smaller than 1 mm in size) populations in low Earth orbit. The principal data used in the modeling of the micron-sized debris populations are in-situ hypervelocity impact records, accumulated in post-flight damage surveys on the space-exposed surfaces of returned spacecrafts. The development of the micro-debris model populations follows the general approach to deriving other ORDEM2010-required input populations for various components and types of debris. This paper describes the key elements and major steps in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2010 micro-debris populations. A crucial step is the construction of a degradation/ejecta source model to provide prior information on the micron-sized objects (such as orbital and object-size distributions). Another critical step is to link model populations with data, which is rather involved. It demands detailed information on area-time/directionality for all the space-exposed elements of a shuttle orbiter and damage laws, which relate impact damage with the physical properties of a projectile and impact conditions such as impact angle and velocity. Also needed are model-predicted debris fluxes as a function of object size and impact velocity from all possible directions. In spite of the very limited quantity of the available shuttle impact data, the population-derivation process is satisfactorily stable. Final modeling results obtained from shuttle window and radiator impact data are reasonably convergent and consistent, especially for the debris populations with object-size thresholds at 10 and 100 micron.

  4. Comparison of debris environment models (MASTER-2005, 2001, ORDEM2000): For international standardization of process based implementation of meteoroid and debris environmental models

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Shinya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Goka, Tateo; 福重 進也; 赤星 保浩; 北澤 幸人; 五家 建夫

    2007-01-01

    Space agencies of some countries have space debris environment model for design of spacecrafts. These models can estimate debris flux as a function of the size, relative impact velocity, and impact angle in a spacecraft orbit. However, it is known calculation results of models are not always consistent with each other. Therefore, international common implementation process of debris environment model is required. In this paper, as the first step of international standardization of implementat...

  5. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were debris landfills are suggested.

  6. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.

  7. Economic analysis requirements in support of orbital debris regulatory policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-10-01

    As the number of Earth orbiting objects increases so does the potential for generating orbital debris with the consequent increase in the likelihood of impacting and damaging operating satellites. Various debris remediation approaches are being considered that encompass both in-orbit and return-to-Earth schema and have varying degrees of operations, cost, international competitiveness, and safety implications. Because of the diversity of issues, concerns and long-term impacts, there is a clear need for the setting of government policies that will lead to an orderly abatement of the potential orbital debris hazards. These policies may require the establishment of a supportive regulatory regime. The Department of Transportation is likely to have regulatory responsibilities relating to orbital debris stemming from its charge to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security interests and foreign policy interests of the United States. This paper describes DOT's potential regulatory role relating to orbital debris remediation, the myriad of issues concerning the need for establishing government policies relating to orbital debris remediation and their regulatory implications, the proposed technological solutions and their economic and safety implications. Particular emphasis is placed upon addressing cost-effectiveness and economic analyses as they relate to economic impact analysis in support of regulatory impact analysis.

  8. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J. C.J.; Franeker, van J.A.; Moloney, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and

  9. The complex interaction between marine debris and toxic chemicals in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Richard E

    2012-11-20

    Marine debris, especially plastic debris, is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. There has been substantial research on the impacts of plastic marine debris, such as entanglement and ingestion. These impacts are largely due to the physical presence of plastic debris. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the impacts of toxic chemicals as they relate to plastic debris. Some plastic debris acts as a source of toxic chemicals: substances that were added to the plastic during manufacturing leach from plastic debris. Plastic debris also acts as a sink for toxic chemicals. Plastic sorbs persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (PBTs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, from the water or sediment. These PBTs may desorb when the plastic is ingested by any of a variety of marine species. This broad look at the current research suggests that while there is significant uncertainty and complexity in the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction, plastic debris appears to act as a vector transferring PBTs from the water to the food web, increasing risk throughout the marine food web, including humans. Because of the extremely long lifetime of plastic and PBTs in the ocean, prevention strategies are vital to minimizing these risks.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Launch Vehicle Debris Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an analysis of the loss of crew risk associated with an ascent abort system for a manned launch vehicle, a model was developed to predict the impact risk of the debris resulting from an explosion of the launch vehicle on the crew module. The model consisted of a debris catalog describing the number, size and imparted velocity of each piece of debris, a method to compute the trajectories of the debris and a method to calculate the impact risk given the abort trajectory of the crew module. The model provided a point estimate of the strike probability as a function of the debris catalog, the time of abort and the delay time between the abort and destruction of the launch vehicle. A study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of the strike probability to the various model input parameters and to develop a response surface model for use in the sensitivity analysis of the overall ascent abort risk model. The results of the sensitivity analysis and the response surface model are presented in this paper.

  11. Development of tsunami fragility evaluation methods by large scale experiments. Part 2. Validation of the applicability of evaluation methods of impact force due to tsunami floating debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, Daisuke; Kihara, Naoto; Kaida, Hideki; Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Ikeno, Masaaki; Shibayama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the applicability of the existing estimation equations of the impact force due to tsunami floating debris, the collision tests are carried out. In the experiments, logs and full-scale light car are used. In this report, two types of existing equations, one is based on the Young's module of the debris (Eq.A) and the other one is based on the stiffness of the debris (Eq.B), are focused on. The estimated impact forces using Eq.A with log's Young module obtained by the material test agree with measured forces obtained by the collision test. But Eq.A does not applicate to a car because it is not easy to determine the Young's module of a car. On the other hand, the estimated impact forces using Eq.B with car's stiffness obtained by the static loading test agree with measured forces obtained by the collision test. This indicates that Eq.B unable us to estimate impact force of the floating debris such as car if the stiffness of the debris is determined. (author)

  12. Wildfire impacts on the processes that generate debris flows in burned watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, and in many countries worldwide, wildfires cause significant damage and economic losses due to both the direct effects of the fires and the subsequent accelerated runoff, erosion, and debris flow. Wildfires can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of watersheds by changing the infiltration characteristics and erodibility of the soil, which leads to decreased rainfall infiltration, significantly increased overland flow and runoff in channels, and movement of soil. Debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these changes, often causing extensive damage to human infrastructure. Data from the Mediterranean area and Western United States of America help identify the primary processes that result in debris flows in recently burned areas. Two primary processes for the initiation of fire-related debris flows have been so far identified: (1) runoff-dominated erosion by surface overland flow; and (2) infiltration-triggered failure and mobilization of a discrete landslide mass. The first process is frequently documented immediately post-fire and leads to the generation of debris flows through progressive bulking of storm runoff with sediment eroded from the hillslopes and channels. As sediment is incorporated into water, runoff can convert to debris flow. The conversion to debris flow may be observed at a position within a drainage network that appears to be controlled by threshold values of upslope contributing area and its gradient. At these locations, sufficient eroded material has been incorporated, relative to the volume of contributing surface runoff, to generate debris flows. Debris flows have also been generated from burned basins in response to increased runoff by water cascading over a steep, bedrock cliff, and incorporating material from readily erodible colluvium or channel bed. Post-fire debris flows have also been generated by infiltration-triggered landslide failures which then mobilize into debris flows. However

  13. A SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS CREATED BY A GIANT HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT IN THE HD 172555 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Chen, C. H.; Wyatt, M. C.; Thebault, P.; Henning, W. G.; Gaidos, E.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bridges, J. C.; Morlok, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral modeling of the large infrared excess in the Spitzer IRS spectra of HD 172555 suggests that there is more than 10 19 kg of submicron dust in the system. Using physical arguments and constraints from observations, we rule out the possibility of the infrared excess being created by a magma ocean planet or a circumplanetary disk or torus. We show that the infrared excess is consistent with a circumstellar debris disk or torus, located at ∼6 AU, that was created by a planetary scale hypervelocity impact. We find that radiation pressure should remove submicron dust from the debris disk in less than one year. However, the system's mid-infrared photometric flux, dominated by submicron grains, has been stable within 4% over the last 27 years, from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (1983) to WISE (2010). Our new spectral modeling work and calculations of the radiation pressure on fine dust in HD 172555 provide a self-consistent explanation for this apparent contradiction. We also explore the unconfirmed claim that ∼10 47 molecules of SiO vapor are needed to explain an emission feature at ∼8 μm in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of HD 172555. We find that unless there are ∼10 48 atoms or 0.05 M ⊕ of atomic Si and O vapor in the system, SiO vapor should be destroyed by photo-dissociation in less than 0.2 years. We argue that a second plausible explanation for the ∼8 μm feature can be emission from solid SiO, which naturally occurs in submicron silicate ''smokes'' created by quickly condensing vaporized silicate.

  14. Final Results of Shuttle MMOD Impact Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database documents damage features on each Orbiter thought to be from micrometeoroids (MM) or orbital debris (OD). Data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection systems along with other miscellaneous regions. The combined number of records in the database is nearly 3000. Each database record provides impact feature dimensions, location on the vehicle and relevant mission information. Additional detail on the type and size of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive spectroscopic analysis results are available. Guidelines are described which were used in determining whether impact damage is from micrometeoroid or orbital debris impact based on the findings from scanning electron microscopy chemical analysis. Relationships assumed when converting from observed feature sizes in different shuttle materials to particle sizes will be presented. A small number of significant impacts on the windows, radiators and wing leading edge will be highlighted and discussed in detail, including the hypervelocity impact testing performed to estimate particle sizes that produced the damage.

  15. Debris flow analysis with a one dimensional dynamic run-out model that incorporates entrained material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Remaître, Alexandre; van Asch, Theo; Malet, Jean-Philippe; van Westen, Cees

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the magnitude and the intensity of rapid landslides like debris flows is fundamental to evaluate quantitatively the hazard in a specific location. Intensity varies through the travelled course of the flow and can be described by physical features such as deposited volume, velocities, height of the flow, impact forces and pressures. Dynamic run-out models are able to characterize the distribution of the material, its intensity and define the zone where the elements will experience an impact. These models can provide valuable inputs for vulnerability and risk calculations. However, most dynamic run-out models assume a constant volume during the motion of the flow, ignoring the important role of material entrained along its path. Consequently, they neglect that the increase of volume enhances the mobility of the flow and can significantly influence the size of the potential impact area. An appropriate erosion mechanism needs to be established in the analyses of debris flows that will improve the results of dynamic modeling and consequently the quantitative evaluation of risk. The objective is to present and test a simple 1D debris flow model with a material entrainment concept based on limit equilibrium considerations and the generation of excess pore water pressure through undrained loading of the in situ bed material. The debris flow propagation model is based on a one dimensional finite difference solution of a depth-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid motions. The flow is treated as a laminar one phase material, which behavior is controlled by a visco-plastic Coulomb-Bingham rheology. The model parameters are evaluated and the model performance is tested on a debris flow event that occurred in 2003 in the Faucon torrent (Southern French Alps).

  16. Woody debris along an upland chromosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manies, K. L.; Harden, J. W. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bond-Lamberty, B. P. [University of Wisconsin, Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Madison, WI (United States); O' Neill, K. P. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, Beaver, WV (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chromosequence was measured in an effort to investigate the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce stands in Manitoba. Based on the measurement data and existing primary production values, a mass balance model was used to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. Long-term carbon was represented by the amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, persisting over millenia. Between 10 and 60 per cent of the deep-soil carbon was estimated to have been derived from wood biomass. The actual amount appears to be most affected by fire return interval, decay rate of wood, the amount of net primary production, and the decay rate of the post-fire carbon pool. Although the model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead wood becomes woody debris, all model runs clearly established that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage in this area. 53 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Comparison of Space Debris Environment Models: ORDEM2000, MASTER-2001, MASTER-2005 and MASTER-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemitsu, Yuki; 赤星, 保浩; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; 鳴海, 智博; Narumi, Tomohiro; Faure, Pauline; 松本, 晴久; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; 北澤, 幸人; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact by space debris on spacecraft is one of the most important issues for space development and operation, especially considering the growing amount of space debris in recent years. It is therefore important for spacecraft design to evaluate the impact risk by using environment models. In this paper, the authors compared the results of the debris impact flux in low Earth orbit, as calculated by four debris environment engineering models -NASA's ORDEM2000 and ESA's MASTER-2001...

  18. Impact risk assessment for the ATV using ESABASE/DEBRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami Karlezi, P.; Drolshagen, G.; Lambert, M.

    2001-10-01

    The European Space Agency ESA participates in the International Space Station with various programs, one of them being the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). The ATV is an unmanned servicing and logistics vehicle launched on Ariane 5 and designed to fulfil different roles like cargo transport, re-supply of fuel and consumables and orbit re-boost of the International Space Station (ISS). For this reason it is important that the risks imposed on these modules by meteoroids and orbital debris are calculated accurately. Following such calculations the Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Protection System (M/ODPS) can be optimised. This paper presents the results of the risk assessment of meteoroids and space debris for the ATV spacecraft attached to the ISS using different shield configurations. The results are presented as the probability of no penetration (PNP) for each component and each configuration. They are compared to a target PNP requirement of 0.999 for 135 days and the weight penalty produced by the extra shielding is given.

  19. Common factors drive disease and coarse woody debris dynamics in forests impacted by sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Maggie N. Chan; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    Disease ecology has made important steps in describing how epidemiological processes control the impact of pathogens on populations and communities but fewer field or theoretical studies address disease effects at the ecosystem level. We demonstrate that the same epidemiological mechanisms drive disease intensity and coarse woody debris (CWD) dynamics...

  20. Debris flow risk mitigation by the means of rigid and flexible barriers – experimental tests and impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Canelli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a debris flow on a structure can have disastrous effects because of the enormous destructive potential of this type of phenomenon. Although the introduction of risk mitigation structures such as the Sabo Dam, the filter dam and more recently flexible barriers is usual, there are very few methods that are universally recognized for the safe design of such structures. This study presents the results of experimental tests, conducted with the use of a specifically created flume, in order to obtain detailed knowledge of the mechanical aspects, and to analyze the dynamics of the impact of a debris flow on different types of structures. The analyses of the tests, together with the calculation of the thrust caused by the flow, have made it possible to analyze the dynamics of the impact, which has shown differing effects, on the basis of the type of barrier that has been installed.

  1. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infreque...

  2. ORDEM 3.0 and the Risk of High-Density Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark; Anz-Meador, Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model was designed to calculate orbital debris fluxes on spacecraft in order to assess collision risk. The newest of these models, ORDEM 3.0, has a number of features not present in previous models. One of the most important is that the populations and fluxes are now broken out into material density groups. Previous models concentrated on debris size alone, but a particle’s mass and density also determine the amount of damage it can cause. ORDEM 3.0 includes a high-density component, primarily consisting of iron/steel particles that drive much of the risk to spacecraft. This paper will outline the methods that were used to separate and identify the different densities of debris, and how these new densities affect the overall debris flux and risk.

  3. A SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS CREATED BY A GIANT HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT IN THE HD 172555 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Thebault, P. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Henning, W. G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gaidos, E. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Elkins-Tanton, L. T. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Bridges, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Morlok, A., E-mail: johns477@purdue.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-10

    Spectral modeling of the large infrared excess in the Spitzer IRS spectra of HD 172555 suggests that there is more than 10{sup 19} kg of submicron dust in the system. Using physical arguments and constraints from observations, we rule out the possibility of the infrared excess being created by a magma ocean planet or a circumplanetary disk or torus. We show that the infrared excess is consistent with a circumstellar debris disk or torus, located at {approx}6 AU, that was created by a planetary scale hypervelocity impact. We find that radiation pressure should remove submicron dust from the debris disk in less than one year. However, the system's mid-infrared photometric flux, dominated by submicron grains, has been stable within 4% over the last 27 years, from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (1983) to WISE (2010). Our new spectral modeling work and calculations of the radiation pressure on fine dust in HD 172555 provide a self-consistent explanation for this apparent contradiction. We also explore the unconfirmed claim that {approx}10{sup 47} molecules of SiO vapor are needed to explain an emission feature at {approx}8 {mu}m in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of HD 172555. We find that unless there are {approx}10{sup 48} atoms or 0.05 M{sub Circled-Plus} of atomic Si and O vapor in the system, SiO vapor should be destroyed by photo-dissociation in less than 0.2 years. We argue that a second plausible explanation for the {approx}8 {mu}m feature can be emission from solid SiO, which naturally occurs in submicron silicate ''smokes'' created by quickly condensing vaporized silicate.

  4. Space Debris Removal: A Game Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse active space debris removal efforts from a strategic, game-theoretical perspective. Space debris is non-manoeuvrable, human-made objects orbiting Earth, which pose a significant threat to operational spacecraft. Active debris removal missions have been considered and investigated by different space agencies with the goal to protect valuable assets present in strategic orbital environments. An active debris removal mission is costly, but has a positive effect for all satellites in the same orbital band. This leads to a dilemma: each agency is faced with the choice between the individually costly action of debris removal, which has a positive impact on all players; or wait and hope that others jump in and do the ‘dirty’ work. The risk of the latter action is that, if everyone waits, the joint outcome will be catastrophic, leading to what in game theory is referred to as the ‘tragedy of the commons’. We introduce and thoroughly analyse this dilemma using empirical game theory and a space debris simulator. We consider two- and three-player settings, investigate the strategic properties and equilibria of the game and find that the cost/benefit ratio of debris removal strongly affects the game dynamics.

  5. Risk assessment reveals high exposure of sea turtles to marine debris in French Mediterranean and metropolitan Atlantic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Gaëlle; Miaud, Claude; Claro, Françoise; Doremus, Ghislain; Galgani, François

    2017-07-01

    Debris impact on marine wildlife has become a major issue of concern. Mainy species have been identified as being threatened by collision, entanglement or ingestion of debris, generally plastics, which constitute the predominant part of the recorded marine debris. Assessing sensitive areas, where exposure to debris are high, is thus crucial, in particular for sea turtles which have been proposed as sentinels of debris levels for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and for the Unep-MedPol convention. Our objective here was to assess sea turtle exposure to marine debris in the 3 metropolitan French fronts. Using aerial surveys performed in the Channel, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean regions in winter and summer 2011-2012, we evaluated exposure areas and magnitude in terms of spatial overlap, encounter probability and density of surrounding debris at various spatial scales. Major overlapping areas appeared in the Atlantic and Mediterranean fronts, concerning mostly the leatherback and the loggerhead turtles respectively. The probability for individuals to be in contact with debris (around 90% of individuals within a radius of 2 km) and the density of debris surrounding individuals (up to 16 items with a radius of 2 km, 88 items within a radius of 10 km) were very high, whatever the considered spatial scale, especially in the Mediterranean region and during the summer season. The comparison of the observed mean debris density with random distribution suggested that turtles selected debris areas. This may occur if both debris and turtles drift to the same areas due to currents, if turtles meet debris accidentally by selecting high food concentration areas, and/or if turtles actively seek debris out, confounding them with their preys. Various factors such as species-specific foraging strategies or oceanic features which condition the passive diffusion of debris, and sea turtles in part, may explain spatio-temporal variations in sensitive areas. Further research

  6. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; Moore, Charles J; van Franeker, Jan A; Moloney, Coleen L

    2009-07-27

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally.

  7. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  8. Fiber-Optic Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris Impact Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Tennyson, R. C.; Morison, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a reliable, lightweight micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) detection system that can be located at strategic positions of "high consequence" to provide real-time warning of a penetration, its location, and the extent of the damage to a spacecraft. The concept is to employ fiber-optic sensors to detect impact damage and penetration of spacecraft structures. The fibers are non-electrical, employ light waves, and are immune to electromagnetic interference. The fiber-optic sensor array can be made as a stand-alone product, being bonded to a flexible membrane material or a structure that is employed as a MMOD shield material. The optical sensors can also be woven into hybrid MMOD shielding fabrics. The glass fibers of the fiber-optic sensor provide a dual purpose in contributing to the breakup of MMOD projectiles. The grid arrays can be made in a modular configuration to provide coverage over any area desired. Each module can be connected to a central scanner instrument and be interrogated in a continuous or periodic mode.

  9. A direct reflection OLVF debris detector based on dark-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xi, Yinhu; Feng, Song; Mao, Junhong; Xie, You-Bai

    2018-06-01

    To solve the problems of monitoring wear debris in black oil, a direct reflection online visual ferrograph (OLVF) debris detector is presented. In current OLVF detectors, a reflected light source is used. The emitted light is reflected by wear debris directly instead of passing through the lube oil. Therefore, the transparency of the lube oil ceases to matter. Two experiments were conducted to validate the wear debris imaging feasibility and effectiveness of the newly developed detector. The results show that the visual feature information of the wear debris can be reliably obtained from black oil by this detector, and it can also be used to track the fast-changing wear of tribopairs at different wear stages. To the best of our knowledge, to date there is no other report for solving this issue.

  10. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the Iridium-Cosmos Collision Event and Other Impact Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, H.K.; Miller, W.O.; Levatin, J.L.; Pertica, A.J.; Olivier, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time- and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their

  11. As main meal for sperm whales: plastics debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stephanis, Renaud; Giménez, Joan; Carpinelli, Eva; Gutierrez-Exposito, Carlos; Cañadas, Ana

    2013-04-15

    Marine debris has been found in marine animals since the early 20th century, but little is known about the impacts of the ingestion of debris in large marine mammals. In this study we describe a case of mortality of a sperm whale related to the ingestion of large amounts of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea (4th published case worldwide to our knowledge), and discuss it within the context of the spatial distribution of the species and the presence of anthropogenic activities in the area that could be the source of the plastic debris found inside the sperm whale. The spatial distribution modelled for the species in the region shows that these animals can be seen in two distinct areas: near the waters of Almería, Granada and Murcia and in waters near the Strait of Gibraltar. The results shows how these animals feed in waters near an area completely flooded by the greenhouse industry, making them vulnerable to its waste products if adequate treatment of this industry's debris is not in place. Most types of these plastic materials have been found in the individual examined and cause of death was presumed to be gastric rupture following impaction with debris, which added to a previous problem of starvation. The problem of plastics arising from greenhouse agriculture should have a relevant section in the conservation plans and should be a recommendation from ACCOBAMS due to these plastics' and sperm whales' high mobility in the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerogels Materials as Space Debris Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Material degradation due to the specific space environment becomes a key parameter for space missions. The use of large surface of brittle materials on satellites can produce, if impacted by hypervelocity particles, ejected volumes of mater 100 times higher than the impacting one. The presented work is devoted to the use of silica aerogels as passive detectors. Aerogels have been exposed to the low earth orbit of the ISS for 18 months. The study describes the aerogels process and the choice of synthesis parameters in such a way to get expected features in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, internal stresses, and transparency. Low-density aerogels (0.09 g·cm−3 have been prepared. The control of transparency necessary to see and identify particles and fragments collected is obtained using a base catalysis during gel synthesis. After return to earth, the aerogels samples have been observed using optical microscopy to detect and quantify craters on the exposed surface. First results obtained on a small part of the aerogels indicate a large number of debris collected in the materials.

  13. Energy balance, carbon emissions, and costs of sortyard debris disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC), with funding from Natural Resources Canada, conducted this study to determine the main environmental and energy use issues regarding the landfilling, burning or processing of dryland sortyard debris accumulated in the wood products industry. The wood residues that are generated when logs are processed, sorted and remanufactured, have traditionally been burned or landfilled. This is no longer appropriate. Converting the large woody debris into usable products such as hog fuel or compost requires grinding, smashing or chipping into small pieces to facilitate transportation. In order to make smart decisions about alternative methods of handling sortyard debris, information is needed about the comparative amount of fuel used and carbon dioxide produced. This study compared the treatment alternatives with respect to fuel consumption, net energy balance, carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact. Recommendations were then presented for the treatment of debris from the point of view of net energy balance and environmental impact. Life cycle techniques were used to determine the environmental impact of alternatives for managing sortyard debris. It was determined that wood wastes are valuable as hog fuel for power generation. Burning hog fuel to recover its energy offsets the need to supply energy from other sources such as natural gas. This reduces the total carbon emissions by the amount of debris that would have been burned as waste. Annual carbon emissions can be reduced by nearly half by switching from a maximize burn strategy to a maximize hog strategy that combines composting of fine materials. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on the Orbital Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goektug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. As a foundation for the study, we developed a deployment scenario for satellites and associated rocket bodies based on publicly announced future missions. The upcoming orbital injection technologies, such as the new launch vehicles dedicated for small spacecraft and propulsive interstages, are also considered in this scenario. We then used a simulation tool developed in-house to propagate the objects within this scenario using variable-sized time-steps as small as one second to detect conjunctions between objects. The simulation makes it possible to follow the short- and long-term effects of a particular satellite or constellation in the space environment. Likewise, the effects of changes in the debris environment on a particular satellite or constellation can be evaluated. It is our hope that the results of this paper and further utilization of the developed simulation tool will assist in the investigation of more accurate deorbiting metrics to replace the generic 25-year disposal guidelines, as well as to guide future launches toward more sustainable and safe orbits.

  15. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    LEO debris population will continue to increase even with a good implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures. The root-cause of the increase is catastrophic collisions involving large/massive intact objects (rocket bodies or spacecraft). The major mission-ending risks for most operational spacecraft, however, come from impacts with debris just above the threshold of the protection shields (5-mm to 1-cm). A solution-driven approach is to seek: Concepts for removal of massive intacts with high P(collision); Concepts capable of preventing collisions involving intacts; Concepts for removal of 5-mm to 1-cm debris; Enhanced impact protection shields for valuable space assets. Key questions for remediation consideration of orbital debris: What is the acceptable threat level? What are the mission objectives? What is the appropriate roadmap/timeframe for remediation? Support advanced technology development when an economically viable approach is identified. Address non-technical issues, such as policy, coordination, ownership, legal, and liability at the national and international levels.

  16. Exploiting LSPIV to assess debris-flow velocities in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theule, Joshua I.; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of flow velocity has a central role in quantitative analysis of debris flows, both for the characterization of the phenomenology of these processes and for the assessment of related hazards. Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) can contribute to the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows, provided that the specific features of these processes (e.g. fast stage variations and particles up to boulder size on the flow surface) are taken into account. Three debris-flow events, each of them consisting of several surges featuring different sediment concentrations, flow stages, and velocities, have been analysed at the inlet of a sediment trap in a stream in the eastern Italian Alps (Gadria Creek). Free software has been employed for preliminary treatment (orthorectification and format conversion) of video-recorded images as well as for LSPIV application. Results show that LSPIV velocities are consistent with manual measurements of the orthorectified imagery and with front velocity measured from the hydrographs in a channel recorded approximately 70 m upstream of the sediment trap. Horizontal turbulence, computed as the standard deviation of the flow directions at a given cross section for a given surge, proved to be correlated with surface velocity and with visually estimated sediment concentration. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of LSPIV in the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows and permit the most crucial aspects to be identified in order to improve the accuracy of debris-flow velocity measurements.

  17. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  18. Reassessment of debris ingestion effects on emergency core cooling-system pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.W.; Rao, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    A study sponsored by the United States (US) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was performed to reassess the effects of ingesting loss of coolant accident (LOCA) generated materials into emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps and the subsequent impact of this debris on the pumps' ability to provide long-term cooling to the reactor core. ECCS intake systems have been designed to screen out large post-LOCA debris materials. However, small-sized debris can penetrate these intake strainers or screens and reach critical pump components. Prior NRC-sponsored evaluations of possible debris and gas ingestion into ECCS pumps and attendant impacts on pump performance were performed in the early 1980's. The earlier study focused primarily on pressurised water reactor (PWR) ECCS pumps. This issue was revisited both to factor in our improved knowledge of LOCA generated debris and to address specifically both boiling water reactor (BWR) and PWR ECCS pumps. This study discusses the potential effects of ingested debris on pump seals, bearing assemblies, cyclone debris separators, and seal cooling water subsystems. This assessment included both near-term (less than one hour) and long-term (greater than one hour) effects introduced by the postulated LOCA. The work reported herein was performed during 1996-1997. (authors)

  19. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkleman, Travis, M.; Orrock, John, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.

    2011-10-01

    Anti-predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs,but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used givingup densities to quantify the degree to which downed woody debris alters perceived predation risk by small mammals in southeastern pineforests. We placed 14 foraging trays next to large downed woody debris,shrubs, and in open areas for 12 consecutive nights. Moon illumination, a common indicator of predation risk, led to a similar reduction in small mammal foraging in all three microhabitats (open, downed woody debris,and shrub). Small mammals perceived open microhabitats as riskier than shrub microhabitats, with downed woody debris habitats perceived as being of intermediate risk between shrub and open microhabitats. Despite the presumed benefits of the protective cover of downed woody debris, small mammals may perceive downed woody debris as a relatively risky foraging site in southeastern pine forests where the high diversity and abundance of rodent-eating snakes may provide a primary predatory threat.

  20. Impact of high-risk conjunctions on Active Debris Removal target selection

    OpenAIRE

    Lidtke, Aleksander A.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Armellin, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    All rights reserved.Space debris simulations show that if current space launches continue unchanged, spacecraft operations might become difficult in the congested space environment. It has been suggested that Active Debris Removal (ADR) might be necessary in order to prevent such a situation. Selection of objects to be targeted by ADR is considered important because removal of non-relevant objects will unnecessarily increase the cost of ADR. One of the factors to be used in this ADR target se...

  1. Multi-temporal high resolution monitoring of debris-covered glaciers using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Immerzeel, Walter; de Jong, Steven; Shea, Joseph; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Meijer, Sander; Shresta, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers in the Himalayas are relatively unstudied due to the difficulties in fieldwork caused by the inaccessible terrain and the presence of debris layers, which complicate in situ measurements. To overcome these difficulties an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been deployed multiple times over two debris covered glaciers in the Langtang catchment, located in the Nepalese Himalayas. Using differential GPS measurements and the Structure for Motion algorithm the UAV imagery was processed into accurate high-resolution digital elevation models and orthomosaics for both pre- and post-monsoon periods. These data were successfully used to estimate seasonal surface flow and mass wasting by using cross-correlation feature tracking and DEM differencing techniques. The results reveal large heterogeneity in mass loss and surface flow over the glacier surfaces, which are primarily caused by the presence of surface features such as ice cliffs and supra-glacial lakes. Accordingly, we systematically analyze those features using an object-based approach and relate their characteristics to the observed dynamics. We show that ice cliffs and supra-glacial lakes are contributing to a significant portion of the melt water of debris covered glaciers and we conclude that UAVs have great potential in understanding the key surface processes that remain largely undetected by using satellite remote sensing.

  2. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2. The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°, and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°, some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  3. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetta, P.

    2010-09-01

    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  4. Debris Flows and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancey, C.

    borrowed from geomorphology, geology, hydrology, soil mechanics, and fluid mechanics. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to physical aspects of debris flows, with specific attention directed to their rheological features. Despite attempts to provide a coherent view on the topic, coverage is incomplete and the reader is referred to a series of papers and books. Three books are particularly commendable [3-5]. Some review papers provide interesting overviews, introducing the newcomers to the field to the main concepts [6-8]. The background material in rheology can be found in Chaps. 2 and 3.

  5. Conditioning of metallic Magnox fuel element debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The conditioning of metallic Magnox debris poses particular problems arising from its chemical reactivity and from the presence in discrete amounts of highly radioactive components. The treatment of this waste is currently being studied by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following retrieval from store it is envisaged that the debris will be dried and comminuted to facilitate the removal for further storage of the highly active components from the bulk debris. A satisfactory means of sorting the debris appears to be by magnetic induction. The relatively low activity but potentially reactive Magnox will then be directly encapsulated prior to disposal off-site. Currently the only disposal route open for this waste is to the deep ocean. Matrices for encapsulating Magnox have been developed and others are under investigation. The desirable features of such matrices include low chemical reactivity and impermeability to water. The methods used to characterize the resultant waste forms and the results obtained are presented. Thermosetting polymers produce suitable waste forms for sea disposal, exhibiting high mechanical strength and resistance to leaching, and possessing very low chemical reactivity with respect to the Magnox waste. Low viscosity matrices are advantageous from the point of view of the process plant engineering as they enable the comminuted waste to be directly encapsulated. (author)

  6. Debris flows associated with the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Martinez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Debris flows are a primary driver of erosion and a major geologic hazard in many steep landscapes, particularly near the headwaters of rivers, and are generated in large numbers by extreme events. The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake triggered 25,000 coseismic landslides in central Nepal. During the ensuing monsoon, sediment delivered to channels by landslides was mobilized in the heavy rains, and new postseismic landslides were triggered in rock weakened by the shaking. These coseismic and postseismic landslide-generated debris flows form a useful dataset for studying the impact and behavior of debris flows on one of the most active landscapes on Earth. Debris flow-dominated channel reaches are generally understood to have a topographic signature recognizable in slope-area plots and distinct from fluvial channels, but in examining debris flows associated with the Gorkha earthquake we find they frequently extend into reaches with geometry typically associated with fluvial systems. We examine a dataset of these debris flows, considering whether they are generated by coseismic or postseismic landslides, whether they are likely to be driving active incision into bedrock, and whether their channels correspond with those typically associated with debris flows. Preliminary analysis of debris flow channels in Nepal suggests there may be systematic differences in the geometry of channels containing debris flows triggered by coseismic versus postseismic landslides, which potentially holds implications for hazard analyses and the mechanics behind the different debris flow types.

  7. Numerical investigation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Matsushima, T.

    2018-05-01

    The volume of debris flows occurred in mountainous areas is mainly affected by the volume of debris materials deposited at the valley bottom. Quantitative evaluation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards is important to predict and prevent hazards. At midnight on 7th August 2010, two catastrophic debris flows were triggered by the torrential rain from two valleys in the northern part of Zhouqu City, NW China, resulting in 1765 fatalities and huge economic losses. In the present study, a depth-integrated particle method is adopted to simulate the debris materials, based on 2.5 m resolution satellite images. In the simulation scheme, the materials are modeled as dry granular solids, and they travel down from the slopes and are deposited at the valley bottom. The spatial distributions of the debris materials are investigated in terms of location, volume and thickness. Simulation results show good agreement with post-disaster satellite images and field observation data. Additionally, the effect of the spatial distributions of the debris materials on subsequent debris flows is also evaluated. It is found that the spatial distributions of the debris materials strongly influence affected area, runout distance and flow discharge. This study might be useful in hazard assessments prior to debris flow hazards by investigating diverse scenarios in which the debris materials are unknown.

  8. Predictions for shepherding planets in scattered light images of debris disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  9. A 1 cm space debris impact onto the Sentinel-1A solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, H.; Serrano, M.; Braun, V.; Kuchynka, P.; Catania, M.; Siminski, J.; Schimmerohn, M.; Marc, X.; Kuijper, D.; Shurmer, I.; O'Connell, A.; Otten, M.; Muñoz, Isidro; Morales, J.; Wermuth, M.; McKissock, D.

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel-1A is a 2-ton spacecraft of the Copernicus Earth observation program operated by ESA's Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. Sentinel-1A and its sister spacecraft Sentinel-1B operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 700 km altitude. On 2016/08/23 17:07:37 UTC, Sentinel-1A suffered from an anomaly resulting in a sudden permanent partial power loss and significant impulsive orbit and attitude changes. A deeper investigation identified that an impulsive orbit change against flight direction of 0.7 mm/s, estimated at the time of the event, gave the best results in terms of GPS residuals. At the same time, a peak attitude off-pointing of 0.7° (around the spacecraft yaw axis) and peak attitude rate increase of 0.04°/s (around the same axis) were observed. The simultaneous occurrence of these anomalies, starting from a sudden attitude change and ending with a permanent partial power loss, made an MMOD (Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris) impact onto a solar array a possible explanation for this event. While the spacecraft is able to continue its mission nominally, a detailed investigation involving ESA's Space Debris and Flight Dynamics experts was conducted. An MMOD impact as an explanation gained further credibility, due to the pictures of the solar array taken by the on-board camera displaying a significant damage area. On September 7th, JSpOC (US Joint Space Operations Centre) informed SDO on 8 tracked fragments that are considered to be released by Sentinel-1A after the impact. This paper addresses the analysis that was performed on the data characterising the attitude and orbit change, the on-board camera image, and the tracked fragments. The data helped to identify the linear momentum vector while a flux analysis helped to identify the origin of the impactor and allowed to understand its mass and size characteristics.

  10. Corporate social responsibility in marine plastic debris governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Lane, Micah

    2018-02-01

    This paper explores the governance characteristics of marine plastic debris, some of the factors underpinning its severity, and examines the possibility of harnessing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to manage plastic use within the contextual attitudes of a contemporary global society. It argues that international and domestic law alone are insufficient to resolve the "wicked problem" of marine plastic debris, and investigates the potential of the private sector, through the philosophy of CSR, to assist in reducing the amount and impacts of marine plastic debris. To illustrate how CSR could minimise marine plastic pollution, an industry-targeted code of conduct was developed. Applying CSR would be most effective if implemented in conjunction with facilitating governance frameworks, such as supportive governmental regulation and non-governmental partnerships. This study maintains that management policies must be inclusive of all stakeholders if they are to match the scale and severity of the marine plastic debris issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Approach to Predict Debris Flow Average Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA for predicting debris flow velocity. A total of 50 debris flow events were investigated in the Jiangjia gully. These data were used for building the GSA-based RBF approach (GSA-RBF. Eighty percent (40 groups of the measured data were selected randomly as the training database. The other 20% (10 groups of data were used as testing data. Finally, the approach was applied to predict six debris flow gullies velocities in the Wudongde Dam site area, where environmental conditions were similar to the Jiangjia gully. The modified Dongchuan empirical equation and the pulled particle analysis of debris flow (PPA approach were used for comparison and validation. The results showed that: (i the GSA-RBF predicted debris flow velocity values are very close to the measured values, which performs better than those using RBF neural network alone; (ii the GSA-RBF results and the MDEE results are similar in the Jiangjia gully debris flow velocities prediction, and GSA-RBF performs better; (iii in the study area, the GSA-RBF results are validated reliable; and (iv we could consider more variables in predicting the debris flow velocity by using GSA-RBF on the basis of measured data in other areas, which is more applicable. Because the GSA-RBF approach was more accurate, both the numerical simulation and the empirical equation can be taken into consideration for constructing debris flow mitigation works. They could be complementary and verified for each other.

  12. Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Barletta, Mário; Costa, Monica F; do Sul, Juliana A Ivar; Dantas, David V

    2011-05-01

    Plastic marine debris is a pervasive type of pollution. River basins and estuaries are a source of plastics pollution for coastal waters and oceans. Estuarine fauna is therefore exposed to chronic plastic pollution. Three important catfish species [Cathorops spixii (N=60), Cathorops agassizii (N=60) and Sciades herzbergii (N=62)] from South Western Atlantic estuaries were investigated in a tropical estuary of the Brazilian Northeast in relation to their accidental ingestion of plastic marine debris. Individuals from all three species had ingested plastics. In C. spixii and C. agassizii, 18% and 33% of individuals had plastic debris in their stomachs, respectively. S. herzbergii showed 18% of individuals were contaminated. All ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were contaminated. Nylon fragments from cables used in fishery activities (subsistence, artisanal and commercial) played a major role in this contamination. These catfish spend their entire life cycles within the estuary and are an important feeding resource for larger, economically important, species. It is not yet possible to quantify the scale and depth of the consequences of this type of pollution. However, plastics are well known threat to living resources in this and other estuaries. Conservation actions will need to from now onto take plastics pollution into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness

  14. Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    After more than fifty years of space activities, the near-Earth environment is polluted with man-made orbital debris. The collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009 signaled a potential collision cascade effect, also known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the environment. Various modelling studies have suggested that the commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be sufficient to stabilize the future debris population. Active debris removal must be considered to remediate the environment. This paper summarizes the key issues associated with debris removal and describes the technology and engineering challenges to move forward. Fifty-four years after the launch of Sputnik 1, satellites have become an integral part of human society. Unfortunately, the ongoing space activities have left behind an undesirable byproduct orbital debris. This environment problem is threatening the current and future space activities. On average, two Shuttle window panels are replaced after every mission due to damage by micrometeoroid or orbital debris impacts. More than 100 collision avoidance maneuvers were conducted by satellite operators in 2010 to reduce the impact risks of their satellites with respect to objects in the U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. Of the four known accident collisions between objects in the SSN catalog, the last one, collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009, was the most significant. It was the first ever accidental catastrophic destruction of an operational satellite by another satellite. It also signaled the potential collision cascade effect in the environment, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome," predicted by Kessler and Cour-Palais in 1978 [1]. Figure 1 shows the historical increase of objects in the SSN catalog. The majority of the catalog objects are 10 cm and larger. As of April 2011, the total objects tracked by the SSN sensors were more than 22,000. However, approximately 6000 of

  15. Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

  16. Summary of Disposable Debris Shields (DDS) Analysis for Development of Solid Debris Collection at NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, D.A.; Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.; Lewis, L.A.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Lindvall, R.; Gostic, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    simply falling to the bottom of the chamber. In either case, it was determined that using the DDS, or fielding a debris collector at the chamber wall, was not feasible for solid debris collection at NIF due to the small amount of debris that had been collected. In addition, since the glass shields suffered quite a bit of damage from particles impacting the surface, glass was ruled out as a collection medium.

  17. Unmelted meteoritic debris in the Late Pliocene iridium anomaly - Evidence for the ocean impact of a nonchondritic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ir-bearing particles have been recovered from two piston cores in the Antarctic Basin in the southeastern Pacific. In core E13-3, the particles closely correspond to the Late Pliocene Ir anomaly and have a fluence of about 100 mg/cm sq. In core E13-4, 120 km to the southwest, the particle fluence is about 4 mg/cm sq. Particles with diameters from 0.5 to 4 mm contain at least 35 percent of the Ir in this horizon. Three types of particles have been identified: (1) vesicular, (2) basaltic, and (3) metal. The vesicular particles appear to be shock-melted debris derived from the oceanic impact of a howarditic asteroid containing a minor metal component. These particles have recrystallized from a melt and impact into the ocean has resulted in the incorporation of Na, K, Cl, and radiogenic Sr from the ocean water target. The basaltic clasts appear to be unmelted fragments of the original asteroid which may have separated from the main body prior to impact. Combined vesicular and basaltic particles are believed to have formed by collisions in the debris cloud. Estimates of the diameter of the projectile range from 100 to 500 m. By many orders of magnitude, this is the most massive achondrite sampled by a single meteorite fall.

  18. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  19. ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Flegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA s ORDEM2010 and ESA s MASTER-2009, have been publicly released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in near-Earth orbit. The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris but are still large enough to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. This paper details the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations of both ORDEM2010 and MASTER-2009; their sources (both known and presumed), current supporting data and theory, and methods of population analysis. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  20. Debris disc constraints on planetesimal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivov, Alexander V.; Ide, Aljoscha; Löhne, Torsten; Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Two basic routes for planetesimal formation have been proposed over the last decades. One is a classical `slow-growth' scenario. Another one is particle concentration models, in which small pebbles are concentrated locally and then collapse gravitationally to form planetesimals. Both types of models make certain predictions for the size spectrum and internal structure of newly born planetesimals. We use these predictions as input to simulate collisional evolution of debris discs left after the gas dispersal. The debris disc emission as a function of a system's age computed in these simulations is compared with several Spitzer and Herschel debris disc surveys around A-type stars. We confirm that the observed brightness evolution for the majority of discs can be reproduced by classical models. Further, we find that it is equally consistent with the size distribution of planetesimals predicted by particle concentration models - provided the objects are loosely bound `pebble piles' as these models also predict. Regardless of the assumed planetesimal formation mechanism, explaining the brightest debris discs in the samples uncovers a `disc mass problem'. To reproduce such discs by collisional simulations, a total mass of planetesimals of up to ˜1000 Earth masses is required, which exceeds the total mass of solids available in the protoplanetary progenitors of debris discs. This may indicate that stirring was delayed in some of the bright discs, that giant impacts occurred recently in some of them, that some systems may be younger than previously thought or that non-collisional processes contribute significantly to the dust production.

  1. Safe disposal and recycling of water disaster debris in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.

    2014-01-01

    Depending upon the nature, the disaster may produce large masses of debris. Waste masses from single disaster integrate to larger magnitude annually. This will ultimately causes the extra work load on personnel and reflects the poor existing debris management facilities. Besides, it will take longer time to rehabilitate the debris exaggerated regions. The study focuses on 2 main cases of disaster i.e. earthquake of 2005 and flood of 2010 in Pakistan. Complete analysis involve two stages: the first stage involve development of disaster and disaster debris effects guidance whereas the second stage involves the development of set of criteria to make efficient environment and positive impacts of successful debris managing scheme. Such principles were employed to evaluate efficiency of debris managing scheme for detailed analysis. The discussion of the detailed analysis depicts methodology which assists the disaster managers, planners and researcher to simply multitude of work. Moreover, the disaster and disaster debris influence direction, the effect evaluation criterion and managing criteria have been established having the effect they can be virtually put into service for prospect debris managing scheme, planning and retort. With respect to character and strictness, calamity may make high magnitude of waste. By keeping in view the precedent calamities in the United States (US), concluded that in few situations produced waste masses approximately five to fifteen times more than yearly waste production rate from a single occasion. Same results were revealed by subsequent tsunami of Indian Ocean. Such kind of large masses may effects the existing solid debris management system and human resources. Major disaster yields large masses of debris in few hours or sometimes even in minutes. The volume of disaster debris depends upon the magnitude of trees ball up, indemnity to houses, business, services etc. The disaster remaining may be equally large in metropolitan and non

  2. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; De Swardt, Bonita; Comerón, Sébastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; De Paz, Armando Gil

    2012-01-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T ≤ 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes ∼3%-10% to the total 3.6 μm luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  3. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  4. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable debris. In case of possible collision with the observed debris an avoidance manoeuvre is provided. The situation with unobservable debris is worse, its dimensions ranging from 100 mm to several microns. This debris is formed as a result of explosions of dead space objects and at collisions of destroyed spacecraft fragments against each other. This debris moves along arbitrary trajectories at different speeds.At collision of a spacecraft with fragments of small-size space debris, various consequences are possible: the device can immediately fail, suffer damages, which will have effect later and damages, which break no bones to the aircraft. Anyway, the spacecraft collision with small-size debris particles is undesirable. The protective shields are used to protect the aircraft from damage. Development of shield construction is complicated because the high cost of launch makes it impossible to conduct field tests of shields in space. All the work is carried out in the laboratory, with particles having co-impact speeds up to 10 km/s (possible speeds are up to 20 km/s and spherically shaped particles of 0.8 ... 3 mm in diameter.Various materials are used to manufacture shields. These are aluminum sheet, sandwich panels, metal mesh, metal foam, and woven materials (ballistic fabric. The paper considers single-layer (from sheet metal sandwich materials and multilayer shield designs. As experimental studies show, a single-layer shield protects colliding at speeds

  5. DEBRIS DISTRIBUTION IN HD 95086—A YOUNG ANALOG OF HR 8799

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu; Balog, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    HD 95086 is a young early-type star that hosts (1) a 5 M J planet at the projected distance of 56 AU revealed by direct imaging, and (2) a prominent debris disk. Here we report the detection of 69 μm crystalline olivine feature from the disk using the Spitzer/MIPS-SED data covering 55-95 μm. Due to the low resolution of the MIPS-SED mode, this feature is not spectrally resolved, but is consistent with the emission from crystalline forsterite contributing ∼5% of the total dust mass. We also present detailed analysis of the disk spectral energy distribution and re-analysis of resolved images obtained by Herschel. Our results suggest that the debris structure around HD 95086 consists of a warm (∼175 K) belt, a cold (∼55 K) disk, and an extended disk halo (up to ∼800 AU), and is very similar to that of HR 8799. We compare the properties of the three debris components, and suggest that HD 95086 is a young analog of HR 8799. We further investigate and constrain single-planet, two-planet, three-planet, and four-planet architectures that can account for the observed debris structure and are compatible with dynamical stability constraints. We find that equal-mass four-planet configurations of geometrically spaced orbits, with each planet of mass ∼ 5 M J , could maintain the gap between the warm and cold debris belts, and also be just marginally stable for timescales comparable to the age of the system

  6. DEBRIS DISTRIBUTION IN HD 95086—A YOUNG ANALOG OF HR 8799

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Balog, Zoltan, E-mail: ksu@as.arizona.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17 D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    HD 95086 is a young early-type star that hosts (1) a 5 M{sub J} planet at the projected distance of 56 AU revealed by direct imaging, and (2) a prominent debris disk. Here we report the detection of 69 μm crystalline olivine feature from the disk using the Spitzer/MIPS-SED data covering 55-95 μm. Due to the low resolution of the MIPS-SED mode, this feature is not spectrally resolved, but is consistent with the emission from crystalline forsterite contributing ∼5% of the total dust mass. We also present detailed analysis of the disk spectral energy distribution and re-analysis of resolved images obtained by Herschel. Our results suggest that the debris structure around HD 95086 consists of a warm (∼175 K) belt, a cold (∼55 K) disk, and an extended disk halo (up to ∼800 AU), and is very similar to that of HR 8799. We compare the properties of the three debris components, and suggest that HD 95086 is a young analog of HR 8799. We further investigate and constrain single-planet, two-planet, three-planet, and four-planet architectures that can account for the observed debris structure and are compatible with dynamical stability constraints. We find that equal-mass four-planet configurations of geometrically spaced orbits, with each planet of mass ∼ 5 M{sub J} , could maintain the gap between the warm and cold debris belts, and also be just marginally stable for timescales comparable to the age of the system.

  7. Emissions from the burning of vegetative debris in air curtain destructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C Andrew; Lemieux, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Although air curtain destructors (ACDs) have been used for quite some time to dispose of vegetative debris, relatively little in-depth testing has been conducted to quantify emissions of pollutants other than CO and particulate matter. As part of an effort to prepare for possible use of ACDs to dispose of the enormous volumes of debris generated by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the literature on ACD emissions was reviewed to identify potential environmental issues associated with ACD disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) debris. Although no data have been published on emissions from C&D debris combustion in an ACD, a few studies provided information on emissions from the combustion of vegetative debris. These studies are reviewed, and the results compared with studies of open burning of biomass. Combustion of vegetative debris in ACD units results in significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and CO per unit of mass of debris compared with open pile burning. The available data are not sufficient to make general estimates regarding emissions of organic or metal compounds. The highly transient nature of the ACD combustion process, a minimal degree of operational control, and significant variability in debris properties make accurate prediction of ACD emissions impossible in general. Results of scoping tests conducted in preparation for possible in-depth emissions tests demonstrate the challenges associated with sampling ACD emissions and highlight the transient nature of the process. The environmental impacts of widespread use of ACDs for disposal of vegetative debris and their potential use to reduce the volume of C&D debris in future disaster response scenarios remain a considerable gap in understanding the risks associated with debris disposal options.

  8. Orbital debris: a technical assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Space Debris, National Research Council

    ..., and other debris created as a byproduct of space operations. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft...

  9. Characterization of Oribtal Debris via Hyper-Velocity Ground-Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.

    2015-01-01

    Existing DoD and NASA satellite breakup models are based on a key laboratory-based test, Satellite Orbital debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which has supported many applications and matched on-orbit events involving older satellite designs reasonably well over the years. In order to update and improve the break-up models and the NASA Size Estimation Model (SEM) for events involving more modern satellite designs, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has worked in collaboration with the University of Florida to replicate a hypervelocity impact using a satellite built with modern-day spacecraft materials and construction techniques. The spacecraft, called DebriSat, was intended to be a representative of modern LEO satellites and all major designs decisions were reviewed and approved by subject matter experts at Aerospace Corporation. DebriSat is composed of 7 major subsystems including attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), electrical power system (EPS), payload, propulsion, telemetry tracking and command (TT&C), and thermal management. To reduce cost, most components are emulated based on existing design of flight hardware and fabricated with the same materials. All fragments down to 2 mm is size will be characterized via material, size, shape, bulk density, and the associated data will be stored in a database for multiple users to access. Laboratory radar and optical measurements will be performed on a subset of fragments to provide a better understanding of the data products from orbital debris acquired from ground-based radars and telescopes. The resulting data analysis from DebriSat will be used to update break-up models and develop the first optical SEM in conjunction with updates into the current NASA SEM. The characterization of the fragmentation will be discussed in the subsequent presentation.

  10. On the effects of solar storms to the decaying orbital space debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Rachman, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Any man-made object in Earth's orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose is classified as orbital debris. Debris objects come from a variety of sources. The majority is related to satellite fragmentation. Other major sources of debris are propulsion systems, and fragmentation of spent upper stages, payload and mission related debris. Serious concern about orbital debris has been growing. Knowledge of the future debris environment is important to both satellite designers, and mission planners, who need to know what hazards a satellite might encounter during the course of its mission. Therefore, it is important to know how much debris is in orbit, where it is located, and when it will decay. The debris environment is complex and dynamically evolving. Objects of different shape and size behave differently in orbit. The geoeffectiveness space environments include solar flux at 10.7 cm, solar energetic particles flux or speed, solar wind flow pressure, electric field, and geomagnetic indices. We study the decaying orbital debris from Tracking and Impact Prediction (TIP) messages in conjuction with geoeffectiveness space environments through time epoch correlation. We found that the decaying and reentry orbital debris are triggered by space environment enhancement within at least one week before reentry. It is not necessary a transient or high energetic and severe solar storm events are needed in decaying processes. We propose that the gradual enhancement processes of space environment will cause satellite surface charging due to energetic electron and enhance drag force

  11. On the effects of solar storms to the decaying orbital space debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: dhani@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Rachman, Abdul [Space Science Center, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, Junjunan 133, Bandung 40173 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Any man-made object in Earth's orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose is classified as orbital debris. Debris objects come from a variety of sources. The majority is related to satellite fragmentation. Other major sources of debris are propulsion systems, and fragmentation of spent upper stages, payload and mission related debris. Serious concern about orbital debris has been growing. Knowledge of the future debris environment is important to both satellite designers, and mission planners, who need to know what hazards a satellite might encounter during the course of its mission. Therefore, it is important to know how much debris is in orbit, where it is located, and when it will decay. The debris environment is complex and dynamically evolving. Objects of different shape and size behave differently in orbit. The geoeffectiveness space environments include solar flux at 10.7 cm, solar energetic particles flux or speed, solar wind flow pressure, electric field, and geomagnetic indices. We study the decaying orbital debris from Tracking and Impact Prediction (TIP) messages in conjuction with geoeffectiveness space environments through time epoch correlation. We found that the decaying and reentry orbital debris are triggered by space environment enhancement within at least one week before reentry. It is not necessary a transient or high energetic and severe solar storm events are needed in decaying processes. We propose that the gradual enhancement processes of space environment will cause satellite surface charging due to energetic electron and enhance drag force.

  12. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Cozar, Andres

    2014-06-30

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  13. Plastic debris in the open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Ubeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Alvaro T; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-07-15

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean.

  14. Plastic debris in the open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. However, the global load of plastic on the open ocean surface was estimated to be on the order of tens of thousands of tons, far less than expected. Our observations of the size distribution of floating plastic debris point at important size-selective sinks removing millimeter-sized fragments of floating plastic on a large scale. This sink may involve a combination of fast nano-fragmentation of the microplastic into particles of microns or smaller, their transference to the ocean interior by food webs and ballasting processes, and processes yet to be discovered. Resolving the fate of the missing plastic debris is of fundamental importance to determine the nature and significance of the impacts of plastic pollution in the ocean. PMID:24982135

  15. Woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna B. Scheungrab; Carl C. Trettin; Russ Lea; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2000-01-01

    Woody debris can be defined as any dead, woody plant material, including logs, branches, standing dead trees, and root wads. Woody debris is an important part of forest and stream ecosystems because it has a role in carbon budgets and nutrient cycling, is a source of energy for aquatic ecosystems, provides habitat for terrestrial and aquatic organisms, and contributes...

  16. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; John Klavitter,

    2012-01-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008–July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April–August, while pieces were at their lowest during June–August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

  17. Wholesale debris removal from LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eugene; Pearson, Jerome; Carroll, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in electrodynamic propulsion make it possible to seriously consider wholesale removal of large debris from LEO for the first time since the beginning of the space era. Cumulative ranking of large groups of the LEO debris population and general limitations of passive drag devices and rocket-based removal systems are analyzed. A candidate electrodynamic debris removal system is discussed that can affordably remove all debris objects over 2 kg from LEO in 7 years. That means removing more than 99% of the collision-generated debris potential in LEO. Removal is performed by a dozen 100-kg propellantless vehicles that react against the Earth's magnetic field. The debris objects are dragged down and released into short-lived orbits below ISS. As an alternative to deorbit, some of them can be collected for storage and possible in-orbit recycling. The estimated cost per kilogram of debris removed is a small fraction of typical launch costs per kilogram. These rates are low enough to open commercial opportunities and create a governing framework for wholesale removal of large debris objects from LEO.

  18. A Brief History of Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Shielding Technology for US Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Michael D.; Hyde, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meteoroid and orbital debris shielding has played an important role from the beginning of manned spaceflight. During the early 60 s, meteoroid protection drove requirements for new meteor and micrometeoroid impact science. Meteoroid protection also stimulated advances in the technology of hypervelocity impact launchers and impact damage assessment methodologies. The first phase of meteoroid shielding assessments closed in the early 70 s with the end of the Apollo program. The second phase of meteoroid protection technology began in the early 80 s when it was determined that there is a manmade Earth orbital debris belt that poses a significant risk to LEO manned spacecraft. The severity of the Earth orbital debris environment has dictated changes in Space Shuttle and ISS operations as well as driven advances in shielding technology and assessment methodologies. A timeline of shielding technology and assessment methodology advances is presented along with a summary of risk assessment results.

  19. Monitoring and modelling of landslide and debris flow impact on transport and building infrasructure in the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanik, Olena; Shevchuk, Viktor; Yahno, Evgen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms and factors of formation of landslide and debris flow processes are examined in terms of model objects in the Carpathians. The study area is within Eastern Carpathians and Transcarpathian depression (Tisa river basin). There were investigated more than 220 stabilized and active landslides. The analysis of water-gravitational processes in this region with complex heterogeneous geological structure confirmed the priority nature of occurrence of structural landslides in rheologically different geological environments, and made it possible to create a new classification of structural landslides and conditions of their formation with the decisive influence of destructive zones. This classification is the basis for constructing geological, physical and mathematical models of landslide slopes, and subsequent modeling of the landslide hazard based on the determination of the stress-strain state of slopes. Under the proposed mathematical model, the examined phenomenon is described as thermoelastic-plastic equilibrium of the isotropic matrix under effect of applied mass (gravitational field of the Earth) and surface efforts, inhomogeneous stationary temperature field. In addition, it is assumed that the Young modulus at each point of the matrix depends on the water saturation. Debris and mudflows in the Carpathians have a stage character, non-stationary and avalanche movements. The territory is prone to be affected by debris and mudflows, due to the geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions. Therefore the main conditions of the mudflow formation are as follows: the presence of the rock destruction products which could be a solid phase of debris mudflow; presence of the enough quantity of the rainfall runoff for the unconsolidated material removal; ruggedness of relief that provides simultaneous movement of the big values of the water-soil mass with the big velocities. The algorithm calculating the mudflow impact on infrastructure objects in Carpathians

  20. Timing of susceptibility to post-fire debris flows in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds recently burned by wildfires can have an increased susceptibility to debris flow, although little is known about how long this susceptibility persists, and how it changes over time. We here use a compilation of 75 debris-flow response and fire-ignition dates, vegetation and bedrock class, rainfall regime, and initiation process from throughout the western U.S. to address these issues. The great majority (85 percent) of debris flows occurred within the first 12 months following wildfire, with 71 percent within the first six months. Seven percent of the debris flows occurred between 1 and 1.5 years after a fire, or during the second rainy season to impact an area. Within the first 1.5 years following fires, all but one of the debris flows initiated through runoff-dominated processes, and debris flows occurred in similar proportions in forested and non-forested landscapes. Geologic materials affected how long debris-flow activity persisted, and the timing of debris flows varied within different rainfall regimes. A second, later period of increased debris flow susceptibility between 2.2 and 10 years after fires is indicated by the remaining 8 percent of events, which occurred primarily in forested terrains and initiated largely through landslide processes. The short time period between fire and debris-flow response within the first 1.5 years after ignition, and the longer-term response between 2.2 and 10 years after fire, demonstrate the necessity of both rapid and long-term reactions by land managers and emergency-response agencies to mitigate hazards from debris flows from recently burned areas in the western U.S.

  1. Coarse-grained debris flow dynamics on erodible beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, Stefano; Gregoretti, Carlo; Stancanelli, Laura Maria

    2017-03-01

    A systematic set of flume experiments is used to investigate the features of velocity profiles within the body of coarse-grained debris flows and the dependence of the transport sediment concentration on the relevant parameters (runoff discharge, bed slope, grain size, and form). The flows are generated in a 10 m long laboratory flume, initially filled with a layer consisting of loose debris. After saturation, a prescribed water discharge is suddenly supplied over the granular bed, and the runoff triggers a debris flow wave that reaches nearly steady conditions. Three types of material have been used in the tests: gravel with mean grain size of 3 and 5 mm, and 3 mm glass spheres. Measured parameters included: triggering water discharge, volumetric sediment discharge, sediment concentration, flow depth, and velocity profiles. The dynamic similarity with full-sized debris flows is discussed on the basis of the relevant dimensionless parameters. Concentration data highlight the dependence on the slope angle and the importance of the quasi-static friction angle. The effects of flow rheology on the shape of velocity profiles are analyzed with attention to the role of different stress-generating mechanisms. A remarkable collapse of the dimensionless profiles is obtained by scaling the debris flow velocity with the runoff velocity, and a power law characterization is proposed following a heuristic approach. The shape of the profiles suggests a smooth transition between the different rheological regimes (collisional and frictional) that establish in the upper and lower regions of the flow and is compatible with the presence of multiple length scales dictated by the type of contacts (instantaneous or long lasting) between grains.

  2. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    target and stabilization and transportation features for the combined configuration. The capture system is a deployable and closable net. The net is ejected from the mother spacecraft at a safe distance to prevent any collision with the target. After transport to the disposal orbit the net will be cut and the spacecraft will return to the operational orbit of the next target. An initial down-scaled demonstration is planned for the net capture system on a parabolic flight in autumn 2010. Further representative demonstrations including, for example, one in LEO are under discussion. The capture system can be used operationally also in other orbits e.g. LEO, but the propellant requirements for transport of the target into a direct controlled re-entry orbit and the subsequent return of the mother spacecraft to a new target orbit will be very high. This could impact the multi mission capability of the system. The potential applications are under discussion with different customers including satellite operators, insurance companies and international organisations. juergen.starke@astrium.eads.net Tel.: +49-421-539-4573

  3. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  4. Development of Harpoon System for Capturing Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jame; Barraclough, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Active removal of large space debris has been identified as a key activity to control the growth in the debris population and to limit the risk to active satellites. Astrium is developing technologies to enable such a mission, including a harpoon capture system. The harpoon is simple, compact and lightweight. Since the capture is fast (typically barbs to robustly hold the target, a crushable section to absorb excess impact energy, and a tether to connect to the chaser vehicle. The baseline firing system uses compressed gas, although a simpler one-shot system has also been designed. To understand how a harpoon could be applicable to active debris removal an on-ground prototype and test-rig has been developed for trials with real structural elements of satellites and rocket bodies. Testing has demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and this paper describes the results as well as the next steps. A number of design variants are also proposed which could simplify the system design of an ADR mission.

  5. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  6. New advances for modelling the debris avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Cascini, Leonardo; Pastor, Manuel; Castorino, Giuseppe Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Flow-like landslides are a major global hazard and they occur worldwide causing a large number of casualties, significant structural damages to property and infrastructures as well as economic losses. When involving open slopes, these landslides often occur in triangular source areas where initial slides turn into avalanches through further failures and/or eventual soil entrainment. This paper deals with the numerical modelling of the propagation stage of debris avalanches which provides information such as the propagation pattern of the mobilized material, its velocity, thickness and run-out distance. In the paper, a "depth integrated" model is used which allows: i) adequately taking into account the irregular topography of real slopes which greatly affect the propagation stage and ii) using a less time consuming model than fully 3D approaches. The used model is named "GeoFlow_SPH" and it was formerly applied to theoretical, experimental and real case histories (Pastor et al., 2009; Cascini et al., 2012). In this work the behavior of debris avalanches is analyzed with special emphasis on the apical angle, one of the main features of this type of landslide, in relation to soil rheology, hillslope geometry and features of triggering area. Furthermore, the role of erosion has been investigated with reference to the uppermost parts of open slopes with a different steepness. These analyses are firstly carried out for simplified benchmark slopes, using both water-like materials (with no shear strength) and debris type materials. Then, three important case studies of Campania region (Cervinara, Nocera Inferiore e Sarno) are analyzed where debris avalanches involved pyroclastic soils originated from the eruptive products of Vesusius volcano. The results achieved for both benchmark slopes and real case histories outline the key role played by the erosion on the whole propagation stage of debris avalanches. The results are particularly satisfactory since they indicate the

  7. Cross-stratified Wood: Enigmatic Woody Debris Deposits in Warm-Polar Fluvial Sediments (Pliocene Beaufort Formation, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N. S.; Gosse, J. C.; Rybczynski, N.

    2012-04-01

    Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian. In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form. The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. The deposits we describe are located within the Pliocene Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, Nunavut, Canada, at a latitude of 80°N, and are compared with other cross-stratified woody debris deposits that have been noted elsewhere in the Pliocene of the Canadian Arctic. We make the robust observation that these deposits appear to be geographically and stratigraphically restricted to polar latitudes from a period of warm climatic conditions during the Pliocene (15-20 °C warmer mean annual temperature than the present day). In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it. The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from

  8. Characterizing Dusty Debris Disks with the Gemini Planet Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine; Arriaga, Pauline; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Choquet, Elodie; Debes, John H.; Donaldson, Jessica; Draper, Zachary; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hughes, A. Meredith; Kalas, Paul; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Lawler, Samantha; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mazoyer, Johan; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nesvold, Erika; Padgett, Deborah; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Rodigas, Timothy; Schneider, Glenn; Soummer, Remi; Song, Inseok; Stark, Chris; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have been awarded 87 hours of Gemini Observatory time to obtain multi-wavelength observations of HST resolved debris disks using the Gemini Planet Imager. We have executed ~51 hours of telescope time during the 2015B-2016B semesters observing 12 nearby, young debris disks. We have been using the GPI Spec and Pol modes to better constrain the properties of the circumstellar dust, specifically, measuring the near-infrared total intensity and polarization fraction colors, and searching for solid-state spectral features of nearby beta Pic-like disks. We expect that our observations will allow us to break the degeneracy among the particle properties such as composition, size, porosity, and shape. We present some early results from our observations.

  9. ORDEM 3.0 and MASTER-2009 Modeled Small Debris Population Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, P. H.; Flegel, S.

    2014-01-01

    The latest versions of the two premier orbital debris engineering models, NASA's ORDEM 3.0 and ESA's MASTER-2009, have been publically released. Both models have gone through significant advancements since inception, and now represent the state-of-the-art in orbital debris knowledge of their respective agencies. The purpose of these models is to provide satellite designers/operators and debris researchers with reliable estimates of the artificial debris environment in low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The small debris environment within the size range of 1 mm to 1 cm is of particular interest to both human and robotic spacecraft programs, particularly in LEO. These objects are much more numerous than larger trackable debris and can have enough momentum to cause significant, if not catastrophic, damage to spacecraft upon impact. They are also small enough to elude routine detection by existing observation systems (radar and telescope). Without reliable detection the modeling of these populations has always coupled theoretical origins with supporting observational data in different degrees. In this paper, we present and detail the 1 mm to 1 cm orbital debris populations from both ORDEM 3.0 and MASTER-2009 in LEO. We review population categories: particle sources for MASTER-2009, particle densities for ORDEM 3.0. We describe data sources and their uses, and supporting models. Fluxes on spacecraft for chosen orbits are also presented and discussed within the context of each model.

  10. Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Qun

    2017-08-12

    Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the SPI and peak discharge in the basin increased after a recurrence of debris flow. The TWI was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and indicated higher potential of landslide initiation when the slope of the basin was steeper. The HI revealed that the basin was in its mature stage and was shifting toward the old stage. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the parameters' mean depth, maximum depth, affected area, mean flow rate, maximum flow rate, and peak flow discharge were increased after recurrent debris flow, and peak discharge occurred quickly.

  11. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  12. Assessment of impact on seafloor features in INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Marine Georesources and Geotechnology,18:237–250,2000Copyright ©2000 Taylor & Francis1064-119X / 00 $12.00 1 .00 Assessment of Impact on Seafloor Features in INDEX Area RAHUL SHARMANational Institute of Oceanography,Dona Paula,Goa 403004,India...Benthic disturbance,environmental impact,photographic and subbottomdata,seafloor features. Imaging and sounding techniques are effective tools for obtaining first-hand information forassessing the baseline (undisturbed) conditions as well as the impact (disturbed...

  13. SIMS analysis of extended impact features on LDEF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Simon, C.; Stadermann, F. J.; Swan, P.; Walker, R.; Zinner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the first Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis of projectile material deposited in extended impact features on Ge wafers from the trailing edge. Although most capture cells lost their plastic film covers, they contain extended impact features that apparently were produced by high velocity impacts when the plastic foils were still intact. Detailed optical scanning of all bare capture cells from the trailing edge revealed more than 100 impacts. Fifty-eight were selected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection as prime candidates for SIMS analysis. Preliminary SIMS measurements were made on 15 impacts. More than half showed substantial enhancements of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe in the impact region, indicating micrometeorites as the projectiles.

  14. Analysis of debris-flow recordings in an instrumented basin: confirmations and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2006, a debris flow took place in the Moscardo Torrent, a basin of the Eastern Italian Alps instrumented for debris-flow monitoring. The debris flow was recorded by two seismic networks located in the lower part of the basin and on the alluvial fan, respectively. The event was also recorded by a pair of ultrasonic sensors installed on the fan, close to the lower seismic network. The comparison between the different recordings outlines particular features of the August 2006 debris flow, different from that of events recorded in previous years. A typical debris-flow wave was observed at the upper seismic network, with a main front abruptly appearing in the torrent, followed by a gradual decrease of flow height. On the contrary, on the alluvial fan the wave displayed an irregular pattern, with low flow depth and the main peak occurring in the central part of the surge both in the seismic recording and in the hydrographs. Recorded data and field evidences indicate that the surge observed on the alluvial fan was not a debris flow, and probably consisted in a water surge laden with fine to medium-sized sediment. The change in shape and characteristics of the wave can be ascribed to the attenuation of the surge caused by the torrent control works implemented in the lower basin during the last years.

  15. The physics of debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    1997-08-01

    Recent advances in theory and experimentation motivate a thorough reassessment of the physics of debris flows. Analyses of flows of dry, granular solids and solid-fluid mixtures provide a foundation for a comprehensive debris flow theory, and experiments provide data that reveal the strengths and limitations of theoretical models. Both debris flow materials and dry granular materials can sustain shear stresses while remaining static; both can deform in a slow, tranquil mode characterized by enduring, frictional grain contacts; and both can flow in a more rapid, agitated mode characterized by brief, inelastic grain collisions. In debris flows, however, pore fluid that is highly viscous and nearly incompressible, composed of water with suspended silt and clay, can strongly mediate intergranular friction and collisions. Grain friction, grain collisions, and viscous fluid flow may transfer significant momentum simultaneously. Both the vibrational kinetic energy of solid grains (measured by a quantity termed the granular temperature) and the pressure of the intervening pore fluid facilitate motion of grains past one another, thereby enhancing debris flow mobility. Granular temperature arises from conversion of flow translational energy to grain vibrational energy, a process that depends on shear rates, grain properties, boundary conditions, and the ambient fluid viscosity and pressure. Pore fluid pressures that exceed static equilibrium pressures result from local or global debris contraction. Like larger, natural debris flows, experimental debris flows of ˜10 m³ of poorly sorted, water-saturated sediment invariably move as an unsteady surge or series of surges. Measurements at the base of experimental flows show that coarse-grained surge fronts have little or no pore fluid pressure. In contrast, finer-grained, thoroughly saturated debris behind surge fronts is nearly liquefied by high pore pressure, which persists owing to the great compressibility and moderate

  16. The physics of debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in theory and experimentation motivate a thorough reassessment of the physics of debris flows. Analyses of flows of dry, granular solids and solid-fluid mixtures provide a foundation for a comprehensive debris flow theory, and experiments provide data that reveal the strengths and limitations of theoretical models. Both debris flow materials and dry granular materials can sustain shear stresses while remaining static; both can deform in a slow, tranquil mode characterized by enduring, frictional grain contacts; and both can flow in a more rapid, agitated mode characterized by brief, inelastic grain collisions. In debris flows, however, pore fluid that is highly viscous and nearly incompressible, composed of water with suspended silt and clay, can strongly mediate intergranular friction and collisions. Grain friction, grain collisions, and viscous fluid flow may transfer significant momentum simultaneously. Both the vibrational kinetic energy of solid grains (measured by a quantity termed the granular temperature) and the pressure of the intervening pore fluid facilitate motion of grains past one another, thereby enhancing debris flow mobility. Granular temperature arises from conversion of flow translational energy to grain vibrational energy, a process that depends on shear rates, grain properties, boundary conditions, and the ambient fluid viscosity and pressure. Pore fluid pressures that exceed static equilibrium pressures result from local or global debris contraction. Like larger, natural debris flows, experimental debris flows of ???10 m3 of poorly sorted, water-saturated sediment invariably move as an unsteady surge or series of surges. Measurements at the base of experimental flows show that coarse-grained surge fronts have little or no pore fluid pressure. In contrast, finer-grained, thoroughly saturated debris behind surge fronts is nearly liquefied by high pore pressure, which persists owing to the great compressibility and moderate

  17. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  18. Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr-Old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-Rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Lisse, Carey M.; Sicillia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Spitzer IRS spectroscopic observations of the approx. 10 Myr-old star, EF Chao Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 micron to 35 micron confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with L(sub D)/L(sub *) approx. 10(exp -3), containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr-old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g. HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely-powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to pyroxene ratio of approx. 2 also provides evidence of aqueous alteration. The large mass volume of grains with sizes comparable to or below the radiation blow-out limit implies that planetesimals may be colliding at a rate high enough to yield the emitting dust but not so high as to devolatize the planetesimals via impact processing. Because phyllosilicates are produced by the interactions between anhydrous rock and warm, reactive water, EF Cha's disk is a likely signpost for water delivery to the terrestrial zone of a young planetary system.

  19. The Impact of New Trends in Satellite Launches on Orbital Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; Stupl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to examine the impact of new trends in satellite launch activities on the orbital debris environment and collision risk. Starting from the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, space borne technology has become an indispensable part of our lives. More than 6,000 satellites have been launched into Earth orbit. Though the annual number of satellites launched stayed flat for many decades, the trend has recently changed. The satellite market has been undergoing a major evolution with new space companies replacing the traditional approach of deploying a few large, complex and costly satellites with an approach to use a multitude of smaller, less complex and cheaper satellites. This new approach creates a sharp increase in the number of satellites and so the historic trends are no longer representative. As a foundation for this study, a scenario for satellite deployments based on the publicly announced future satellite missions has been developed. These constellation-deploying companies include, but are not limited to, Blacksky, CICERO, EROS, Landmapper, Leosat, Northstar, O3b, OmniEarth, OneWeb, Orbcomm, OuterNet, PlanetIQ, Planet Labs, Radarsat, RapidEye Next Generation, Sentinel, Skybox, SpaceX, and Spire. Information such as the annual number of launches, the number of orbital planes to be used by the constellation, as well as apogee, perigee, inclination, spacecraft mass and area were included or approximated. Besides the production of satellites, a widespread ongoing effort to enhance orbital injection capabilities will allow delivery of more spacecraft more accurately into Earth orbits. A long list of companies such as Microcosm, Rocket Lab, Firefly Space Systems, Sierra Nevada Corporation and Arca Space Corporation are developing new launch vehicles dedicated for small satellites. There are other projects which intend to develop interstages with propulsive capabilities which will allow the deployment of satellites into

  20. Fragments and debris generation using a high power pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassany, Bruno; Courchinoux, Roger; Bertron, Isabelle; Malaise, Frederic; Hebert, David

    2002-01-01

    The high power Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will be constructed at CEA/DAM/CESTA near Bordeaux, in the south west part of France. Among the problems encountered in the LMJ experimental chamber, there is the impact of the debris produced after a laser shot on the silica optical windows. The production of debris as well as the behavior of optical materials under their influence can be simulated and studied with a pulsed electron beam. We present in this paper the first experimental results obtained by this original technique

  1. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans develop their semi-conical shape by cyclic avulsion of their geomorphologically active sector from a fixed fan apex. These cyclic avulsions have been attributed to both allogenic and autogenic forcings and processes. Autogenic dynamics have been extensively studied on fluvial fans through physical scale experiments, and are governed by cyclic alternations of aggradation by unconfined sheet flow, fanhead incision leading to channelized flow, channel backfilling and avulsion. On debris-flow fans, however, autogenic dynamics have not yet been directly observed. We experimentally created debris-flow fans under constant extrinsic forcings, and show that autogenic dynamics are a fundamental intrinsic process on debris-flow fans. We found that autogenic cycles on debris-flow fans are driven by sequences of backfilling, avulsion and channelization, similar to the cycles on fluvial fans. However, the processes that govern these sequences are unique for debris-flow fans, and differ fundamentally from the processes that govern autogenic dynamics on fluvial fans. We experimentally observed that backfilling commenced after the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent. The next debris flows then progressively became shorter, driven by feedbacks on fan morphology and flow-dynamics. The progressively decreasing debris-flow length caused in-channel sedimentation, which led to increasing channel overflow and wider debris flows. This reduced the impulse of the liquefied flow body to the flow front, which then further reduced flow velocity and runout length, and induced further in-channel sedimentation. This commenced a positive feedback wherein debris flows became increasingly short and wide, until the channel was completely filled and the apex cross-profile was plano-convex. At this point, there was no preferential transport direction by channelization, and the debris flows progressively avulsed towards the steepest, preferential, flow path. Simultaneously

  2. The bistatic radar capabilities of the Medicina radiotelescopes in space debris detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Pupillo, G.; Salerno, E.; Pluchino, S.; di Martino, M.

    2010-03-01

    An accurate measurement of the position and trajectory of the space debris fragments is of primary importance for the characterization of the orbital debris environment. The Medicina Radioastronomical Station is a radio observation facility that is here proposed as receiving part of a ground-based space surveillance system for detecting and tracking space debris at different orbital regions (from Low Earth Orbits up to Geostationary Earth Orbits). The proposed system consists of two bistatic radars formed by the existing Medicina receiving antennas coupled with appropriate transmitters. This paper focuses on the current features and future technical development of the receiving part of the observational setup. Outlines of possible transmitting systems will also be given together with the evaluation of the observation strategies achievable with the proposed facilities.

  3. Integrity assessment of the spacecraft subjected to the hypervelocity impact by ceramic and metal projectiles simulating space debris and micrometeoroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Masahide; Takeba, Atsushi; Nitta, Kumi; Kawakita, Shirou; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish the guidelines for the protection of unmanned spacecrafts from the space debris and micrometeoroid impacts, the experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presents mainly its numerical methodology, especially from the viewpoint of highly non-linear and dynamic material model: i.e. the equation of state, constitutive model and fracture or failure model, including a brittle material model for ceramics and an equation of state for the shock-induced vaporization accompanied by hypervelocity impact. The experimental results of hypervelocity impact by two-stage light-gas gun and plasma drag gun are compared with corresponding numerical simulation results by using a hydrocode, and both results are demonstrated to be overall in good agreement with each other.

  4. Integrity assessment of the spacecraft subjected to the hypervelocity impact by ceramic and metal projectiles simulating space debris and micrometeoroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Masahide, E-mail: masahide.katayama@ctc-g.co.jp [Science and Engineering Systems Division, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Takeba, Atsushi [Science and Engineering Systems Division, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Nitta, Kumi; Kawakita, Shirou; Matsumoto, Haruhisa [Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Kitazawa, Yukihito [Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Aero-Engine and Space Operations, IHI Corporation, 3-1-1, Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In order to establish the guidelines for the protection of unmanned spacecrafts from the space debris and micrometeoroid impacts, the experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presents mainly its numerical methodology, especially from the viewpoint of highly non-linear and dynamic material model: i.e. the equation of state, constitutive model and fracture or failure model, including a brittle material model for ceramics and an equation of state for the shock-induced vaporization accompanied by hypervelocity impact. The experimental results of hypervelocity impact by two-stage light-gas gun and plasma drag gun are compared with corresponding numerical simulation results by using a hydrocode, and both results are demonstrated to be overall in good agreement with each other.

  5. The co-existence of hot and cold gas in debris discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollido, I.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.; Absil, O.; Bayo, A.; Canovas, H.; Carmona, A.; Chen, Ch.; Ertel, S.; Garufi, A.; Henning, Th.; Iglesias, D. P.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Meeus, G.; Moór, A.; Mora, A.; Olofsson, J.; Rauw, G.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Debris discs have often been described as gas-poor discs as the gas-to-dust ratio is expected to be considerably lower than in primordial, protoplanetary discs. However, recent observations have confirmed the presence of a non-negligible amount of cold gas in the circumstellar (CS) debris discs around young main-sequence stars. This cold gas has been suggested to be related to the outgassing of planetesimals and cometary-like objects. Aims: The goal of this paper is to investigate the presence of hot gas in the immediate surroundings of the cold-gas-bearing debris-disc central stars. Methods: High-resolution optical spectra of all currently known cold-gas-bearing debris-disc systems, with the exception of β Pic and Fomalhaut, have been obtained from La Palma (Spain), La Silla (Chile), and La Luz (Mexico) observatories. To verify the presence of hot gas around the sample of stars, we have analysed the Ca II H&K and the Na I D lines searching for non-photospheric absorptions of CS origin, usually attributed to cometary-like activity. Results: Narrow, stable Ca II and/or Na I absorption features have been detected superimposed to the photospheric lines in 10 out of the 15 observed cold-gas-bearing debris-disc stars. Features are found at the radial velocity of the stars, or slightly blue- or red-shifted, and/or at the velocity of the local interstellar medium (ISM). Some stars also present transient variable events or absorptions extended towards red wavelengths (red wings). These are the first detections of such Ca II features in 7 out of the 15 observed stars. Although an ISM origin cannot categorically be excluded, the results suggest that the stable and variable absorptions arise from relatively hot gas located in the CS close-in environment of the stars. This hot gas is detected in at least 80%, of edge-on cold-gas-bearing debris discs, while in only 10% of the discs seen close to face-on. We interpret this result as a geometrical effect, and suggest

  6. Space debris: modeling and detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, C.; Lorenz, J.; Radtke, J.; Kebschull, C.; Horstmann, A.; Stoll, E.

    2017-01-01

    High precision orbit determination is required for the detection and removal of space debris. Knowledge of the distribution of debris objects in orbit is necessary for orbit determination by active or passive sensors. The results can be used to investigate the orbits on which objects of a certain size at a certain frequency can be found. The knowledge of the orbital distribution of the objects as well as their properties in accordance with sensor performance models provide the basis for estimating the expected detection rates. Comprehensive modeling of the space debris environment is required for this. This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about the space debris environment. In particular non-cataloged small objects are evaluated. Furthermore, improvements concerning the update of the current space debris model are addressed. The model of the space debris environment is based on the simulation of historical events, such as fragmentations due to explosions and collisions that actually occurred in Earth orbits. The orbital distribution of debris is simulated by propagating the orbits considering all perturbing forces up to a reference epoch. The modeled object population is compared with measured data and validated. The model provides a statistical distribution of space objects, according to their size and number. This distribution is based on the correct consideration of orbital mechanics. This allows for a realistic description of the space debris environment. Subsequently, a realistic prediction can be provided concerning the question, how many pieces of debris can be expected on certain orbits. To validate the model, a software tool has been developed which allows the simulation of the observation behavior of ground-based or space-based sensors. Thus, it is possible to compare the results of published measurement data with simulated detections. This tool can also be used for the simulation of sensor measurement campaigns. It is

  7. Detecting debris flows using ground vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHusen, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Debris flows are rapidly flowing mixtures of rock debris, mud, and water that originate on steep slopes. During and following volcanic eruptions, debris flows are among the most destructive and persistent hazards. Debris flows threaten lives and property not only on volcanoes but far downstream in valleys that drain volcanoes where they arrive suddenly and inundate entire valley bottoms. Debris flows can destroy vegetation and structures in their path, including bridges and buildings. Their deposits can cover roads and railways, smother crops, and fill stream channels, thereby reducing their flood-carrying capacity and navigability.

  8. Catastrophic debris flows near Machu Picchu village (Aguas Calientes), Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, V.; Klimeš, Jan; Vlčko, J.; Carreno, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2006), s. 1041-1052 ISSN 0943-0105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : debris flows * Machu Picchu Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2006

  9. Measuring the gypsum content of C&D debris fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Stephen E; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2008-11-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) debris recycling facilities often produce a screened material intended for use as alternative daily cover (ADC) at active landfills or for shaping and grading at closed landfills. This product contains soil and small pieces of wood, concrete, gypsum drywall, shingles and other components of C&D debris. Concerns have been raised over the contribution of gypsum drywall in C&D debris fines to odor problems at landfills where the product is used. To address such concerns, limitations may be placed on the percentage of gypsum (or sulfate) that can occur, and standardized testing procedures are required to permit valid compliance testing. A test procedure was developed for measuring the gypsum content in C&D debris fines. The concentration of sulfate leached in an aqueous solution was used to estimate the initial gypsum content of the sample. The impact of sample size and leaching time were evaluated. Precision and accuracy increased with increasing gypsum content. Results from replicate samples had an average relative standard deviation of 9%. The gypsum content of fines obtained from different facilities in the US varied widely from 1% to over 25%. These variations not only occurred between differing facilities, but within batches produced within a single facility.

  10. Tornado Damage Assessment: Reconstructing the Wind Through Debris Tracking and Treefall Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, C. M.; Peterson, C. J.; Lombardo, F.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to enhance the resilience of communities to tornadoes requires an understanding of the interconnected nature of debris and damage propagation in both the built and natural environment. A first step toward characterizing the interconnectedness of these elements within a given community involves detailed post-event surveys of tornado damage. Such damage surveys immediately followed the 22 January 2017 EF3 tornadoes in the southern Georgia towns of Nashville and Albany. After assigning EF-scale ratings to impacted structures, the authors geotagged hundreds of pieces of debris scattered around selected residential structures and outbuildings in each neighborhood and paired each piece of debris with its source structure. Detailed information on trees in the vicinity of the structures supplements the debris data, including the species, dimensions, location, fall direction, and level of damage. High-resolution satellite imagery helps to identify the location and fall direction of hundreds of additional forest trees. These debris and treefall patterns allow an estimation of the near-surface wind field using a Rankine vortex model coupled with both a tree stability model and an infrastructure fragility model that simulates debris flight. Comparisons between the modeled damage and the actual treefall and debris field show remarkable similarities for a selected set of vortex parameters, indicating the viability of this approach for estimating enhanced Fujita scale levels, determining the near-surface wind field of a tornado during its passage through a neighborhood, and identifying how debris may contribute to the overall risk from tornadoes.

  11. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  12. Prediction of mass fraction of agglomerated debris in a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, P.; Davydov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ex-vessel termination of accident progression in Swedish type Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is contingent upon efficacy of melt fragmentation and solidification in a deep pool of water below reactor vessel. When liquid melt reaches the bottom of the pool it can create agglomerated debris and “cake” regions that increase hydraulic resistance of the bed and affect coolability of the bed. This paper discusses development and application of a conservative-mechanistic approach to quantify mass fractions of agglomerated debris. Experimental data from the DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation and Agglomeration) tests with high superheat of binary oxidic simulant material melt is used for validation of the methods. Application of the approach to plant accident analysis suggests that melt superheat has less significant influence on agglomeration of the debris than jet penetration depth. The paper also discusses the impact of the uncertainty in the jet disintegration and penetration behavior on the agglomeration mode map. (author)

  13. Progress on establishing guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments to extend debris shield lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Eder, D.; Braun, D.; MacGowan, B.

    2002-01-01

    The survivability of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4-8 J/cm 2 laser fluences indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed suggested guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance suggests a target mass quantity that as particulate on the debris shields (300 mg) may be within current operating budgets. It also suggests the amount of material that should become shrapnel on a shot (10 mg). Finally, it suggests the level of non-volatile residue (NVR) that would threaten the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields (1 μg/cm 2 ). We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of X-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this X-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community

  14. Investigation of the structure of debris beds formed from fuel rods fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Fichot, Florian; Topin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.topin@irsn.fr

    2017-03-15

    This paper is a study of debris beds that can form in the core of a nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions. Such beds are formed of fragments of pellets and cladding remnants, as observed in the TMI-2 core. Many important issues are related with the morphology of those debris beds: are they coolable in case of water injection and how does molten corium progress through them if they are not coolable? The answers to those questions depend on the structure of the debris bed: porosity, number and arrangement of particles. In order to obtain relevant information, a numerical simulation of the formation of the debris bed is proposed. It relies on a granular approach of the type called “Contact Dynamics” to simulate the collapse of debris and their accumulation. Two different schemes of fuel pellet fragmentation are considered and simulations for different degrees of fragmentation of the pellets are performed. The results show that the number of axial cracks on fuel pellets strongly influences the final porosity of the debris bed. Porosities vary between 31% (less coolable cases) and 45% (similar to TMI-2 observations), with a most probable configuration around 41%. The specific surface of the bed is also evaluated. In the last part, a simple model is used to estimate the impact of the variation in geometry of the numeric debris beds on their flow properties. We show that the permeability and passability can vary respectively with a range of 30% and 15% depending on the number of fragment per pellet. The other benefits of the approach are finally discussed. Among them, the possibility to print 3D samples from the calculated images of debris beds appears as a promising perspective to perform experiments with realistic debris beds.

  15. Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport of large debris by tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel A. S.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    conservativeness of the model. This way, in highly resolved meshes and high quantities of debris, the model approaches full conservativeness only if the two-way coupling feature is present, an effect that is attenuated in coarse meshes or with small debris quantities. Aknownledgements: This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012. References: Baptista M.A. & Miranda, J.M. (2009) Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa Oliveira, C. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2013) A shallow-flow model for the propagation of tsunamis over complex geometries and mobile beds, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2533-2542. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa Oliveira, C. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2015) Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port. EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Ferreira, R. M. L.; Franca, M. J.; Leal, J. G. & Cardoso, A. H. (2009) Mathematical modelling of shallow flows: Closure models drawn from grain-scale mechanics of sediment transport and flow hydrodynamics, Can. J. Civil. Eng., 36, 1604-1621. LeVeque, R. J., George, D. L., & Berger, M. J. (2011) Tsunami modelling with adaptively refined finite volume methods, Acta Numerica, pp. 211-289.

  16. Report on the 4th International Conference on monitoring, simulation, prevention and remediation of dense and debris flows - Debris Flow 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Wrachien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Debris and hyper-concentrated flows are amongst the most destructive of all water-related disasters. These hazards are likely to become more frequent and more important in the future due to the effects of the increase in population, urbanization, land subsidence and the impact of climate change. They affect both rural and urban environments, particularly in river basins and in mountain areas. In recent years, they have attracted more and more attention from the scientific and professional communities due to the number of lives lost, and there is growing public concern for the future. New methods and measures are required to cope with debris flow changes and to achieve a harmonious balance between the environment and economic forces.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem.

  18. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  19. Morphometric differences in debris flow and mixed flow fans in eastern Death Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T. A.; Whitworth, J.

    2004-12-01

    Geomorphological features are best examined through direct measurement and parameterization of accurate topographic data. Fine-scale data are therefore required to produce a complete set of elevation data. Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) data provide high-resolution data over large spatially continuous areas. The National Center for Advanced Laser Mapping (NCALM) collected ALSM data for an area along the eastern side of Death Valley extending from slightly north of Badwater to Mormon Point. The raw ALSM data were post-processed and delivered by NCALM in one-meter grid nodes that we converted to one-meter raster data sets. ALSM data are used to assess variations in the dimensions of surficial features found in 32 alluvial fans (21 debris flow and 11 mixed flow fans). Planimetric curvature of the fan surfaces is used to develop a topographic signature to distinguish debris flow from mixed flow fans. These two groups of fans are identified from field analysis of near vertical exposures along channels as well as surficial exposures at proximal, medial, and distal fan locations. One group of fans exhibited debris flow characteristics (DF), while the second group contained a mixture of fluid and debris flows (MF). Local planimetric curvature of the alluvial fan surfaces was derived from the one-meter DEM. The local curvature data were reclassified into concave and convex features. This sequence corresponds to two broad classes of fan features: channels and interfluves. Thirty random points were generated inside each fan polygon. The length of the nearest concave-convex (channel-interfluve) couplet was measured at each point and the percentage of convex and concave pixels in a 10m box centered on the random point was also recorded. Plots and statistical analyses of the data show clear indication that local planimetric curvature can be used as a topographic signature to distinguish between the varying formative processes in alluvial fans. Significant differences in the

  20. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2004-09-01

    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  1. Marine debris removal: one year of effort by the Georgia Sea Turtle-Center-Marine Debris Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeannie Miller

    2013-09-15

    Once in the marine environment, debris poses a significant threat to marine life that can be prevented through the help of citizen science. Marine debris is any manufactured item that enters the ocean regardless of source, commonly plastics, metal, wood, glass, foam, cloth, or rubber. Citizen science is an effective way to engage volunteers in conservation initiatives and provide education and skill development. The Georgia Sea Turtle Center Marine Debris Initiative (GSTC-MDI) is a grant funded program developed to engage citizens in the removal of marine debris from the beaches of Jekyll Island, GA, USA and the surrounding areas. During the first year of effort, more than 200 volunteers donated over 460 h of service to the removal of marine debris. Of the debris removed, approximately 89% were plastics, with a significant portion being cigarette materials. Given the successful first year, the GSTC-MDI was funded again for a second year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rovetto, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to ...

  3. Colisional Cloud Debris and Propelled Evasive Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Jesus, A. D. C.; Carvalho, T. C. F.; Sousa, R. R.

    2017-10-01

    Space debris clouds exist at various altitudes in the environment outside the Earth. Fragmentation of debris and/or collision between the debris of a cloud increases the amount of debris, producing smaller debris. This event also increases significantly the chances of collision with operational vehicles in orbit. In this work we study clouds of debris that are close to a spacecraft in relation to its distance from the center of the Earth. The results show several layers of colliding debris depending on their size over time of evasive maneuvers of the vehicle. In addition, we have tested such maneuvers for propulsion systems with a linear and exponential mass variation model. The results show that the linear propulsion system is more efficient.

  4. Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Anthony; Schottel, Matthew; Lee, David; Scully, Robert; Hamilton, Joseph; Kent, Brian; Thomas, Christopher; Benson, Jonathan; Branch, Eric; Hardman, Paul; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Debris Examination Using Ballistic and Radar Integrated Software (DEBRIS) program was developed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of debris observed by the NASA Debris Radar (NDR). This software provides a greatly improved analysis capacity over earlier manual processes, allowing for up to four times as much data to be analyzed by one-quarter of the personnel required by earlier methods. There are two applications that comprise the DEBRIS system: the Automated Radar Debris Examination Tool (ARDENT) and the primary DEBRIS tool.

  5. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  6. A Dynamical System Approach to the Surface Search of Debris from MH370

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Garcia-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-11-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of the 8th of March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. One relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft was found during the intensive surface search carried out in the months following the crash. Difficulties in the search efforts, due to the uncertainty in the plane's final impact point and the time passed since the accident, brought the question on how the debris was scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there were multiple datasets that do not uniquely determined its state. Our approach to this problem is based on dynamical systems tools that identify dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining different ocean data with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the search services and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located and that have not been subjected to any exploration. This research has been supported by MINECO under grants MTM2014-56392-R and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. Computational support from CESGA is acknowledged.

  7. Effective mitigation of debris flows at Lemon Dam, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWolfe, V.G.; Santi, P.M.; Ey, J.; Gartner, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the hazards from debris flows in drainage basins burned by wildfire, erosion control measures such as construction of check dams, installation of log erosion barriers (LEBs), and spreading of straw mulch and seed are common practice. After the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire in southwest Colorado, these measures were implemented at Knight Canyon above Lemon Dam to protect the intake structures of the dam from being filled with sediment. Hillslope erosion protection measures included LEBs at concentrations of 220-620/ha (200-600% of typical densities), straw mulch was hand spread at concentrations up to 5.6??metric tons/hectare (125% of typical densities), and seeds were hand spread at 67-84??kg/ha (150% of typical values). The mulch was carefully crimped into the soil to keep it in place. In addition, 13 check dams and 3 debris racks were installed in the main drainage channel of the basin. The technical literature shows that each mitigation method working alone, or improperly constructed or applied, was inconsistent in its ability to reduce erosion and sedimentation. At Lemon Dam, however, these methods were effective in virtually eliminating sedimentation into the reservoir, which can be attributed to a number of factors: the density of application of each mitigation method, the enhancement of methods working in concert, the quality of installation, and rehabilitation of mitigation features to extend their useful life. The check dams effectively trapped the sediment mobilized during rainstorms, and only a few cubic meters of debris traveled downchannel, where it was intercepted by debris racks. Using a debris volume-prediction model developed for use in burned basins in the Western U.S., recorded rainfall events following the Missionary Ridge Fire should have produced a debris flow of approximately 10,000??m3 at Knight Canyon. The mitigation measures, therefore, reduced the debris volume by several orders of magnitude. For comparison, rainstorm

  8. Debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests of debris resistance-bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Heung June; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1992-03-01

    In this final report, described are the test conditions and test procedures for the debris filtering effectiveness and pressure drop tests for developing the Debris Resistance-Bottom End Piece (DR-BEP). And the test results are tabulated for later evaluation. (Author)

  9. Multi-layered foil capture of micrometeoroids and orbital debris in low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A.; Graham, G.

    Much of our knowledge concerning the sub-millimetre orbital debris population that poses a threat to orbiting satellites has been gleaned from examination of surfaces retrieved and subsequently analysed as part of post-flight investigations. The preservation of the hypervelocity impact-derived remnants located on these surfaces is very variable, whether of space debris or micrometeoroid origin. Whilst glass and metallic materials show highly visible impact craters when examined using optical and electron microscopes, complex mixing between the target material and the impacting particle may make unambiguous interpretation of the impactor origin difficult or impossible. Our recent detailed examination of selected multi-layered insulation (MLI) foils from the ISAS Space Flyer Unit (SFU), and our preliminary study of NASA's Trek blanket, exposed on the Mir station, show that these constructions have the potential to preserve abundant residue material of a quality sufficient for detailed analysis. Although there are still limitations on the recognition of certain sources of orbital debris, the foils complement the metal and glass substrates. We suggest that a purpose-built multi-layered foil structure may prove to be extremely effective for rapid collection and unambiguous analysis of impact- derived residues. Such a collector could be used an environmental monitor for ISS, as it would have low mass, high durability, easy deployment, recovery and storage, making it an economically viable and attractive option.

  10. Review on the NEI Methodology of Debris Transport Analysis in Sump Blockage Issue for APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Jeong Ik; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Bang, Young Seok

    2007-01-01

    Since USNRC (United State Nuclear Regulatory Committee) initially addressed post-accident sump performance under Unresolved Safety Issue USI A-43, sump blockage issue has gone through GSI-191, Regulation Guide 1.82, Rev. 3 (RG. 1.82 Rev.3), and generic Letter 2004-02 for PWRs (Pressurized Water Reactors). As a response of these USNRC's activities, NEI 04-07 was issued in order to evaluate the post-accident performance of a plant's recirculation sump. The baseline methodology of NEI 04-07 is composed of break selection, debris generation, latent debris, debris transport, and head loss. In analytical refinement of NEI 04-07, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is suggested for the evaluation of debris transport in emergency core cooling (ECC) recirculation mode as guided by RG. 1.82 Rev.3. In Korea nuclear industry also keeps step with international activities of this safety issue, with Kori 1 plant as a pioneering edge. Korean nuclear industry has been also pursuing development of an advanced PWR of APR1400, which incorporates several improved safety features. One of the key features, considering sump blockage issue, is the adoption of IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank). This device, as the acronym implies, changes the emergency core cooling water injection pattern. This fact makes us to review the applicability of NEI 04-07's methodology. In this paper we discuss the applicability of NEI 04- 07's methodology, and more over, new methodology is proposed. And finally the preliminary debris transport is analyzed

  11. Initiation of Recent Debris Flows on Mount Rainier, Washington: A Climate Warming Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. A.; Kennard, P.; Nolin, A. W.; Lancaster, S. T.; Grant, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The first week of November 2006 an intense rainstorm inundated the Pacific Northwest and triggered debris flows on many large volcanoes in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon. At Mount Rainier, Washington, 45.7 cm of rain was recorded in 36 hours; the storm was preceded by a week of light precipitation and moderate temperatures, so that rain fell on nearly-saturated ground with minimal snow cover. The November 2006 storm was exceptional in that it resulted in a 100-year flood and caused an unprecedented six-month closure of Mount Rainier National Park. It also focused inquiry as to whether debris flows from Cascade volcanoes are likely to occur more frequently in the future as glaciers recede due to climate warming, leaving unstable moraines and sediment that can act as initiation sites. We examined the recent history of debris flows from Mount Rainier using aerial photographs and field surveyed debris flow tracks. Prior to 2001, debris flows were recorded in association with rainfall or glacial outburst floods in 4 drainages, but 3 additional drainages were first impacted by debris flows in 2001, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We discovered that most of the recent debris flows initiated as small gullies in unconsolidated material at the edge of fragmented glaciers or areas of permanent snow and ice. Other initiation sites occur on steep-sided un-vegetated moraines. Of the 28 named glaciers on Mount Rainier, debris flows initiated near five glaciers in the exceptional storm of 2006 (Winthrop, Inter, Kautz-Success, Van Trump, Pyramid, and South Tahoma). Less exceptional storms, however, have also produced wide-spread debris flows: in September 2005, 15.3 cm of rain fell in 48 hours on minimal snow cover and caused debris flows in all except 2 of the glacier drainages that initiated in 2006. Debris flows from both storms initiated at elevations of 1980 to 2400 m, traveled 5 to 10 kilometers, and caused significant streambed aggradation. These results suggest a

  12. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  13. Modelling the fate of marine debris along a complex shoreline: Lessons from the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, K.; Grech, A.; Schlaefer, J.; Andutta, F. P.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolanski, E.; Hamann, M.

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of floating anthropogenic debris in marine and coastal areas has environmental, economic, aesthetic, and human health impacts. Until now, modelling the transport of such debris has largely been restricted to the large-scales of open seas. We used oceanographic modelling to identify potential sites of debris accumulation along a rugged coastline with headlands, islands, rocky coasts and beaches. Our study site was the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area that has an emerging problem with debris accumulation. We found that the classical techniques of modelling the transport of floating debris models are only moderately successful due to a number of unknowns or assumptions, such as the value of the wind drift coefficient, the variability of the oceanic forcing and of the wind, the resuspension of some floating debris by waves, and the poorly known relative contribution of floating debris from urban rivers and commercial and recreational shipping. Nevertheless the model was successful in reproducing a number of observations such as the existence of hot spots of accumulation. The orientation of beaches to the prevailing wind direction affected the accumulation rate of debris. The wind drift coefficient and the exact timing of the release of the debris at sea affected little the movement of debris originating from rivers but it affected measurably that of debris originating from ships. It was thus possible to produce local hotspot maps for floating debris, especially those originating from rivers. Such modelling can be used to inform local management decisions, and it also identifies likely priority research areas to more reliably predict the trajectory and landing points of floating debris.

  14. Predicting debris-flow initiation and run-out with a depth-averaged two-phase model and adaptive numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. L.; Iverson, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerically simulating debris-flow motion presents many challenges due to the complicated physics of flowing granular-fluid mixtures, the diversity of spatial scales (ranging from a characteristic particle size to the extent of the debris flow deposit), and the unpredictability of the flow domain prior to a simulation. Accurately predicting debris-flows requires models that are complex enough to represent the dominant effects of granular-fluid interaction, while remaining mathematically and computationally tractable. We have developed a two-phase depth-averaged mathematical model for debris-flow initiation and subsequent motion. Additionally, we have developed software that numerically solves the model equations efficiently on large domains. A unique feature of the mathematical model is that it includes the feedback between pore-fluid pressure and the evolution of the solid grain volume fraction, a process that regulates flow resistance. This feature endows the model with the ability to represent the transition from a stationary mass to a dynamic flow. With traditional approaches, slope stability analysis and flow simulation are treated separately, and the latter models are often initialized with force balances that are unrealistically far from equilibrium. Additionally, our new model relies on relatively few dimensionless parameters that are functions of well-known material properties constrained by physical data (eg. hydraulic permeability, pore-fluid viscosity, debris compressibility, Coulomb friction coefficient, etc.). We have developed numerical methods and software for accurately solving the model equations. By employing adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), the software can efficiently resolve an evolving debris flow as it advances through irregular topography, without needing terrain-fit computational meshes. The AMR algorithms utilize multiple levels of grid resolutions, so that computationally inexpensive coarse grids can be used where the flow is absent, and

  15. Backwater development by woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Tjitske; Torfs, Paul; Teuling, Ryan; Hoitink, Ton

    2017-04-01

    Placement of woody debris is a common method for increasing ecological values in river and stream restoration, and is thus widely used in natural environments. Water managers, however, are afraid to introduce wood in channels draining agricultural and urban areas. Upstream, it may create backwater, depending on hydrodynamic characteristics including the obstruction ratio, the Froude number and the surface level gradient. Patches of wood may trigger or counter morphological activity, both laterally, through bank erosion and protection, and vertically, with pool and riffle formation. Also, a permeable construction composed of wood will weather over time. Both morphodynamic activity and weathering cause backwater effects to change in time. The purpose of this study is to quantify the time development of backwater effects caused by woody debris. Hourly water levels gauged upstream and downstream of patches and discharge are collected for five streams in the Netherlands. The water level drop over the woody debris patch relates to discharge in the streams. This relation is characterized by an increasing water level difference for an increasing discharge, up to a maximum. If the discharge increases beyond this level, the water level difference reduces to the value that may represent the situation without woody debris. This reduction depends primarily on the obstruction ratio of the woody debris in the channel cross-section. Morphologic adjustments in the stream and reorientation of the woody material reduce the water level drop over the patches in time. Our results demonstrate that backwater effects can be reduced by optimizing the location where woody debris is placed and manipulating the obstruction ratio. Current efforts are focussed on representing woody debris in a one-dimensional numerical model, aiming to obtain a generic tool to achieve a stream design with woody debris that minimizes backwater.

  16. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  17. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NASA's New Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the functionality and use of ORDEM2010, which replaces ORDEM2000, as the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) debris engineering model. Like its predecessor, ORDEM2010 serves the ODPO mission of providing spacecraft designers/operators and debris observers with a publicly available model to calculate orbital debris flux by current-state-of-knowledge methods. The key advance in ORDEM2010 is the input file structure of the yearly debris populations from 1995-2035 of sizes 10 micron - 1 m. These files include debris from low-Earth orbits (LEO) through geosynchronous orbits (GEO). Stable orbital elements (i.e., those that do not randomize on a sub-year timescale) are included in the files as are debris size, debris number, material density, random error and population error. Material density is implemented from ground-test data into the NASA breakup model and assigned to debris fragments accordingly. The random and population errors are due to machine error and uncertainties in debris sizes. These high-fidelity population files call for a much higher-level model analysis than what was possible with the populations of ORDEM2000. Population analysis in the ORDEM2010 model consists of mapping matrices that convert the debris population elements to debris fluxes. One output mode results in a spacecraft encompassing 3-D igloo of debris flux, compartmentalized by debris size, velocity, pitch, and yaw with respect to spacecraft ram direction. The second output mode provides debris flux through an Earth-based telescope/radar beam from LEO through GEO. This paper compares the new ORDEM2010 with ORDEM2000 in terms of processes and results with examples of specific orbits.

  19. Influence of fishing activity over the marine debris composition close to coastal jetty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Eduardo G G; Preichardt, Paulo R; Dantas, David V

    2018-04-23

    Worldwide, the marine debris emissions have been provoking impacts in ecosystems, generating massive mortality of different species with commercial interest. In South America, we have a lack of studies to verify the marine debris composition in transitional environments such as adjacent regions of coastal jetties. These are hydraulic engineering constructions used to maintain the navigation channel access between the sea-estuarine interface and are also used by teleost fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks like artificial shelters (reefs), being excellent fishing grounds. Therefore, the present study was devoted to qualitatively evaluate the composition of marine debris in an internal jetty portion of a Laguna Estuarine System (LES) located in South America (Brazil). Six hundred freediving were conducted to collect marine debris in the study region. The in situ campaigns were performed in 2016 during all spring season (sand substrata) in four distinct zones with 26,400 m 2 each one covering almost all adjacent jetty extension, to evaluate possible spatial changes in the marine debris composition. All material obtained was identified, measured, weighed, and ordered in eight groups, with six groups being related to the fishing activity and two groups related to the tourism/community in the study region. So, it was possible to observe possible relations between the marine debris distribution to artisanal and recreational local fishing. After 600 freediving sampling efforts, 2142 marine debris items were obtained, totaling close to 100 kg of solid waste removed from the inner portion of the coastal jetty. Notably, 1752 units (50 kg) of fishing leads were collected being this item the main marine debris residue found in the four sampled areas, corresponding to nearly 50% of the total weight of the collected waste. Ninety-eight percent of marine debris were derived from the local fishing activities, and just 2% were derived from tourism/community. Considering the total

  20. On the influence of debris in glacier melt modelling: a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, Marco; Mabillard, Johan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The increase of rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and of englacial melt-out material has led to an increase of the debris cover extent on Alpine glaciers. In recent years, distributed debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya. Some of the input data such as wind or temperature are also of difficult extrapolation from station measurements. Due to their lower data requirement, empirical models have been used in glacier melt modelling. However, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of debris thickness on melt. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The empirical parameters (temperature factor, shortwave radiation factor, and lag factor accounting for the energy transfer through the debris layer) are optimized at the point scale for several debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter has been validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. The new model is developed on Miage Glacier, Italy, a debris cover glacier in which the ablation area is mantled in near-continuous layer of rock. Subsequently, its transferability is tested on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, where debris is thinner and its extension has been seen to expand in the last decades. The results show that the performance of the new debris temperature-index model (DETI) in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale

  1. Effect of downed woody debris on small mammal anti-predator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis M. Hinkelman; John L. Orrock; Susan C Loeb

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Predator behavior can affect prey growth, reproduction, survival, and generate emergent effects in food webs. Small mammals often lower the cost of predation by altering their behavior in response to shrubs, but the importance of other microhabitat features, such as downed woody debris, for anti-predator behavior is unknown. We used giving-up densities to quantify...

  2. Ultrastructural and clinical evidence of subretinal debris accumulation in type 2 macular telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Killingsworth, Murray C; Zhu, Meidong; Nolan, Timothy; Hunyor, Alex P; Young, Stephanie H; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C

    2012-11-01

    To describe subretinal debris found on ultrastructural examination in an eye with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a subset of patients with MacTel type 2. Blocks from the mid-periphery and temporal perifovea of an eye with clinically documented MacTel type 2 were examined with electron microscopy (EM). Cases came from the Sydney centre of the MacTel project and the practices of the authors. On EM examination, subretinal debris was found in the perifovea with accumulation of degenerate photoreceptor elements in the subretinal space. Despite the substantial subretinal debris, there was minimal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) reaction. Focal defects were seen in the inner limiting membrane in the perifovea. Of the 65 Sydney MacTel project participants, three (5%) had prominent yellow material at the fovea. OCT revealed smooth mounds between the RPE and the ellipsoid region. The material was hyperautofluorescent. This study suggests that subretinal accumulation of photoreceptor debris may be a feature of MacTel type 2. Ultrastructural and OCT evidence of disease beyond the vasculature, involving photoreceptors and Muller cells, is presented.

  3. Role of debris cover to control specific ablation of adjoining Batal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    impact on the socio-economic development of the region (Barnett et al. ... Debris cove- red glaciers are common in many mountain regions ... Here, we attempt to integrate direct field glacio- .... balance was determined by a network of well dis-.

  4. Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

  5. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  6. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  7. Debris-flows scale predictions based on basin spatial parameters calculated from Remote Sensing images in Wenchuan earthquake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huaizhen; Chi, Tianhe; Liu, Tianyue; Wang, Wei; Yang, Lina; Zhao, Yuan; Shao, Jing; Yao, Xiaojing; Fan, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Debris flow is a common hazard in the Wenchuan earthquake area. Collapse and Landslide Regions (CLR), caused by earthquakes, could be located from Remote Sensing images. CLR are the direct material source regions for debris flow. The Spatial Distribution of Collapse and Landslide Regions (SDCLR) strongly impact debris-flow formation. In order to depict SDCLR, we referred to Strahler's Hypsometric analysis method and developed 3 functional models to depict SDCLR quantitatively. These models mainly depict SDCLR relative to altitude, basin mouth and main gullies of debris flow. We used the integral of functions as the spatial parameters of SDCLR and these parameters were employed during the process of debris-flows scale predictions. Grouping-occurring debris-flows triggered by the rainstorm, which occurred on September 24th 2008 in Beichuan County, Sichuan province China, were selected to build the empirical equations for debris-flows scale predictions. Given the existing data, only debris-flows runout zone parameters (Max. runout distance L and Lateral width B) were estimated in this paper. The results indicate that the predicted results were more accurate when the spatial parameters were used. Accordingly, we suggest spatial parameters of SDCLR should be considered in the process of debris-flows scale prediction and proposed several strategies to prevent debris flow in the future

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF LARGE WOODY DEBRIS IN STREAM REHABILITATION PROJECTS IN URBAN BASINS. (R825284)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stream rehabilitation projects commonly include log placement to establish the types of habitat features associated with large woody debris (LWD) in undisturbed streams. Six urban in-stream rehabilitation projects were examined in the Puget Sound Lowland of western Washi...

  9. DAM-BREAK SHOCK WAVES WITH FLOATING DEBRIS: EXPERIMENTALANALYSIS AND TWO-PHASE MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mambretti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To predict floods and debris flow dynamics a numerical model, based on 1D De Saint Venant (SV equations, was developed. The McCormack – Jameson shock capturing scheme was employed for the solution of the equations, written in a conservative law form. This technique was applied to determine both the propagation and the profile of a two – phase debris flow resulting from the instantaneous and complete collapse of a storage dam. To validate the model, comparisons have been made between its predictions and laboratory measurements concerning flows of water and homogeneous granular mixtures in a uniform geometry flume reproducing dam – break waves. Agreements between computational and experimental results are considered very satisfactory for mature (non – stratified debris flows, which embrace most real cases. To better predict immature (stratified flows, the model should be improved in order to feature, in a more realistic way, the distribution of the particles of different size within the mixture. On the whole, the model proposed can easily be extended to channels with arbitrary cross sections for debris flow routing, as well as for solving different problems of unsteady flow in open channels by incorporating the appropriate initial and boundary conditions.

  10. Investigation of Orbital Debris: Mitigation, Removal, and Modeling the Debris Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotten, Joel

    The population of objects in orbit around Earth has grown since the late 1950s. Today there are over 21,000 objects over 10 cm in length in orbit, and an estimated 500,000 more between 1 and 10 cm. Only a small fraction of these objects are operational satellites. The rest are debris: old derelict spacecraft or rocket bodies, fragments created as the result of explosions or collisions, discarded objects, slag from solid rockets, or even flaked off paint. Traveling at up to 7 km/s, a collision with even a 1 cm piece of debris could severely damage or destroy a satellite. This dissertation examines three aspects of orbital debris. First, the concept of a self-consuming satellite is explored. This nanosatellite would use its own external structure as propellant to execute a deorbit maneuver at the end of its operational life, thus allowing it to meet current debris mitigation standards. Results from lab experiments examining potential materials for this concept have shown favorable results. Second, Particle in Cell techniques are modified and used to model the plasma plume from a micro-cathode arc thruster. This model is then applied to the concept of an ion beam shepherd satellite. This satellite would use its plasma plume to deorbit another derelict satellite. Results from these simulations indicate the micro-cathode arc thruster could potentially deorbit a derelict CubeSat in a matter of a few weeks. Finally, the orbital debris population at geosynchronous orbit is examined, focusing on variations in the density of the population as a function of longitude. New insights are revealed demonstrating that the variation in population density is slightly less than previously reported.

  11. Small satellites and space debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, M.; Kulik, S.; Agapov, V.

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this report is the analysis of the tendencies in designing of small satellites (SS) and the effect of small satellites on space debris population. It is shown that SS to include nano- and pico-satellites should be considered as a particularly dangerous source of space debris when elaborating international standards and legal documents concerning the space debris problem, in particular "International Space Debris Mitigation Standard". These issues are in accordance with the IADC goals in its main activity areas and should be carefully considered within the IADC framework.

  12. Development of debris-resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Dong Seong; Lee, Jae Kyung; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Yim, Jung Sik; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Im, Hyun Tae

    1993-01-01

    Debris-related fuel failures has been identified to be one of the major causes of fuel failures recently occured in nuclear power plants. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to prevent the debris from reaching to fuel rods. In this regard, it is important to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. (Author)

  13. Space debris mitigation - engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E.; Hammond, M.

    The problem of space debris pollution is acknowledged to be of growing concern by space agencies, leading to recent activities in the field of space debris mitigation. A review of the current (and near-future) mitigation guidelines, handbooks, standards and licensing procedures has identified a number of areas where further work is required. In order for space debris mitigation to be implemented in spacecraft manufacture and operation, the authors suggest that debris-related criteria need to become design parameters (following the same process as applied to reliability and radiation). To meet these parameters, spacecraft manufacturers and operators will need processes (supported by design tools and databases and implementation standards). A particular aspect of debris mitigation, as compared with conventional requirements (e.g. radiation and reliability) is the current and near-future national and international regulatory framework and associated liability aspects. A framework for these implementation standards is presented, in addition to results of in-house research and development on design tools and databases (including collision avoidance in GTO and SSTO and evaluation of failure criteria on composite and aluminium structures).

  14. Space Debris Elimination (SpaDE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The amount of debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) has increased rapidly over the last twenty years. This prevalence of debris increases the likelihood of cascading...

  15. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  16. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  17. POST Earthquake Debris Management - AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  18. Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    literature search and review a lone article was found with any discussion of it. As with any net, the concept is to catch space debris objects in the net...travel along the track of the orbit and collect debris along its path. The lone article found contends that the idea “does not work”. Bonnal and...100,000 pieces of debris orbiting the planet , [as] NASA estimated -- 2,600 of them more than [four] inches across. [NASA] called the breakup of the

  19. Flow characteristics of counter-current flow in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident, a damaged core would form a debris bed consisting of once-molten and fragmented fuel elements. It is necessary to evaluate the dryout heat flux for the judgment of the coolability of the debris bed during the severe accident. The dryout phenomena in the debris bed is dominated by the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in the debris bed. In this study, air-water counter-current flow behavior in the debris bed is experimentally investigated with glass particles simulating the debris beds. In this experiment, falling water flow rate and axial pressure distributions were experimentally measured. As the results, it is clarified that falling water flow rate becomes larger with the debris bed height and the pressure gradient in the upper region of the debris bed is different from that in the lower region of the debris bed. These results indicate that the dominant region for CCFL in the debris bed is identified near the top of the debris bed. Analytical results with annular flow model indicates that interfacial shear stress in the upper region of the debris bed is larger than that in the lower region of the debris bed. (author)

  20. Integration of two-phase solid fluid equations in a catchment model for flashfloods, debris flows and shallow slope failures

    KAUST Repository

    Bout, B.

    2018-04-09

    An integrated, modeling method for shallow landslides, debris flows and catchment hydrology is developed and presented in this paper. Existing two-phase debris flow equations and an adaptation on the infinite slope method are coupled with a full hydrological catchment model. We test the approach on the 4 km2 Scaletta catchment, North-Eastern Sicily, where the 1-10-2009 convective storm caused debris flooding after 395 shallow landslides. Validation is done based on the landslide inventory and photographic evidence from the days after the event. Results show that the model can recreate the impact of both shallow landslides, debris flow runout, and debris floods with acceptable accuracy (91 percent inventory overlap with a 0.22 Cohens Kappa). General patterns in slope failure and runout are well-predicted, leading to a fully physically based prediction of rainfall induced debris flood behavior in the downstream areas, such as the creation of a debris fan at the coastal outlet.

  1. Terrestrial Analogs for Surface Properties Associated with Impact Cratering on the Moon - Self-secondary Impact Features at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M. A.; Zanetti, M.; Neish, C.; Kukko, A.; Fan, K.; Heldmann, J.; Hughes, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Kings Bowl (KB) eruptive fissure and lava field, located in the southern end of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho, is an ideal location for planetary analogue field studies of surface properties related to volcanic and impact processes. Here we look at possible impact features present in the KB lava field near the main vent that resulted in squeeze-ups of molten lava from beneath a semi-solid lava lake crust. These may have been caused by the ejection of blocks during the phreatic eruption that formed the Kings Bowl pit, and their subsequent impact into a partially solidified lava pond. We compare and contrast these features with analogous self-secondary impact features, such as irregular, rimless secondary craters ("splash craters") observed in lunar impact melt deposits, to better understand how self-secondary impacts determine the surface properties of volcanic and impact crater terrains. We do this by analyzing field measurements of these features, as well as high-resolution DEM data collected through the Kinematic LiDAR System (KLS), both of which give us feature dimensions and distributions. We then compare these data with self-secondary impact features on the Moon and related surface roughness constrained through Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter observations (Mini-RF and LROC NACs). Possible self-secondary impact features can be found in association with many lunar impact craters. These are formed when ballistic ejecta from the crater falls onto the ejecta blanket and melt surrounding the newly formed crater. Self-secondary impact features involving impact melt deposits are particularly useful to study because the visibly smooth melt texture serves to highlight the impact points in spacecraft imagery. The unusual morphology of some of these features imply that they formed when the melt had not yet completely solidified, strongly suggesting a source of impactors from the primary crater itself. We will also discuss ongoing efforts to integrate field

  2. Radar rainfall estimation for the identification of debris-flow precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    variogram) of the triggering rainfall. These results show that weather radar has the potential to effectively increase the accuracy of rainfall thresholds for debris flow occurrence. However, these benefits may only be achieved if the same monitoring instrumentation is used both to derive the rainfall thresholds and for use of thresholds for real-time identification of debris flows occurrence. References Nikolopoulos, E.I., Borga M., Crema S., Marchi L, Marra F. & Guzzetti F., 2014. Impact of uncertainty in rainfall estimation on the identification of rainfall thresholds for debris-flow occurrence. Geomorphology (conditionally accepted) Peruccacci, S., Brunetti, M.T., Luciani, S., Vennari, C., and Guzzetti, F., 2012. Lithological and seasonal control of rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in central Italy, Geomorphology, 139-140, 79-90, 2012.

  3. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  5. Aspect controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2018-04-24

    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite their importance as melt hot spots, their life cycle is little understood. Early field observations had advanced a hypothesis of survival of north-facing and disappearance of south-facing cliffs, which is central for predicting the contribution of cliffs to total glacier mass losses. Their role as windows of energy transfer suggests they may explain the anomalously high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA) despite the insulating debris, currently at the center of a debated controversy. We use a 3D model of cliff evolution coupled to very high-resolution topographic data to demonstrate that ice cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) disappear within a few months due to enhanced solar radiation receipts and that aspect is the key control on cliffs evolution. We reproduce continuous flattening of south-facing cliffs, a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation and sky view factor. Our results establish that only north-facing cliffs are recurrent features and thus stable contributors to the melting of debris-covered glaciers. Satellite observations and mass balance modeling confirms that few south-facing cliffs of small size exist on the glaciers of Langtang, and their contribution to the glacier volume losses is very small ([Formula: see text]1%). This has major implications for the mass balance of HMA debris-covered glaciers as it provides the basis for new parameterizations of cliff evolution and distribution to constrain volume losses in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic and characteristic models for packed debris beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.E.; Sozer, A.

    1986-12-01

    APRIL is a mechanistic core-wide meltdown and debris relocation computer code for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident analyses. The capabilities of the code continue to be increased by the improvement of existing models. This report contains information on theory and models for degraded core packed debris beds. The models, when incorporated into APRIL, will provide new and improved capabilities in predicting BWR debris bed coolability characteristics. These models will allow for a more mechanistic treatment in calculating temperatures in the fluid and solid phases in the debris bed, in determining debris bed dryout, debris bed quenching from either top-flooding or bottom-flooding, single and two-phase pressure drops across the debris bed, debris bed porosity, and in finding the minimum fluidization mass velocity. The inclusion of these models in a debris bed computer module will permit a more accurate prediction of the coolability characteristics of the debris bed and therefore reduce some of the uncertainties in assessing the severe accident characteristics for BWR application. Some of the debris bed theoretical models have been used to develop a FORTRAN 77 subroutine module called DEBRIS. DEBRIS is a driver program that calls other subroutines to analyze the thermal characteristics of a packed debris bed. Fortran 77 listings of each subroutine are provided in the appendix

  7. Rockslide-debris avalanche of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicken, Harry

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a detailed picture of the rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. It provides a characterization of the deposit, a reinterpretation of the details of the first minutes of the eruption of May 18, and insight into the transport mechanism of the mass movement. Details of the rockslide event, as revealed by eyewitness photographs, are correlated with features of the deposit. The photographs show three slide blocks in the rockslide movement. Slide block I was triggered by a magnitude 5.1 earthquake at 8:32 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time (P.D.T.). An exploding cryptodome burst through slide block II to produce the 'blast surge.' Slide block III consisted of many discrete failures that were carried out in continuing pyroclastic currents generated from the exploding cryptodome. The cryptodome continued to depressurize after slide block III, producing a blast deposit that rests on top of the debris-avalanche deposit. The hummocky 2.5 cubic kilometer debris-avalanche deposit consists of block facies (pieces of the pre-eruption Mount St. Helens transported relatively intact) and matrix facies (a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and cryptodome dacite). Block facies is divided into five lithologic units. Matrix facies was derived from the explosively generated current of slide block III as well as from disaggregation and mixing of debris-avalanche blocks. The mean density of the old cone was measured to be abut 20 percent greater than the mean density of the avalanche deposit. Density in the deposit does not decrease with distance which suggests that debris-avalanche blocks were dilated at the mountain, rather than during transport. Various grain-size parameters that show that clast size converges about a mean with distance suggest mixing during transport. The debris-avalanche flow can be considered a grain flow, where particles -- either debris-avalanche blocks or the clasts within the blocks -- collided and

  8. Response of a Brook Trout Population and Instream Habitat to a Catastrophic Flood and Debris Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criag N. Roghair; C. Andrew Dolloff; Martin K. Underwood

    2002-01-01

    In June 1995, a massive flood and debris flow impacted fish and habitat along the lower 1.9 km of the Staunton River, a headwater stream located in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In the area affected by debris flow, the stream bed was scoured and new substrate materials were deposited, trees were removed from a 30-m-wide band in the riparian area, and all fish...

  9. Using the Data From Accidents and Natural Disasters to Improve Marine Debris Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximenko, N. A.; Hafner, J.; MacFadyen, A.; Kamachi, M.; Murray, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of satisfactory marine debris observing system, drift models provide a unique tool that can be used to identify main pathways and accumulation areas of the natural and anthropogenic debris, including the plastic pollution having increasing impact on the environment and raising concern of the society. Main problems, limiting the utility of model simulations, include the lack of accurate information on distribution, timing, strength and composition of sources of marine debris and the complexity of the hydrodynamics of an object, floating on the surface of a rough sea. To calculate the drift, commonly, models estimate surface currents first and then add the object motion relative to the water. Importantly, ocean surface velocity can't be measured with the existing instruments. For various applications it is derived from subsurface (such as 15-meter drifter trajectories) and satellite (altimetry, scatterometry) data using simple theories (geostrophy, Ekman spiral, etc.). Similarly, even the best ocean general circulation models (OGCM's), utilizing different parameterizations of the mixed layer, significantly disagree on the ocean surface velocities. Understanding debris motion under the direct wind force and in interaction with the breaking wind waves seems to be a task of even greater complexity. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the data of documented natural disasters (such as tsunamis, hurricanes and floods) and other accidents generating marine debris with known times and coordinates of start and/or end points of the trajectories, can be used to calibrate drift models and obtain meaningful quantitative results that can be generalized for other sources of debris and used to plan the future marine debris observing system. On these examples we also demonstrate how the oceanic and atmospheric circulations couple together to determine the pathways and destination areas of different types of the floating marine debris.

  10. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  11. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  12. TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED PWR LOCA GENERATED DEBRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAJI, A. K.; MARSHALL, B.

    2000-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), break jet impingement would dislodge thermal insulation FR-om nearby piping, as well as other materials within the containment, such as paint chips, concrete dust, and fire barrier materials. Steam/water flows induced by the break and by the containment sprays would transport debris to the containment floor. Subsequently, debris would likely transport to and accumulate on the suction sump screens of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps, thereby potentially degrading ECCS performance and possibly even failing the ECCS. In 1998, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a generic study (Generic Safety Issue-191) to evaluate the potential for the accumulation of LOCA related debris on the PWR sump screen and the consequent loss of ECCS pump net positive suction head (NPSH). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), supporting the resolution of GSI-191, was tasked with developing a method for estimating debris transport in PWR containments to estimate the quantity of debris that would accumulate on the sump screen for use in plant specific evaluations. The analytical method proposed by LANL, to predict debris transport within the water that would accumulate on the containment floor, is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with experimental debris transport data to predict debris transport and accumulation on the screen. CFD simulations of actual plant containment designs would provide flow data for a postulated accident in that plant, e.g., three-dimensional patterns of flow velocities and flow turbulence. Small-scale experiments would determine parameters defining the debris transport characteristics for each type of debris. The containment floor transport methodology will merge debris transport characteristics with CFD results to provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of debris transport within the containment floor pool and

  13. Transient core-debris bed heat-removal experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Klein, J.; Klages, J.; Schwarz, C.E.; Chen, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    An experimental investigation is reported of the thermal interaction between superheated core debris and water during postulated light-water reactor degraded core accidents. Data are presented for the heat transfer characteristics of packed beds of 3 mm spheres which are cooled by overlying pools of water. Results of transient bed temperature and steam flow rate measurements are presented for bed heights in the range 218 mm-433 mm and initial particle bed temperatures between 530K and 972K. Results display a two-part sequential quench process. Initial frontal cooling leaves pockets or channels of unquenched spheres. Data suggest that heat transfer process is limited by a mechanism of countercurrent two-phase flow. An analytical model which combines a bed energy equation with either a quasisteady version of the Lipinski debris bed model or a critical heat flux model reasonably well predicts the characteristic features of the bed quench process. Implications with respect to reactor safety are discussed

  14. Scaling up debris-flow experiments on a centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C.; Capart, H.; Crone, T. J.; Grinspum, E.; Hsu, L.; Kaufman, D.; Li, L.; Ling, H.; Reitz, M. D.; Smith, B.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Boundary forces generated by debris flows can be powerful enough to erode bedrock and cause considerable damage to infrastructure during runout. Formulation of an erosion-rate law for debris flows is therefore a high priority, and it makes sense to build such a law around laboratory experiments. However, running experiments big enough to generate realistic boundary forces is a logistical challenge to say the least [1]. One alternative is to run table-top simulations with unnaturally weak but fast-eroding pseudo-bedrock, another is to extrapolate from micro-erosion of natural substrates driven by unnaturally weak impacts; hybrid-scale experiments have also been conducted [2]. Here we take a different approach in which we scale up granular impact forces by running our experiments under enhanced gravity in a geotechnical centrifuge [3]. Using a 40cm-diameter rotating drum [2] spun at up to 100g, we generate debris flows with an effective depth of over several meters. By varying effective gravity from 1g to 100g we explore the scaling of granular flow forces and the consequent bed and wall erosion rates. The velocity and density structure of these granular flows is monitored using laser sheets, high-speed video, and particle tracking [4], and the progressive erosion of the boundary surfaces is measured by laser scanning. The force structures and their fluctuations within the granular mass and at the boundaries are explored with contact dynamics numerical simulations that mimic the lab experimental conditions [5]. In this presentation we summarize these results and discuss how they can contribute to the formulation of debris-flow erosion law. [1] Major, J. J. (1997), Journal of Geology 105: 345-366, doi:10.1086/515930 [2] Hsu, L. (2010), Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley [3] Brucks, A., et al (2007), Physical Review E 75, 032301, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.032301 [4] Spinewine, B., et al (2011), Experiments in Fluids 50: 1507-1525, doi: 10.1007/s00348

  15. Fluid outflows from Venus impact craters - Analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, Paul D.; Wood, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Many impact craters on Venus have unusual outflow features originating in or under the continuous ejecta blankets and continuing downhill into the surrounding terrain. These features clearly resulted from flow of low-viscosity fluids, but the identity of those fluids is not clear. In particular, it should not be assumed a priori that the fluid is an impact melt. A number of candidate processes by which impact events might generate the observed features are considered, and predictions are made concerning the rheological character of flows produce by each mechanism. A sample of outflows was analyzed using Magellan images and a model of unconstrained Bingham plastic flow on inclined planes, leading to estimates of viscosity and yield strength for the flow materials. It is argued that at least two different mechanisms have produced outflows on Venus: an erosive, channel-forming process and a depositional process. The erosive fluid is probably an impact melt, but the depositional fluid may consist of fluidized solid debris, vaporized material, and/or melt.

  16. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction

    OpenAIRE

    Moro-Martin, Amaya

    2007-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  17. Plastic debris in the coastal environment: The invincible threat? Abundance of buried plastic debris on Malaysian beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Liyana, I A; Agamuthu, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies on marine debris have gained worldwide attention since many types of debris have found their way into the food chain of higher organisms. Thus, it is crucial that more focus is given to this area in order to curb contaminations in sea food. This study was conducted to quantify plastic debris buried in sand at selected beaches in Malaysia. Marine debris was identified according to size range and distribution, and this information was related to preventive actions to improve marine waste issues. For the purpose of this study, comparison of plastic waste abundance between a recreational beach and fish-landing beaches was also carried out, since the different beach types represent different activities that produce debris. Six beaches along the Malaysian coastline were selected for this study. The plastic types in this study were related to the functions of the beach. While recreational beaches have abundant quantities of plastic film, foamed plastic including polystyrene, and plastic fragment, fish-landing beaches accumulated line and foamed plastic. A total of 2542 pieces (265.30 g m(-2)) of small plastic debris were collected from all six beaches, with the highest number from Kuala Terengganu, at 879 items m(-2) on Seberang Takir Beach, followed by Batu Burok Beach with 780 items m(-2). Findings from studies of Malaysian beaches have provided a clearer understanding of the distribution of plastic debris. This demonstrates that commitments and actions, such as practices of the 'reduce, reuse, recycle' (3R) approach, supporting public awareness programmes and beach clean-up activities, are essential in order to reduce and prevent plastic debris pollution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A dynamical systems perspective on the absence of debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garrido, V. J.; Mancho, A. M.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-07-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of the 8 March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. Perhaps the most relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft has been found. Difficulties in the search efforts, due to the uncertainty in the plane's final impact point and the time that has passed since the accident, bring the question on how the debris has scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there are multiple data sets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on the use of Lagrangian Descriptors (LD), a novel mathematical tool coming from dynamical systems theory that identifies dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located and that have not been subjected to any exploration.

  19. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2016-12-01

    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  20. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.

    2015-07-01

    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  1. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43??mm of rain in 4??h, 35??mm of which fell in the first 2??h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30??) in catchments with small contributing areas (runoff and therefore less likely to generate debris flows by the firehose effect or by rilling. The character of the surficial cover and the spatially variable hydrologic response to intense rainfall, rather than a threshold of contributing area and topographic slope, appears to control the initiation process in the high alpine of the Front Range. Because debris flows initiated by rilling and the firehose effect tend to increase in volume as they travel downslope, these debris flows are potentially more hazardous than those initiated by shallow landslides, which tend to deposit material along their paths. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  3. The New Horizons and Hubble Space Telescope search for rings, dust, and debris in the Pluto-Charon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark R.; Weaver, Harold A.; Stern, S. Alan; Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Porter, Simon B.; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Young, Leslie A.; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly; New Horizons Science Team

    2018-02-01

    We conducted an extensive search for dust or debris rings in the Pluto-Charon system before, during, and after the New Horizons encounter in July 2015. Methodologies included attempting to detect features by back-scattered light during the approach to Pluto (phase angle α ∼ 15°), in situ detection of impacting particles, a search for stellar occultations near the time of closest approach, and by forward-scattered light imaging during departure (α ∼ 165°). An extensive search using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to the encounter also contributed to the final ring limits. No rings, debris, or dust features were observed, but our new detection limits provide a substantially improved picture of the environment throughout the Pluto-Charon system. Searches for rings in back-scattered light covered the range 35,000-250,000 km from the system barycenter, a zone that starts interior to the orbit of Styx, the innermost minor satellite, and extends out to four times the orbital radius of Hydra, the outermost known satellite. We obtained our firmest limits using data from the New Horizons LORRI camera in the inner half of this region. Our limits on the normal I/F of an unseen ring depends on the radial scale of the rings: 2 ×10-8 (3σ) for 1500 km wide rings, 1 ×10-8 for 6000 km rings, and 7 ×10-9 for 12,000 km rings. Beyond ∼ 100, 000 km from Pluto, HST observations limit normal I/F to ∼ 8 ×10-8 . Searches for dust features from forward-scattered light extended from the surface of Pluto to the Pluto-Charon Hill sphere (rHill = 6.4 ×106 km). No evidence for rings or dust clouds was detected to normal I/F limits of ∼ 8.9 ×10-7 on ∼ 104 km scales. Four stellar occulation observations also probed the space interior to Hydra, but again no dust or debris was detected. The Student Dust Counter detected one particle impact 3.6 × 106 km from Pluto, but this is consistent with the interplanetary space environment established during the cruise of New

  4. Triggering conditions and depositional characteristics of a disastrous debris flow event in Zhouqu city, Gansu Province, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On 7 August 2010, catastrophic debris flows were triggered by a rainstorm in the catchments of the Sanyanyu and Luojiayu torrents, Zhouqu County, Gansu Province northwestern China. These two debris flows originated shortly after a rainstorm with an intensity of 77.3 mm h−1 and transported a total volume of about 2.2 million m3, which was deposited on an existing debris fan and into a river. This catastrophic event killed 1765 people living on this densely urbanised fan. The poorly sorted sediment contains boulders up to 3–4 m in diameter. In this study, the geomorphological features of both debris flow catchment areas are analyzed based on the interpretation of high-resolution remote sensing imagery combined with field investigation. The characteristics of the triggering rainfall and the initiation of the debris flow occurrence are discussed. Using empirical equations, the peak velocities and discharges of the debris flows were estimated to be around 9.7 m s−1 and 1358 m3 s−1 for the Sanyanyu torrent and 11 m s−1 and 572 m3 s−1 for the Luojiayu torrent. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the conditions leading to catastrophic debris flow events.

  5. Mitigation of Debris Flow Damage--­ A Case Study of Debris Flow Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Jen, C. H.

    Typhoon Toraji caused more than 30 casualties in Central Taiwan on the 31st July 2001. It was the biggest Typhoon since the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 with huge amounts of rainfall. Because of the influence of the earthquake, loose debris falls and flows became major hazards in Central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and sites of slope failure show that damage from these natural hazards were enhanced as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. Three main types of hazard occurred in Central Taiwan: land- slides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and banks of channels. Many dams and houses were destroyed by flooding. Debris flows occurred during typhoon periods and re-activated ancient debris depositions. Many new gullies were therefore developed from deposits loosened and shaken by the earthquake. This paper demonstrates the geological/geomorphological background of the hazard area, and reviews methods of damage mitigation in central Taiwan. A good example is Hsi-Tou, which had experienced no gully erosion for more than 40 years. The area experienced much gully erosion as a result of the combined effects of earth- quake and typhoon. Although Typhoon Toraji produced only 30% of the rainfall of Typhoon Herb of 1996, it caused more damage in the Hsi-Tou area. The mitigation of debris flow hazards in Hsi-tou area is discussed in this paper.

  6. Quantitative assessment of apical debris extrusion and intracanal debris in the apical third, using hand instrumentation and three rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H K, Sowmya; T S, Subhash; Goel, Beena Rani; T N, Nandini; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2014-02-01

    Decreased apical extrusion of debris and apical one third debris have strong implications for decreased incidence of postoperative inflammation and pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the apical extrusion of debris and intracanal debris in the apical third during root canal instrumentation using hand and three different types of rotary instruments. Sixty freshly extracted single rooted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Canal preparation was done using step-back with hand instrumentation, crown-down technique with respect to ProTaper and K3, and hybrid technique with LightSpeed LSX. Irrigation was done with NaOCl, EDTA, and normal saline and for final irrigation, EndoVac system was used. The apically extruded debris was collected on the pre-weighed Millipore plastic filter disk and weighed using microbalance. The teeth were submitted to the histological processing. Sections from the apical third were analyzed by a trinocular research microscope that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using image proplus V4.1.0.0 software. The mean weight of extruded debris for each group and intracanal debris in the root canal was statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. The result showed that, hand instrumentation using K files showed the highest amount of debris extrusion apically when compared to ProTaper, K3 and LightSpeed LSX. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third. Based on the results, all instrumentation techniques produced debris extrusion. The engine driven Ni-Ti systems extruded significantly less apical debris than hand instrumentation. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to presence of intracanal debris in the apical one third.

  7. Micro-satellite for space debris observation by optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillot, Marc; Brenière, Xavier; Midavaine, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study carried out under CNES contract is to analyze the feasibility of small space debris detection and classification with an optical sensor on-board micro-satellite. Technical solutions based on active and passive sensors are analyzed and compared. For the most appropriated concept an optimization was made and theoretical performances in terms of number of detection versus class of diameter were calculated. Finally we give some preliminary physical sensor features to illustrate the concept (weight, volume, consumption,…).

  8. The effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Lokhorst, Ivar; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Estimating runout distance is of major importance for the assessment and mitigation of debris-flow hazards. Debris-flow runout distance depends on debris-flow composition and topography, but state-of-the-art runout prediction methods are mainly based on topographical parameters and debris-flow volume, while composition is generally neglected or incorporated in empirical constants. Here we experimentally investigated the effect of debris-flow composition and topography on runout distance. We created the first small-scale experimental debris flows with self-formed levees, distinct lobes and morphology and texture accurately resembling natural debris flows. In general, the effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance was larger than the effect of topography. Enhancing channel slope and width, outflow plain slope, debris-flow size and water fraction leads to an increase in runout distance. However, runout distance shows an optimum relation with coarse-material and clay fraction. An increase in coarse-material fraction leads to larger runout distances by increased grain collisional forces and more effective levee formation, but too much coarse debris causes a large accumulation of coarse debris at the flow front, enhancing friction and decreasing runout. An increase in clay fraction initially enlarges the volume and viscosity of the interstitial fluid, liquefying the flow and enhancing runout, while a further increase leads to very viscous flows with high yield strength, reducing runout. These results highlight the importance and further need of research on the relation between debris-flow composition and runout distance. Our experiments further provide valuable insight on the effects of debris-flow composition on depositional mechanisms and deposit morphology.

  9. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. I. CONTINUUM ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Forrest, William J.; Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. For 499 targets with IRS excess but without strong spectral features (and a subset of 420 targets with additional MIPS 70 μm observations), we modeled the IRS (and MIPS data) assuming that the dust thermal emission was well-described using either a one- or two-temperature blackbody model. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. We found that the spectral energy distributions for the majority of objects (∼66%) were better described using a two-temperature model with warm (T {sub gr} ∼ 100-500 K) and cold (T {sub gr} ∼ 50-150 K) dust populations analogous to zodiacal and Kuiper Belt dust, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and zodiacal dust is common around host stars with ages up to ∼1 Gyr. We found that younger stars generally have disks with larger fractional infrared luminosities and higher grain temperatures and that higher-mass stars have disks with higher grain temperatures. We show that the increasing distance of dust around debris disks is inconsistent with self-stirred disk models, expected if these systems possess planets at 30-150 AU. Finally, we illustrate how observations of debris disks may be used to constrain the radial dependence of material in the minimum mass solar nebula.

  10. Understanding sources, sinks, and transport of marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2011-07-01

    Fifth International Marine Debris Conference: Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris; Honolulu, Hawaii, 20 March 2011; Ocean pollution in the form of marine debris, especially plastic debris, has received increasing public and media attention in recent years through striking but frequently inaccurate descriptions of “garbage patches.” Marine debris is composed of all manufactured materials, including glass, metal, paper, fibers, and plastic, that have been deliberately dumped or that accidentally entered the marine environment. Marine debris is most visible on beaches, but it has been observed in all oceans and in such remote locations as on the deep seabed and floating in the middle of subtropical ocean gyres. While many initiatives have been developed to solve this pollution problem through prevention and cleanup efforts, there is relatively little scientific information available to assess the current status of the problem or to provide metrics to gauge the success of remediation measures. With this in mind, a full-day workshop entitled “Hydrodynamics of Marine Debris” was convened at the Fifth International Marine Debris Conference in Hawaii, bringing together observational scientists and oceanographic modelers to outline the steps necessary to quantify the major sources and sinks of marine debris and the pathways between them. The ultimate goal in integrating the two approaches of study is to quantify the basinscale and global inventory of marine debris by closing the associated mass budgets.

  11. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  12. Impact of the New Optimal Rules for Arbitration of Disputers Relating to Space Debris Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Melissa K.

    2013-09-01

    The mechanisms and procedures for settlement of disputes arising from space debris collision damage, such as that suffered by the Russian Cosmos and US Iridium satellites in 2009, are highly political, nonbinding and unpredictable - all of which contributes to the uncertainty that increases the costs of financing and insuring those endeavors that take place in near-Earth space, especially in Low Earth Orbit. Dispute settlement mechanisms can be found in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which provides for consultations in cases involving potentially harmful interference with activities of States parties, and in the 1972 Liability Convention which permits but does not require States - not non-governmental entities - to pursue claims in a resolution process that is nonbinding (unless otherwise agreed.) There are soft- law mechanisms to control the growth of space debris, such as the voluntary 2008 United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, and international law and the principles of equity and justice generally provide reparation to restore a person, State or organization to the condition which would have existed if damage had not occurred, but only if all agree to a specific tribunal or international court; even then, parties may be bound by the result only if agreed and enforcement of the award internationally remains uncertain. In all, the dispute resolution process for damage resulting from inevitable future damage from space debris collisions is highly unsatisfactory. However, the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration's recently adopted Optional Rules for the Arbitration of Disputes Relating to Outer Space Activities are, as of yet, untested, and this article will provide an overview of the process, explore the ways in which they fill in gaps in the previous patchwork of systems and analyze the benefits and shortcomings of the new Outer Space Optional Rules.

  13. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    a flux-splitting technique with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver and appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. Additionally, STAV-2D features Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling enabling solid transport simulation under both continuum and discrete approaches, and has been validated with both laboratory data and paleo-tsunami evidence (Conde, 2013a; Conde, 2013b). The interactions between the inundating flow and coal stockpiles or natural mobile bed reaches were simulated using a continuum debris-flow approach, featuring fractional solid transport, while the containers at the new terminal were advected with an explicit Lagrangian method. The meshwork employed at the port models the existing geometry and structures in great detail, enabling explicitly resolved interactions between the current infrastructure and the overland propagating tsunami. The obtained preliminary results suggest that several structures, some of them critical in a nationwide context, are exposed to tsunami actions. The coal deposition pattern and the final location of monitored containers were determined for two magnitude scenarios (8.5 Mw and 9.5 Mw) in the case of a tsunami generated at the Horseshoe fault and one magnitude scenario (9.5 Mw) for a tsunami generated at the Gorringe bank. The inland washing of the coal stockpiles may impose great loss of both economical and environmental value, while the impact of large mobile debris, such as the containers in the terminal area, significantly increases the severity of infrastructural damage. Acknowledgements This work was partially funded by FEDER, program COMPETE, and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with project RECI/ECM-HID/0371/2012. References Baptista M.A. & Miranda, J.M. (2009), Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 25-42. Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013), Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam

  14. POST Earthquake Debris Management — AN Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Raju

    Every year natural disasters, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, and tornadoes, challenge various communities of the world. Earthquakes strike with varying degrees of severity and pose both short- and long-term challenges to public service providers. Earthquakes generate shock waves and displace the ground along fault lines. These seismic forces can bring down buildings and bridges in a localized area and damage buildings and other structures in a far wider area. Secondary damage from fires, explosions, and localized flooding from broken water pipes can increase the amount of debris. Earthquake debris includes building materials, personal property, and sediment from landslides. The management of this debris, as well as the waste generated during the reconstruction works, can place significant challenges on the national and local capacities. Debris removal is a major component of every post earthquake recovery operation. Much of the debris generated from earthquake is not hazardous. Soil, building material, and green waste, such as trees and shrubs, make up most of the volume of earthquake debris. These wastes not only create significant health problems and a very unpleasant living environment if not disposed of safely and appropriately, but also can subsequently impose economical burdens on the reconstruction phase. In practice, most of the debris may be either disposed of at landfill sites, reused as materials for construction or recycled into useful commodities Therefore, the debris clearance operation should focus on the geotechnical engineering approach as an important post earthquake issue to control the quality of the incoming flow of potential soil materials. In this paper, the importance of an emergency management perspective in this geotechnical approach that takes into account the different criteria related to the operation execution is proposed by highlighting the key issues concerning the handling of the construction

  15. Design of full scale debris washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dosani, M.A.; Wentz, J.A.; Patkar, A.N.; Barkley, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, IT Environmental Programs Inc. (ITEP, a subsidiary of International Technology Corporation) in conjunction with EPA/RREL in Cincinnati, Ohio, have been developing and conducting bench scale and pilot scale testing of a transportable debris washing system which can be used on-site for the decontamination of debris. During the initial phase of the debris decontamination project, a series of bench scale tests were performed in the laboratory to assess the ability of the system to remove contaminants from debris and to facilitate selection of the most efficient surfactant solution. Five nonionic, non-toxic, low foaming, surfactant solution (BG-5, MC-2000, LF-330, BB-100, and L-433) were selected for an experimental evaluation to determine their capacity to solubilize and remove contaminants from the surfaces of corroded steel places. The pieces of corroded steel were coated with a heavy grease mixture prepared in the laboratory and these pieces of debris were placed in a bench scale spray tank on a metal tray and subjected in a high-pressure spray for each surfactant solution for 15 minutes. At the end of the spray cycle, The tray was transferred to a second bench scale system, a high-turbulence wash tank, where the debris was washed for 30 minutes with the same surfactant solution as the used in the spray tank. After the was cycle was completed, the tray was removed from the wash tank and the debris was allowed to air-dry. Before and after treatment, surface-wipe samples were obtained from each of the six pieces of debris and were analyzed for oil and graese. Based on the results, BG-5 was selected as the solution best suited for cleaning grease-laden, metallic debris. 2 refs

  16. USA Space Debris Environment, Operations, and Research Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    Space Missions in 2017 Earth Satellite Population Collision Avoidance Maneuvers Post mission Disposal of U.S.A. Spacecraft Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and the Space Debris Sensor (SDS) A total of 86 space launches placed more than 400 spacecraft into Earth orbits during 2017, following the trend of increase over the past decade NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 - One maneuver was conducted to avoid the ISS NASA has established conjunction assessment processes for its human spaceflight and uncrewed spacecraft to avoid accidental collisions with objects tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network - NASA also assists other U.S. government spacecraft owners with conjunction assessments and subsequent maneuvers The ISS has conducted 25 debris collision avoidance maneuvers since 1999 - None in 2016-2017, but an ISS visiting vehicle had one collision avoidance maneuver in 2017 During 2017 NASA executed or assisted in the execution of 21 collision avoidance maneuvers by uncrewed spacecraft - Four maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from Fengyun-1C - Two maneuvers were conducted to avoid debris from the collision of Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 The 2014-15 NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) study on the micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD

  17. Debris flow impact assessment along the Al-Raith Road, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using remote sensing data and field investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Youssef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jizan mountainous areas in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are suffering from a variety of slope failures. Most of these failures happen due to heavy rainfalls from time to time. These landslides include rock topples, rockslides, debris flow, and some combination of these which affected many roads, highways, and buildings. The Al-Raith Road is one of these roads connecting Red Sea coast cities with Asir and Al-Hasher areas. The length of this road reaches about 45 km and it has been exposed to landslides during each heavy rain storm. One of these events happened in 24 August 2013, which caused huge debris flows that cut and damaged the road. The current research aims to evaluate the debris flow assessment along this highway using remote sensing data and field studies. According to the detailed analysis of geological and geomorphological maps, as well as field investigation, it is evident that the debris flow materials are mainly related to the different types of landslides. These landslides included rock topples which are frequently observed along the side walls of the channels (flexture which occur in foliated rocks and block which occurs in massive rocks, rock sliding (planner failures where many rock joints and shear zones dip towards the channel, and rockfalls. Debris range in their size from up to 2 m in diameter to fine materials less than 2 mm. These materials can be easily moved with water causing a risk to vehicles, roads, and housing in the area. Field study indicated that these debris channels especially at the lower part have been reactivated several times in the past. Finally, suitable solutions have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid the debris flow hazards in the future.

  18. UV Spectroscopy of Star-Grazing Comets Within the 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of time-variable Doppler-shifted absorption features in far-UV spectra of the unusual 49 Ceti debris disk. This nearly edge-on disk is one of the brightest known and is one of the very few containing detectable amounts of circumstellar (CS) gas as well as dust. In our two visits of Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra, variable absorption features are seen on the wings of lines arising from CII and CIV but not for any of the other CS absorption lines. Similar variable features have long been seen in spectra of the well-studied Beta Pictoris debris disk and attributed to the transits of star-grazing comets. We calculated the velocity ranges and apparent column densities of the 49 Cet variable gas, which appears to have been moving at velocities of tens to hundreds of kms(-1) relative to the central star. The velocities in the redshifted variable event seen in the second visit show that the maximum distances of the in falling gas at the time of transit were about 0.050.2 au from the central star. A preliminary attempt at a composition analysis of the redshifted event suggests that the C/O ratio in the in falling gas is super-solar, as it is in the bulk of the stable disk gas.

  19. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    droplets. Fluorine from Teflon wire insulation was also common in the SEM stub and witness plates deposits. Nano droplets of metallic materials...and Debris-LV debris. Aluminum was from the Al honeycomb, nadir and zenith panels, structural core and COPV liner. Aluminum oxide particles were...three pieces: Outer Nylon shell (sabot) with 2 part hollow aluminum insert. • ~600 grams, 8.6 cm diameter X 10.3 cm long – size of a soup can

  20. Collision risk investigation for an operational spacecraft caused by space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2017-04-01

    The collision probability between an operational spacecraft and a population of space debris is investigated. By dividing the 3-dimensional operational space of the spacecraft into several space volume cells (SVC) and proposing a boundary selection method to calculate the collision probability in each SVC, the distribution of the collision risk, as functions of the time, the orbital height, the declination, the impact elevation, the collision velocity, etc., can be obtained. Thus, the collision risk could be carefully evaluated over a time span for the general orbital configurations of the spacecraft and the space debris. As an application, the collision risk for the Tiangong-2 space laboratory caused by the cataloged space debris is discussed and evaluated. Results show that most of the collision threat comes from the front left and front right in Tiangong-2's local, quasi-horizontal plane. And the collision probability will also accumulate when Tiangong-2 moves to the largest declinations (about {±} 42°). As a result, the manned space activities should be avoided at those declinations.

  1. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.; Porter, C.L.; Wallace, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    August 18, 1992 the EPA published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were evaluated against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy for the INEL. Seven types of debris were identified: Combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications

  2. Potential for Fuel Tank Fire and Hydrodynamic Ram from Uncontained Aircraft Engine Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report addresses the potential consequences of the impact and penetration of fuel tanks by debris from uncontained engine failures on commercial jet aircraft. The report presents a brief review of accident data and of the pertinent technical lit...

  3. On the Fate of Debris Associated with the Disappearance of Flight MH370: a Dynamical System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, A. M.; Garcia-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-12-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of the 8th of March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. One relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft was found during the intensive surface search carried out in the months following the crash. Difficulties in the search efforts were due to the uncertainty in the plane's final impact point and the time passed since the accident and rise the question on how the debris was scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there exist multiple datasets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on dynamical systems tools that identify dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the search services and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located and that were not subjected to any exploration. This research has been supported by MINECO under grants MTM2014-56392-R and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. Computational support from CESGA is acknowledged. References [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, and C. Mendoza. A dynamical systems perspective on the absence of debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370. Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss., 2,1197-1225, doi:10.5194/npgd-2-1197-2015, 2015

  4. Erosion and deposition on a debris-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, A. L.; Schuerch, P.; Rosser, N. J.; McArdell, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    The ability of a debris flow to entrain or deposit sediment controls the downstream evolution of flow volume, and ultimately dictates both the geomorphic impact of the flow and the potential hazard that it represents. Our understanding of the patterns of, and controls on, such flow volume changes remains extremely limited, however, partly due to a poor mechanistic grasp of the interactions between debris flows and their bed and banks. In addition, we lack a good understanding of the cumulative long-term effects of sequences of flows in a single catchment-fan system. Here we begin to address these issues by using repeated terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to characterize the detailed surface change associated with the passage of multiple debris flows on the Illgraben fan, Switzerland. We calculate surface elevation change along a 300 m study reach, and from this derive the downfan rate of flow volume change, or lag rate; for comparison, we also derive the spatially-averaged lag rate over the entire ~2 km length of the fan. Lag rates are broadly comparable over both length scales, indicating that flow behavior does not vary significantly across the fan for most flows, but importantly we find that flow volume at the fan head is a poor predictor of volume at the fan toe. The sign and magnitude of bed elevation change scale with local flow depth; at flow depths 2 m. On the Illgraben fan, this depth corresponds to a basal shear stress of 3-4 kPa. Because flow depth is in part a function of channel cross-sectional topography, which varies strongly both within and between flows, this result indicates that erosion and deposition are likely to be highly dynamic. The dependence of flow volume change on both the channel topography and the flow history may thus complicate efforts to predict debris-flow inundation areas by simple flow routing. We then apply a 2d numerical model of debris-flow fan evolution to explore the key controls on debris-flow routing and topographic

  5. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  6. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.; Porter, C.L.; Wallace, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications

  7. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus

  8. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  9. Assessment of impact on seafloor features in INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Benthic disturbance,environmental impact,photographic and subbottomdata,seafloor features. Imaging and sounding techniques are effective tools for obtaining first-hand information forassessing the baseline (undisturbed) conditions as well as the impact (disturbed...) conditions onthe seabed,to evaluate the extent and type of efects on the physical environment on the seafloor. This information is also useful for planning the locations and areas for sampling instudies to ases the impact on different parameters.Information...

  10. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactor apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling.

  11. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling

  12. Analysis of a space debris laser removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesvold, Evan; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    As long as man ventures into space, he will leave behind debris, and as long as he ventures into space, this debris will pose a threat to him and his projects. Space debris must be located and decommissioned. Lasers may prove to be the ideal method, as they can operate at a distance from the debris, have a theoretically infinite supply of energy from the sun, and are a seemingly readily available technology. This paper explores the requirements and reasoning for such a laser debris removal method. A case is made for the negligibility of eliminating rotational velocity from certain systems, while a design schematic is also presented for the implementation of a cube satellite proof of concept.

  13. Debris prevention system, radiation system, and lithograpic apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A debris prevention system is constructed and arranged to prevent debris that emanates from a radiation source from propagating with radiation from the radiation source into or within a lithographic apparatus. The debris prevention system includes an aperture that defines a maximum emission angle of

  14. The remarkable occurrence of large rainfall-induced debris flows at two different locations on July 12, 2008, Southern Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, J.V.; Wagner, D.L.; Gallegos, A.J.; DeRose, M.; Shannon, C.; Ellsworth, T.

    2011-01-01

    On July 12, 2008, two convective cells about 155 km apart produced a brief period of intense rainfall triggering large debris flows in the southern Sierra Nevada. The northernmost cell was centered over Oak Creek Canyon, an east-flowing drainage, and its tributaries near Independence, CA, USA. About 5:00 P.M., debris flows passed down the South Fork and North Fork of Oak Creek to merge into a large single feature whose passage affected the historic Mt. Whitney Fish hatchery and blocked California State Highway 395. At about the same time, the southernmost cell was largely centered over Erskine Creek, a main tributary of the west-flowing Kern River. Debris flows issued from several branches to coalesce into a large debris flow that passed along Erskine Creek, through the town of Lake Isabella, CA, USA and into the Kern River. It was observed reaching Lake Isabella about 6:30 P.M. Both debris flows caused significant disruption and damage to local communities. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Assessment and Mitigation of the Proton-Proton Collision Debris Impact on the FCC Triplet

    CERN Document Server

    Besana, Maria Ilaria; Fartoukh, Stephane; Martin, Roman; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular hadron Collider (FCC-hh), which is designed to operate at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV and to deliver ambitious targets in terms of both instantaneous and integrated luminosity, poses extreme challenges in terms of machine protection during operation and with respect to long-term damages. Energy deposition studies are a crucial ingredient for its design. One of the relevant radiation sources are collision debris particles, which de- posit their energy in the interaction region elements and in particular in the superconducting magnet coils of the final focus triplet quadrupoles, to be protected from the risk of quenching and deterioration. In this contribution, the collision debris will be characterised and expectations obtained with FLUKA will be presented, including magnet lifetime considerations. New techniques including crossing angle gymnastics for peak dose deposition mitigation (as recently introduced in the framework of the LHC operation), will be discussed.

  16. Drone Use in Monioring Open Ocean Surface Debris, Including Paired Manta and Tucker Trawls for Relateing Sea State to Vertical Debris Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, G.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring debris at sea presents challenges not found in beach or riverine habitats, and is typically done with trawl nets of various apertures and mesh sizes, which limits the size of debris captured and the area surveyed. To partially overcome these limitations in monitoring floating debris, a Quadcopter drone with video transmitting and recording capabilities was deployed at the beginning and the end of manta trawl transects within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre's eastern convergence zone. Subsurface tucker trawls at 10 meters were conducted at the same time as the manta trawls, in order to assess the effect of sea state on debris dispersal. Trawls were conducted on an 11 station grid used repeatedly since 1999. For drone observations, the operator and observer were stationed on the mother ship while two researchers collected observed debris using a rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The drone was flown to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the vessel in a zigzag or circular search pattern. Here we examine issues arising from drone deployment during the survey: 1) relation of area surveyed by drone to volume of water passing through trawl; 2) retrieval of drone-spotted and associated RIB spotted debris. 3) integrating post- flight image analysis into retrieved debris quantification; and 4) factors limiting drone effectiveness at sea. During the survey, debris too large for the manta trawl was spotted by the drone, and significant debris not observed using the drone was recovered by the RIB. The combination of drone sightings, RIB retrieval, and post flight image analysis leads to improved monitoring of debris at sea. We also examine the issue of the distribution of floating debris during sea states varying from 0-5 by comparing quantities from surface manta trawls to the tucker trawls at a nominal depth of 10 meters.

  17. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupl, Jan Michael; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang Yang, Fan; Levit, Creon

    2013-01-01

    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Two useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept for collision avoidance. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can prevent a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 20 minute window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser-based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  18. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the exploration of outer space (as of 1/1 2011 6853 was launched spacecraft (SC are successful 6264, representing 95% of the total number of starts. The most intensively exploited space Russia (USSR (3701 starts, 94% successful, USA (2774 starts, 90% successful, China (234 starts, 96% successful and India (89 starts, 90% successful. A small part of running the spacecraft returned to Earth (manned spacecraft and transport, and the rest remained in orbit. Some of them are descended from orbit and burned up in the atmosphere, the rest remained in the OCP and turned into space debris (SD.The composition of the Cabinet is diverse: finish the job spacecraft; boosters and the last stage of launch vehicles left in orbit after SC injection; technological waste arising during the opening drop-down structures and fragments of the destroyed spacecraft. The resulting explosion orbital SD forms ellipsoidal region which orbits blasted object. Then, as a result of precession, is the distribution of objects in orbit explosion exploding spacecraft.The whole Cabinet is divided into two factions: the observed (larger than 100 mm and not observed (less than 100 mm. Observed debris katalogalizirovan and 0.2% of the total number of SD, there was no SD is the bulk - 99.8%.SC meeting working with a fragment observed SD predictable and due to changes in altitude spacecraft avoids a possible meeting. Contact spacecraft with large fragment lead to disaster (which took place at a meeting of the Russian communications satellite "Cosmos-2251" and the American machine "Iridium". Meeting with small SD is not predictable, especially if it was formed by an explosion or collision fragments together. Orbit that KM is not predictable, and the speed can be up to 10 km / s. Meeting with small particle SD no less dangerous for the spacecraft. The impact speed of spacecraft with space debris particles can reach up to 10 ... 15 km / s at such speeds the breakdown probability thin

  19. Earth Satellite Population Instability: Underscoring the Need for Debris Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-chyi; Johnson, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by NASA indicates that the implementation of international orbital debris mitigation measures alone will not prevent a significant increase in the artificial Earth satellite population, beginning in the second half of this century. Whereas the focus of the aerospace community for the past 25 years has been on the curtailment of the generation of long-lived orbital debris, active remediation of the current orbital debris population should now be reconsidered to help preserve near-Earth space for future generations. In particular, we show in this paper that even if launch operations were to cease today, the population of space debris would continue to grow. Further, proposed remediation techniques do not appear to offer a viable solution. We therefore recommend that, while the aerospace community maintains the current debris-limiting mission regulations and postmission disposal procedures, future emphasis should be placed on finding new remediation technologies for solving this growing problem. Since the launch of Sputnik 1, space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems, including human space flight and robotic missions (1, 2). Currently, more than 9,000 Earth orbiting man-made objects (including many breakup fragments), with a combined mass exceeding 5 million kilograms, are tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and maintained in the US satellite catalog (3-5). Three accidental collisions between cataloged satellites during the period from late 1991 to early 2005 have already been documented (6), although fortunately none resulted in the creation of large, trackable debris clouds. Several studies conducted during 1991-2001 demonstrated, with assumed future launch rates, the unintended growth potential of the Earth satellite population, resulting from random, accidental collisions among resident space objects (7-13). In some low Earth orbit (LEO) altitude regimes where

  20. A dynamical systems approach to the surface search for debris associated with the disappearance of flight MH370

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garrido, V. J.; Mancho, A. M.; Wiggins, S.; Mendoza, C.

    2015-11-01

    The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 on the morning of 8 March 2014 is one of the great mysteries of our time. Perhaps the most relevant aspect of this mystery is that not a single piece of debris from the aircraft was found during the intensive surface search carried out for roughly 2 months following the crash. Difficulties in the search efforts, due to the uncertainty of the plane's final impact point and the time that had passed since the accident, bring the question on how the debris scattered in an always moving ocean, for which there are multiple data sets that do not uniquely determine its state. Our approach to this problem is based on the use of Lagrangian descriptors (LD), a novel mathematical tool coming from dynamical systems theory that identifies dynamic barriers and coherent structures governing transport. By combining publicly available information supplied by different ocean data sources with these mathematical techniques, we are able to assess the spatio-temporal state of the ocean in the priority search area at the time of impact and the following weeks. Using this information we propose a revised search strategy by showing why one might not have expected to find debris in some large search areas targeted by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), and determining regions where one might have expected impact debris to be located, which were not subjected to any exploration.

  1. Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

    2004-10-01

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C&D debris fines from 13 C&D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies.

  2. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of marine macro-debris abundance around Vancouver Island, Canada, based on archived aerial photographs processed by projective transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Isobe, Atsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    The abundance of marine macro-debris was quantified with high spatial resolution by applying an image processing technique to archived shoreline aerial photographs taken over Vancouver Island, Canada. The photographs taken from an airplane at oblique angles were processed by projective transformation for georeferencing, where five reference points were defined by comparing aerial photographs with satellite images of Google Earth. Thereafter, pixels of marine debris were extracted based on their color differences from the background beaches. The debris abundance can be evaluated by the ratio of an area covered by marine debris to that of the beach (percent cover). The horizontal distribution of percent cover of marine debris was successfully computed from 167 aerial photographs and was significantly related to offshore Ekman flows and winds (leeway drift and Stokes drift). Therefore, the estimated percent cover is useful information to determine priority sites for mitigating adverse impacts across broad areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental study on coolability of particulate core-metal debris bed with oxidization, (2). Fragmentation and enhanced heat transfer in zircaloy debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guanghui; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Aoki, Hiroomi; Kimura, Iichi

    2006-01-01

    The oxidization and coolability characteristics of the particulate Zircaloy debris bed, which is deposited under the hard debris and through which first vapor penetrates and then water penetrates, are studied in the present paper. In the vapor penetration experiments, it is found that Zircaloy debris particles are effectively broken into small pieces after making thick oxidized layer with deep clacks by rapid oxidization under the condition that vapor with 20 cm/s penetrates for 30 to 70 min at an initial debris bed temperature of 1,030degC. It is also confirmed in the water penetration experiments that the oxidized particle debris bed has potentially of high coolability when water penetrates through the fully oxidized particle bed because of a high capillary force originating from those particles with deep cracks on their surfaces. Based on the present study, a new scenario for the appearance and disappearance of the hot spot in the TMI-2 accident is possible. The particulate core-metal core-metal debris bed is first heated up by rapid oxidization with heat generation when vapor can penetrate through the debris bed with porosities. This corresponds to the appearance of the hot spot. The resultant oxidized particulate debris bed causes a high coolability due to its high capillary force when the water can touch the debris bed at wet condition. This corresponds to the disappearance of the hot spot. (author)

  5. Debris Avalanches and Debris Flows Transformed from Collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macias, J.; Scott, K.; Abrams, M.; Garduño, V.

    2001-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) have yielded numerous sector and flank collapses during Pleistocene and Holocene time. Sector collapses associated with magmatic activity have yielded debris avalanches with generally limited runout extent (e.g. Popocatépetl, Jocotitlán, and Colima volcanoes). In contrast, flank collapses (smaller failures not involving the volcano summit), both associated and unassociated with magmatic activity and correlated with intense hydrothermal alteration in ice-capped volcanoes, commonly have yielded highly mobile cohesive debris flows (e.g. Pico de Orizaba and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes). Collapse orientation in the TMVB is preferentially to the south and north-east, probably reflecting the tectonic regime of active E-W and NNW faults. The different mobilities of the flows transformed from collapses have important implications for hazard assessment. Both sector and flank collapse can yield highly mobile debris flows, but this transformation is more common in the case of the smaller failures. High mobility is related to factors such as water and clay content of the failed material, the paleotopography, and the extent of entrainment of sediment during flow (bulking). Both debris-avalanches and debris-flows are volcanic hazards that occur from both active volcanoes, as well as those that are inactive or dormant volcanoes, and may by triggered by earthquakes, precipitation, or simple gravity. There will be no precursory warning in such non-volcanic cases.

  6. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  7. On the debris-level origins of adhesive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H; Molinari, Jean-François

    2017-07-25

    Every contacting surface inevitably experiences wear. Predicting the exact amount of material loss due to wear relies on empirical data and cannot be obtained from any physical model. Here, we analyze and quantify wear at the most fundamental level, i.e., wear debris particles. Our simulations show that the asperity junction size dictates the debris volume, revealing the origins of the long-standing hypothesized correlation between the wear volume and the real contact area. No correlation, however, is found between the debris volume and the normal applied force at the debris level. Alternatively, we show that the junction size controls the tangential force and sliding distance such that their product, i.e., the tangential work, is always proportional to the debris volume, with a proportionality constant of 1 over the junction shear strength. This study provides an estimation of the debris volume without any empirical factor, resulting in a wear coefficient of unity at the debris level. Discrepant microscopic and macroscopic wear observations and models are then contextualized on the basis of this understanding. This finding offers a way to characterize the wear volume in atomistic simulations and atomic force microscope wear experiments. It also provides a fundamental basis for predicting the wear coefficient for sliding rough contacts, given the statistics of junction clusters sizes.

  8. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  9. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  10. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  11. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  12. Structural debris experiments at operation MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, J.R.; Beck, J.E.; McKee, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Structural debris patterns as determined by the mechanisms of building collapse under airblast loading have been studied experimentally at MILL RACE, White Sands, NM. Three near full-size buildings were instrumented to observe deflections, accelerations and air pressures and exposed to two different regimes of incident blast pressure produced by HE simulating 1 kt, viz., 10 and 3 psi; after the shot enough wall debris was located and identified to provide estimates of debris movement. Two of the test buildings were unreinforced, load-bearing masonry, one located at each of the two incident overpressures. The third building was made of reinforced concrete panels and was exposed to approximately 25 psi. Preliminary estimates of the effect of arching on debris energy and distribution are presented

  13. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, B.

    1992-01-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min

  14. Hypsometric Analysis of Glacial Features: A Survey of Lobate Debris Apron Populations in Eastern Hellas Basin and Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-07-01

    Hypsometric curves of lobate debris apron populations in Hellas Basin and Deuteronilus Mensae were evaluated and compared with respect to inferred ice accumulation and flow. Curve types are elevation-dependent, indicating a past shift in climate.

  15. Cetaceans and Marine Debris: The Great Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Peter Simmonds

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish entanglement in active fishing gear from that in lost or discarded gear. The overall significance of the threat from ingested plastics and other debris remains unclear for any population or species of cetaceans, although there are concerns for some taxa, including at the population level, and marine debris in the oceans continues to grow. Further research including the compilation of unpublished material and the investigation of important habitat areas is strongly recommended.

  16. Comparing two models for post-wildfire debris flow susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J.; Bursik, M. I.; Legorreta Paulin, G.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic post-fire debris flow susceptibility mapping has been performed based on the typical method of failure for debris flows/landslides, where slip occurs along a basal shear zone as a result of rainfall infiltration. Recent studies have argued that post-fire debris flows are fundamentally different in their method of initiation, which is not infiltration-driven, but surface runoff-driven. We test these competing models by comparing the accuracy of the susceptibility maps produced by each initiation method. Debris flow susceptibility maps are generated according to each initiation method for a mountainous region of Southern California that recently experienced wildfire and subsequent debris flows. A multiple logistic regression (MLR), which uses the occurrence of past debris flows and the values of environmental parameters, was used to determine the probability of future debris flow occurrence. The independent variables used in the MLR are dependent on the initiation method; for example, depth to slip plane, and shear strength of soil are relevant to the infiltration initiation, but not surface runoff. A post-fire debris flow inventory serves as the standard to compare the two susceptibility maps, and was generated by LiDAR analysis and field based ground-truthing. The amount of overlap between the true locations where debris flow erosion can be documented, and where the MLR predicts high probability of debris flow initiation was statistically quantified. The Figure of Merit in Space (FMS) was used to compare the two models, and the results of the FMS comparison suggest that surface runoff-driven initiation better explains debris flow occurrence. Wildfire can breed conditions that induce debris flows in areas that normally would not be prone to them. Because of this, nearby communities at risk may not be equipped to protect themselves against debris flows. In California, there are just a few months between wildland fire season and the wet

  17. Molten core debris-sodium interactions: M-Series experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.; Gabor, J.D.; Pavlik, J.R.; Cassulo, J.C.; Cook, C.J.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Five new kilogram-scale experiments have been carried out. Four of the experiments simulated the situation where molten core debris flows from a breached reactor vessel into a dry reactor cavity and is followed by a flow of sodium (Ex-vessel case) and one experiment simulated the flow of core debris into an existing pool of sodium (In-vessel case). The core debris was closely simulated by a thermite reaction which produced a molten mixture of UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and stainless steel. There was efficient fragmentation of the debris in all experiments with no explosive interactions observed

  18. Numerical simulations on self-leveling behaviors with cylindrical debris bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liancheng, E-mail: Liancheng.guo@kit.edu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Morita, Koji, E-mail: morita@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 2-3-7, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tobita, Yoshiharu, E-mail: tobita.yoshiharu@jaea.go.jp [Fast Reactor Safety Technology Development Department, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A 3D coupled method was developed by combining DEM with the multi-fluid model of SIMMER-IV code. • The method was validated by performing numerical simulations on a series of experiments with cylindrical particle bed. • Reasonable agreement can demonstrate the applicability of the method in reproducing the self-leveling behavior. • Sensitivity analysis on some model parameters was performed to assess their impacts. - Abstract: The postulated core disruptive accidents (CDAs) are regarded as particular difficulties in the safety analysis of liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). In the CDAs, core debris may settle on the core-support structure and form conic bed mounds. Then debris bed can be levelled by the heat convection and vaporization of surrounding coolant sodium, which is named “self-leveling behavior”. The self-leveling behavior is a crucial issue in the safety analysis, due to its significant effect on the relocation of molten core and heat-removal capability of the debris bed. Considering its complicate multiphase mechanism, a comprehensive computational tool is needed to reasonably simulate transient particle behavior as well as thermal-hydraulic phenomenon of surrounding fluid phases. The SIMMER program is a successful computer code initially developed as an advanced tool for CDA analysis of LMFRs. It is a multi-velocity-field, multiphase, multicomponent, Eulerian, fluid dynamics code coupled with a fuel-pin model and a space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics model. Until now, the code has been successfully applied in numerical simulations for reproducing key thermal-hydraulic phenomena involved in CDAs as well as performing reactor safety assessment. However, strong interactions between massive solid particles as well as particle characteristics in multiphase flows were not taken into consideration in its fluid-dynamics models. To solve this problem, a new method is developed by combining the discrete element method (DEM

  19. Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence: Application on an alpine extreme flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Elisa; Amponsah, William; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Marchi, Lorenzo; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The concurrence of flash floods and debris flows is of particular concern, because it may amplify the hazard corresponding to the individual generative processes. This paper presents a coupled modelling framework for the predictions of flash flood response and of the occurrence of debris flows initiated by channel bed mobilization. The framework combines a spatially distributed flash flood response model and a debris flow initiation model to define a threshold value for the peak flow which permits identification of channelized debris flow initiation. The threshold is defined over the channel network as a function of the upslope area and of the local channel bed slope, and it is based on assumptions concerning the properties of the channel bed material and of the morphology of the channel network. The model is validated using data from an extreme rainstorm that impacted the 140 km2 Vizze basin in the Eastern Italian Alps on August 4-5, 2012. The results show that the proposed methodology has improved skill in identifying the catchments where debris-flows are triggered, compared to the use of simpler thresholds based on rainfall properties.

  20. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhec, Aurélie V.; Jeanne, Richard F.; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments

  1. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  2. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  3. A PRIMER ON UNIFYING DEBRIS DISK MORPHOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  4. Heavy metals in recovered fines from construction and demolition debris recycling facilities in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Leo, Kevin; Jambeck, Jenna

    2004-01-01

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C and D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C and D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil. Waste material that is reused in a manner similar to soil must first be characterized to examine potential risks to human health and the environment. In Florida, samples of C and D debris fines from 13 C and D debris recycling facilities were characterized for 11 total and leachable heavy metal concentrations. Total metal concentration results (mg/kg) were compared to existing data on background Florida soil concentrations and to Florida's risk-based soil cleanup target levels (SCTLs). All of the detected metals were found to be elevated with respect to background. The 95% upper confidence level of arsenic from 99 samples was 3.2 mg/kg; arsenic presented the greatest limitation to reuse when compared to the SCTLs. Lead was not found to pose a major problem, likely because of the relatively new building infrastructure in Florida, which results in less demolition debris and less material impacted by lead-based paint. The results of batch leaching tests conducted using simulated rainwater (mg/l) were compared directly to risk-based groundwater levels for Florida and were found not to pose a risk using existing risk assessment policies

  5. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Code development for debris bed coolability problem. Final report for the period 1997-05-01 - 1999-08-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loboiko, A.I.

    2000-03-01

    and accurate results. The two dimensional code DECO-2D based on fully implicit numerical scheme with no limit to the size of a time step and numerical conservation features in mass and energy was created as a result of the study. Computations using DECO-2D demonstrate the significant gap effect in the fluid flow, yielding inflow towards the dryout region from the bottom in addition to the flows from sides and upper directions. Because of that it was found that critical flux for debris bed was much greater than for debris without gap. (author)

  7. Particulate metallic debris in cemented total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, E A; Betts, F; Doty, S B

    1993-08-01

    Several studies conducted by the authors in the last six years demonstrate that the generation of metallic debris is more severe with titanium alloy than with cobalt-chrome alloy femoral components in cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). The debris is generated from the articulating surface, particularly if entrapped acrylic debris produces three-body wear, and from the stem surface when the component loosens and abrades against fragmented cement. In selected cases in which the titanium metallic debris is copious, premature failure and severe progressive bone loss occurs. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the particles of metallic debris can be extremely small (a few hundredths of 1 micron). They are phagocytized by the macrophages and transported to the phagolysosomes. In this highly corrosive environment, the very high surface area of the particles may release toxic concentrations of the constituents of the alloy intracellularly, probably leading to progressive cell degeneration and death, with subsequent release of intracellular enzymes and ingested metallic debris. This cycle most likely repeats itself, leading to tissue necrosis. The results presented do not support the use of titanium alloy femoral components for cemented THA, particularly for the articulating surface.

  8. Design report on SCDAP/RELAP5 model improvements - debris bed and molten pool behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.

    1994-11-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and in combination with VICTORIA, fission product release and transport during severe accidents. Improvements for existing debris bed and molten pool models in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 code are described in this report. Model improvements to address (a) debris bed formation, heating, and melting; (b) molten pool formation and growth; and (c) molten pool crust failure are discussed. Relevant data, existing models, proposed modeling changes, and the anticipated impact of the changes are discussed. Recommendations for the assessment of improved models are provided

  9. Alternative fuels in fire debris analysis: biodiesel basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Byron, Doug

    2007-03-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more prominent on the market today and, soon, fire debris analysts will start seeing them in liquid samples or in fire debris samples. Biodiesel fuel is one of the most common alternative fuels and is now readily available in many parts of the United States and around the world. This article introduces biodiesel to fire debris analysts. Biodiesel fuel is manufactured from vegetable oils and/or animal oils/fats. It is composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and is sold pure or as a blend with diesel fuel. When present in fire debris samples, it is recommended to extract the debris using passive headspace concentration on activated charcoal, possibly followed by a solvent extraction. The gas chromatographic analysis of the extract is first carried out with the same program as for regular ignitable liquid residues, and second with a program adapted to the analysis of FAMEs.

  10. Evaluation of Oconee steam-generator debris. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigdon, M.A.; Rubright, M.M.; Sarver, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    Pieces of debris were observed near damaged tubes at the 14th support plate elevation in the Oconee 1-B steam generator. A project was initiated to evaluate the physical and chemical nature of the debris, to identify its source, and to determine its role in tube damage at this elevation. Various laboratory techniques were used to characterize several debris and mill scale samples. Data from these samples were then compared with each other and with literature data. It was concluded that seven of eight debris samples were probably formed in the steam generator. Six of these samples were probably formed by high temperature aqueous corrosion early in the life of the steam generator. The seventh sample was probably formed by the deposition and spalling of magnetite on the Inconel steam generator tubes. None of the debris samples resembled any of the mill scale samples

  11. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  12. Loopy, Floppy and Fragmented: Debris Characteristics Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, J.; Burgess, H. K.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is a world-wide problem threatening the health and safety of marine organisms, ecosystems, and humans. Recent and ongoing research shows that risk of harm is not associated with identity, but rather with a set of specific character states, where the character state space intersection is defined by the organism of interest. For example, intersections of material, color, rigidity and size predict the likelihood of an object being ingested: plastic, clear-white, floppy objects risks to sea turtles whereas yellow-red, rigid objects risks to albatrosses. A character state space approach allows prioritization of prevention and removal of marine debris informed by risk assessments for species of interest by comparing species ranges with spatio-temporal hotspots of all debris with characteristics known to be associated with increased risk of harm, regardless of identity. With this in mind, the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) developed and tested a 20 character data collection approach to quantifying the diversity and abundance of marine debris found on beaches. Development resulted in meta-analysis of the literature and expert opinion eliciting harmful character state space. Testing included data collection on inter-rater reliability and accuracy, where the latter included 75 participants quantifying marine debris characteristics on monthly surveys of 30 beaches along the Washington and Oregon coastlines over the past year. Pilot work indicates that characters must be simply and operationally defined, states must be listed, and examples must be provided for color states. Complex characters (e.g., windage, shape) are not replicable across multiple data collectors. Although data collection takes longer than other marine debris surveys for a given amount of debris and area surveyed, volunteer rapidity and accuracy improved within 3-5 surveys. Initial feedback indicated that volunteers were willing to continue collecting data as long as they

  13. The fast debris evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H. G.; Swinerd, G. G.; Newland, R. J.; Saunders, A.

    2009-09-01

    The 'particles-in-a-box' (PIB) model introduced by Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] removed the need for computer-intensive Monte Carlo simulation to predict the gross characteristics of an evolving debris environment. The PIB model was described using a differential equation that allows the stability of the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment to be tested by a straightforward analysis of the equation's coefficients. As part of an ongoing research effort to investigate more efficient approaches to evolutionary modelling and to develop a suite of educational tools, a new PIB model has been developed. The model, entitled Fast Debris Evolution (FADE), employs a first-order differential equation to describe the rate at which new objects ⩾10 cm are added and removed from the environment. Whilst Talent [Talent, D.L. Analytic model for orbital debris environmental management. J. Spacecraft Rocket, 29 (4), 508-513, 1992.] based the collision theory for the PIB approach on collisions between gas particles and adopted specific values for the parameters of the model from a number of references, the form and coefficients of the FADE model equations can be inferred from the outputs of future projections produced by high-fidelity models, such as the DAMAGE model. The FADE model has been implemented as a client-side, web-based service using JavaScript embedded within a HTML document. Due to the simple nature of the algorithm, FADE can deliver the results of future projections immediately in a graphical format, with complete user-control over key simulation parameters. Historical and future projections for the ⩾10 cm LEO debris environment under a variety of different scenarios are possible, including business as usual, no future launches, post-mission disposal and remediation. A selection of results is presented with comparisons with predictions made using the DAMAGE environment model

  14. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  15. Changes of Space Debris Orbits After LDR Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, E.; Golebiewska, J.; Jacquelard, C.; Haag, H.

    2013-09-01

    A lot of technical studies are currently developing concepts of active removal of space debris to protect space assets from on orbit collision. For small objects, such concepts include the use of ground-based lasers to remove or reduce the momentum of the objects thereby lowering their orbit in order to facilitate their decay by re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. The concept of the Laser Debris Removal (LDR) system is the main subject of the CLEANSPACE project. One of the CLEANSPACE objectives is to define a global architecture (including surveillance, identification and tracking) for an innovative ground-based laser solution, which can remove hazardous medium debris around selected space assets. The CLEANSPACE project is realized by a European consortium in the frame of the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), Space topic. The use of sequence of laser operations to remove space debris, needs very precise predictions of future space debris orbital positions, on a level even better than 1 meter. Orbit determination, tracking (radar, optical and laser) and orbit prediction have to be performed with accuracy much better than so far. For that, the applied prediction tools have to take into account all perturbation factors that influence object orbit. The expected object's trajectory after the LDR operation is a lowering of its perigee. To prevent the debris with this new trajectory to collide with another object, a precise trajectory prediction after the LDR sequence is therefore the main task allowing also to estimate re-entry parameters. The LDR laser pulses change the debris object velocity v. The future orbit and re-entry parameters of the space debris after the LDR engagement can be calculated if the resulting ?v vector is known with the sufficient accuracy. The value of the ?v may be estimated from the parameters of the LDR station and from the characteristics of the orbital debris. However, usually due to the poor knowledge of the debris

  16. Photometric Studies of GEO Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R=15th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? More than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes for a sample of 50 objects have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the

  17. Laser ignition of traumatically embedded firework debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C R

    1998-01-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) has a good track record for traumatic tattoo removal. An unusual case of QSRL-treatment of a traumatic tattoo composed of firework debris is presented. A young man's traumatic tattoo, composed of firework debris, underwent QSRL ablation at 4-7 J/cm2 (pulse width 5 mm; duration 20 ns). Each test pulse produced visible sparks and focal projectile ejection of skin with pox-like scar formation. Caution is advised when using the QSRL for the treatment of traumatic tattoos composed of potentially combustible debris.

  18. Debris Disks: Probing Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are the dust disks found around ~20% of nearby main sequence stars in far-IR surveys. They can be considered as descendants of protoplanetary disks or components of planetary systems, providing valuable information on circumstellar disk evolution and the outcome of planet formation. The debris disk population can be explained by the steady collisional erosion of planetesimal belts; population models constrain where (10-100au) and in what quantity (>1Mearth) planetesimals (>10km i...

  19. The impact of cellular debris on Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to silicone hydrogel contact lenses and contact lens storage cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Geoffrey W; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate neutrophil-enhanced Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm formation on silicone hydrogel contact lenses and to determine the effect of epithelial biodebris on PA adherence in contact lens storage cases. A fully invasive PA corneal isolate stably conjugated to green fluorescent protein was used. Unworn lotrafilcon A contact lenses were incubated at various ratios of PA to polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) for 24 hours at 37°C. Lens-associated PA was evaluated using laser scanning confocal microscopy and nonviable PA were visualized using propidium iodide. Viable bacteria were enumerated by colony-forming unit (CFU) analysis. For acute epithelial cell studies, PA viability was determined after coincubation with freeze-thaw epithelial cell lysates in 96-well polystyrene plates. Levels of residual cellular debris and bacterial viability were further assessed in used contact lens storage cases. Laser scanning confocal microscopy demonstrated that cotreatment with PMA-stimulated neutrophils increased PA adherence over 24 hours to lens surfaces with a striking alteration of PA architecture. Propidium iodide staining showed that the adherent bacteria consisted of a mixture of viable and nonviable PA; a PMN-associated increase in viable PA was confirmed by CFU (PA:PMN 0.1:1, P = 0.025; PA:PMN 1:1, P = 0.005). Acute epithelial cell debris studies revealed a significant increase in viable PA in 96-well plates in the presence of epithelial freeze-thaw lysates (PA:debris 1:1, P = 0.002; PA:debris 100:1, P = 0.002). Crystal violet staining of used lens storage cases revealed residual cellular debris at all time points, which was independent of microbial contamination; all lens cases used for periods of 9 months or more were uniformly associated with high levels of viable microorganisms. These results demonstrate that prolonged corneal inflammation with the presence of PMNs when confronted with simultaneous PA challenge in extended contact lens wear has the potential

  20. A Ballistic Limit Analysis Program for Shielding Against Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Erie

    2010-01-01

    A software program has been developed that enables the user to quickly and simply perform ballistic limit calculations for common spacecraft structures that are subject to hypervelocity impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) projectiles. This analysis program consists of two core modules: design, and; performance. The design module enables a user to calculate preliminary dimensions of a shield configuration (e.g., thicknesses/areal densities, spacing, etc.) for a ?design? particle (diameter, density, impact velocity, incidence). The performance module enables a more detailed shielding analysis, providing the performance of a user-defined shielding configuration over the range of relevant in-orbit impact conditions.

  1. Flow-sediment-large woody debris interplay: Introducing an appropriately scaled laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, H.; Spreitzer, G.; Tunnicliffe, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology of steep (>0.01 m/m) forested streams is governed not only by water-sediment interplay, but also by accumulations of coarse and fine organic debris. In this project we look at the jamming dynamics (formation, persistence and hydraulic feedbacks) of large woody debris with the help of scaled laboratory experiments. In New Zealand, the recruitment of wood from both natural tree-fall and forest harvesting has led to obstruction of culverts, bridges and other river constrictions. Understanding the dynamics of jam formation and persistence is important for harvest practice guidelines, management of sediment accumulation, as well as establishing impacts to habitat and infrastructure. In this study, we provide the context of our work, present our experimental setup for studying the complex flow-sediment-wood interactions and present some initial results. In our experimental setup, we varied feed rates of sediment and organic fine material in order to establish concentration thresholds for jam formation, and development of sediment retention capacity upstream of the jam. Large woody debris accumulation is studied for different blocking scenarios, and the effect on sediment transport is measured. Sediment quantities and changes in channel bed morphology upstream of the critical cross section are evaluated, together with resulting backwater effects, and associated energy losses. In the long term, our results will inform our understanding of the processes that take place from the mobilization of woody debris to accumulation.

  2. Updated Decision Support Tool for the Management of Waste and Debris from Radiological Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.; Thorneloe, S.; Hayes, C.; Rodgers, M.; Christman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Unique challenges exist for the handling, transport, and disposal of debris resulting from homeland security incidents, disasters or other national emergencies. Access to guidance for facilitating decision making in the safe and timely disposal of debris is critical to helping restore a community or region and prevent further contamination or spread of disease. For a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or other radiological incident, proper characterization of the quantity, properties, and level of contamination of debris and decontamination residue can have a significant impact on cleanup costs and timelines. A suite of decision support tools (DSTs) is being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist individuals responsible for making decisions associated with handling, transport, treatment, and disposal of such debris. The DSTs are location-specific to help identify specific facilities and contacts for making final disposal decisions. The DSTs provide quick reference to technical information, regulations, and other information to provide decision makers with assistance in guiding disposal decisions that are important for the protection of public health, first responders, and the environment. This tool is being developed in partnership with other U.S. government agencies, EPA program offices, industry, and state and local emergency response programs. (authors)

  3. Debris filtering efficiency and its effect on long term cooling capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Min-Su; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Debris filtering efficiencies for two debris filter designs used in PWRs are provided. • Various debris used in the tests are selected to simulate actual debris found in PWRs. • Debris filter efficiency is explained by flow-hole size and grid strap height. • The effect of debris filters on flow blockage during LTC after a LOCA is described. -- Abstract: A cutting-edge debris-filter designs, Protective Grid (P-grid) and Guardian Grid (G-grid) attached to the upper part of bottom nozzle, have been employed for the PWRs in Korea since 2000s to protect the fuel from debris-induced fuel failures. The debris-filter efficiency of the P-grid and G-grid designs is improved by relatively smaller flow areas formed by the grid straps and dimples. The debris-filter efficiency of the P-grid design is further improved by the relatively smaller flow-hole bottom nozzle. The debris-filter flow tests employing eighteen debris types showed that the debris-filter efficiencies of the P-grid and G-grid designs are 91 and 96%, respectively, while that of the SYS80 fuel design having only the standard flow-hole bottom nozzle is 26%. The slightly better debris-filter efficiency of the G-grid design against the P-grid design may be explained by relatively smaller flow areas at the G-grid dimple region as well as by the relatively longer solid end plug and the higher G-grid strap. The P-grid design may capture circular shapes of debris larger than 3.44 mm in diameter at the flow holes formed by the P-grid dimples, whereas the G-grid design may capture circular shapes of debris larger than 2.54 mm in diameter at the flow holes formed by the G-grid dimples. The aforementioned difference in the debris-filter efficiency between the P-grid and G-grid designs may be predicted by the solid modeling technique generating three-dimensional flow paths. Using the minimum flow-hole areas generated by the P-grid and G-grid designs, on the other hand, the effect of debris injected from

  4. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The Erebus Montes Debris-Apron Population: Investigation of Amazonian Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gasselt, S.; Orgel, C.; Schulz, J.

    2014-04-01

    Lobate debris aprons are considered to be indicators for the presence of ice and water reservoirs on Mars and are therefore sensitive to climate variability. The northern hemisphere of Mars is characterized by three major populations of debris aprons (see, e.g. [12]): (1) the Tempe Terra/Mareotis Fossae region [2, 5], (2) the Deuteronilus/Protonilus Mensae [1, 4, 8], and (3) the Phlegra Montes (PM) [3]. The broader PM area can subdivided inro a number of smaller populations dispersed across parts of Arcadia Planitia (see figure 1) of which the Erebus Montes located at 180-195oE, 25-41oN form a well-confined set of features. We here focus on age and erosional characteristics of the northern Erebus Montes (see inset in figure 1). Our study makes use of panchromatic image data obtained by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) [9, 6] onboard Mars Express and the Context Camera (CTX) [7] onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Image data analyses are supported by digital terrain-model data derived from HRSC based stereo imaging [10] and from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) [11]. We performed detailed geologic mapping at a scale of 1:10,000 and analysed age relationships and erosion rates based on a similar approach as outlined in [5] for the northern part of the Erebus Montes. The aim of this study is to compare feature characteristics to other populations in order to assess timing and the overarching control of landforms evolution in the Martian northern hemisphere. The EM compare geologically relatively well with the Phlegra Montes in terms of individual feature morphologies. The concentration based on cluster analysis (figure 1) shows an up to 10 times higher concentration of remnants per 25 km2 area peaking at 3.4×10-3 features for Erebus Montes. Debris aprons show well-defined age signals ranging from 15 Myr up to 145 Myr. Some units even show continuous degradation implying active denudation of the Noachian to Hesperian-aged remnant massifs. Based on the

  6. Numerical simulation for debris bed behavior in sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Hirotaka; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    For safety analysis of SFR, it is necessary to evaluate behavior along with coolability of debris bed in lower plenum which is formed in severe accident. In order to analyze debris behavior, model for dense sediment particles behavior was proposed and installed in SFR safety analysis code SIMMER. SIMMER code could adequately reproduce experimental results simulating the self-leveling phenomena with appropriate model parameters for bed stiffness. In reactor condition, the self-leveling experiment for prototypical debris bed has not been performed. Additionally, the prototypical debris bed consists of non-spherical particles and it is difficult to quantify model parameters. This situation brings sensitivity analysis to investigate effect of model parameters on the self-leveling phenomena of prototypical debris bed in present paper. As initial condition for sensitivity analysis, simple mound-like debris bed in sodium-filled lower plenum in reactor vessel is considered. The bed consists of the mixture of fuel debris of 3,300 kg and steel debris of 1,570 kg. Decay heat is given to this fuel debris. The model parameter is chosen as sensitivity parameter. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model parameters can effect on intensity of self-leveling phenomena and eventual flatness of bed. In all analyses, however, coolant and sodium vapor break the debris bed at mainly center part of bed and the debris is relocated to outside of bed. Through this process, the initial debris bed is almost planarized before re-melting of debris. This result shows that the model parameters affect the self-leveling phenomena, but its effect in the safety analysis of SFRs is limited. (author)

  7. An eddy covariance system to characterize the atmospheric surface layer and turbulent latent heat fluxes over a debris-covered Himalayan glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Maxime; Steiner, Jakob F.; Stigter, Emmy E.; Immerzeel, Walter; Shea, Joseph Michael

    2017-04-01

    Over debris-covered glaciers, water content variations in the debris layer can drive significant changes in its thermal conductivity and significantly impact melt rates. Since sublimation and evaporation are favoured in high-altitude conditions, e.g., low atmospheric pressure and high wind speeds, they are expected to strongly influence the water balance of the debris-layer. Dedicated latent heat fluxes measurements at the debris surface are essential to characterize the debris heat conductivity in order to assess underlying ice melt. Furthermore, the contribution of the turbulent fluxes in the surface energy balance over debris covered glacier remains uncertain since they are generally evaluated through similarity methods which might not be valid in complex terrain. We present the first results of a 15-day eddy-covariance experiment installed at the end of the monsoon (September-October) on a 3-m tower above the debris-covered Lirung glacier in Nepal. The tower also included measurements of the 4 radiation components. The eddy covariance measurements allowed for the characterization of the turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer, as well as the direct measurements of evaporation, sublimation and turbulent sensible heat fluxes. The experiment helps us to evaluate the contribution of turbulent fluxes to the surface energy balance over this debris-covered glacier, through a precise characterization of the overlying turbulent atmospheric surface layer. It also helps to study the role of the debris-layer water content changes through evaporation and sublimation and its feedback on heat conduction in this layer. The large observed turbulent fluxes play a significant role in the energy balance at the debris surface and significantly influence debris moisture, conductivity and subsequently underlying ice melt.

  8. Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of debris flows at La Honda, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.C.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    A simple numerical model, based on the physical analogy of a leaky barrel, can simulate significant features of the interaction between rainfall and shallow-hillslope pore pressures. The leaky-barrel-model threshold is consistent with, but slightly higher than, an earlier, purely empirical, threshold. The number of debris flows triggered by a storm can be related to the time and amount by which the leaky-barrel-model response exceeded the threshold during the storm. -from Authors

  9. EDDA: integrated simulation of debris flow erosion, deposition and property changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhang, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Debris flow material properties change during the initiation, transportation and deposition processes, which influences the runout characteristics of the debris flow. A quasi-three-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model, EDDA, is presented in this paper to simulate debris flow erosion, deposition and induced material property changes. The model considers changes in debris flow density, yield stress and dynamic viscosity during the flow process. The yield stress of debris flow mixture is determined at limit equilibrium using the Mohr-Coulomb equation, which is applicable to clear water flow, hyper-concentrated flow and fully developed debris flow. To assure numerical stability and computational efficiency at the same time, a variable time stepping algorithm is developed to solve the governing differential equations. Four numerical tests are conducted to validate the model. The first two tests involve a one-dimensional dam-break water flow and a one-dimensional debris flow with constant properties. The last two tests involve erosion and deposition, and the movement of multi-directional debris flows. The changes in debris flow mass and properties due to either erosion or deposition are shown to affect the runout characteristics significantly. The model is also applied to simulate a large-scale debris flow in Xiaojiagou Ravine to test the performance of the model in catchment-scale simulations. The results suggest that the model estimates well the volume, inundated area, and runout distance of the debris flow. The model is intended for use as a module in a real-time debris flow warning system.

  10. Phase shifting-based debris effect detection in USV-assisted AFM nanomachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jialin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Imaging Technology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lianqingliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Yu, Peng; Cong, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang, Liaoning 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The mechanism of the debris effect on machining depth in force control mode operation is analyzed. • The relationship between phase shifting and pile-up of debris is investigated. • The phase shifting-based method is hardly affected by the pile-up of debris. • Debris effect detection by phase shifting-based method is achived. - Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) mechanical-based lithography attracts much attention in nanomanufacturing due to its advantages of low cost, high precision and high resolution. However, debris effects during mechanical lithography often lead to an unstable machining process and inaccurate results, which limits further applications of AFM-based lithography. There is a lack of a real-time debris detection approach, which is the prerequisite to eventually eliminating the influence of the debris, and of a method that can solve the above problems well. The ultrasonic vibration (USV)-assisted AFM has the ability to sense the machining depth in real time by detecting the phase shifting of cantilever. However, whether the pile-up of debris affect the phase response of cantilever is still lack of investigation. Therefore, we analyzed the mechanism of the debris effect on force control mode and investigated the relationship between phase shifting and pile-up of debris. Theoretical analysis and experimental results reveal that the pile-up of debris have negligible effect on phase shifting of cantilever. Therefore, the phase shifting-based method can detect the debris effect on machining depth in force control mode of AFM machining.

  11. Floating Marine Debris in waters of the Mexican Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torres, Evelyn R; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Silva-Iñiguez, Lidia; Nene-Preciado, Alejandro; Orozco, Ernesto Torres

    2017-02-15

    The presence of marine debris has been reported recently in several oceans basins; there is very little information available for Mexican Pacific coasts, however. This research examined the composition, possible sources, distribution, and density of Floating Marine Debris (FMD) during nine research surveys conducted during 2010-2012 in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Of 1820 floating objects recorded, 80% were plastic items. Sources of FMD were determined using key objects, which indicated that the most were related to the presence of the industrial harbor and of a growing fishing industry in the study area. Densities were relatively high, ranging from 40 to 2440objects/km 2 ; the highest densities were recorded in autumn. FMD were distributed near coastal regions, mainly in Jalisco, influenced by river outflow and surface currents. Our results seem to follow worldwide trends and highlight the need for further studies on potential ecological impacts within coastal waters of the MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coolability of oxidized particulate debris bed accumulated in horizontal narrow gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Narabayashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    When LOCA occurs in a nuclear reactor system, the coolability of the core would be kept as reported at a series of presentations in ICONE14. Therefore the probability of the core meltdown is negligible small. However, from the view point of defense in depth, it is necessary to be sure that the coolability of the bottom of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is maintained even if a part of the core should melt and a substantial amount of debris should be deposited on the lower plenum. We carried out an experimental study in order to observe the coolability of particulate core-metal debris bed with 12 mm thickness accompanied with rapid heat generation because of oxidization, which was reported at ICONE14. The coolability was assured by a small amount of coolant supply because of high capillary force of oxidized fine particulate debris produced. In the present study, we examined the coolability of particulate debris bed deposited in narrower gap of 1 mm or 5 mm that coolant supply is hard. The particulate debris beds were piled up on the stainless steel sheet with 0.1 mm thickness, which was used to measure the bottom temperatures of particulate debris bed by using a thermo-video camera. We set up a heat supply section with heat input of 2.1 kW, which simulates the hard debris bed deposited on the particulate debris bed as reported for the TMI-2 accident. We measured the temperatures of the bottom surface of the heat supply section and the heat fluxes released into debris bed as well as the temperatures at the bottom of debris bed on the stainless steel sheet. It is found that when only the upper surface of particulate debris bed is in the film boiling, capillary force causes coolant supply to the particulate debris bed. Therefore, in the condition of thicker gap with small particulate debris, coolability of debris bed is improved. We find out that smaller particulate debris is moved by vapor movement. As a result, the area that high capillary force is caused because of

  13. Odours from marine plastic debris induce food search behaviours in a forage fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Matthew S; Tyson, Chris W; McGill, Michael; Slager, Christina J

    2017-08-16

    Plastic pollution is an anthropogenic stressor in marine ecosystems globally. Many species of marine fish (more than 50) ingest plastic debris. Ingested plastic has a variety of lethal and sublethal impacts and can be a route for bioaccumulation of toxic compounds throughout the food web. Despite its pervasiveness and severity, our mechanistic understanding of this maladaptive foraging behaviour is incomplete. Recent evidence suggests that the chemical signature of plastic debris may explain why certain species are predisposed to mistaking plastic for food. Anchovy ( Engraulis sp.) are abundant forage fish in coastal upwelling systems and a critical prey resource for top predators. Anchovy ingest plastic in natural conditions, though the mechanism they use to misidentify plastic as prey is unknown. Here, we presented wild-caught schools of northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax ) with odour solutions made of plastic debris and clean plastic to compare school-wide aggregation and rheotactic responses relative to food and food odour presentations. Anchovy schools responded to plastic debris odour with increased aggregation and reduced rheotaxis. These results were similar to the effects food and food odour presentations had on schools. Conversely, these behavioural responses were absent in clean plastic and control treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that adult anchovy use odours to forage. We conclude that the chemical signature plastic debris acquires in the photic zone can induce foraging behaviours in anchovy schools. These findings provide further support for a chemosensory mechanism underlying plastic consumption by marine wildlife. Given the trophic position of forage fish, these findings have considerable implications for aquatic food webs and possibly human health. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Development of debris resistant bottom end piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Seong; Yim, Jeong Sik; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Song, Kee Nam; Oh, Dong Seok; Rhu, Ho Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Seong Soo; Oh, Jong Myung

    1993-12-01

    Debris-related fuel failures have been identified as one of the major causes of fuel failures. In order to reduce the possibility of debris-related fuel failures, it is necessary to develop Debris-Resistant Bottom End Piece. For this development, mechanical strength test and pressure drop test were performed, and the test results were analyzed. And the laser cutting, laser welding and electron beam welding technology, which were the core manufacturing technology of DRBEP, were developed. Final design were performed, and the final drawing and specifications were prepared. The prototype of DRBEP was manufactured according to the developed munufacturing procedure. (Author)

  15. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper presents an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  16. Spatial variability and potential impacts of climate change on flood and debris flow hazard zone mapping and implications for risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staffler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of this study were to identify the alpine torrent catchments that are sensitive to climatic changes and to assess the robustness of the methods for the elaboration of flood and debris flow hazard zone maps to specific effects of climate changes. In this study, a procedure for the identification and localization of torrent catchments in which the climate scenarios will modify the hazard situation was developed. In two case studies, the impacts of a potential increase of precipitation intensities to the delimited hazard zones were studied.

    The identification and localization of the torrent and river catchments, where unfavourable changes in the hazard situation occur, could eliminate speculative and unnecessary measures against the impacts of climate changes like a general enlargement of hazard zones or a general over dimensioning of protection structures for the whole territory. The results showed a high spatial variability of the sensitivity of catchments to climate changes. In sensitive catchments, the sediment management in alpine torrents will meet future challenges due to a higher rate for sediment removal from retention basins. The case studies showed a remarkable increase of the areas affected by floods and debris flow when considering possible future precipitation intensities in hazard mapping. But, the calculated increase in extent of future hazard zones lay within the uncertainty of the methods used today for the delimitation of the hazard zones. Thus, the consideration of the uncertainties laying in the methods for the elaboration of hazard zone maps in the torrent and river catchments sensitive to climate changes would provide a useful instrument for the consideration of potential future climate conditions. The study demonstrated that weak points in protection structures in future will become more important in risk management activities.

  17. Dynamics of Flexible MLI-type Debris for Accurate Orbit Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    debris for accurate propagation under perturbations”, in Proceedings of 65th International Astronautical Congress (IAC 2014), Toronto, Canada , 2014...Surveillance Network ( SSN ) was able to detect more than 900 pieces of debris that were at risk to damage operational spacecraft. In February 10, 2009...created two large debris clouds and the SSN reported that 382 pieces of debris from Iridium 33 and 893 pieces from Cosmos 2251 were created, and

  18. Energy release from a stream of infalling prominence debris on 2011 September 7-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years high-resolution and high-cadence EUV imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere and release energy. We present a clear example of this phenomenon occurring on 2011 September 7-8. The initial eruption of prominence material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7, resulting in a semi-continuous stream of this material returning to the solar surface between 00:20 - 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. A substantial area remote from the original active region experienced brightening in multiple EUV channels observed by SDO/AIA. Using the differential emission measure, we estimated the energetic properties of this event. We found that the radiated energy of the impacted plasma was of order 10^27 ergs, while the upper limit on the thermal energy peaked at 10^28 ergs. Based on these estimates we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2x10^14 energy release takes place during these events, and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.

  19. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhatigan, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress to better understand the environmental threat of micrometeoroid and space debris to the solar dynamic radiator for the Space Station Freedom power system is reported. The objective was to define a design which would perform to survivability requirements over the expected lifetime of the radiator. A previous paper described the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability of the solar dynamic radiator due to micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. Preliminary analyses were presented to quantify the solar dynamic radiator survivability. These included the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering. Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact (HVI) testing performed on radiator panel samples were also presented. This paper presents results of a more extensive test program undertaken to further define the response of the solar dynamic radiator to HVI. Tests were conducted on representative radiator panels (under ambient, nonoperating conditions) over a range of particle size, particle density, impact angle, and impact velocity. Target parameters were also varied. Data indicate that analytical penetration predictions are conservative (i.e., pessimistic) for the specific configuration of the solar dynamic radiator. Test results are used to define more rigorously the solar dynamic radiator reliability with respect to HVI. Test data, analyses, and survivability results are presented

  20. A mineralogical and granulometric study of Cayambe volcano debris avalanche deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detienne, M.; Delmelle, P.; Guevara, A.; Samaniego, P.; Bustillos, J.; Sonnet, P.; Opfergelt, S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcano flank/sector collapse represents one of the most catastrophic volcanic hazards. Various volcanic and non-volcanic processes are known to decrease the stability of a volcanic cone, eventually precipitating its gravitational failure. Among them, hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks leading to clay mineral formation is recognized as having a large negative impact on rock strength properties. Furthermore, the presence of hydrothermal clays in the collapsing mass influences the behavior of the associated volcanic debris avalanche. In particular, clay-containing debris avalanches seem to travel farther and spread more widely than avalanches of similar volume but which do not incorporate hydrothermally-altered materials. However, the relationship between hydrothermal alteration, flank collapse and debris avalanche behavior is not well understood. The objective of this study is to better determine the volume and composition of hydrothermal clay minerals in the poorly characterized debris avalanche deposit (DAD) of Cayambe composite volcano, located in a densely populated area ~70 km northeast of Quito, Ecuador. Cayambe DAD originated from a sector collapse, which occurred less than 200 ka ago. The DAD is 10-20 m thick and has an estimated total volume of ~0.85 Km3. The H/L ratio (where H is the vertical drop and L is the travel distance of the avalanche) for Cayambe DAD is ~0.095, suggesting a high mobility. In the medial-distal zone, at 9-20 km from its source, the DAD consists of an unstratified and unsorted matrix supporting millimetric to metric clasts. It has a matrix facies (i.e. rich in particles DAD behaved as a cohesive debris flow. Analysis of 13 matrix samples reveals a large variability in particle size distribution. This may reflect poor mixing of the collapsed material during transport. The clay fraction content in the matrix ranges from 15 to 30 wt.%, and does not show a relationship with the sample position in the DAD. Mineralogical

  1. The application of numerical debris flow modelling for the generation of physical vulnerability curves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan Luna, B.; Blahůt, Jan; van Westen, C.J.; Sterlacchini, S.; van Asch, T.W.J.; Akbas, S.O.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2011), s. 2047-2060 ISSN 1561-8633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : debris flow modelling * hazard * vulnerability curves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.983, year: 2011 http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/11/2047/2011/

  2. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable ...

  3. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sokratov; Yu. G. Seliverstov; A. L. Shnyparkov; K. P. Koltermann

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoida...

  4. New solutions for the space debris problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2015-01-01

    Addressing a pressing issue in space policy, Pelton explores the new forms of technology that are being developed to actively remove the defunct space objects from orbit and analyzes their implications in the existing regime of international space law and public international law. This authoritative review covers the due diligence guidelines that nations are using to minimize the generation of new debris, mandates to de-orbit satellites at end of life, and innovative endeavours to remove non-functional satellites, upper stage rockets and other large debris from orbit under new institutional, financial and regulatory guidelines.  Commercial space services currently exceed 100 billion USD business per annum, but the alarming proliferation in the population of orbital debris in low, medium and geosynchronous satellite orbits poses a serious threat to all kinds of space assets and applications. There is a graver concern that the existing space debris will begin to collide in a cascading manner, generating furth...

  5. Laser space debris removal: now, not later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2015-02-01

    Small (1-10cm) debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) are extremely dangerous, because they spread the breakup cascade depicted in the movie "Gravity." Laser-Debris-Removal (LDR) is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LDR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. No other solutions address the whole problem of large ( 1000cm, 1 ton) as well as small debris. Physical removal of small debris (by nets, tethers and so on) is impractical because of the energy cost of matching orbits. We also discuss a new proposal which uses a space-based station in low Earth orbit (LEO), and rapid, head-on interaction in 10- 40s rather than 4 minutes, with high-power bursts of 100ps, 355nm pulses from a 1.5m diameter aperture. The orbiting station employs "heat-capacity" laser mode with low duty cycle to create an adaptable, robust, dualmode system which can lower or raise large derelict objects into less dangerous orbits, as well as clear out the small debris in a 400-km thick LEO band. Time-average laser optical power is less than 15kW. The combination of short pulses and UV wavelength gives lower required energy density (fluence) on target as well as higher momentum coupling coefficient. This combination leads to much smaller mirrors and lower average power than the ground-based systems we have considered previously. Our system also permits strong defense of specific assets. Analysis gives an estimated cost of about 1k each to re-enter most small debris in a few months, and about 280k each to raise or lower 1-ton objects by 40km. We believe it can do this for 2,000 such large objects in about four years. Laser ablation is one of the few interactions in nature that propel a distant object without any significant reaction on the source.

  6. Nanometer size wear debris generated from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Zolotarevova, E.; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Gallo, J.; Sosna, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 266, 1-2 (2009), s. 349-355 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ultra high molecular weight polyethylene * nanometer size wear debris * morphology of wear particles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2009

  7. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  8. Optical Photometric Observations of GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Horstman, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We report on a continuing program of optical photometric measurements of faint orbital debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). These observations can be compared with laboratory studies of actual spacecraft materials in an effort to determine what the faint debris at GEO may be. We have optical observations from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile of two samples of debris: 1. GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 t11 magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. 2. A smaller sample of high area to mass ratio (AMR) objects discovered independently, and acquired using predictions from orbits derived from independent tracking data collected days prior to the observations. Our optical observations in standard astronomical BVRI filters are done with either telescope, and with the telescope tracking the debris object at the object's angular rate. Observations in different filters are obtained sequentially. We have obtained 71 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes. A total of 66 of these sequences have 3 or more good measurements in all filters (not contaminated by star streaks or in Earth's shadow). Most of these sequences show brightness variations, but a small subset has observed brightness variations consistent with that expected from observational errors alone. The majority of these stable objects are redder than a solar color in both B-R and R-I. There is no dependence on color with brightness. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and

  9. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  10. Investigation of debris bed formation, spreading and coolability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, P.; Konovalenko, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Yakush, S.; Basso, S.; Lubchenko, N.; Karbojian, A.

    2013-08-01

    The work is motivated by the severe accident management strategy adopted in Nordic type BWRs. It is assumed that core melt ejected from the vessel will fragment, quench and form a coolable debris bed in a deep water pool below the vessel. In this work we consider phenomena relevant to the debris bed formation and coolability. Several DEFOR-A (Debris Bed Formation - Agglomeration) tests have been carried out with new corium melt material and a melt releasing nozzle mockup. The influence of the melt material, melt superheat, jet free fall height on the (i) faction of agglomerated debris, (ii) particle size distribution, (iii) ablation/plugging of the nozzle mockup has been addressed. Results of the DECOSIM (Debris Coolability Simulator) code validation against available COOLOCE data are presented in the report. The dependence of DHF on system pressure from COOLOCE experiments can be reproduced quite accurately if either the effective particle diameter or debris bed porosity is increased. For a cylindrical debris bed, good agreement is achieved in DECOSIM simulations for the particle diameter 0.89 mm and porosity 0.4. The results obtained are consistent with MEWA simulation where larger particle diameters and porosities were found to be necessary to reproduce the experimental data on DHF. It is instructive to note that results of DHF prediction are in better agreement with POMECO-HT data obtained for the same particles. It is concluded that further clarification of the discrepancies between different experiments and model predictions. In total 13 exploratory tests were carried out in PDS (particulate debris spreading) facility to clarify potential influence of the COOLOCE (VTT) facility heaters and TCs on particle self-leveling process. Results of the preliminary analysis suggest that there is no significant influence of the pins on self-leveling, at least for the air superficial velocities ranging from 0.17 up to 0.52 m/s. Further confirmatory tests might be needed

  11. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  12. Characterizing Longitude-Dependent Orbital Debris Congestion in the Geosynchronous Orbit Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul V.

    The geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is a unique commodity of the satellite industry that is becoming increasingly contaminated with orbital debris, but is heavily populated with high-value assets from the civil, commercial, and defense sectors. The GEO arena is home to hundreds of communications, data transmission, and intelligence satellites collectively insured for an estimated 18.3 billion USD. As the lack of natural cleansing mechanisms at the GEO altitude renders the lifetimes of GEO debris essentially infinite, conjunction and risk assessment must be performed to safeguard operational assets from debris collisions. In this thesis, longitude-dependent debris congestion is characterized by predicting the number of near-miss events per day for every longitude slot at GEO, using custom debris propagation tools and a torus intersection metric. Near-miss events with the present-day debris population are assigned risk levels based on GEO-relative position and speed, and this risk information is used to prioritize the population for debris removal target selection. Long-term projections of debris growth under nominal launch traffic, mitigation practices, and fragmentation events are also discussed, and latitudinal synchronization of the GEO debris population is explained via node variations arising from luni-solar gravity. In addition to characterizing localized debris congestion in the GEO ring, this thesis further investigates the conjunction risk to operational satellites or debris removal systems applying low-thrust propulsion to raise orbit altitude at end-of-life to a super-synchronous disposal orbit. Conjunction risks as a function of thrust level, miss distance, longitude, and semi-major axis are evaluated, and a guidance method for evading conjuncting debris with continuous thrust by means of a thrust heading change via single-shooting is developed.

  13. Algorithms for the Computation of Debris Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Determining the risks from space debris involve a number of statistical calculations. These calculations inevitably involve assumptions about geometry - including the physical geometry of orbits and the geometry of non-spherical satellites. A number of tools have been developed in NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office to handle these calculations; many of which have never been published before. These include algorithms that are used in NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model ORDEM 3.0, as well as other tools useful for computing orbital collision rates and ground casualty risks. This paper will present an introduction to these algorithms and the assumptions upon which they are based.

  14. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  15. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  16. Influence of check dams on debris-flow run-out intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Remaître

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are very dangerous phenomena claiming thousands of lives and millions of Euros each year over the world. Disaster mitigation includes non-structural (hazard mapping, insurance policies, active structural (drainage systems and passive structural (check dams, stilling basins countermeasures. Since over twenty years, many efforts are devoted by the scientific and engineering communities to the design of proper devices able to capture the debris-flow volume and/or break down the energy. If considerable theoretical and numerical work has been performed on the size, the shape and structure of check dams, allowing the definition of general design criteria, it is worth noting that less research has focused on the optimal location of these dams along the debris-flow pathway.

    In this paper, a methodological framework is proposed to evaluate the influence of the number and the location of the check dams on the reduction of the debris-flow intensity (in term of flow thickness, flow velocity and volume. A debris-flow model is used to simulate the run-out of the debris flow. The model uses the Janbu force diagram to resolve the force equilibrium equations; a bingham fluid rheology is introduced and represents the resistance term. The model has been calibrated on two muddy debris-flow events that occurred in 1996 and 2003 at the Faucon watershed (South French Alps.

    Influence of the check dams on the debris-flow intensity is quantified taking into account several check dams configurations (number and location as input geometrical parameters. Results indicate that debris-flow intensity is decreasing with the distance between the source area and the first check dams. The study demonstrates that a small number of check dams located near the source area may decrease substantially the debris-flow intensity on the alluvial fans.

  17. DFLOWZ: A free program to evaluate the area potentially inundated by a debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    2014-06-01

    The transport and deposition mechanisms of debris flows are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the interactions governing the behavior of water-sediment mixtures. Empirical-statistical methods can therefore be used, instead of more sophisticated numerical methods, to predict the depositional behavior of these highly dangerous gravitational movements. We use widely accepted semi-empirical scaling relations and propose an automated procedure (DFLOWZ) to estimate the area potentially inundated by a debris flow event. Beside a digital elevation model (DEM), the procedure has only two input requirements: the debris flow volume and the possible flow-path. The procedure is implemented in Matlab and a Graphical User Interface helps to visualize initial conditions, flow propagation and final results. Different hypothesis about the depositional behavior of an event can be tested together with the possible effect of simple remedial measures. Uncertainties associated to scaling relations can be treated and their impact on results evaluated. Our freeware application aims to facilitate and speed up the process of susceptibility mapping. We discuss limits and advantages of the method in order to inform inexperienced users.

  18. Computer-aided discovery of debris disk candidates: A case study using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T.; Pankratius, V.; Eckman, L.; Seager, S.

    2018-04-01

    Debris disks around stars other than the Sun have received significant attention in studies of exoplanets, specifically exoplanetary system formation. Since debris disks are major sources of infrared emissions, infrared survey data such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey (WISE) catalog potentially harbors numerous debris disk candidates. However, it is currently challenging to perform disk candidate searches for over 747 million sources in the WISE catalog due to the high probability of false positives caused by interstellar matter, galaxies, and other background artifacts. Crowdsourcing techniques have thus started to harness citizen scientists for debris disk identification since humans can be easily trained to distinguish between desired artifacts and irrelevant noises. With a limited number of citizen scientists, however, increasing data volumes from large surveys will inevitably lead to analysis bottlenecks. To overcome this scalability problem and push the current limits of automated debris disk candidate identification, we present a novel approach that uses citizen science results as a seed to train machine learning based classification. In this paper, we detail a case study with a computer-aided discovery pipeline demonstrating such feasibility based on WISE catalog data and NASA's Disk Detective project. Our approach of debris disk candidates classification was shown to be robust under a wide range of image quality and features. Our hybrid approach of citizen science with algorithmic scalability can facilitate big data processing for future detections as envisioned in future missions such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

  19. Deposition of steeply infalling debris around white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John C.; Veras, Dimitri; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2017-06-01

    High-metallicity pollution is common in white dwarf (WD) stars hosting remnant planetary systems. However, they rarely have detectable debris accretion discs, possibly because much of the influx is fast steeply infalling debris in star-grazing orbits, producing a more tenuous signature than a slowly accreting disc. Processes governing such deposition between the Roche radius and photosphere have so far received little attention and we model them here analytically by extending recent work on sun-grazing comets to WD systems. We find that the evolution of cm-to-km size (a0) infallers most strongly depends on two combinations of parameters, which effectively measure sublimation rate and binding strength. We then provide an algorithm to determine the fate of infallers for any WD, and apply the algorithm to four limiting combinations of hot versus cool (young/old) WDs with snowy (weak, volatile) versus rocky (strong, refractory) infallers. We find: (I) Total sublimation above the photosphere befalls all small infallers across the entire WD temperature (TWD) range, the threshold size rising with TWD and 100× larger for rock than snow. (II) All very large objects fragment tidally regardless of TWD: for rock, a0 ≽ 105 cm; for snow, a0 ≽ 103-3 × 104 cm across all WD cooling ages. (III) A considerable range of a0 avoids fragmentation and total sublimation, yielding impacts or grazes with cold WDs. This range rapidly narrows with increasing TWD, especially for snowy bodies. Finally, we briefly discuss how the various forms of deposited debris may finally reach the photosphere surface itself.

  20. Reduced sulfur compounds in gas from construction and demolition debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue; Xu, Qiyong; Booth, Matthew; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The biological conversion of sulfate from disposed gypsum drywall to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the anaerobic environment of a landfill results in odor problems and possible health concerns at many disposal facilities. To examine the extent and magnitude of such emissions, landfill gas samples from wells, soil vapor samples from the interface of the waste and cover soil, and ambient air samples, were collected from 10 construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida and analyzed for H(2)S and other reduced sulfur compounds (RSC). H(2)S was detected in the well gas and soil vapor at all 10 sites. The concentrations in the ambient air above the surface of the landfill were much lower than those observed in the soil vapor, and no direct correlation was observed between the two sampling locations. Methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide were the most frequently observed other RSC, though they occurred at smaller concentrations than H(2)S. This research confirmed the presence of H(2)S at C&D debris landfills. High concentrations of H(2)S may be a concern for employees working on the landfill site. These results indicate that workers should use proper personal protection at C&D debris landfills when involved in excavation, landfill gas collection, or confined spaces. The results indicate that H(2)S is sufficiently diluted in the atmosphere to not commonly pose acute health impacts for these landfill workers in normal working conditions. H(2)S concentrations were extremely variable with measurements occurring over a very large range (from less than 3 ppbv to 12,000 ppmv in the soil vapor and from less than 3 ppbv to 50 ppmv in ambient air). Possible reasons for the large intra- and inter-site variability observed include waste and soil heterogeneities, impact of weather conditions, and different site management practices.

  1. Using Vertical Structure to Infer the Total Mass Hidden in a Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Cail; Hughes, A. Meredith; Carter, Evan; Flaherty, Kevin; Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Disks of optically thin debris dust surround ≥ 20% of main sequence stars and mark the final stage of planetary system evolution. The features of debris disks encode dynamical interactions between the dust and any unseen planets embedded in the disk. The vertical distribution of the dust is particularly sensitive to the total mass of planetesimal bodies in the disk, and is therefore well suited for constraining the prevalence of otherwise unobservable Uranus and Neptune analogs. Inferences of mass from debris disk vertical structure have previously been applied to infrared and optical observations of several systems, but the smaller particles traced by short-wavelength observations are ‘puffed up’ by radiation pressure, yielding only upper limits on the total embedded mass. The large grains that dominate the emission at millimeter wavelengths are essentially impervious to the effects of stellar radiation, and therefore trace the underlying mass distribution more directly. Here we present 1.3mm dust continuum observations of the debris disk around the nearby M star AU Mic with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 3 au spatial resolution of the observations, combined with the favorable edge-on geometry of the system, allows us to measure the vertical structure of a debris disk at millimeter wavelengths for the first time. We analyze the data using a ray-tracing code that translates a 2-D density and temperature structure into a model sky image of the disk. This model image is then compared directly to the interferometric data in the visibility domain, and the model parameters are explored using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. We measure a scale height-to-radius ratio of 0.03, which we then compare to a theoretical model of steady-state, size-dependent velocity distributions in the collisional cascade to infer a total mass within the disk of ∼ 1.7 Earth masses. These measurements rule out the presence of a gas giant or Neptune

  2. Long-term microparticle flux variability indicated by comparison of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) timed impacts for LDEF's first year in orbit with impact data for the entire 5.77-year orbital lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charles G.; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Cooke, William J.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic sensors of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) recorded precise impact times and approximate directions for submicron to approximately 100 micron size particles on all six primary sides of the spacecraft for the first 346 days of the LDEF orbital mission. Previously-reported analyses of the timed impact data have established their spatio-temporal features, including the demonstration that a preponderance of the particles in this regime are orbital debris and that a large fraction of the debris particles are encountered in megameter-size clouds. Short-term fluxes within such clouds can rise several orders of magnitude above the long-term average. These unexpectedly large short-term variations in debris flux raise the question of how representative an indication of the multi-year average flux is given by the nearly one year of timed data. One of the goals of the IDE was to conduct an optical survey of impact sites on detectors that remained active during the entire LDEF mission, to obtain full-mission fluxes. We present here the comparisons and contrasts among the new IDE optical survey impact data, the IDE first-year timed impact data, and impact data from other LDEF micrometeoroid and debris experiments. The following observations are reported: (1) the 5.77 year long-term integrated microparticle impact fluxes recorded by IDE detectors matched the integrated impact fluxes measured by other LDEF investigators for the same period; (2) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied by factors from 0.5 to 8.3 for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on rows 3 (trailing edge, or West), 6 (South side), 12 (North side), and the Earth and Space ends; and (3) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied less than 3 percent for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on row 9 (leading edge, or East). These results give further evidence of the accuracy and internal consistency of the recorded IDE impact data. This leads to

  3. Classification of debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; E. Mortensen, Lis; Jensen, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and debris flow phenomena in particular constitute a threat to human activities in the Faroe Islands. As a contribution to ongoing landslide risk management research, this paper proposes a classification scheme for debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands. The scheme, produced through...... a multidisciplinary study involving geomorphological fieldwork and qualitative collection of indigenous landslide knowledge, presents physical characteristics to classify debris flow phenomena into groups named with Faroese terms. The following landslide definitions are proposed. Brekku-skriðulop (English translation...... with international landslide classification systems, significantly increases the knowledge of debris flow phenomena and promotes a consistent terminology of these within the Faroe Islands....

  4. ASTM standards for fire debris analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Lentini, John J

    2003-03-12

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) recently updated its standards E 1387 and E 1618 for the analysis of fire debris. The changes in the classification of ignitable liquids are presented in this review. Furthermore, a new standard on extraction of fire debris with solid phase microextraction (SPME) was released. Advantages and drawbacks of this technique are presented and discussed. Also, the standard on cleanup by acid stripping has not been reapproved. Fire debris analysts that use the standards should be aware of these changes.

  5. Property measurements and inner state estimation of simulated fuel debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K.; Washiya, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Fuel debris properties and inner state such as temperature profile were evaluated by using analysis of simulated fuel debris manufactured from UO{sub 2} and oxidized zircaloy. The center of the fuel debris was expected to be molten state soon after the melt down accident of LWRs because power density was very high. On the other hand, the surface of the fuel debris was cooled in the water. This large temperature gradient may cause inner stress and consequent cracks were expected. (author)

  6. To Eat or Not to Eat? Debris Selectivity by Marine Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006–2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas) and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders). Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles’ debris preferences (color and type) using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles. PMID:22829894

  7. To eat or not to eat? Debris selectivity by marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Schuyler

    Full Text Available Marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in Queensland between 2006-2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (Eretmochelys imbricata vs. Chelonia mydas and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders. Concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the debris present in the marine environment. Based on this proxy measurement of debris availability, we modeled turtles' debris preferences (color and type using a resource selection function, a method traditionally used for habitat and food selection. We found no significant difference in the overall probability of ingesting debris between the two species studied, both of which have similar life histories. Curved carapace length, however, was inversely correlated with the probability of ingesting debris; 54.5% of pelagic sized turtles had ingested debris, whereas only 25% of benthic feeding turtles were found with debris in their gastrointestinal system. Benthic and pelagic sized turtles also exhibited different selectivity ratios for debris ingestion. Benthic phase turtles had a strong selectivity for soft, clear plastic, lending support to the hypothesis that sea turtles ingest debris because it resembles natural prey items such as jellyfish. Pelagic turtles were much less selective in their feeding, though they showed a trend towards selectivity for rubber items such as balloons. Most ingested items were plastic and were positively buoyant. This study highlights the need to address increasing amounts of plastic in the marine environment, and provides evidence for the disproportionate ingestion of balloons by marine turtles.

  8. Sediment delivery in debris-flow torrents: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Gabriele; Vincenzo, D'Agostino

    2013-04-01

    Flood-risk mitigation strategy is moving from fixed, structural and costly mitigation measures to more effective proactive solutions. This change is driven both by Flood Directive 2007/60/EC and limitations of financial resources and it requires a deep knowledge of the involved processes. In mountain catchments debris flow and debris floods are the most important sources of hazard and their impact on the fan areas is heavily conditioned by the sediment dynamics along the 'transport' reaches of the torrents. Last advances show how many cases of erosion and deposition within the transport reach greatly affect the total volume that is delivered to the fan as well the overall dynamics of the debris flow/flood event. Due to logistic and practical constraints this intermediate phase of the process has been scarcely investigated and the complex behavior of the sediment budgeting in torrent-streams is emerging. The objective of this work consists of collecting information on the evolution of the debris-flow sediment budget along Alpine torrents in order to provide novel data about erosive, depositional and recharging processes under different geological conditions. Two high frequency debris-flow catchments have been selected: the Rio Rudan basin in the geological setting of the Dolomites (near Cortina d'Ampezzo, Veneto Region, Italy) and the metamorphic dominated catchment of the Rio Gadria (near Lasa, Trentino Alto Adige, Italy), which has been recently instrumented (EU project Monitor II). Periodical field monitoring has been carried out since summer 2011. 25 cross sections have been observed in the Rio Rudan catchment along a 480 m torrent reach (slope of 36%) where additional sediment entrainment after debris-flow initiation takes place. 20 cross sections have been selected in the upper Rio Gadria basin and more precisely in two reaches close to debris-flow triggerring areas. Other 31 cross sections have been also monitored of the Rio Gadria main channel covering a

  9. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  10. Mapping coastal marine debris using aerial imagery and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kirsten; Neilson, Brian; Chung, Anne; Meadows, Amber; Castrence, Miguel; Ambagis, Stephen; Davidson, Kristine

    2017-12-19

    This study is the first to systematically quantify, categorize, and map marine macro-debris across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including remote areas (e.g., Niihau, Kahoolawe, and northern Molokai). Aerial surveys were conducted over each island to collect high resolution photos, which were processed into orthorectified imagery and visually analyzed in GIS. The technique provided precise measurements of the quantity, location, type, and size of macro-debris (>0.05m 2 ), identifying 20,658 total debris items. Northeastern (windward) shorelines had the highest density of debris. Plastics, including nets, lines, buoys, floats, and foam, comprised 83% of the total count. In addition, the study located six vessels from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami. These results created a baseline of the location, distribution, and composition of marine macro-debris across the MHI. Resource managers and communities may target high priority areas, particularly along remote coastlines where macro-debris counts were largely undocumented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The world state of orbital debris measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2004-02-01

    For more than 20 years orbital debris research around the world has been striving to obtain a sharper, more comprehensive picture of the near-Earth artificial satellite environment. Whereas significant progress has been achieved through better organized and funded programs and with the assistance of advancing technologies in both space surveillance sensors and computational capabilities, the potential of measurements and modeling of orbital debris has yet to be realized. Greater emphasis on a systems-level approach to the characterization and projection of the orbital debris environment would prove beneficial. On-going space surveillance activities, primarily from terrestrial-based facilities, are narrowing the uncertainties of the orbital debris population for objects greater than 2 mm in LEO and offer a better understanding of the GEO regime down to 10 cm diameter objects. In situ data collected in LEO is limited to a narrow range of altitudes and should be employed with great care. Orbital debris modeling efforts should place high priority on improving model fidelity, on clearly and completely delineating assumptions and simplifications, and on more thorough sensitivity studies. Most importantly, however, greater communications and cooperation between the measurements and modeling communities are essential for the efficient advancement of the field. The advent of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) in 1993 has facilitated this exchange of data and modeling techniques. A joint goal of these communities should be the identification of new sources of orbital debris.

  12. Preliminary results from initial in-pile debris bed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    An accident in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) in which molten core material is suddenly quenched with subcooled liquid sodium could result in extensive fragmentation and dispersal of fuel as subcritical beds of frozen particulate debris within the reactor vessel. Since this debris will continue to generate power due to decay of retained fission products, containment of the debris is threatened if the generated heat is not removed. Therefore, the initial safety question is the capacity which debris beds may have for transfer of the decay heat to overlying liquid sodium by natural processes--i.e., without the aid of forced circulation of the coolant. Up to the present time, all experiments on debris bed behavior either have used substitute materials (e.g., sand and water) or have employed actual materials, but atypical heating methods. Increased confidence in the applicability of debris bed simulations is afforded if the heat is generated within the fuel component of the appropriate fast reactor materials. The initial series of in-pile tests reported on herein constitutes the first experiments in which the internal heating mode has been produced in particulate oxide fuel immersed in liquid sodium. Fission heating of the fully-enriched UO 2 in the experiment while it is contained within Sandia Laboratories Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), operating in its steady-state mode, approximates the decay heating of debris. Preliminary results are discussed

  13. Anthropogenic debris in the nests of kelp gulls in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Ryan, Peter G

    2017-01-30

    Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period. Debris used in nest construction was more likely to injure gulls, and was found mainly at coastal sites where there was little natural vegetation for construction. Distance to the nearest urban waste landfill significantly affected the occurrence of debris items in nests, especially dietary-derived items. The amount of debris in kelp gull nests highlights the need for improved debris management in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Debris flows risk analysis and direct loss estimation: the case study of Valtellina di Tirano, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahůt, Jan; Glade, T.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), s. 288-307 ISSN 1672-6316 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Debris flows * Risk analysis * Economic losses * Central Alps * Italy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  15. Study on the leaching behavior of actinides from nuclear fuel debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirishima, Akira; Hirano, Masahiko; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2018-04-01

    For the prediction of the leaching behavior of actinides contained in the nuclear fuel debris generated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, simulated fuel debris consisting of a UO2-ZrO2 solid solution doped with 137Cs, 237Np, 236Pu, and 241Am tracers was synthesized and investigated. The synthesis of the debris was carried out by heat treatment at 1200 °C at different oxygen partial pressures, and the samples were subsequently used for leaching tests with Milli-Q water and seawater. The results of the leaching tests indicate that the leaching of actinides depends on the redox conditions under which the debris was generated; for example, debris generated under oxidative conditions releases more actinide nuclides to water than that generated under reductive conditions. Furthermore, we found that, as Zr(IV) increasingly substituted U(IV) in the fluorite crystal structure of the debris, the actinide leaching from the debris decreased. In addition, we found that seawater leached more actinides from the debris than pure water, which seems to be caused by the complexation of actinides by carbonate ions in seawater.

  16. Transport of sediment through a channel network during a post-fire debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, P.; Box, W. A. C.; Langhans, C.; Stout, J. C.; Keesstra, S.; Sheridan, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Transport processes linking sediment in steep headwaters with rivers during high magnitude events are rarely examined in detail, particularly in forested settings where major erosion events are rare and opportunities for collecting data are limited. Yet high magnitude events in headwaters are known to drive landscape change. This study examines how a debris flow after wildfire impacts on sediment transport from small headwaters (0.02 km2) through a step pool stream system within a larger 14 km2 catchment, which drains into the East Ovens River in SE Australia. Sediment delivery from debris flows was modelled and downstream deposition of sediment was measured using a combination of aerial imagery and field surveys. Particle size distributions were measured for all major deposits. These data were summarised to map sediment flux as a continuous variable over the drainage network. Total deposition throughout the stream network was 39 x 103 m3. Catchment efflux was 61 x 103 m3 (specific sediment yield of 78 ton ha-1), which equates to 400-800 years of background erosion, based on measurements in nearby catchments. Despite the low gradient (ca. 0.1 m m-1) of the main channel there was no systematic downstream sorting in sediment deposits in the catchment. This is due to debris flow processes operating throughout the stream network, with lateral inputs sustaining the process in low gradient channels, except in the most downstream reaches where the flow transitioned towards hyper-concentrated flow. Overall, a large proportion ( 88%) of the eroded fine fraction (<63 micron) exited the catchment, when compared to the overall ratio (55%) of erosion to deposition. The geomorphic legacy of this post-wildfire event depends on scale. In the lower channels (steam order 4-5), where erosion was nearly equal to deposition, the event had no real impact on total sediment volumes stored. In upper channels (stream orders < 3) erosion was widespread but deposition rates were low. So

  17. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  18. Benthic plastic debris in marine and fresh water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    This review provides a discussion of the published literature concerning benthic plastic debris in ocean, sea, lake, estuary and river bottoms throughout the world. Although numerous investigations of shoreline, surface and near-surface plastic debris provide important information on plastic types, distribution, accumulation, and degradation, studies of submerged plastic debris have been sporadic in the past and have become more prominent only recently. The distribution of benthic debris is controlled mainly by combinations of urban proximity and its association with fishing-related activities, geomorphology, hydrological conditions, and river input. High density plastics, biofouled products, polymers with mineral fillers or adsorbed minerals, and plastic-metal composites all have the potential to sink. Once deposited on the bottoms of water basins and channels, plastics are shielded from UV light, thus slowing the degradation process significantly. Investigations of the interactions between benthic plastic debris and bottom-dwelling organisms will help shed light on the potential dangers of submerged plastic litter.

  19. Study of ice-related flow features around Tanaica Montes, Mars: Implications for late amazonian debris-covered glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Vijayan, S.; Bharti, Rajiv R.

    2017-11-01

    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) have been broadly recognized in the mid-latitudes of Mars and their subsequent analyses using data from the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument has suggested evidence for contemporary ice preserved beneath these features. In this study, we conduct detailed characterization of newly identified LDA flow units within the Tanaica Montes region (39.55˚ N, 269.17˚ E) of Mars to assess and understand the similarities in their emplacement with respect to LDA flow units mapped in other regions of Mars. We utilize the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images and SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) datasets for geomorphic and subsurface analysis and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) point tracks for topographic analysis. Geomorphic observation of LDA flow units surrounding the montes flanks and massif walls reveal integrated pattern of convergence and divergence and evidence of bending and deflection within the flow lines that resulted in concentric, loop-like flow patterns in the downslope. Brain-terrain texture and craters with varying morphological characteristics (ring-mold type) is suggestive that LDAs may be similar to ice-rich, debris-covered glaciers. MOLA point track based convex-up topographic profiles of LDAs suggest that their thickness vary in the range of ∼100-200 m in both the northwestern and southeastern portions of study region. Further, the slope values of mapped LDA surfaces within the study region are within ∼0.1˚-4˚. The extent of mapped LDAs within the study region is such that some of the low elevation (∼0.8-1.3 km) portions of montes flanks are surrounded by relatively less extent (up to ∼0.5-0.8 km) of LDA flow units. Geomorphic and topographic evidence for flow units that appear to be superposed on the main LDA body collectively suggest the possibility of episodic glacial activity in the region. Furthermore, based on the alignment of subsurface

  20. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of all known planet host stars, including the Sun, will eventually evolve into red giants and finally end their lives as white dwarfs: extremely dense Earth-sized stellar embers. Only close-in planets will be devoured during the red-giant phase. In the solar system, Mars, the asteroid belt, and all the giant planets will escape evaporation, and the same is true for many of the known exo-planets. It is hence certain that a significant fraction of the known white dwarfs were once host stars to planets, and it is very likely that many of them still have remnants of planetary systems. The detection of metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is the unmistakable signpost of such evolved planetary systems. The strong surface gravity of white dwarfs causes metals to sink out of the atmosphere on time-scales much shorter than their cooling ages, leading unavoidably to pristine H/He atmospheres. Therefore any metals detected in the atmosphere of a white dwarf imply recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. In fact, planetary debris is also detected as circumstellar dust and gas around a number of white dwarfs. These debris disks are formed from the tidal disruption of asteroids or Kuiper belt-like objects, stirred up by left-over planets, and are subsequently accreted onto the white dwarf, imprinting their abundance pattern into its atmosphere. Determining the photospheric abundances of debris-polluted white dwarfs is hence entirely analogue to the use of meteorites, "rocks that fell from the sky", for measuring the abundances of planetary material in the solar system. I will briefly review this new field of exo-planet science, and then focus on the results of a large, unbiased COS snapshot survey of relatively young ( 20-100Myr) white dwarfs that we carried out in Cycle 18/19. * At least 30% of all white dwarfs in our sample are accreting planetary debris, and that fraction may be as high as 50%. * In most cases where debris pollution is detected

  1. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  2. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  3. Debris flow hazard modelling on medium scale: Valtellina di Tirano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blahut

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Debris flow hazard modelling at medium (regional scale has been subject of various studies in recent years. In this study, hazard zonation was carried out, incorporating information about debris flow initiation probability (spatial and temporal, and the delimitation of the potential runout areas. Debris flow hazard zonation was carried out in the area of the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (Central Alps, Italy. The complexity of the phenomenon, the scale of the study, the variability of local conditioning factors, and the lacking data limited the use of process-based models for the runout zone delimitation. Firstly, a map of hazard initiation probabilities was prepared for the study area, based on the available susceptibility zoning information, and the analysis of two sets of aerial photographs for the temporal probability estimation. Afterwards, the hazard initiation map was used as one of the inputs for an empirical GIS-based model (Flow-R, developed at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland. An estimation of the debris flow magnitude was neglected as the main aim of the analysis was to prepare a debris flow hazard map at medium scale. A digital elevation model, with a 10 m resolution, was used together with landuse, geology and debris flow hazard initiation maps as inputs of the Flow-R model to restrict potential areas within each hazard initiation probability class to locations where debris flows are most likely to initiate. Afterwards, runout areas were calculated using multiple flow direction and energy based algorithms. Maximum probable runout zones were calibrated using documented past events and aerial photographs. Finally, two debris flow hazard maps were prepared. The first simply delimits five hazard zones, while the second incorporates the information about debris flow spreading direction probabilities, showing areas more likely to be affected by future debris flows. Limitations of the modelling arise

  4. A Numerical Approach to Estimate the Ballistic Coefficient of Space Debris from TLE Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkeliunas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    theoretical simulations, even few continuous mode 10 kW ground-based lasers, focused by 1.5 m telescopes with adaptive optics, were enough to prevent significant amount of the debris collisions. Simulations were done by propagating all space objects in LEO by 1 year into the future and checking whether the probability of collision was high. For those space objects different ground-based lasers were used to divert them, afterwards collision probabilities were reevaluated. However, the actual accuracy of the LightForce software, which has been developed at NASA AmesResearch Center, depends on the veracity of the input parameters, one of which is the objects ballistic coefficient. It is a measure of bodys ability to overcome air resistance, which has a significant impact on the debris in LEO, and thus it is responsible for the shape of the trajectory of the debris. Having the exact values of the ballistic coefficient would make significantly better collision predictions, unfortunately, we do not know what are the values for most of the objects.In this research, we were working with part of LightForce code, which estimates the ballistic coefficient from ephemerides. Previously used method gave highly inaccurate values, when compared to known objects, and it needed to be changed. The goal of this work was to try out a different method of estimating the ballistic coefficient and to check whether or not it gives noticeable improvements.

  5. Empirical closures for particulate debris bed spreading induced by gas–liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S., E-mail: simoneb@kth.se; Konovalenko, A.; Kudinov, P.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of the debris bed self-leveling phenomenon. • A scaling approach and a non-dimensional model to describe particle flow rate are proposed. • The model is validated against experiments with particles of different properties and at different gas injection conditions. - Abstract: Efficient removal of decay heat from the nuclear reactor core debris is paramount for termination of severe accident progression. One of the strategies is based on melt fragmentation, quenching and cooling in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel. Geometrical configuration of the debris bed is among the important factors which determine possibility of removing the decay heat from the debris bed by natural circulation of the coolant. For instance, a tall mound-shape debris bed can be non-coolable, while the same debris can be coolable if spread uniformly. Decay heat generates a significant amount of thermal energy which goes to production of steam inside the debris bed. Two-phase flow escaping through the top layer of the bed becomes a source of mechanical energy which can move the particulate debris along the slope of the bed. The motion of the debris will lead to flattening of the bed. Such process is often called “self-leveling” phenomenon. Spreading of the debris bed by the self-leveling process can take significant time, depending on the initial debris bed configuration and other parameters. There is a competition between the time scales for reaching (i) a coolable configuration of the bed, and (ii) onset of dryout and re-melting of the debris. In the previous work we have demonstrated that the rate of particulate debris spreading is determined by local gas velocity and local slope angle of the bed. In this work we develop a scaling approach and a closure for prediction of debris spreading rate based on generalization of available experimental data. We demonstrate that introduced scaling criteria are universal for particles of different

  6. Protection Spacelab from Meteoroid and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigui; Yan, Jun; Han, Zengyao

    2013-08-01

    As the first long-term on-orbit spacelab of China, TianGong-1 will stay aloft for 2 years. Its failure risk subjected to Meteoroid and Orbital Debris(M/OD) is hundreds of times higher than the risk of Shenzhou-5, Shenzhou-6 or Shenzhou-7, so the special M/OD protection designs have been applied. In order to reduce the penetration risk of radiator tube, the design of radiator has been modified by placing the tube at the side of radiator plate, and the new design does not affect the thermal control system without adding the mass. Secondly, Whipple structure is adopted in the two sides and front of spacecraft against M/OD impact.

  7. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rodrigo Jr. Pereira; Jose Natalino M. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of the carbon cycle in tropical forests. We measured the volume and density of fallen CWD at two sites, Cauaxi and Tapajós in the Eastern Amazon. At both sites we studied undisturbed forests (UFs) and logged forests 1 year after harvest. Conventional logging (CL) and reduced impact logging (RIL) were...

  8. Spacecraft-plasma-debris interaction in an ion beam shepherd mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Filippo; Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a study of the interaction between a spacecraft, a plasma thruster plume and a free floating object, in the context of an active space debris removal mission based on the ion beam shepherd concept. The analysis is performed with the EP2PLUS hybrid code and includes the evaluation of the transferred force and torque to the target debris, its surface sputtering due to the impinging hypersonic ions, and the equivalent electric circuit of the spacecraft-plasma-debris interaction. The electric potential difference that builds up between the spacecraft and the debris, the ion backscattering and the backsputtering contamination of the shepherd satellite are evaluated for a nominal scenario. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate quantitatively the effects of electron thermodynamics, ambient plasma, heavy species collisions, and debris position.

  9. Recent advances in modeling landslides and debris flows

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows belong to the most dangerous natural hazards in many parts of the world. Despite intensive research, these events continue to result in human suffering, property losses, and environmental degradation every year. Better understanding of the mechanisms and processes of landslides and debris flows will help make reliable predictions, develop mitigation strategies and reduce vulnerability of infrastructure. This book presents contributions to the workshop on Recent Developments in the Analysis, Monitoring and Forecast of Landslides and Debris Flow, in Vienna, Austria, September 9, 2013. The contributions cover a broad spectrum of topics from material behavior, physical modelling over numerical simulation to applications and case studies. The workshop is a joint event of three research projects funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program: MUMOLADE (Multiscale modelling of landslides and debris flows, www.mumolade.com), REVENUES (Numerical Analysis of Slopes with V...

  10. Effect of excess pore pressure on the long runout of debris flows over low gradient channels: A case study of the Dongyuege debris flow in Nu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Kun; Yang, Kui; Tang, Yong-Jun; Tian, Lin; Xu, Ze-Min

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows with long reaches are one of the major natural hazards to human life and property on alluvial fans, as shown by the debris flow that occurred in the Dongyuege (DYG) Gully in August 18, 2010, and caused 96 deaths. The travel distance and the runout distance of the DYG large-scale tragic debris flow were 11 km and 9 km, respectively. In particular, the runout distance over the low gradient channel (channel slope sediment and water are related to the maximum grain size (MGS), gradation and mineralogy of clay-size particles of the sediment. The layer-lattice silicates in clay particles can be the typical clay minerals, including kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, and also the unrepresentative clay minerals such as muscovite and chlorite. Moreover, small woody debris can also contribute to the slurrying of sediments and maintenance of debris flows in well vegetated mountainous areas and the boulders suspended in debris flows can elevate excess pore pressure and extend debris-flow mobility. The parameters, including Id, Kp, R and etc., are affected by the intrinsic properties of debris. They, therefore, can reflect the slurrying susceptibility of sediments, and can also be applied to the research on the occurrence mechanisms and risk assessment of other debris flows.

  11. Development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Debris flows occur in three main stages. At first the initial soil mass, which rests in a rigid configuration, reaches a critic state releasing a finite mass over a failure surface. In the second stage the released mass starts being transported downhill in a dynamic motion. Segregation, erosion, entrainment, and variable channel geometry are among the more common characteristics of this stage. Finally, at the third stage the transported mass plus the mass gained or loosed during the transportation stage reach a flat and/or a wide area and its deposition starts, going back to a rigid configuration. The lack of understanding and predictability of debris flow from the traditional theoretical approaches has lead that in the last two decades the mechanics of debris flows started to be analysed around the world. Nevertheless, the validation of recent numerical advances with experimental data is required. Centrifuge modelling is an experimental tool that allows the test of natural processes under defined boundary conditions in a small scale configuration, with a good level of accuracy in comparison with a full scale test. This paper presents the development of a debris flow model in a geotechnical centrifuge focused on the second stage of the debris flow process explained before. A small scale model of an inclined flume will be developed, with laboratory instrumentation able to measure the pore pressure, normal stress, and velocity path, developed in a scaled debris flow in motion. The model aims to reproduce in a controlled environment the main parameters of debris flow motion. This work is carried under the EC 7th Framework Programme as part of the MUMOLADE project. The dataset and data-analysis obtained from the tests will provide a qualitative description of debris flow motion-mechanics and be of valuable information for MUMOLADE co-researchers and for the debris flow research community in general.

  12. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    This software implements penetration limit equations for common micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems. Allowable MMOD risk is formulated in terms of the probability of penetration (PNP) of the spacecraft pressure hull. For calculating the risk, spacecraft geometry models, mission profiles, debris environment models, and penetration limit equations for installed shielding configurations are required. Risk assessment software such as NASA's BUMPERII is used to calculate mission PNP; however, they are unsuitable for use in shield design and preliminary analysis studies. The software defines a single equation for the design and performance evaluation of common MMOD shielding configurations, windows, and thermal protection systems, along with a description of their validity range and guidelines for their application. Recommendations are based on preliminary reviews of fundamental assumptions, and accuracy in predicting experimental impact test results. The software is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks.

  13. Cooling of an internal-heated debris bed with fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.L.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model on dryout heat flux of ex-vessel debris beds with fines particles under top flooding conditions has been developed. The parametric study is performed on the effect of the stratification of the debris beds on the dryout heat flux. The calculated results show that the stratification configuration of the debris beds with smaller particles and lower porosity layer resting on the top of another layer of the beds has profound effect on the dryout heat flux for the debris beds both with and without a downcomer. The enhancement of the dryout heat flux by the downcomer is significant. The efficiency of the single downcomer on the enhancement of the dryout heat flux is also analyzed. This, in general, agrees well with experimental data. The model is also employed to perform the assessment on the coolability of the ex-vessel debris bed under representative accidental conditions. One conservative case is chosen, and it is found that the downcomer could be efficient measure to cool the debris bed and hence terminate the severe accident. (authors)

  14. Cosmic debris what it is and what we can do about it

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the mysterious and the well-studied debris in Earth’s crowded neighborhood. From orbiting comets to the workings of the Asteroid Belt, and from meteor showers to our home-grown network of orbiting satellites, the full diversity of space objects and the debris they create is explored. Powell also discusses some of the current research techniques used to find potentially harmful rogue elements, with an emphasis on keeping watch for any objects that may intersect Earth’s orbit. Such bodies also impact other worlds, and much has been learned from observing these encounters. The information in this book is intended to foster thought about the universe in which we live, but without overloading its readers with numbers and lecture-room analysis. Like a good thriller, it allows its readers to pace themselves with the story and, by the end, encourages them to draw their own conclusions.

  15. NASA Safety Standard: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Collision with orbital debris is a hazard of growing concern as historically accepted practices and procedures have allowed man-made objects to accumulate in orbit. To limit future debris generation, NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8, 'Policy to Limit Orbital Debris Generation,' was issued in April of 1993. The NMI requires each program to conduct a formal assessment of the potential to generate orbital debris. This document serves as a companion to NMI 1700.08 and provides each NASA program with specific guidelines and assessment methods to assure compliance with the NMI. Each main debris assessment issue (e.g., Post Mission Disposal) is developed in a separate chapter.

  16. Development of anti-debris filter for WWER-440 working fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosovsky, V.; Aksyonov, P.; Kukushkin, Y.; Molchanov, V.; Kolobaev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical damaging of the fuel rod claddings caused by debris is one of the main reasons for fuel assembly failures. The paper focuses on the program and results of experimental and design activities carried out by Russian organizations relating to the development and investigation of operational characteristics of anti-debris filters for WWER-440 working fuel assemblies. Lead working fuel assemblies equipped with anti-debris filters have been loaded in the core of Kola-2 NPP. The results obtained can be used for making the decision concerning the application of anti-debris filter for WWER-440 working fuel assemblies with the purpose of enhancing their debris-resistance properties. (authors)

  17. Optimizing of the recycling of contaminated concrete debris. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeckner, J.; Rasch, H.; Schloesser, K.H.; Schon, T.

    1999-01-01

    1. Latest research: So far concrete debris from nuclear facilities has been free released or was treated as radioactive waste. 2. Objective: The objective of this study is to develop solutions and methods for recycling concrete debris. The amount of materials used in nuclear facilities should be limited and the contamination of new materials should be avoided. 3. Methods: The status of recycling was presented using examples of operating or completed decommissioning as well as available studies and literature. The quality requirements for the production of new concrete products using recycled materials has been discussed. The expected amounts of concrete debris for the next 12 years was estimated. For the proposed recycling examples, radiological and economic aspects have been considered. 4. Results: The production of qualified concrete products from concrete debris is possible by using modified receptions. Technical regulations to this are missing. There is no need for the utilization of large amounts of concrete debris for shielding walls. For the production of new shielding-containers for radioactive waste, concrete debris can be applied. Regarding the distance to a central recycling facility the use of mobile equipment can be economical. By using the concrete for filling the cavity or space in a final storage, it is possible to dispose the whole radioactive debris. 5. Application possibilities: The use of concrete debris as an inner concrete shielding in waste-containers today is already possible. For the manufacture of qualified concrete products by using recycling products, further developments and regulations are necessary. (orig.) [de

  18. Assessing the debris around glaciers using remote sensing and random sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandishoev, Mus; Dilo, Arta; Stein, A.; Fonte, C.C.; Goncalves, L.M.S.; Goncalves, G.

    2011-01-01

    Glacier mapping from satellite multispectral image data is hampered by debris cover on glacier surfaces. Information on the spatial distribution and spatial-temporal dynamics of debris, however, bears various kinds of uncertainties. Debris exhibits the same spectral properties as lateral and

  19. EDDA 1.0: integrated simulation of debris flow erosion, deposition and property changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhang, L. M.

    2015-03-01

    Debris flow material properties change during the initiation, transportation and deposition processes, which influences the runout characteristics of the debris flow. A quasi-three-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model, EDDA (Erosion-Deposition Debris flow Analysis), is presented in this paper to simulate debris flow erosion, deposition and induced material property changes. The model considers changes in debris flow density, yield stress and dynamic viscosity during the flow process. The yield stress of the debris flow mixture determined at limit equilibrium using the Mohr-Coulomb equation is applicable to clear water flow, hyper-concentrated flow and fully developed debris flow. To assure numerical stability and computational efficiency at the same time, an adaptive time stepping algorithm is developed to solve the governing differential equations. Four numerical tests are conducted to validate the model. The first two tests involve a one-dimensional debris flow with constant properties and a two-dimensional dam-break water flow. The last two tests involve erosion and deposition, and the movement of multi-directional debris flows. The changes in debris flow mass and properties due to either erosion or deposition are shown to affect the runout characteristics significantly. The model is also applied to simulate a large-scale debris flow in Xiaojiagou Ravine to test the performance of the model in catchment-scale simulations. The results suggest that the model estimates well the volume, inundated area, and runout distance of the debris flow. The model is intended for use as a module in a real-time debris flow warning system.

  20. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Naruhashi, Ryutaro; Okumura, Koji; Zaiki, Masumi; Kontani, Ryoichi

    2018-02-01

    Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs) are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance-size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12-15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of 60-75 m, which is much

  1. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  2. Study on the Formation and Initial Transport for Non-Homogeneous Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ping Shu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-homogeneous debris flows generally occur during the rainy seasons in Southwest China, and have received considerable attention in the literature. Regarding the complexity in debris flow dynamics, experimental approaches have proven to be effective in revealing the formative mechanism for debris flow, and quantifying the relations between the various influencing factors with debris-flow formation and subsequent transport processes. Therefore, a flume-based and experimental study was performed at the Debris Flow Observation and Research Station of Jiangjia Gully in Yunnan Province, to theoretically analyze favorable conditions for debris-flow formation and initial transport by selecting the median particle size d50, flow rate Q, vertical grading coefficient ψ, slopes S, and the initial soil water contents W as the five variables for investigation. To achieve this, an optimal combination of these variables was made through an orthogonal experimental design to determine their relative importance upon the occurrence and initial mobilization behavior of a debris flow and to further enhance our insight into debris-flow triggering and transport mechanisms.

  3. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a ‘shear layer’, typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.

  4. Vadose zone process that control landslide initiation and debris flow propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.

    2015-04-01

    Advances in the areas of geotechnical engineering, hydrology, mineralogy, geomorphology, geology, and biology have individually advanced our understanding of factors affecting slope stability; however, the interactions among these processes and attributes as they affect the initiation and propagation of landslides and debris flows are not well understood. Here the importance of interactive vadose zone processes is emphasized related to the mechanisms, initiation, mode, and timing of rainfall-initiated landslides that are triggered by positive pore water accretion, loss of soil suction and increase in overburden weight, and long-term cumulative rain water infiltration. Both large- and small-scale preferential flow pathways can both contribute to and mitigate instability, by respectively concentrating and dispersing subsurface flow. These mechanisms are influenced by soil structure, lithology, landforms, and biota. Conditions conducive to landslide initiation by infiltration versus exfiltration are discussed relative to bedrock structure and joints. The effects of rhizosphere processes on slope stability are examined, including root reinforcement of soil mantles, evapotranspiration, and how root structures affect preferential flow paths. At a larger scale, the nexus between hillslope landslides and in-channel debris flows is examined with emphasis on understanding the timing of debris flows relative to chronic and episodic infilling processes, as well as the episodic nature of large rainfall and related stormflow generation in headwater streams. The hydrogeomorphic processes and conditions that determine whether or not landslides immediately mobilize into debris flows is important for predicting the timing and extent of devastating debris flow runout in steep terrain. Given the spatial footprint of individual landslides, it is necessary to assess vadose zone processes at appropriate scales to ascertain impacts on mass wasting phenomena. Articulating the appropriate

  5. First laser measurements to space debris in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejba, Paweł; Suchodolski, Tomasz; Michałek, Piotr; Bartoszak, Jacek; Schillak, Stanisław; Zapaśnik, Stanisław

    2018-05-01

    The Borowiec Satellite Laser Ranging station (BORL 7811, Borowiec) being a part of the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) went through modernization in 2014-2015. One of the main tasks of the modernization was the installation of a high-energy laser module dedicated to space debris tracking. Surelite III by Continuum is a Nd:YAG pulse laser with 10 Hz repetition rate, a pulse width of 3-5 ns and a pulse energy of 450 mJ for green (532 nm). This new laser unit was integrated with the SLR system at Borowiec performing standard satellite tracking. In 2016 BORL 7811 participated actively to the observational campaigns related to the space debris targets from LEO region managed by the Space Debris Study Group (SDSG) of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). Currently, Borowiec station regularly tracks 36 space debris from the LEO regime, including typical rocket bodies (Russian/Chinese) and cooperative targets like the inactive TOPEX/Poseidon, ENVISAT, OICETS and others. In this paper the first results of space debris laser measurements obtained by the Borowiec station in period August 2016 - January 2017 are presented. The results gained by the SRC PAS Borowiec station confirm the rotation of the defunct TOPEX/Poseidon satellite which spins with a period of approximately 10 s. The novelty of this work is the presentation of the sample results of the Chinese CZ-2C R/B target (NORAD catalogue number 31114) which is equipped (probably) with retroreflectors. Laser measurements to space debris is a very desirable topic for the next years, especially in the context of the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) activity. Some targets are very easy to track like defunct ENVISAT or TOPEX/Poseidon. On the other hand, there is a big population of different LEO targets with different orbital and physical parameters, which are challenging for laser ranging like small irregular debris and rocket boosters.

  6. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  7. Attitude Motion of Cylindrical Space Debris during Its Removal by Ion Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Aslanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of space debris mitigation. Contactless method of the space debris deorbiting is considered. It is assumed that ion thrusters on the active spacecraft create the ion flow, which blows the debris and slows it down. The objectives of this work are the development of mathematical models and the research of space debris motion under the action of the ion flow. It is supposed that the space debris is a rigid body of a cylindrical shape. Calculation of ion beam force and torque was performed for a self-similar model of plasma plume expansion using the hypothesis of ion fully diffused reflection from a surface. A mathematical model describing plane motions of the cylindrical space debris under the influence of gravity gradient torque and the ion flux was constructed. It was shown that motion of the space debris around its center of mass has a significant effect on its removal time. Phase portraits, describing the motion of the space debris relative to its center of mass, were constructed. Comparison of the descent times in different motion modes was carried out. The results can be used to create new effective systems of large space debris removal.

  8. Comparison of apical debris extrusion using a conventional and two rotary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Alireza; Sahebi, Safoora; Moazami, Fariborz; Niknam, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Preparation techniques and instruments produce and push debris out of canals. This can induce inflammation within the periapical area. Therefore, instrumentation that causes less extrusion of debris is more desirable. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quantity of debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation by using one hand, and two rotary instrumentation techniques. Three different groups each with 12 mesiobuccal roots of human maxillary first molar were instrumented using either step-back technique with hand instruments, FlexMaster or Mtwo rotary system. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during canal preparation was collected. The mean dry weights of debris were compared using one-way ANOVA. Step-back group had a significantly greater mean weight of debris compared to the other two groups (Pengine driven techniques were associated with less apical debris extrusion. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):135-8].

  9. Advanced diagnostics for impact-flash spectroscopy on light-gas guns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breiland, William George; Reinhart, William Dodd; Miller, Paul Albert; Brown, Justin L.; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (,; ); Mangan, Michael A.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Grine, Albert D.; Wanke, Michael Clement; Alexander, C. Scott

    2007-03-01

    This study is best characterized as new technology development for implementing new sensors to investigate the optical characteristics of a rapidly expanding debris cloud resulting from hypervelocity impact regimes of 7 to 11 km/s. Our gas guns constitute a unique test bed that match operational conditions relevant to hypervelocity impact encountered in space engagements. We have demonstrated the use of (1) terahertz sensors, (2) silicon diodes for visible regimes, (3) germanium and InGaAs sensors for the near infrared regimes, and (4) the Sandia lightning detectors which are similar to the silicon diodes described in 2. The combination and complementary use of all these techniques has the strong potential of ''thermally'' characterizing the time dependent behavior of the radiating debris cloud. Complementary spectroscopic measurements provide temperature estimates of the impact generated debris by fitting its spectrum to a blackbody radiation function. This debris is time-dependent as its transport/expansion behavior is changing with time. The rapid expansion behavior of the debris cools the cloud rapidly, changing its thermal/temperature characteristics with time. A variety of sensors that span over a wide spectrum, varying from visible regime to THz frequencies, now gives us the potential to cover the impact over a broader temporal regime starting from high pressures (Mbar) high-temperatures (eV) to low pressures (mbar) low temperatures (less than room temperature) as the debris expands and cools.

  10. A Comparison of Vibration and Oil Debris Gear Damage Detection Methods Applied to Pitting Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) must provide reliable, real-time performance monitoring of helicopter operating parameters to prevent damage of flight critical components. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter HUMS. In order to improve the reliability of transmission diagnostics, many researchers propose combining two technologies, vibration and oil monitoring, using data fusion and intelligent systems. Some benefits of combining multiple sensors to make decisions include improved detection capabilities and increased probability the event is detected. However, if the sensors are inaccurate, or the features extracted from the sensors are poor predictors of transmission health, integration of these sensors will decrease the accuracy of damage prediction. For this reason, one must verify the individual integrity of vibration and oil analysis methods prior to integrating the two technologies. This research focuses on comparing the capability of two vibration algorithms, FM4 and NA4, and a commercially available on-line oil debris monitor to detect pitting damage on spur gears in the NASA Glenn Research Center Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Results from this research indicate that the rate of change of debris mass measured by the oil debris monitor is comparable to the vibration algorithms in detecting gear pitting damage.

  11. A tool for rapid post-hurricane urban tree debris estimates using high resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltan Szantoi; Sparkle L Malone; Francisco Escobedo; Orlando Misas; Scot Smith; Bon Dewitt

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities in the southeast United States have regularly experienced severe hurricane impacts. To better facilitate recovery efforts in these communities following natural disasters, state and federal agencies must respond quickly with information regarding the extent and severity of hurricane damage and the amount of tree debris volume. A tool was developed...

  12. Temporal variations in supraglacial debris distribution on Baltoro Glacier, Karakoram between 2001 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Morgan J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Mayer, Christoph; Rowan, Ann V.; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.

    2017-10-01

    Distribution of supraglacial debris in a glacier system varies spatially and temporally due to differing rates of debris input, transport and deposition. Supraglacial debris distribution governs the thickness of a supraglacial debris layer, an important control on the amount of ablation that occurs under such a debris layer. Characterising supraglacial debris layer thickness on a glacier is therefore key to calculating ablation across a glacier surface. The spatial pattern of debris thickness on Baltoro Glacier has previously been calculated for one discrete point in time (2004) using satellite thermal data and an empirically based relationship between supraglacial debris layer thickness and debris surface temperature identified in the field. Here, the same empirically based relationship was applied to two further datasets (2001, 2012) to calculate debris layer thickness across Baltoro Glacier for three discrete points over an 11-year period (2001, 2004, 2012). Surface velocity and sediment flux were also calculated, as well as debris thickness change between periods. Using these outputs, alongside geomorphological maps of Baltoro Glacier produced for 2001, 2004 and 2012, spatiotemporal changes in debris distribution for a sub-decadal timescale were investigated. Sediment flux remained constant throughout the 11-year period. The greatest changes in debris thickness occurred along medial moraines, the locations of mass movement deposition and areas of interaction between tributary glaciers and the main glacier tongue. The study confirms the occurrence of spatiotemporal changes in supraglacial debris layer thickness on sub-decadal timescales, independent of variation in surface velocity. Instead, variation in rates of debris distribution are primarily attributed to frequency and magnitude of mass movement events over decadal timescales, with climate, regional uplift and erosion rates expected to control debris inputs over centurial to millennial timescales. Inclusion

  13. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  14. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  15. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi; Bachofer, F.; Cama, M.; Mä rker, M.; Rotigliano, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  16. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  17. Study on cooling model for debris in lower plenum and countermeasures for prevention of focusing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zhonghua; Yu Hongxing; Jiang Guangming

    2008-01-01

    From the basic energy conservation equations and experimental or empirical correlations, an intact model is constructed for the thermal calculation of the core debris in the lower plenum. For verification of this model, the results of two calculations for AP600 and AP1000 plants are compared with those presented in relevant literature. The analysis highlights on the impact of the decay heat power density and the focusing effect. In order to mitigate the focusing effect, it is proposed in this paper to change the lower head profile from hemisphere to parabola. The results show that this change of lower head profile can change the heat flux distribution of the debris, and mitigate the focusing effect. (authors)

  18. A grid-based Model for Backwasting at supraglacial Ice Cliffs on a debris-covered Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Immerzeel, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the Himalaya, debris-covered glaciers cover significant portions of the glacierised area. Their behaviour is not entirely understood, but they seem to experience strong mass losses in direct contradiction with the insulating effect of debris. A characteristic most debris-covered glaciers share is the appearance of cliffs and lakes on their surface. These supraglacial features play a role in surface evolution, dynamics and downwasting of debris-covered glaciers but their actual effects have not been quantified at the glacier scale. Numerous measurements of radiative fluxes at the cliff surface, detailed survey of cliffs geometry and ablation have been conducted on the debris-covered Lirung Glacier, Nepalese Himalayas. We used four 20cm-resolution DEMs obtained from UAV flights to represent the glacier surface to a very detailed degree. As the debris remains stable on slopes up to 30°, ice cliffs show inclinations above this threshold and were clearly represented in the DEMs. Direct measurements and a point-scale cliff-backwasting model have showed that melt patterns over a single cliff are highly variable across and along the ice surface due to non-uniform geometry, varying inclination, aspect and terrain view factors. Variability in observed ablation was large also among cliffs. We therefore developed an energy balance model with a gridded representation of the cliff to understand the melt behaviour at the cliff scale. Previous models assumed the cliff to be a plane with a constant slope and aspect, and extrapolation of melt rates to the glacier scale based on this assumption might be erroneous. Using a grid-based approach allows representation of real inclined areas of the cliff. The detailed surface from the UAV-DEM was taken as initial condition for the model. The model was in close agreement with ablation measurements at numerous stakes located on 3 cliffs. Results show very high variability both along the cliffs' elevation and extension. These cannot be

  19. A New Feature Selection Algorithm Based on the Mean Impact Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of fewer or more representative features from multidimensional features is important when the artificial neural network (ANN algorithm is used as a classifier. In this paper, a new feature selection method called the mean impact variance (MIVAR method is proposed to determine the feature that is more suitable for classification. Moreover, this method is constructed on the basis of the training process of the ANN algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the MIVAR value is used to rank the multidimensional features of the bearing fault diagnosis. In detail, (1 70-dimensional all waveform features are extracted from a rolling bearing vibration signal with four different operating states, (2 the corresponding MIVAR values of all 70-dimensional features are calculated to rank all features, (3 14 groups of 10-dimensional features are separately generated according to the ranking results and the principal component analysis (PCA algorithm and a back propagation (BP network is constructed, and (4 the validity of the ranking result is proven by training this BP network with these seven groups of 10-dimensional features and by comparing the corresponding recognition rates. The results prove that the features with larger MIVAR value can lead to higher recognition rates.

  20. Influential factors on debris flow events and hillslope-channel connectivity in Alpine regions: case studies from two Alpine regions in Styria, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traper, Sandra; Pöppl, Ronald; Rascher, Eric; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    , curvature, size, shape as well as topographic channel parameters. Together with factors of land cover/use and lithology those features provide the independent variables for further statistical analyses. With the help of several logistic regressions the likelihoods of influencing topographical and lithological factors and factors of land cover/use leading to debris flow events and those for debris flows to reach the main channel (hillslope-channel connectivity) are computed. First results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2016.

  1. Estimating Foreign-Object-Debris Density from Photogrammetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jason; Metzger, Philip; Lane, John

    2013-01-01

    Within the first few seconds after launch of STS-124, debris traveling vertically near the vehicle was captured on two 16-mm film cameras surrounding the launch pad. One particular piece of debris caught the attention of engineers investigating the release of the flame trench fire bricks. The question to be answered was if the debris was a fire brick, and if it represented the first bricks that were ejected from the flame trench wall, or was the object one of the pieces of debris normally ejected from the vehicle during launch. If it was typical launch debris, such as SRB throat plug foam, why was it traveling vertically and parallel to the vehicle during launch, instead of following its normal trajectory, flying horizontally toward the north perimeter fence? By utilizing the Runge-Kutta integration method for velocity and the Verlet integration method for position, a method that suppresses trajectory computational instabilities due to noisy position data was obtained. This combination of integration methods provides a means to extract the best estimate of drag force and drag coefficient under the non-ideal conditions of limited position data. This integration strategy leads immediately to the best possible estimate of object density, within the constraints of unknown particle shape. These types of calculations do not exist in readily available off-the-shelf simulation software, especially where photogrammetry data is needed as an input.

  2. The Incidence of Plastic Debris along Tyume River in Alice, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mupindu Wiseman; Mangizvo Remigios Vurayayi

    2012-01-01

    The article is premised on the Zero Waste theory and it addresses the environmental impact of unscientific disposal of plastic debris along Tyume River in Alice Town, South Africa. The researchers confirmed that Alice community lacks awareness on plastic waste management as evidenced by inappropriate disposal of plastic waste along the river causing environmental pollution. Behavioral action is lacking and can be enhanced through environment education and economic enterprise initiatives at th...

  3. Evidence of marine debris usage by the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Rangel, Danilo Freitas; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2018-03-01

    Sandy beaches are sites of marine debris stranding, but the interaction of beach biota with waste is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata selects marine debris by types using a non-destructive method on sandy beaches of Southeastern Brazil. We found marine debris in 7% of 1696 surveyed burrows, and the ghost crabs selectivity was mainly by soft plastic (30%), straw (11%), rope (6%) and foam (4%). Burrows with marine debris showed higher occupation rate (~68%) compared to burrows without debris (~28%), indicating that these materials may increase the capacity of ghost crabs to memorize their burrows placement (homing). The percentage of marine debris was not always related to their amount in the drift line, but ghost crabs used more debris near urbanized areas. Future studies should test whether ghost crabs are using marine debris for feeding, homing or other mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  5. Debris avalanches and debris flows transformed from collapses in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico - behavior, and implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.; Scott, K. M.; Abrams, M.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.

    2002-03-01

    Volcanoes of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) have yielded numerous sector and flank collapses during Pleistocene and Holocene times. Sector collapses associated with magmatic activity have yielded debris avalanches with generally limited runout extent (e.g. Popocatépetl, Jocotitlán, and Colima volcanoes). In contrast, flank collapses (smaller failures not involving the volcano summit), both associated and unassociated with magmatic activity and correlating with intense hydrothermal alteration in ice-capped volcanoes, commonly have yielded highly mobile cohesive debris flows (e.g. Pico de Orizaba and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes). Collapse orientation in the TMVB is preferentially to the south and northeast, probably reflecting the tectonic regime of active E-W and NNW faults. The differing mobilities of the flows transformed from collapses have important implications for hazard assessment. Both sector and flank collapse can yield highly mobile debris flows, but this transformation is more common in the cases of the smaller failures. High mobility is related to factors such as water content and clay content of the failed material, the paleotopography, and the extent of entrainment of sediment during flow (bulking). The ratio of fall height to runout distance commonly used for hazard zonation of debris avalanches is not valid for debris flows, which are more effectively modeled with the relation inundated area to failure or flow volume coupled with the topography of the inundated area.

  6. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hayakawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Debris avalanches caused by volcano sector collapse often form characteristic depositional landforms such as hummocks. Sedimentological and geomorphological analyses of debris avalanche deposits (DADs are crucial to clarify the size, mechanisms, and emplacement of debris avalanches. We describe the morphology of hummocks on the northeastern flank of Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri, central Turkey, likely formed in the late Pleistocene. Using a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS and the structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM–MVS photogrammetry, we obtained high-definition digital elevation model (DEM and orthorectified images of the hummocks to investigate their geometric features. We estimated the source volume of the DAD by reconstructing the topography of the volcano edifice using a satellite-based DEM. We examined the topographic cross sections based on the slopes around the scar regarded as remnant topography. Spatial distribution of hummocks is anomalously concentrated at a certain distance from the source, unlike those that follow the distance–size relationship. The high-definition land surface data by RPAS and SfM revealed that many of the hummocks are aligned toward the flow direction of the debris avalanche, suggesting that the extensional regime of the debris avalanche was dominant. However, some displaced hummocks were also found, indicating that the compressional regime of the flow contributed to the formation of hummocks. These indicate that the flow and emplacement of the avalanche were constrained by the topography. The existing caldera wall forced the initial eastward flow to move northward, and the north-side caldera wall forced the flow into the narrow and steepened outlet valley where the sliding debris underwent a compressional regime, and out into the unconfined terrain where the debris was most likely emplaced on an extensional regime. Also, the estimated volume of 12–15 × 108 m3 gives a mean thickness of

  7. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  8. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste

  9. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S.; Araújo, Maria Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estuaries and mangrove forests are rarely studied for marine plastic debris loads. • Types of plastic items and mangrove forest habitats determine the potential of debris retention. • Mangrove habitats are temporary sinks of plastic debris from river and marine origins. • Plastics rapidly accumulate in mangrove forest, but are exported slowly. • Fauna and fishers using mangrove forest habitats are at risk of interaction with plastic debris. -- Abstract: An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years)

  10. An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered glaciers accounting for thickness effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.

    2016-08-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial melt-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the melt rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean glacier melt modelling. For debris-covered glaciers, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single melt-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on melt and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire melt across a glacier. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of melt rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against melt rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage Glacier, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the glacier melt rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of melt rate to debris thickness, summarised by the

  11. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  12. Stellar Winds and Dust Avalanches in the AU Mic Debris Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Eugene; Fung, Jeffrey, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We explain the fast-moving, ripple-like features in the edge-on debris disk orbiting the young M dwarf AU Mic. The bright features are clouds of submicron dust repelled by the host star’s wind. The clouds are produced by avalanches: radial outflows of dust that gain exponentially more mass as they shatter background disk particles in collisional chain reactions. The avalanches are triggered from a region a few au across—the “avalanche zone”—located on AU Mic’s primary “birth” ring at a true distance of ∼35 au from the star but at a projected distance more than a factor of 10 smaller: the avalanche zone sits directly along the line of sight to the star, on the side of the ring nearest Earth, launching clouds that disk rotation sends wholly to the southeast, as observed. The avalanche zone marks where the primary ring intersects a secondary ring of debris left by the catastrophic disruption of a progenitor up to Varuna in size, less than tens of thousands of years ago. Only where the rings intersect are particle collisions sufficiently violent to spawn the submicron dust needed to seed the avalanches. We show that this picture works quantitatively, reproducing the masses, sizes, and velocities of the observed escaping clouds. The Lorentz force exerted by the wind’s magnetic field, whose polarity reverses periodically according to the stellar magnetic cycle, promises to explain the observed vertical undulations. The timescale between avalanches, about 10 yr, might be set by time variability of the wind mass loss rate or, more speculatively, by some self-regulating limit cycle.

  13. Impact of tire debris on in vitro and in vivo systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vismara Claudio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 80% of respirable particulate matter (PM10 in cities comes from road transport and that tire and brake wear are responsible for the 3–7% emission of it. Data on the indicators of environmental impact of tire debris (TD, originated from the tire abrasion on roads, are extremely scarce, even though TD contains chemicals (zinc and organic compounds which can be released in the environment. Methods TD particle morphology was analysed with SEM, TEM and FIB instruments. TD eluates and TD organic extracts were tested at dilution series on human cell lines and Xenopus laevis embryos. 50 and 100 g/L TD were used for the eluates obtained after 24 h at pH 3 and the quantity of zinc present was measured with a ICP-AES. Eluates diluted to 1%, 10%, 50% in culture media and undiluted were used on X. laevis embryos in the FETAX test. HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to 0.05 – 50 μg/ml of zinc salt while A549 cells were exposed for 24, 48 and 72 h to 10, 50, 60, or 75 μg/ml of TD extract. X. laevis embryos were exposed to 50, 80, 100, or 120 μg/ml TD extract. Results The solution of undiluted 50 g/L TD produced 80.2% mortality (p X. laevis embryos and this toxic effect was three times greater than that produced by 100 g/L TD. Zn accumulation in HepG2 cells was evident after 4 h exposure. A549 cells exposed to TD organic extract for 72 h presented a modified morphology, a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in DNA damage as shown by comet assay. The dose 80 μg/ml of TD extract produced 14.6% mortality in X. laevis embryos and 15.9% mortality at 120 μg/ml. Treatment with 80, 100, or 120 μg/ml TD organic extract increased from 14.8% to 37.8% malformed larvae percentages compared to 5.6% in the control. Conclusion Since the amount of Zn leached from TD is related to pH, aggregation of particles and elution process, the quantity of TD present in the environment has to be taken into account. Moreover

  14. Compressive sensing-based electrostatic sensor array signal processing and exhausted abnormal debris detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Yue; Yang, Yongmin

    2018-05-01

    When faults happen at gas path components of gas turbines, some sparsely-distributed and charged debris will be generated and released into the exhaust gas. The debris is called abnormal debris. Electrostatic sensors can detect the debris online and further indicate the faults. It is generally considered that, under a specific working condition, a more serious fault generates more and larger debris, and a piece of larger debris carries more charge. Therefore, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are important indicators of the fault severity. However, because an electrostatic sensor can only detect the superposed effect on the electrostatic field of all the debris, it can hardly identify the amount and position of the debris. Moreover, because signals of electrostatic sensors depend on not only charge but also position of debris, and the position information is difficult to acquire, measuring debris charge accurately using the electrostatic detecting method is still a technical difficulty. To solve these problems, a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) is used, and an array signal processing method based on compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. To research in a theoretical framework of CS, the measurement model of the HSESCA is discretized into a sparse representation form by meshing. In this way, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are described as a sparse vector. It is further reconstructed by constraining l1-norm when solving an underdetermined equation. In addition, a pre-processing method based on singular value decomposition and a result calibration method based on weighted-centroid algorithm are applied to ensure the accuracy of the reconstruction. The proposed method is validated by both numerical simulations and experiments. Reconstruction errors, characteristics of the results and some related factors are discussed.

  15. MIPS Observations of the Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K. Y. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Trilling, D. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.; Beichman, C.; Chen, C.; Marengo, M.; Megeath, T.; Backman, D.; van Cleve, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) provides long-wavelength capability with imaging bands at 24, 70, and 160 um. We will present the MIPS images of the Fabulous Four Debris Disks: Beta Pictoris (A5 V), Epsilon Eridani (K2 V), Fomalhaut (A3 V) and Vega (A0 V). These systems discovered by IRAS possess large far-infrared excess emission above photosphere, indicating the existence of a circumstellar dusty disk. Given the main-sequence ages of these stars ( ˜12 Myr for Beta Pictoris, ˜730 Myr for Epsilon Eridani, ˜200 Myr for Fomalhaut, and ˜350 Myr for Vega), the dust in the systems could not be primordial as it would have been removed by radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag on relatively short time scales ( ˜1E4 yr). The second-generation dust in such debris disks is thought to arise primarily from collisions between planetesimals (asteroids) and from cometary activity; however, details about the debris formation and evolution are not well understood. With the sensitivity and angular resolution of the Spitizer Space Telescope, the structures of these nearby debris disks were mapped in great detail to study the disks' spatial structures at mid- to far-infrared wavelengths. These high spatial resolution images provide unprecedented new constraints on the the dust properties in the systems and limits on the origin of dusty debris. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Contract Number 960785 issued by JPL/Caltech.

  16. Predicting the occurrence of channelized debris flow by an integrated cascading model: A case study of a small debris flow-prone catchment in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-lei; Xu, Yue-Ping; Sun, Hong-yue; Xie, Wei; Wu, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Excessive water in a channel is an important factor that triggers channelized debris flows. Floods and debris flows often occur in a cascading manner, and thus, calculating the amount of runoff accurately is important for predicting the occurrence of debris flows. In order to explore the runoff-rainfall relationship, we placed two measuring facilities at the outlet of a small, debris flow-prone headwater catchment to explore the hydrological response of the catchment. The runoff responses generally consisted of a rapid increase in runoff followed by a slower decrease. The peak runoff often occurred after the rainfall ended. The runoff discharge data were simulated by two different modeling approaches, i.e., the NAM model and the Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) model. The results showed that the NAM model performed better than the HEC-HMS model. The NAM model provided acceptable simulations, while the HEC-HMS model did not. Then, we coupled the calculated results of the NAM model with an empirically based debris flow initiation model to obtain a new integrated cascading disaster modeling system to provide improved disaster preparedness and hazard management. In this case study, we found that the coupled model could correctly predict the occurrence of debris flows. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of the range of input parameter values on the hydrographical shape of the runoff. We also used the grey relational analysis to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the model. This study highlighted the important connections between rainfall, hydrological processes, and debris flow, and it provides a useful prototype model system for operational forecasting of debris flows.

  17. On protection of freedom's solar dynamic radiator from the orbital debris environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhatigan, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A great deal of experimentation and analysis has been performed to quantify penetration thresholds of components which will experience orbital debris impacts. Penetration has been found to depend upon mission-specific parameters such as orbital altitude, inclination, and orientation of the component; and upon component specific parameters such as material, density, and the geometry particular to its shielding. Experimental results are highly dependent upon shield configuration and cannot be extrapolated with confidence to alternate shield configurations. Also, current experimental capabilities are limited to velocities which only approach the lower limit of predicted orbital debris velocities. Therefore, prediction of the penetrating particle size for a particular component having a complex geometry remains highly uncertain. This paper describes the approach developed to assess on-orbit survivability, and include the type of particle and particle population expected to defeat the radiator bumpering (i.e., penetrate a fluid flow tube). Results of preliminary hypervelocity impact testing performed on radiator panel samples (in the 6 to 7 km/sec velocity range) are also presented. Plans for further analyses and testing are discussed. These efforts are expected to lead to a radiator design which will perform to Space Station Freedom requirements over the expected lifetime

  18. LightForce Photon-pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Analysis in the Current Debris Environment and Long-Term Simulation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan Y.; Nelson, Bron; Carlino, Roberto; Perez, Andres D.; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacahoglu, Arif G.; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 10kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 percent of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planed simulation approach for that effort.

  19. Removing metal debris from thermosetting EMC powders by Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw Yowching

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of thermosetting encapsulation molding compounds (EMCs for semiconductor packaging, metal debris are always present in the EMC powders due to the hard silica fillers in the compound. These metal debris in the EMC powders will cause circuit shortage and therefore have to be removed before molding. In this study, Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are used to remove these debris. The results show that the metal debris can be removed effectively as the rate of accumulation of the metal debris increases as time proceeds in the removing operation. The removal effectiveness of the debris is affected by both the magnetic flux density and the flow around the magnet. The wake flow behind the magnet is a relatively low speed recirculation region which facilities the attraction of metal debris in the powders. Thus, the largest amount of the accumulated EMC powders occurs downstream of the magnet. Hence, this low speed recirculation region should be better utilized to enhance the removal efficiency of the metal debris.

  20. Headwater sediment dynamics in a debris flow catchment constrained by high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loye, Alexandre; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Theule, Joshua Isaac; Liébault, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows have been recognized to be linked to the amounts of material temporarily stored in torrent channels. Hence, sediment supply and storage changes from low-order channels of the Manival catchment, a small tributary valley with an active torrent system located exclusively in sedimentary rocks of the Chartreuse Massif (French Alps), were surveyed periodically for 16 months using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to study the coupling between sediment dynamics and torrent responses in terms of debris flow events, which occurred twice during the monitoring period. Sediment transfer in the main torrent was monitored with cross-section surveys. Sediment budgets were generated seasonally using sequential TLS data differencing and morphological extrapolations. Debris production depends strongly on rockfall occurring during the winter-early spring season, following a power law distribution for volumes of rockfall events above 0.1 m3, while hillslope sediment reworking dominates debris recharge in spring and autumn, which shows effective hillslope-channel coupling. The occurrence of both debris flow events that occurred during the monitoring was linked to recharge from previous debris pulses coming from the hillside and from bedload transfer. Headwater debris sources display an ambiguous behaviour in sediment transfer: low geomorphic activity occurred in the production zone, despite rainstorms inducing debris flows in the torrent; still, a general reactivation of sediment transport in headwater channels was observed in autumn without new debris supply, suggesting that the stored debris was not exhausted. The seasonal cycle of sediment yield seems to depend not only on debris supply and runoff (flow capacity) but also on geomorphic conditions that destabilize remnant debris stocks. This study shows that monitoring the changes within a torrent's in-channel storage and its debris supply can improve knowledge on recharge thresholds leading to debris flow.

  1. Pathways and Distribution of Marine Debris Around a Remote Caribbean Island, Little Cayman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, L.; Marsh, L.; O'Keefe, A.; Duran, J.; Wilcox, S. M.; James, R.; Cowan, E.

    2011-12-01

    Marine Debris is a major environmental concern that affects all levels of marine life. On remote beaches in the Caribbean, where human populations are minimal, marine debris is largely deposited by ocean currents. The ocean is estimated to be littered with over 6 million metric tons of trash per year with 90% coming from land sources, but little is known about the exact sources and pathways for the debris. In 2006, on Little Cayman Island, coastal debris was collected at two coastal areas where removal of debris had not occurred in at least 9 years and along 2000 meters squared. One site was located on the north side, while the other site was located on the south side of the island. Both sites were located in reef-protected coastal zones. These two sites were revisited in 2007, 2010, and 2011 to determine the volume, weight, and type of debris arriving annually and to assess the importance of different coastal processes in deposition. In 2011, eight turtle nesting beaches were added to the study and a total of 11,186 liters of debris was collected from 1600 meters of coastline. The island lies in a northeast southwest orientation. The south-side of the island is influenced largely by prevailing trade winds, currents and tropical storms, traveling across the Caribbean from the east. Currents, eddies, and Norwesters would presumably deposit debris on the north side of the island. Approximately five times the amount of debris is deposited on the south side of the island than on the north side of the island. From the total debris collected, 72.45% was plastic, 8.23% shoes, 6.37% ropes & nets , 5.13% glass, 4.37% styrofoam, and 3.44% contained other debris. The marine debris originated in 8 different countries, and it is estimated that there is collectively 223,721 liters (11,635 kg) covering the shores of the entire island. Remarkably, debris found on Little Cayman in 2011 was traced to the 2010 Haitian earthquake relief effort.

  2. In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin

    2016-07-15

    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Image processing improvement for optical observations of space debris with the TAROT telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, C.; Theron, S.; Richard, P.; Blanchet, G.; Klotz, A.; Boër, M.

    2016-07-01

    CNES is involved in the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and is observing space debris with two robotic ground based fully automated telescopes called TAROT and operated by the CNRS. An image processing algorithm devoted to debris detection in geostationary orbit is implemented in the standard pipeline. Nevertheless, this algorithm is unable to deal with debris tracking mode images, this mode being the preferred one for debris detectability. We present an algorithm improvement for this mode and give results in terms of false detection rate.

  5. Risk and size estimation of debris flow caused by storm rainfall in mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Genwei

    2003-01-01

    Debris flow is a common disaster in mountain regions. The valley slope, storm rainfall and amassed sand-rock materials in a watershed may influence the types of debris flow. The bursting of debris flow is not a pure random event. Field investigations show the periodicity of its burst, but no directive evidence has been found yet. A risk definition of debris flow is proposed here based upon the accumulation and the starting conditions of loose material in channel. According to this definition, the risk of debris flow is of quasi-periodicity. A formula of risk estimation is derived. Analysis of relative factors reveals the relationship between frequency and size of debris flow. For a debris flow creek, the longer the time interval between two occurrences of debris flows is, the bigger the bursting event will be.

  6. Participatory Sensing Marine Debris: Current Trends and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, J.; Johnsen, K.

    2016-02-01

    The monitoring of litter and debris is challenging at the global scale because of spatial and temporal variability, disconnected local organizations and the use of paper and pen for documentation. The Marine Debris Tracker mobile app and citizen science program allows for the collection of global standardized data at a scale, speed and efficiency that was not previously possible. The app itself also serves as an outreach and education tool, creating an engaged participatory sensing instrument. This instrument is characterized by several aspects including range and frequency, accuracy and precision, accessibility, measurement dimensions, participant performance, and statistical analysis. Also, important to Marine Debris Tracker is open data and transparency. A web portal provides data that users have logged allowing immediate feedback to users and additional education opportunities. The engagement of users through a top tracker competition and social media keeps participants interested in the Marine Debris Tracker community. Over half a million items have been tracked globally, and maps provide both global and local distribution of data. The Marine Debris Tracker community and dataset continues to grow daily. We will present current usage and engagement, participatory sensing data distributions, choropleth maps of areas of active tracking, and discuss future technologies and platforms to expand data collection and conduct statistical analysis.

  7. VARIABILITY OF THE INFRARED EXCESS OF EXTREME DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan Y. A.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks with extremely large infrared excesses (fractional luminosities >10 –2 ) are rare. Those with ages between 30 and 130 Myr are of interest because their evolution has progressed well beyond that of protoplanetary disks (which dissipate with a timescale of order 3 Myr), yet they represent a period when dynamical models suggest that terrestrial planet building may still be progressing through large, violent collisions that could yield large amounts of debris and large infrared excesses. For example, our Moon was formed through a violent collision of two large protoplanets during this age range. We report two disks around the solar-like stars ID8 and HD 23514 in this age range where the 24 μm infrared excesses vary on timescales of a few years, even though the stars are not variable in the optical. Variations this rapid are difficult to understand if the debris is produced by collisional cascades, as it is for most debris disks. It is possible that the debris in these two systems arises in part from condensates from silicate-rich vapor produced in a series of violent collisions among relatively large bodies. If their evolution is rapid, the rate of detection of extreme excesses would indicate that major collisions may be relatively common in this age range.

  8. Debris and pool formation/heat transfer in FARO-LWR: experiments and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, D.; Annunziato, A.; Corradini, M.

    1999-01-01

    The FARO-LWR experiments examine the debris and pool formation from a pour of core melt materials (UO 2 /ZrO 2 and UO 2 /ZrO 2 /Zr) into a pool of water at prototypic accident conditions. The experiments give unique data on the debris bed initial conditions, morphology and heat transfer after the core melt has slump and (partly) quenched into the water of the lower head. Quantities of up to 170 kg of corium melt are poured by gravity into water of depth between 1 and 2 m through a nozzle of diameter 0.1 m at different system pressures. The debris is collected in a flat bottom catcher of diameter 0.66 m. It reaches heights up to 0.2 m depending on the melt quantity. In general, the melt reaches the bottom only partially fragmented. The debris which forms consists of a conglomerate ('cake') in contact with the collecting structure and overlaying fragments (loose debris). The mean particle size of the loose debris is in the range 3.5 - 4.8 mm. The upper surface of the debris is flat. A gap is present between the cake and the bottom plate. The paper reviews the debris formation and heat transfer to the bottom steel structure from these tests and describes the development of a model to predict the debris and pool formation process. Sensitivity analyses have been performed by the COMETA code to study the behaviour of the ratio between the cake mass and the total mass. (authors)

  9. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Measurements for Intelligent Machine Health Monitoring. Degree awarded by Toledo Univ., May 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. An oil debris sensor and the two vibration algorithms were adapted as the diagnostic tools. An inductance type oil debris sensor was selected for the oil analysis measurement technology. Gear damage data for this type of sensor was limited to data collected in the NASA Glenn test rigs. For this reason, this analysis included development of a parameter for detecting gear pitting damage using this type of sensor. The vibration data was used to calculate two previously available gear vibration diagnostic algorithms. The two vibration algorithms were selected based on their maturity and published success in detecting damage to gears. Oil debris and vibration features were then developed using fuzzy logic analysis techniques, then input into a multi sensor data fusion process. Results show combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears. As a result of this research, this new diagnostic tool has significantly improved detection of gear damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rigs. This research also resulted in several other findings that will improve the development of future health monitoring systems. Oil debris analysis was found to be more reliable than vibration analysis for detecting pitting fatigue failure of gears and is capable of indicating damage progression. Also, some vibration algorithms are as sensitive to operational effects as they

  10. Remote sensing-based detection and quantification of roadway debris following natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Colin; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; Aros-Vera, Felipe; Holguín-Veras, José

    2016-05-01

    Rapid knowledge of road network conditions is vital to formulate an efficient emergency response plan following any major disaster. Fallen buildings, immobile vehicles, and other forms of debris often render roads impassable to responders. The status of roadways is generally determined through time and resource heavy methods, such as field surveys and manual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. Airborne lidar systems provide an alternative, cost-effective option for performing network assessments. The 3D data can be collected quickly over a wide area and provide valuable insight about the geometry and structure of the scene. This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing debris in roadways using airborne lidar data. Points falling within the road extent are extracted from the point cloud and clustered into individual objects using region growing. Objects are classified as debris or non-debris using surface properties and contextual cues. Debris piles are reconstructed as surfaces using alpha shapes, from which an estimate of debris volume can be computed. Results using real lidar data collected after a natural disaster are presented. Initial results indicate that accurate debris maps can be automatically generated using the proposed method. These debris maps would be an invaluable asset to disaster management and emergency response teams attempting to reach survivors despite a crippled transportation network.

  11. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the self-adjusting file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo André; Nogueira Leal Silva, Emmanuel João; Moreira, Edson Jorge; de Almeida Neves, Aline; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Tameirão, Michele

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris by the Self-Adjusting-File system (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Hand and rotary instruments were used as references for comparison. Sixty mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented with hand files using a crown-down technique. The ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and SAF systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and the apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials and dried afterward. The mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Hand file instrumentation produced significantly more debris compared with the ProTaper and SAF systems (P system produced significantly more debris compared with the SAF system (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. SAF instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of hand and rotary files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of built-in debris-filter bottom nozzle for PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntaro Shimizu; Kazuki Monaka; Masaji Mori; Kazuo Ikeda

    2005-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has worked to improve the capability of anti debris bottom nozzle for a PWR fuel assembly. The Current debris filter bottom nozzle (DFBN) having 4mm diameter flow holes can capture the larger size of debris than the flow hole inner diameter. MHI has completed the development of the built-in debris filter bottom nozzle, which is the new idea of the debris-filter for high burnup (55GWd/t assembly average burnup). Built-in debris filter bottom nozzle consists of the blades and nozzle body. The blades made from inconel strip are embedded and welded on the grooved top surface of the bottom nozzle adapter plate. A flow hole is divided by the blade and the trap size of the debris is reduced. Because the blades block the coolant flow, it was anticipated to increase the pressure loss of the nozzle, however, adjusting the relation between blade and taper shape of the flow hole, the pressure loss has been successfully maintained the satisfactory level. Grooves are cut on the nozzle plate; nevertheless, the additional skirts on the four sides of the nozzle compensate the structural strength. (authors)

  13. Innovative probabilistic risk assessment applications: barrier impairments and fracture toughness. 2. Demolition Debris and Tornado Missile Hazard During Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, David; Shepherd, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    During their operating lives, nuclear power plants typically maintain a high level of control over the amount of debris that is allowed to accumulate at the plant site. Although primarily intended to reduce the potential for fire damage, some plants also rely on these controls to limit the damage that could be caused during a tornado from missiles generated from loose debris. Demolition work associated with power plant decommissioning inevitably increases the quantity of debris. When bulk commodities such as piping and electrical distribution components are demolished, they are subject to various staging, handling, and storage processes before they can be released from the site. The demolition of plant structures dramatically increases the quantity of loose steel and concrete debris. For the foreseeable future, all plants that undertake decommissioning will have spent-fuel assemblies present on the plant site during the demolition project whether the spent fuel remains stored in a spent-fuel pool or is transferred to an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). Under present regulations, protection from tornado missiles would be required for both types of spent-fuel storage. In addition, a small proportion of decommissioning plants will have operating units in close proximity. Licensing commitments for tornado missile protection may mandate controls on the production or storage of demolition debris. This paper presents a case study of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (Fig. 1). Tornado missile protection licensing commitments from three types of facilities will be in force during the decommissioning of San Onofre Unit 1 (Unit 1): 1. Unit 1, under a possession-only license; 2. an ISFSI that will eventually store spent fuel from Unit 1; 3. San Onofre Operating Unit 2 (Unit 2) and San Onofre Operating Unit 3 (Unit 3). Together, these three facilities illustrate the range of impacts that licensing commitments designed for tornado protection may

  14. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  15. Technology Combination Analysis Tool (TCAT) for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, B.; Richard, M.; Salmon, T.; Pisseloup, A.; Cougnet, C.; Axthelm, R.; Saunder, C.; Dupont, C.; Lequette, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper present the work of the Swiss Space Center EPFL within the CNES-funded OTV-2 study. In order to find the most performant Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission architectures and technologies, a tool was developed in order to design and compare ADR spacecraft, and to plan ADR campaigns to remove large debris. Two types of architectures are considered to be efficient: the Chaser (single-debris spacecraft), the Mothership/ Kits (multiple-debris spacecraft). Both are able to perform controlled re-entry. The tool includes modules to optimise the launch dates and the order of capture, to design missions and spacecraft, and to select launch vehicles. The propulsion, power and structure subsystems are sized by the tool thanks to high-level parametric models whilst the other ones are defined by their mass and power consumption. Final results are still under investigation by the consortium but two concrete examples of the tool's outputs are presented in the paper.

  16. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  17. Mechanical properties of fuel debris for defueling toward decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Takanori; Kitagaki, Toru; Yano, Kimihiko; Okamura, Nobuo; Koizumi, Kenji; Ohara, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    In the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), safe and steady defueling work is required. Before defueling 1F, it is necessary to evaluate fuel debris for properties related to the defueling procedure and technology. While defueling after the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident, a core boring system played an important role. Considering the working principle of core boring, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness were found to be important fuel debris properties that had a profound effect on the performance of the boring machine. It is speculated that uranium and zirconium oxide solid solution ((U,Zr)O_2) is one of the major materials of fuel debris in 1F, according to the TMI-2 accident experience and the results of past severe accident studies. In addition, the Zr content of 1F fuel debris is expected to be higher than that of TMI-2 debris, because the 1F reactors were boiling-water reactor (BWR). In this report, the mechanical properties of (U,Zr)O_2 are evaluated in the ZrO_2 content range from 10% to 65%. The hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness were measured by Vickers test, ultrasonic pulse echo method, and indentation fracture method, respectively. In the ZrO_2 content range under 50%, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of (U,Zr)O_2 increased, and the elastic modulus decreased slightly with ZrO_2 content. In the case of 55% and 65% ZrO_2, all of those measures increased slightly with ZrO_2 content. Summarizing those results, ZrO_2 content affects mechanical properties significantly in the case of low ZrO_2 content. Higher Zr content (exceeding 50%) has little effect on mechanical properties. In the future, nonradioactive surrogate debris will be necessary for small-scale functional and large-scale mockup tests of various defueling technologies. These results are useful to select the material for surrogate debris. (author)

  18. INNER EDGES OF COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS AROUND METAL-RICH WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, Jose A., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: garmilla@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range {approx}0.03-30 cm.

  19. INNER EDGES OF COMPACT DEBRIS DISKS AROUND METAL-RICH WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, José A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range ∼0.03-30 cm.

  20. Inner Edges of Compact Debris Disks around Metal-rich White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Garmilla, José A.

    2012-12-01

    A number of metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) are known to host compact, dense particle disks, which are thought to be responsible for metal pollution of these stars. In many such systems, the inner radii of disks inferred from their spectra are so close to the WD that particles directly exposed to starlight must be heated above 1500 K and are expected to be unstable against sublimation. To reconcile this expectation with observations, we explore particle sublimation in H-poor debris disks around WDs. We show that because of the high metal vapor pressure the characteristic sublimation temperature in these disks is 300-400 K higher than in their protoplanetary analogs, allowing particles to survive at higher temperatures. We then look at the structure of the inner edges of debris disks and show that they should generically feature superheated inner rims directly exposed to starlight with temperatures reaching 2500-3500 K. Particles migrating through the rim toward the WD (and rapidly sublimating) shield the disk behind them from strong stellar heating, making the survival of solids possible close to the WD. Our model agrees well with observations of WD+disk systems provided that disk particles are composed of Si-rich material such as olivine, and have sizes in the range ~0.03-30 cm.

  1. Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    During the Pleistocene, intense hydrothermal alteration promoted a flank failure of the southern portion of Nevado de Toluca volcano. This event produced a debris avalanche that transformed into a cohesive debris flow (Pilcaya deposit) owing to water saturation and weakness of the altered pre-avalanche rocks. The Pilcaya debris flow traveled along a narrow tectonic depression up to a distance of 40 km and then spread over a flat plain reaching up to 55 km from the volcano summit. This transition zone corresponds with a sudden break in slope from 5 to 0.5° that caused a rapid reduction in velocity and thickening of the flow that consequently reduced its competence to transport large particles. The resulting deposit thickens from 15 to 40 m, and contains boulders up to 15 m in diameter that form hummocky morphology close to the transitional zone. Sometime after the emplacement of the Pilcaya debris flow, heavy rains and superficial drainage contributed to remobilize the upper portions of the deposit causing two secondary lahars. These debris flows called El Mogote, traveled up to 75 km from the volcano. The edifice collapse generated lahars with a total volume of 2.8 km3 that devastated an approximate area of 250 km2. The area versus volume plot for both deposits shows that the magnitude of the event is comparable to other cohesive debris flows such as the Teteltzingo lahar (Pico de Orizaba, Mexico) and the Osceola mudflow (Mount Rainier, Wa). The Pilcaya debris flow represents additional evidence of debris flow transformed from a flank failure, a potentially devastating phenomenon that could threaten distant areas from the volcano previously considered without risk.

  2. Transporting fuel debris from TMI-2 to INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.; Bixby, W.W.; McIntosh, T.W.; McGoff, O.J.; Barkonic, R.J.; Henrie, J.O.

    1986-06-01

    Transportation of the damaged fuel from Unit 2 of Three Mile Island (TMI-2) presented noteworthy technical challenges involving complex institutional issues. The program resulted from both a need to package and remove the accident debris and also the opportunity to receive and study damaged core components. These combined to establish the safe transport of the TMI-2 fuel debris as a high priority for many diverse organizations. The capability of the sending and receiving facilities to handle spent fuel transport casks in the most cost-effective manner was assessed and resulted in the development by Nuclear Packaging Inc. (NuPac) of the NuPac 125-B rail cask. This paper reviews the technical challenges in preparation of the TMI-2 core debris for transport from TMI-2 to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and receipt and storage of that material at INEL. Challenges discussed include design and testing of fuel debris canisters; design, fabrication and licensing of a new rail cask for spent fuel transport; cask loading operations, equipment and facilities at TMI-2; transportation logistics; and, receipt, storage and core examination operations at INEL. 10 refs

  3. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  4. Clearance of concrete debris generated from modification work of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoyama, Tomonori; Nanri, Tomohiro; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) planned to apply the clearance system to slightly contaminated concrete debris with radionuclides, which was generated from the modification of the Japan Research Reactor No. 3 (JRR-3) in the Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of JAEA. The modification work was conducted from 1985 to 1990 and the generated concrete debris has been stored as radioactive waste in interim storage facilities in the NSRI. This is the Japanese first approved of clearance system to concrete debris and stored waste. We established procedures for measuring and evaluating the radioactivity concentration of scored concrete debris. In 2008, the authority approved these procedures for clearance. Since 2009, we have been measuring and evaluating the radioactivity concentration of concrete debris, using the approved procedures. By the end of 2012, the authority had confirmed the correctness of our measurement and evaluation results on about 2,600 tons of concrete debris. About 1,800 tons of those cleared concrete were recycled to flat surface subsidence in the NSRI caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and also used as base material to construct new buildings and parking lots in the NSRI. (author)

  5. Quantities of arsenic-treated wood in demolition debris generated by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsendt, Timothy G

    2007-03-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood.

  6. ISU Team Project: An Integral View on Space Debris Mitigation and Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Philipp; Ricote Navarro, Carmon; Jehn, Rudiger; Gini, Andrea; Faure, Pauline; Adriaensen, Maarten; Datta, Iman; Hilbich, Daniel; Jacimovic, Aleksandar; Jacques, Lionel; Penent, Guilhem; Sinn, Thomas; Shioi, Hiroaki

    2013-08-01

    The issue of space debris poses challenges not only in technical, but also legal, political and economic dimensions. A sustainable solution needs to take into account all of them. This paper investigates such a potential solution in a multidisciplinary approach. To this end, it addresses the effectiveness of the existing debris mitigation guidelines, and identifies technical improvements for mitigation. It continues examining technical concepts for debris removal and performing proper cost-benefit trade-offs. The results of new simulations to assess the damage cost caused by space debris are presented. Based on these findings, an organizational framework and political recommendations are developed which will enable a sustainable use of space starting in 2020. The findings are compiled into a roadmap, which outlines 1) a path to the full adherence to debris mitigation guidelines and 2) the removal of ten large pieces of debris per year by a dedicated international organization, including expected expenditures necessary for its implementation.

  7. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  8. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  9. NEW DEBRIS DISKS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moór, A.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balog, Z.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Csengeri, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Juhász, A., E-mail: moor@konkoly.hu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3, OHA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of nearby young moving group members harbor circumstellar debris dust disks. Due to their proximity and youth, these disks are attractive targets for studying the early evolution of debris dust and planetesimal belts. Here we present 70 and 160 μ m observations of 31 systems in the β Pic moving group, and in the Tucana–Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations, using the Herschel Space Observatory . None of these stars were observed at far-infrared wavelengths before. Our Herschel measurements were complemented by photometry from the WISE satellite for the whole sample, and by submillimeter/millimeter continuum data for one source, HD 48370. We identified six stars with infrared excess, four of them are new discoveries. By combining our new findings with results from the literature, we examined the incidence and general characteristics of debris disks around Sun-like members of the selected groups. With their dust temperatures of <45 K the newly identified disks around HD 38397, HD 48370, HD 160305, and BD-20 951 represent the coldest population within this sample. For HD 38397 and HD 48370, the emission is resolved in the 70 μ m Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrograph images, the estimated radius of these disks is ∼90 au. Together with the well-known disk around HD 61005, these three systems represent the highest mass end of the known debris disk population around young G-type members of the selected groups. In terms of dust content, they resemble the hypothesized debris disk of the ancient solar system.

  10. In vitro Comparison of Debris Removal Using Various Adjunct Irrigation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    treatment of apical periodontitis is the goal of endodontic therapy (1). In order to facilitate this goal, the removal of debris and, even more...importantly, the removal of bacteria from the root canal system is necessary (2,3). Debris consists of dentin shavings, toxins, residual pulp tissue...accessory canals, fins, and deltas can all provide ideal locations for harboring both debris and bacteria (6). Mechanical instrumentation, although

  11. Fission-product releases from a PHWR terminal debris bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; Bailey, D.G., E-mail: morgan.brown@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    During an unmitigated severe accident in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) with horizontal fuel channels, the core may disassemble and relocate to the bottom of the calandria vessel. The resulting heterogeneous in-vessel terminal debris bed (TDB) would likely be quenched by any remaining moderator, and some of the decay heat would be conducted through the calandria vessel shell to the surrounding reactor vault or shield tank water. As the moderator boiled off, the solid debris bed would transform into a more homogeneous molten corium pool located between top and bottom crusts. Until recently, the severe accident code MAAP-CANDU assumed that unreleased volatile and semi-volatile fission products remained in the TDB until after calandria vessel failure, due to low diffusivity through the top crust and the lack of gases or steam to flush released fission products from the debris. However, national and international experimental results indicate this assumption is unlikely; instead, high- and medium-volatility fission products would be released from a molten debris pool, and their volatility and transport should be taken into account in TDB modelling. The resulting change in the distribution of fission products within the reactor and containment, and the associated decay heat, can have significant effects upon the progression of the accident and fission-product releases to the environment. This article describes a postulated PHWR severe accident progression to generate a TDB and the effects of fission-product releases from the terminal debris, using the simple release model in the MAAP-CANDU severe accident code. It also provides insights from various experimental programs related to fission-product releases from core debris, and their applicability to the MAAP-CANDU TDB model. (author)

  12. The effect of self-leveling on debris bed coolability under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S.; Konovalenko, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation); Kudinov, P. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A model for coolability of a self-leveling, variable-shape debris bed is proposed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to screen out the less influential input parameters. • A small fraction of scenarios has initially a non-coolable debris bed configuration. • The fraction of non-coolable scenarios decreases with time due to self-leveling. - Abstract: Nordic-type boiling water reactors employ melt fragmentation, quenching, and long term cooling of the debris bed in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy. The height and shape of the bed are among the most important factors that determine if decay heat can be removed from the porous debris bed by natural circulation of water. The debris bed geometry depends on its formation process (melt release, fragmentation, sedimentation and settlement on the containment basemat), but it also changes with time afterwards, due to particle redistribution promoted by coolant flow (self-leveling). The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an approach to the assessment of the probability that debris in such a variable-shape bed can reach re-melting (which means failure of SA mitigation strategy), i.e. the time necessary for the slumping debris bed to reach a coolable configuration is larger than the time necessary for the debris to reach the re-melting temperature. For this purpose, previously developed models for particulate debris spreading by self-leveling and debris bed dryout are combined to assess the time necessary to reach a coolable state and evaluate its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was performed to screen out less important input parameters, after which Monte Carlo simulation was carried out in order to collect statistical characteristics of the coolability time. The obtained results suggest that, given the parameters ranges typical of Nordic BWRs, only a small fraction of debris beds configurations exhibits the occurrence of dryout. Of the

  13. Sedimentology, Behavior, and Hazards of Debris Flows at Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K.M.; Vallance, J.W.; Pringle, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Mount Rainier is potentially the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range because of its great height, frequent earthquakes, active hydrothermal system, and extensive glacier mantle. Many debris flows and their distal phases have inundated areas far from the volcano during postglacial time. Two types of debris flows, cohesive and noncohesive, have radically different origins and behavior that relate empirically to clay content. The two types are the major subpopulations of debris flows at Mount Rainier. The behavior of cohesive flows is affected by the cohesion and adhesion of particles; noncohesive flows are dominated by particle collisions to the extent that particle cataclasis becomes common during near-boundary shear. Cohesive debris flows contain more than 3 to 5 percent of clay-size sediment. The composition of these flows changed little as they traveled more than 100 kilometers from Mount Rainier to inundate parts of the now-populated Puget Sound lowland. They originate as deep-seated failures of sectors of the volcanic edifice, and such failures are sufficiently frequent that they are the major destructional process of Mount Rainier's morphologic evolution. In several deposits of large cohesive flows, a lateral, megaclast-bearing facies (with a mounded or hummocky surface) contrasts with a more clay-rich facies in the center of valleys and downstream. Cohesive flows at Mount Rainier do not correlate strongly with v