Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...
Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...
Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...
Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink
It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...
Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke
INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation......%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. CONCLUSION: In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced...
Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...
Near-death experiences (NDEs), transcendental experiences on the threshold of death with profound implications for both patient care and religious belief, have been hypothesized to be related to the awakening of a biological process known in Eastern traditions as kundalini. In a test of this proposed association between kundalini and NDEs, a sample of near-death experiencers acknowledged significantly more symptoms of a physio-kundalini syndrome than did control subjects.
Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined in literature similarly as a sudden and unexpected death of an infant occurring during sleep and, at the same time, causes of which cannot be explained based on anamnesis, circumstances of death or comprehensive post-mortem examinations. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is considered to be the most frequent cause of death among infants in the developed countries. Incidence of SIDS in the whole world ranges from about 0.1 to 6.0/1,000 live births. As much as 90% concerns deaths in the first year of life of a child, whereas 70% stands for deaths for which the cause remains unknown. In SIDS, about 90% of cases concern children under 1 year old and, in particular, at the age of between 2 and 4 months. The aim: The aim of the study was to present the most significant aspects of SIDS as well as description and analysis of risk factors for occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome based on statistical data. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the study, the secondary data analysis and desk research technique have been applied. The analysis is based on statistical data from the time period 2009-2014 released by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In 2009-2014, the highest number of deaths of infants and new-borns was reported in 2009 with the number being as high as 2,327. In the following years, the number of deaths of new-borns and infants systematically decreased. In 2010 it was 2,057 and in 2011 – 1,836, in 2012 – 1,791, in 2013 – 1,684, and in 2014 – 1,583. The highest number of deaths of boys was reported in 2009 – 1,298, while the number of deaths of girls in that year, although it was the highest in the analysed period, was lower – 1,029. Conclusions: cases of death were more frequent among boys rather than girls. The highest number of deaths was reported among infants under the age of one month and the number decreased with an increasing infants’ age. More
Nachtkamp, Kathrin; Stark, Romina; Strupp, Corinna; Kündgen, Andrea; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Gattermann, Norbert; Germing, Ulrich
Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes face a poor prognosis. The exact causes of death have not been described properly in the past. We performed a retrospective analysis of causes of death using data of 3792 patients in the Düsseldorf registry who have been followed up for a median time of 21 months. Medical files as well as death certificates were screened and primary care physicians were contacted. Death after AML evolution, infection, and bleeding was considered to be clearly disease-related. Further categories of causes of death were heart failure, other possibly disease-related reasons, such as hemochromatosis, disease-independent reasons as well as cases with unclear causes of death. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 71 years. At the time of analysis, 2877 patients (75.9 %) had deceased. In 1212 cases (42.1 %), the exact cause of death could not be ascertained. From 1665 patients with a clearly documented cause of death, 1388 patients (83.4 %) succumbed directly disease-related (AML (46.6 %), infection (27.0 %), bleeding (9.8 %)), whereas 277 patients (16.6 %) died for reasons not directly related with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including 132 patients with cardiac failure, 77 non-disease-related reasons, 23 patients with solid tumors, and 45 patients with possibly disease-related causes like hemochromatosis. Correlation with IPSS, IPSS-R, and WPSS categories showed a proportional increase of disease-related causes of death with increasing IPSS/IPSS-R/WPSS risk category. Likewise, therapy-related MDS were associated with a higher percentage of disease-related causes of death than primary MDS. This reflects the increasing influence of the underlying disease on the cause of death with increasing aggressiveness of the disease.
D'Souza, Jason; Malhotra, Divyanshu; Goud, Aditya; Dahagam, Chanukya; Everett, George
The vast majority of sudden cardiac arrests occur in patients with structural heart disease and in approximately 10% of the cases, it can occur in those with structurally normal hearts. Brugada syndrome is an autosomal dominant sodium channelopathy that has been implicated in sudden deaths. Given their low prevalence, our knowledge about Brugada syndrome is still evolving. Apart from schizophrenia, there have been no reports of associated medical conditions. We recently encountered a patient with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who was also found to have Brugada syndrome. Both these conditions share some common clinical presentations including a propensity for sudden death.
Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria
Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N
This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7 years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matteo Garbelotto; David M. Rizzo; Katie Hayden; Monica Meija-Chang; Jennifer M. Davidson; Steven Tjosvold
Sudden oak death (SOD) has been shown to be caused by a new species of Phytophthora, P. ramorum. A basic understanding of the genetics of P. ramorum is critical to any management strategy. We have initiated a number of studies to examine species concepts, population biology and mating behavior of the pathogen....
S. Mascheretti; P.J.P. Croucher; M. Kozanitas; L. Baker; M. Garbelotto
A total of 669 isolates of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for Sudden Oak Death, were collected from 34 Californian forests and from the ornamental plant-trade. Seven microsatellite markers revealed 82 multilocus genotypes (MGs) of which only three were abundant (>10%). Iteratively collapsing based upon minimum Î¦ST, yielded five meta-samples and five...
Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.
Full Text Available An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO, is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii. Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm in Santa Barbara, California, discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based abalone farms discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.
Lafferty, Kevin D; Ben-Horin, Tal
An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO), is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm (AF) in Santa Barbara, CA, USA discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based AFs discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.
Buksh, Jahangir A.; Al-Hersi, Ahmad S.; Al-Nozha, Mansour M.
Burgada syndrome (BS) is an inherited arrythmogenic disease characterized by typical ECG changes in the form of an SR pattern in VI to V2, and ST segment elevation in VI to V3 and prolongation of the QT interval in right precordial leads. This syndrome carries an increased risk of sudden death due to arrhythmias. This disease was first described in 1992 by Joseph Brugada et al and was named Brugada syndrome by Yan and Antzelvich in 1996. By 2003 more than 600 patients had been reported by Brugada et al and hundreds by others. A genetic aspect to BS is now recognized and been linked to the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A. Over five dozen mutations in SCN5A have been identified. Accentuation of the right ventricular notch under pathophysiological conditions leads to exaggeration of the J-wave or J-point elevation and a saddle-shaped configuration of the repolarisation waves. Diagnosis is essentially by electrocardiogram either by spontaneous changes or by provocation by sodium channel blockers drugs, e.g., procainamide, flecainide. The role of electrophysiological studies in induction of arrhythmia in asymptomatic individuals by electron beam computed tomography and signal-averaged electrocardiogram is not settled. Unfortunately, an effective drug is not available is not available at present, but quinidine has a place in treatment. New promising drugs are emerging like cilostazol and tedisamil. At present, implantation of an ICD is the only effective means of preventing sudden death. (author)
Kempny, Aleksander; Hjortshøj, Cristel Sørensen; Gu, Hong
: In a multicenter approach, we identified adults with Eisenmenger syndrome under follow-up between 2000 and 2015. We examined survival and its association with clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: We studied 1098 patients (median age, 34.4 years; range, 16.......1-84.4 years; 65.1% female; 31.9% with Down syndrome). The majority had a posttricuspid defect (n=643, 58.6%), followed by patients with a complex (n=315, 28.7%) and pretricuspid lesion (n=140, 12.7%). Over a median follow-up of 3.1 years (interquartile range, 1.4-5.9), allowing for 4361.6 patient......-years observation, 278 patients died and 6 underwent transplantation. Twelve parameters emerged as significant predictors of death on univariable analysis. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, only age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41/10 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.59; P
Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M
Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte
in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...
Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB
in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...... or unknown risk factors for thrombosis as possible etiological factors for sudden infant death syndrome. It is likely that we must continuously employ the exclusion principle on possible etiological causes in genetic material from a large group of victims of sudden infant death syndrome if the phenomenon...
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Full Text Available Robert L Page II,1 Vahram Ghushchyan,2 Jill Van Den Bos,3 Travis J Gray,3 Greta L Hoetzer,4 Durgesh Bhandary,4 Kavita V Nair1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 2College of Business and Economics, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia; 3Milliman, Inc, Denver, CO, 4AstraZeneca, US Medical Affairs, Wilmington, DE, USA Background: No studies have addressed the cost of inpatient mortality during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS admission. Objective: Compare ACS-related length of stay (LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by day of discharge/death for patients who died during an inpatient admission with a matched cohort discharged alive following an ACS-related inpatient stay. Methods: Medical and pharmacy claims (2009–2012 were used to identify admissions with a primary diagnosis of ACS from patients with at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to an ACS admission. Patients who died during their ACS admission (deceased cohort were matched (one-to-one to those who survived (survived cohort on age, sex, year of admission, Chronic Condition Index score, and prior revascularization. Mean LOS, total admission cost, and total admission cost by the day of discharge/death for the deceased cohort were compared with the survived cohort. A generalized linear model with log transformation was used to estimate the differences in the total expected incremental cost of an ACS admission and by the day of discharge/death between cohorts. A negative binomial model was used to estimate differences in the LOS between the two cohorts. Costs were inflated to 2013 dollars. Results: A total of 1,320 ACS claims from patients who died (n=1,320 were identified and matched to 1,319 claims from the survived patients (n=1,319. The majority were men (68% and mean age was 56.7±6.4 years. The LOS per claim for the deceased cohort was
Brion, Maria; Allegue, Catarina; Santori, Montserrat; Gil, Rocio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Poster, Simone; Madea, Burkhard; Campuzano, Oscar; Brugada, Ramon; Carracedo, Angel
In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) represents the most prevalent cause of death in children between 1 month and 1 year of age. SIDS is a diagnosis of exclusion, a negative autopsy which requires the absence of structural organ disease. Although investigators have confirmed that a significant percentage of SIDS cases are actually channelopathies, no data have been made available as to whether other sudden cardiac death-associated diseases, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), could be responsible for some cases of SIDS. The presence of a genetic mutation in the sarcomeric protein usually affects the force of contraction of the myocyte, whose weakness is compensated with progressive hypertrophy and disarray. However, it is unclear whether in the most incipient forms, that is, first years of life, the lack of these phenotypes still confers a risk of arrhythmogenesis. The main goal of the present study is to wonder whether genetic defects in the sarcomeric proteins, previously associated with HCM, could be responsible for SIDS. We have analysed 286 SIDS cases for the most common genes implicated in HCM in adults. A total of 680 mutations localised in 16 genes were analysed by semi-automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF-MS) using the Sequenom MassARRAY(®) System. Ten subjects with completely normal hearts showed mutated alleles at nine of the genetic variants analysed, and one additional novel mutation was detected by conventional sequencing. Therefore, a genetic mutation associated with HCM may cause sudden cardiac death in the absence of an identifiable phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami
While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [(3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled B(max value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls. On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism.
Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.
Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…
Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques
Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.
Waschbisch, Anne; Volbers, Bastian; Struffert, Tobias; Hoyer, Juliane; Schwab, Stefan; Bardutzky, Juergen
Wolfram syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder presenting with the main clinical symptoms of childhood-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness (DIDMOAD). Later stages of the disease are dominated by neurological complications and death occurs early in life with a median life expectancy of 30 years. Here we present a 44 year old patient who presented to our hospital with central respiratory failure, cognitive impairment, ataxia and parkinsonism and was first diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel pathogenic mutation within the WFS1 gene. Advanced clinical and imaging studies performed in this patient highlight the neurodegenerative process in Wolfram syndrome and expand our knowledge on the mutational spectrum of the disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
T. Kasuga; M. Kozanitas; M. Bui; D. Huberli; D. M. Rizzo; M. Garbelotto
The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for sudden oak death (SOD) in California coastal forests. P. ramorum is a generalist pathogen with over 100 known host species. Three or four closely related genotypes of P. ramorum (from a single lineage) were...
Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson
Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...
Full Text Available Several studies report signs of slight infection prior to death in cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Based on this, a hypothesis of an altered immunological homeostasis has been postulated. The cytokines are important cellular mediators that are crucial for infant health by regulating cell activity during the inflammatory process. The pro-inflammatory cytokines favor inflammation; the most important of these are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α and IFN-γ. These cytokines are controlled by the anti-inflammatory cytokines. This is accomplished by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and thus counteracts their biological effect. The major anti-inflammatory cytokines are interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13. The last decade there has been focus on genetic studies within genes that are important for the immune system, for SIDS with a special interest of the genes encoding the cytokines. This is because the cytokine genes are considered to be the genes most likely to explain the vulnerability to infection, and several studies have investigated these genes in an attempt to uncover associations between SIDS and different genetic variants. So far the genes encoding IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α are the most investigated within SIDS research, and several studies indicates associations between specific variants of these genes and SIDS. Taken together this may indicate that in at least a subset of SIDS predisposing genetic variants of the immune genes are involved. However, the immune system and the cytokine network are complex, and more studies are needed in order to better understand the interplay between different genetic variations and how this may contribute to an unfavorable immunological response.
Weis, J; Weber, U; Schröder, J M; Lemke, R; Althoff, H
Disturbances of the respiratory system may be an important factor in the cascade of events leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Even though the diaphragm is the major respiratory muscle in infants, little is known about alterations of this muscle and of the phrenic nerve in SIDS. In the present study, diaphragms and phrenic nerves of 24 SIDS infants and seven controls were analyzed. Morphometric analysis revealed only slightly larger cross sectional areas of phrenic nerve axons but no increase in myelin sheath thickness in SIDS cases. However, in one SIDS case, myelinated nerve fibre density was severely reduced. Using electron microscopy, several nerve fibres of SIDS infants showed focal accumulations of neurofilaments. Muscle fibre diameters in SIDS diaphragms were significantly larger compared to controls (P fibre ruptures and contracture bands were found. These prominent nonspecific ultrastructural alterations should advise caution in the interpretation of morphometric data. Thus, in some cases exemplified by one case of the present series, decreased density of phrenic nerve myelinated axons might contribute to SIDS. Still, the present results indicate that development of phrenic nerves and diaphragms is not delayed in most SIDS infants.
Jonathan M. Palmer; Kevin P. Drees; Jeffrey T. Foster; Daniel L. Lindner
Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species....
AIMS: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) occurs when a person suffers a sudden, unexpected death, with no cause found at postmortem examination. We aimed to describe the cardiac screening outcomes in a population of relatives of SADS victimsMETHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective cohort study of consecutive families attending the Family Heart Screening clinic at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital in Dublin, Ireland, from January 2007 to September 2011. Family members of SADS victims underwent a standard screening protocol. Adjunct clinical and postmortem information was sought on the proband. Families who had an existing diagnosis, or where the proband had epilepsy, were excluded. Of 115 families identified, 73 were found to fit inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis, with data available on 262 relatives. Over half of the screened family members were female, and the mean age was 38.6 years (standard deviation 15.6). In 22 of 73 families (30%), and 36 of 262 family members (13.7%), a potentially inheritable cause of SADS was detected. Of the population screened, 32 patients (12.2%) were treated with medication, and 5 (1.9%) have received implantable cardiac defibrillators. Of the five families with long QT syndrome (LQTS) who had a pathogenic gene mutation identified, three carried two such mutations.CONCLUSION: In keeping with international estimates, 30% of families of SADS victims were found to have a potentially inherited cardiac disease. The most common positive finding was LQTS. Advances in postmortem standards and genetic studies may assist in achieving more diagnoses in these families.
Obdeijn, M. C.; Tonkin, S.; Mitchell, E. A.
Aim. An audit of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention programme in the Auckland region. Methods. 107 health professionals working in antenatal classes, postnatal wards, domiciliary midwifery and the Plunket Society were interviewed. Results. Maternal smoking and infant sleeping
Liu, An-Chi; Cheng, Chiu-Ping
Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are a large plant-specific transcription factor family and play diverse important roles in various plant functions. However, most tomato ERFs have not been characterized. In this study, we showed that the expression of an uncharacterized member of the tomato ERF-IX subgroup, ERF68, was significantly induced by treatments with different bacterial pathogens, ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA), but only slightly induced by bacterial mutants defective in the type III secretion system (T3SS) or non-host pathogens. The ERF68-green fluorescent protein (ERF68-GFP) fusion protein was localized in the nucleus. Transactivation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) further showed that ERF68 was a functional transcriptional activator and was bound to the GCC-box. Moreover, transient overexpression of ERF68 led to spontaneous lesions in tomato and tobacco leaves and enhanced the expression of genes involved in ET, SA, jasmonic acid (JA) and hypersensitive response (HR) pathways, whereas silencing of ERF68 increased tomato susceptibility to two incompatible Xanthomonas spp. These results reveal the involvement of ERF68 in the effector-triggered immunity (ETI) pathway. To identify ERF68 target genes, chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) was performed. Amongst the confirmed target genes, a few genes involved in cell death or disease defence were differentially regulated by ERF68. Our study demonstrates the function of ERF68 in the positive regulation of hypersensitive cell death and disease defence by modulation of multiple signalling pathways, and provides important new information on the complex regulatory function of ERFs. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Gregory P. Asner
Full Text Available Pathogenic invasions are a major source of change in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. In forests, fungal pathogens can kill habitat-generating plant species such as canopy trees, but methods for remote detection, mapping and monitoring of such outbreaks are poorly developed. Two novel species of the fungal genus Ceratocystis have spread rapidly across humid and mesic forests of Hawaiʻi Island, causing widespread mortality of the keystone endemic canopy tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha (common name: ʻōhiʻa. The process, known as Rapid Ohia Death (ROD, causes browning of canopy leaves in weeks to months following infection by the pathogen. An operational mapping approach is needed to track the spread of the disease. We combined field studies of leaf spectroscopy with laboratory chemical studies and airborne remote sensing to develop a spectral signature for ROD. We found that close to 80% of ROD-infected plants undergo marked decreases in foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, water and non-structural carbohydrates, which collectively result in strong consistent changes in leaf spectral reflectance in the visible (400–700 nm and shortwave-infrared (1300–2500 nm wavelength regions. Leaf-level results were replicated at the canopy level using airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy, with quantitative spectral separability of normal green-leaf canopies from suspected ROD-infected brown-leaf canopies in the visible and shortwave-infrared spectrum. Our results provide the spectral–chemical basis for detection, mapping and monitoring of the spread of ROD in native Hawaiian forests.
Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Ware, James S.; Papadakis, Michael; Tadros, Rafik; Cole, Della; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R.; Pua, Chee J.; Soh, Bee Y.; Bhalshankar, Jaydutt D.; Govind, Risha; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo G.; van der Werf, Christian; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D.; Mellor, Greg; Till, Jan; Cohen, Marta C.; Tome-Esteban, Maria; Sharma, Sanjay; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Cook, Stuart A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Behr, Elijah R.
Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) in cases of SADS and
Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M
BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...
Horne, R.S.C.; Moon, R.Y; L'Hoir, M.P.; Blair, P.S.
The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS. Most of this advice remains largely
Butler, Merlin G; Manzardo, Ann M; Heinemann, Janalee; Loker, Carolyn; Loker, James
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, complex, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that is associated with hyperphagia and morbid obesity in humans and leads to a shortened life expectancy. This report summarizes the primary causes of death and evaluates mortality trends in a large cohort of individuals with PWS. The US Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (PWSA (USA)) syndrome-specific database of death reports was collected through a cursory bereavement program for PWSA (USA) families using a brief survey created in 1999. Causes of death were descriptively characterized and statistically examined using Cox proportional hazards. A total of 486 deaths were reported (263 males, 217 females, 6 unknown) between 1973 and 2015, with mean age of 29.5 ± 16 years (2 months-67 years); 70% occurred in adulthood. Respiratory failure was the most common cause, accounting for 31% of all deaths. Males were at increased risk for presumed hyperphagia-related accidents/injuries and cardiopulmonary factors compared to females. PWS maternal disomy 15 genetic subtype showed an increased risk of death from cardiopulmonary factors compared to the deletion subtype. These findings highlight the heightened vulnerability to obesity and hyperphagia-related mortality in PWS. Future research is needed to address critical vulnerabilities such as gender and genetic subtype in the cause of death in PWS.Genet Med advance online publication 17 November 2016.
Wang, Jie; Jacobs, Janette L; Byrne, Jan M; Chilvers, Martin I
Fusarium virguliforme (syn. F. solani f. sp. glycines) is the primary causal pathogen responsible for soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) in North America. Diagnosis of SDS is difficult because symptoms can be inconsistent or similar to several soybean diseases and disorders. Additionally, quantification and identification of F. virguliforme by traditional dilution plating of soil or ground plant tissue is problematic due to the slow growth rate and plastic morphology of F. virguliforme. Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays have been developed for F. virguliforme, the performance of those assays does not allow for accurate quantification of F. virguliforme due to the reclassification of the F. solani species complex. In this study, we developed a TaqMan qPCR assay based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) region of F. virguliforme. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated by challenging it with genomic DNA of closely related Fusarium spp. and commonly encountered soilborne fungal pathogens. The detection limit of this assay was determined to be 100 fg of pure F. virguliforme genomic DNA or 100 macroconidia in 0.5 g of soil. An exogenous control was multiplexed with the assay to evaluate for PCR inhibition. Target locus copy number variation had minimal impact, with a range of rDNA copy number from 138 to 233 copies per haploid genome, resulting in a minor variation of up to 0.76 cycle threshold values between strains. The qPCR assay is transferable across platforms, as validated on the primary real-time PCR platform used in the Northcentral region of the National Plant Diagnostic Network. A conventional PCR assay for F. virguliforme detection was also developed and validated for use in situations where qPCR is not possible.
Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine
In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated....... Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model...
M.L. Kuijf (Mark)
textabstractGuillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neurological illness in which patients become rapidly paralyzed and require long-term rehabilitation. At present, it is the world’s most frequent cause of acute ascending paralysis in those countries where poliomyelitis has been eradicated (1). GBS is a
Bailey, Beth A.; Sokol, Robert J.
In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposure...
Full Text Available The nonhost-specific phytotoxin coronatine (COR produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae functions as a jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile mimic and contributes to disease development by suppressing plant defense responses and inducing reactive oxygen species in chloroplast. It has been shown that the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1 is the receptor for COR and JA-Ile. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ proteins act as negative regulators for JA signaling in Arabidopsis. However, the physiological significance of JAZ proteins in P. syringae disease development and nonhost pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR cell death is not completely understood. In this study, we identified JAZ genes from tomato, a host plant for P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000, and examined their expression profiles in response to COR and pathogens. Most JAZ genes were induced by COR treatment or inoculation with COR-producing Pst DC3000, but not by the COR-defective mutant DB29. Tomato SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 interacted with SlCOI1 in a COR-dependent manner. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS, we demonstrated that SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 have no effect on COR-induced chlorosis in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. However, SlJAZ2-, SlJAZ6- and SlJAZ7-silenced tomato plants showed enhanced disease-associated cell death to Pst DC3000. Furthermore, we found delayed HR cell death in response to the nonhost pathogen Pst T1 or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, INF1, in SlJAZ2- and SlJAZ6-silenced N. benthamiana. These results suggest that tomato JAZ proteins regulate the progression of cell death during host and nonhost interactions.
Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.
Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der; Herbschleb, J.N.; Hauer, R.N.W.; Robles de Medina, E.O.
A short refractory period of the accessory pathway is considered a major threat for sudden death in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrial fibrillation. RR interval and QRS signal analysis together with signal analysis of a bipolar high right atrial electrogram were obtained in six
Rickert, Christian H.; Gross, Oliver; Nolte, Kay W.; Vennemann, Mechtild; Bajanowski, Thomas; Brinkmann, Bernd
Developmental abnormalities of the brain, in particular, the brainstem potentially affecting centers for breathing, circulation and sleep regulation, are thought to be involved in the etiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In order to investigate whether leptomeningeal neurons could serve
Reissigová, Jindra; Monhart, Z.; Zvárová, Jana; Hanzlíček, Petr; Grünfeldová, H.; Janský, P.; Vojáček, J.; Widimský, P.
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 11-17 ISSN 1801-5603 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multilevel logistic regression * acute coronary syndromes * risk factors * in-hospital death Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Reissigova_en.pdf
Monhart, Z.; Reissigová, Jindra; Zvárová, Jana; Grünfeldová, H.; Janský, P.; Vojáček, J.; Widimský, P.
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 52-52 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : acute coronary syndrome * in-hospital death * prediction * multilevel logistic regression * non- PCI hospital Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Ohtsubo, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by abnormalities involving the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The cardiovascular complications of the syndrome lead to a reduced life expectancy for affected individuals if left untreated. Major cause of death include acute aortic dissection, aortic rupture, and sudden death, which resulted from congenital vascular fragility. Such life-threatening complications in Marfan syndrome can be managed effectively, by routine aortic imaging, beta-adrenergic blockade, and prophylactic replacement of the aortic root before the diameter exceeds 5.0 to 5.5 mm. Valve preserving aortic root reconstruction yielded improved postoperative quality of life compared with Bentall operation, by reducing late complications related to anticoagulants. It should be carried out before onset of aortic regurgitation for long-term native valve durability.
Aneuploidy can result in significant phenotypic changes, which can sometimes be selectively advantageous. For example, aneuploidy confers resistance to antifungal drugs in human pathogenic fungi. Aneuploidy has also been observed in invasive fungal and oomycete plant pathogens in the field. Environm...
Pathogenic invasions are a major disruptive source of change in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. In forests, fungal pathogens can kill habitat-generating plant species such as canopy trees, but methods for remote detection, mapping and monitoring of such outbreaks are poorly developed. Cera...
Backer, Julie De; Braverman, Alan C
Predominant cardiovascular manifestations in the spectrum of Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease include by default aortic root aneurysms- and dissections, which may be associated with aortic valve disease. Mitral- and tricuspid valve prolapse are other commonly recognized features. Myocardial disease, characterized by heart failure and/or malignant arrhythmias has been reported in humans and in animal models harboring pathogenic variants in the Fibrillin1 gene. Description of clinical history of three cases from one family in Ghent (Belgium) and one family in St. Louis (US). We report on three cases from two families presenting end-stage heart failure (in two) and lethal arrhythmias associated with moderate left ventricular dilatation (in one). All three cases harbor a pathogenic variant in the SMAD3 gene, known to cause aneurysm osteoarthritis syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 3 or isolated Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease. These unusual presentations warrant awareness for myocardial disease in patients harboring pathogenic variants in genes causing Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease and indicate the need for prospective studies in larger cohorts. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Willis, Craig K R
Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Frick, Winifred F; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Janicki, Amanda F; Parise, Katy L; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm
Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized. Fungal loads increased rapidly and prevalence rose to nearly 100% at most sites within 2 yr of invasion in six of seven species. Prevalence and loads did not decline over time despite huge reductions in colony sizes, likely due to an extensive environmental reservoir. However, there was substantial variation in fungal load among sites with persisting colonies, suggesting that both tolerance and resistance developed at different sites in the same species. In contrast, one species disappeared from hibernacula within 3 yr of pathogen invasion. Variable host responses to pathogen invasion require different management strategies to prevent disease-induced extinction and to facilitate evolution of tolerance or resistance in persisting populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Palmer, Jonathan M; Drees, Kevin P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Lindner, Daniel L
Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species. P. destructans displays a large reduction in carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes (CAZymes) and in the predicted secretome (~50%), and an increase in lineage-specific genes. The pathogen has lost a key enzyme, UVE1, in the alternate excision repair (AER) pathway, which is known to contribute to repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Consistent with a nonfunctional AER pathway, P. destructans is extremely sensitive to UV light, as well as the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The differential susceptibility of P. destructans to UV light in comparison to other hibernacula-inhabiting fungi represents a potential "Achilles' heel" of P. destructans that might be exploited for treatment of bats with WNS.
Millat, G; Chevalier, P; Restier-Miron, L; Da Costa, A; Bouvagnet, P; Kugener, B; Fayol, L; Gonzàlez Armengod, C; Oddou, B; Chanavat, V; Froidefond, E; Perraudin, R; Rousson, R; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by a long QT interval on the electrocardiogram, increased risk of syncope and sudden death caused by arrhythmias. This syndrome is mostly caused by mutations in genes encoding various cardiac ion channels. The clinical heterogeneity is usually attributed to variable penetrance. One of the reasons for this variability in expression could be the coexistence of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on LQTS-causing genes and/or unknown genes. Some synonymous and nonsynonymous exonic SNPs identified in LQTS-causing genes may have an effect on the cardiac repolarization process and modulate the clinical expression of a latent LQTS pathogenic mutation. We report the molecular pattern of 44 unrelated patients with LQTS using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1 and KCNE2 genes. Forty-five disease-causing mutations (including 24 novel ones) were identified in this cohort. Most of our patients (84%) showed complex molecular pattern with one mutation (and even two for four patients) associated with several SNPs located in several LQTS genes.
Novella, John; DeBiasi, Ralph M; Coplan, Neil L; Suri, Ranji; Keller, Seth
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the first clinical manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a well-documented, although rare occurrence. The incidence of SCD in patients with WPW ranges from 0% to 0.39% annually. Controversy exists regarding risk stratification for patients with preexcitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly in those who are asymptomatic. This article focuses on the role of risk stratification using exercise and pharmacologic testing in patients with WPW pattern on ECG.
Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is a heritable arrhythmia syndrome that is characterized by an electrocardiographic pattern consisting of coved-type ST-segment elevation (2 mm followed by a negative T wave in the right precordial leads, V1 through V3 (often referred to as type 1 Brugada electrocardiographic pattern, here we describe 3 cases of Brugada who survived sudden cardiac death (SCD cardiac center experience with survived Brugada syndrome patients – case series. First Case: The Father 45 years old male, presented in 2005 after involvement in unprovoked motor vehicle accident, the patient was the driver who lost consciousness and rushed to the hospital. On arrival to our ER and putting the patient on the bed, the ER doctor observed a brief episode of VF on the monitor. The patient was taken to the catheterization Lab , his coronaries were normal. The diagnosis of Brugada was established and the patient received a defibrillator. At That Time all family members were screened and were negative. Second Case: The Son of the first patient 5 years later his 23 years old male rushed to our ER after he lost consciousness, he was passenger in the car of his friend. Third Case: The pilot A military pilot aged a male 35 years old was in very good health when he lost consciousness and brought to the hospital after resuscitation in 2005. He had full invasive cardiac evaluation, subsequently he received a defibrillator in the same admission period, till 2015 he is doing fine. Brugada syndrome is associated with high tendency for sudden cardiac death. In our three cases the first clinical presentation was survived sudden cardiac death (SCD and all three male patients survived. We did not encounter a female patient who survived sudden cardiac death.
Mohammad K. Eldomery
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial presequence proteases perform fundamental functions as they process about 70 % of all mitochondrial preproteins that are encoded in the nucleus and imported posttranslationally. The mitochondrial intermediate presequence protease MIP/Oct1, which carries out precursor processing, has not yet been established to have a role in human disease. Methods Whole exome sequencing was performed on four unrelated probands with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC, developmental delay (DD, seizures, and severe hypotonia. Proposed pathogenic variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing or array comparative genomic hybridization. Functional analysis of the identified MIP variants was performed using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the protein and its functions are highly conserved from yeast to human. Results Biallelic single nucleotide variants (SNVs or copy number variants (CNVs in MIPEP, which encodes MIP, were present in all four probands, three of whom had infantile/childhood death. Two patients had compound heterozygous SNVs (p.L582R/p.L71Q and p.E602*/p.L306F and one patient from a consanguineous family had a homozygous SNV (p.K343E. The fourth patient, identified through the GeneMatcher tool, a part of the Matchmaker Exchange Project, was found to have inherited a paternal SNV (p.H512D and a maternal CNV (1.4-Mb deletion of 13q12.12 that includes MIPEP. All amino acids affected in the patients’ missense variants are highly conserved from yeast to human and therefore S. cerevisiae was employed for functional analysis (for p.L71Q, p.L306F, and p.K343E. The mutations p.L339F (human p.L306F and p.K376E (human p.K343E resulted in a severe decrease of Oct1 protease activity and accumulation of non-processed Oct1 substrates and consequently impaired viability under respiratory growth conditions. The p.L83Q (human p.L71Q failed to localize to the mitochondria. Conclusions Our findings reveal for the first
Kudryavtsev, V.D.; Kartasheva, A.L.; Tsyran, N.I.
Data obtained in rats and mice irradiated with 900 - 1600 rad 60 Co gamma radiation point to an important role of the microbial factor in the 'intestinal death'. At the climax of the intestinal syndrome dysbacterial conditions developed violently in the intestinal content under predominance of putrefactive bacteria (Proteus). The application of kanamycin according to an elaborated pattern completely suppressed the proteus growth in the intestine and decreased considerably the content of obligatory representatives of the intestinal flora by which most of the animals could survive the time of 'intestinal death' (3rd to 5th day) after irradiation with relatively low doses (900 - 1200 rad). With increasing radiation doses (up to 1400 rad and more) the antibacterial therapy became uneffective because of the increasing importance of other lethal factors. The analysis of these results as well as literature data allow the conclusion that microbial intoxication plays a leading role in the death of the animals at the initial period and at the climax of the intestinal syndrome (3rd to 4th day). At the final stage of the development of the intestinal syndrome (5th day) septicaemia supervened. (author)
João A N Filipe
Full Text Available Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also challenged by limited data on the actual area infested and the dynamics of spatial spread, due to financial, technological, or social constraints. We examine principles of landscape epidemiology important in designing policy to prevent or slow invasion by such organisms, and use Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to illustrate how shortfalls in their understanding can render management applications inappropriate. This pathogen has invaded forests in coastal California, USA, and an isolated but fast-growing epidemic focus in northern California (Humboldt County has the potential for extensive spread. The risk of spread is enhanced by the pathogen's generalist nature and survival. Additionally, the extent of cryptic infection is unknown due to limited surveying resources and access to private land. Here, we use an epidemiological model for transmission in heterogeneous landscapes and Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo inference to estimate dispersal and life-cycle parameters of P. ramorum and forecast the distribution of infection and speed of the epidemic front in Humboldt County. We assess the viability of management options for containing the pathogen's northern spread and local impacts. Implementing a stand-alone host-free "barrier" had limited efficacy due to long-distance dispersal, but combining curative with preventive treatments ahead of the front reduced local damage and contained spread. While the large size of this focus makes effective control expensive, early synchronous treatment in newly-identified disease foci should be more cost-effective. We show how the
Santos, O.R. dos.
When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show characteristic syndromes. Some syndromes result inevitably in death. Others may or may not be lethal, depending on the extent of the tissue damage. The time of appearance of the syndromes, their duration, and the survival of the organism depend on many factors. Whole body acute doses of radiation produce the same spectrum of Central Nervous System (CNS), Gastrointestinal (GI) and Bone Marrow (BM) injury in man as was described for animals. Damage to the skin, ovary and testis are an integral and important part of the symptoms. (author) [pt
Márquez, Manlio F; Cruz-Robles, David; Ines-Real, Selene; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Cárdenas, Manuel
Hereditary sudden cardiac death syndromes comprise a wide range of diseases resulting from alteration in cardiac ion channels. Genes involved in these syndromes represent diverse mutations that cause the altered encoding of the diverse proteins constituting these channels, thus affecting directly the currents of the corresponding ions. In the present article we will briefly review how to arrive to a clinical diagnosis and we will present the results of molecular genetic studies made in Mexican subjects attending the SCD Syndromes Clinic of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
María Marlen Avalos González
Full Text Available En nuestra área de salud se presentó un caso de muerte súbita del lactante, en un paciente de 7 meses de edad, masculino, con antecedentes de salud anterior y antecedentes patológicos familiares negativos. Fue inexplicable su muerte, aun después de realizada una necropsia completa, la investigación de la escena de la muerte y la evaluación de la historia clínica del niño y su familia. El síndrome de muerte súbita del lactante es de causa desconocida, lo más probable es que sea de etiología multifactorial, se debe de estar alerta para evitar los factores que se asocian con mayor frecuencia a estos niños y así prevenir la aparición de este síndrome.In our health area, there was a case of sudden infant death, in a patient aged 7 months, male, with previous health backgrounds and negative family pathologic backgrounds. Its death was inexplicable, even after a complete necropsy, the research of death scene, and the medical record assessment of child and its family. Sudden infant death syndrome is an unknown cause, probably of multifactor origin. We must to be on the alert to avoid the more frequent factors associating with these children, and thus to prevent appearance of this syndrome.
L. L. Nisevich
Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is one of the leading causes of postneonatal mortality of infants in most developed countries. This paper presents data on terminology and on the study of SIDS in developed countries, and also examines problems of SIDS diagnostic inRussia in comparison with the results of own researches, analyzes risk factors, which are universal as for SIDS, and also for perinatal and infant death in general. The large variability of SIDS diagnosis in Russia suggests that this diagnosis often does not comply with international standard: post-mortem examination of community-acquired sudden death cases is often carried out by a forensic expert, but not by a children's pathologist, and they do not use virological and microbiological methods of investigation. In some cases, there is no infant's record or case record from children's polyclinic.
Iakimova, E.T.; Michalczuk, L.; Woltering, E.J.
This review is a recent update in the understanding of the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants with special consideration to the physiological and biochemical determinants in different model systems. Hypersensitive response is reviewed as a form of programmed cell death (PCD) representing one of
Ardiles, L G; Olavarría, F; Elgueta, M; Moya, P; Mezzano, S
Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies have been associated with thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and an increased risk of thrombosis in different vascular locations, even in the absence of lupus. The classic hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a postinfectious acute renal failure characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and the presence of widespread glomerular thrombosis in the kidney, with pathogenic mechanisms that remain to be identified. In order to establish the frequency of aCL antibodies in this syndrome and to identify a possible role in the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, 17 patients were studied during the reactant phase of the disease looking for an association between the presence of aCL antibodies (isotypes IgG, IgA and IgM) and the main clinical variables of the syndrome. In 8 patients IgG aCL was present, 2 patients had IgM aCL, and 1 had IgA antibodies on the solid-phase ELISA aCL assays, but no association could be demonstrated with the clinical variables studied. Although it might correspond to an epiphenomenon related to the triggering intestinal infection, a pathogenic role cannot be discarded and additional studies should be performed.
Flávia P Franco
Full Text Available Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins. Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens.
Gollenberg, Audra; Fendley, Kim
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains a leading cause of infant death in the United States, and in Virginia. We sought to gauge the perceptions among community-identified stakeholders regarding community resource needs to reduce SIDS. Snowball sampling identified important community stakeholders to be interviewed as key informants. A…
Full Text Available Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists will become necessary.
Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Engstrøm, Thomas; Albert, Christine M; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob
No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation of SADS. We have previously identified all of the autopsied sudden cardiac deaths (SCD; n = 314) in Danes aged 1-35 years between 2000 and 2006. After comprehensive pathological and toxicological investigation did not reveal a cause of SCD, 136 of the patients were identified as SADS. The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among these, 30 (22%) had contacted the healthcare system. Antecedent symptoms (symptoms >24 hours before death) were present in 34 (25%) patients. Prodromal symptoms (symptoms ≤24 hours before death) were present in 23 (17%) patients. Cardiac symptoms included chest pain (n = 16, 12%), dyspnea (n = 18, 13%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced cardiac symptoms before death, most commonly presyncope/syncope, but only one out of five had contacted a healthcare provider with cardiac symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Juntunen, J; Taskinen, H
Along with attacks of white finger, symptoms suggesting peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, ie, polyneuropathy or entrapment neuropathy, are very important in the hand-arm vibration syndrome. Peripheral neuropathies are probably associated with the occurrence of the syndrome because of a selection mechanism. Polyneuropathy may be a contributing factor in the development of entrapment neuropathies in the upper extremities. It has multiple pathogenic mechanisms and numerous causative factors. However, peripheral nerves can react to pathological stimuli in a limited number of ways. Wallerian degeneration, segmental demyelination, and axonal degeneration are the classical neuropathological types of peripheral neuropathies, of which the first two are possible direct consequences of vibration exposure. The clinical manifestations of polyneuropathy range from sensory to motor types, sometimes with autonomic involvement. Whenever polyneuropathy is encountered in the hand-arm vibration syndrome, its etiologic possibilities should be considered. Regardless of the variable criteria used by different authors, individual diagnosis of the syndrome is always a probability diagnosis, and adequate neurological differential diagnostics have to be employed.
Full Text Available Kamal Ali, Na’eem Ahmed, Anne GreenoughDivision of Asthma, Allergy, and Lung Biology, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King’s College Hospital, London, United KingdomAbstract: In the developed world, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death in the post neonatal period. This review highlights the association between maternal substance misuse and SIDS, and discusses whether the increased risk is explained by abnormalities of respiratory control. Substance misuse during pregnancy is common, and although the incidence of smoking has declined in recent years among pregnant women, an increasing proportion of mothers of infants who have died of SIDS smoke. The risk of SIDS is increased in women who take opiates, but not cocaine or marijuana, although infants exposed to either of these drugs suffer morbidity, including reduced birth weight. Nicotine exposure increases the risk of SIDS, particularly if both parents smoke, and there is a dose-dependent effect. A variety of respiratory abnormalities have been described in the infants of substance abuse mothers, which may increase their risk of SIDS. These abnormalities include a reduced ability to recover from prolonged apnea and a blunted response to hypoxia and hypercarbia. These results are consistent with postmortem brainstem abnormalities reported among SIDS victims.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, nicotine, opiates
Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable.
Westphal, Andreas; Li, Chunge; Xing, Lijuan; McKay, Alan; Malvick, Dean
Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i) untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii) non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii) non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv) natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean ‘Williams 82’ were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC), root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil. Conclusions/Significance The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly
Alok Das Mohapatra
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful embryogenesis is a critical rate limiting step for the survival and transmission of parasitic worms as well as pathology mediated by them. Hence, blockage of this important process through therapeutic induction of apoptosis in their embryonic stages offers promise for developing effective anti-parasitic measures against these extra cellular parasites. However, unlike in the case of protozoan parasites, induction of apoptosis as a therapeutic approach is yet to be explored against metazoan helminth parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For the first time, here we developed and evaluated flow cytometry based assays to assess several conserved features of apoptosis in developing embryos of a pathogenic filarial nematode Setaria digitata, in-vitro as well as ex-vivo. We validated programmed cell death in developing embryos by using immuno-fluorescence microscopy and scoring expression profile of nematode specific proteins related to apoptosis [e.g. CED-3, CED-4 and CED-9]. Mechanistically, apoptotic death of embryonic stages was found to be a caspase dependent phenomenon mediated primarily through induction of intracellular ROS. The apoptogenicity of some pharmacological compounds viz. DEC, Chloroquine, Primaquine and Curcumin were also evaluated. Curcumin was found to be the most effective pharmacological agent followed by Primaquine while Chloroquine displayed minimal effect and DEC had no demonstrable effect. Further, demonstration of induction of apoptosis in embryonic stages by lipid peroxidation products [molecules commonly associated with inflammatory responses in filarial disease] and demonstration of in-situ apoptosis of developing embryos in adult parasites in a natural bovine model of filariasis have offered a framework to understand anti-fecundity host immunity operational against parasitic helminths. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations have revealed for the first time, that induction of apoptosis in
Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M
.04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs......Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0...... of pneumonia. Even though chlamydia inclusions were detected in the lungs of 32 SIDS cases a causal relation between chlamydia infection and SIDS could not be demonstrated....
Tanakaya, Kohji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Ishikawa, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Furukawa, Yoichi; Hirata, Keiji; Saida, Yoshihisa; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Arai, Masami; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Sugano, Kokichi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Ishida, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi
To elucidate the causes of cancer death in Japanese families with Lynch syndrome (LS). The distributions of cancer deaths in 485 individuals from 67 families with LS (35, 30, and two families with MutL homologue 1 (MLH1), MSH2, and MSH6 gene mutations, respectively), obtained from the Registry of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum were analyzed. Among 98 cancer deaths of first-degree relatives of unknown mutation status, 53%, 19%, 13% (among females), 7% (among females) and 5% were due to colorectal, gastric, uterine, ovarian, and hepatobiliary cancer, respectively. The proportion of deaths from extra-colonic cancer was significantly higher in families with MSH2 mutation than in those with MLH1 mutation (p=0.003). In addition to colonic and uterine cancer, management and surveillance targeting gastric, ovarian and hepatobiliary cancer are considered important for Japanese families with LS. Extra-colonic cancer in families with MSH2 mutation might require for more intensive surveillance. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm
Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G
Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ramond, Francis; Duband, Sébastien; Croisille, Pierre; Cavé, Hélène; Teyssier, Georges; Adouard, Véronique; Touraine, Renaud
Noonan syndrome is a well-known genetic condition associating congenital heart defects, short stature, and distinctive facial features. Pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are the most frequent cardiac abnormalities, the latter being associated with a higher mortality. Here we report for the first time, a case of congenital left main coronary artery atresia in a Noonan syndrome associated with RIT1 variant, leading to unrescued sudden death. This case-report supports the already-suspected severity of the RIT1-related Noonan syndrome compared to average Noonan syndrome, and should encourage clinicians to be very cautious with these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88(+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB. Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%. The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88(+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies. Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the
Morgan, S.B.; Graham, S.P.; Salguero, F.J.; Sánchez Cordón, P.J.; Mokhtar, H.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Weesendorp, E.; Bodman-Smith, K.B.; Steinbach, F.; Frossard, J.P.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the
Cooper, C R; McGinnis, M R
To summarize current knowledge regarding the opportunistic dimorphic fungal pathogen Penicillium marneffei. Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, mycology, histopathology, diagnostic serology, in vitro antifungal agent susceptibility testing, and therapy are discussed for human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals primarily living in Southeast Asia. Critical evaluation of peer-reviewed publications located through an electronic literature database search, supplemented by unpublished observations, were used to prepare this report. Studies were selected based on either the fungal name Penicillium marneffei, penicilliosis, penicilliosis marneffei, or a combination of these. Articles were reviewed with appropriate data being abstracted and then synthesized into the review. Differential diagnostic criteria for tissue diagnosis and laboratory identification of the fungus are detailed. The usefulness of mycoserology and antifungal therapy are evaluated. Penicillium marneffei is an emerging pathogen, primarily among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome residing in Southeast Asia. Although infection caused by P marneffei is endemic to this portion of the world, cases are being diagnosed and treated involving individuals who have traveled to this region. Penicilliosis marneffei can clinically resemble tuberculosis, molluscum contagiosum, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis. The successful treatment of P marneffei infection is dependent on its rapid and accurate diagnosis.
Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.
Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri
Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White Syndrome (WS, a general term for scleractinian coral diseases with acute signs of advancing tissue lesions often resulting in total colony mortality, has been reported from numerous locations throughout the Indo-Pacific, constituting a growing threat to coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial isolates were obtained from corals displaying disease signs at three ws outbreak sites: Nikko Bay in the Republic of Palau, Nelly Bay in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR and Majuro Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and used in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Henle-Koch's postulates, Evan's rules and Hill's criteria for establishing causality. Infected colonies produced similar signs to those observed in the field following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 1x10(6 cells ml(-1. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis demonstrated that all six pathogens identified in this study were members of the gamma-Proteobacteria family Vibrionacae, each with greater than 98% sequence identity with the previously characterized coral bleaching pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Screening for proteolytic activity of more than 150 coral derived bacterial isolates by a biochemical assay and specific primers for a Vibrio family zinc-metalloprotease demonstrated a significant association between the presence of isolates capable of proteolytic activity and observed disease signs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to provide evidence for the involvement of a unique taxonomic group of bacterial pathogens in the aetiology of Indo-Pacific coral diseases affecting multiple coral species at multiple locations. Results from this study strongly suggest the need for further investigation of bacterial proteolytic enzymes as possible virulence factors involved in Vibrio associated acute coral infections.
Ian M. Mackay
Full Text Available The human coronaviruses (CoV include HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1, some of which have been known for decades. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV briefly emerged into the human population but was controlled. In 2012, another novel severely human pathogenic CoV—the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV—was identified in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 80% of over 2000 human cases have been recorded over five years. Targeted research remains key to developing control strategies for MERS-CoV, a cause of mild illness in its camel reservoir. A new therapeutic toolbox being developed in response to MERS is also teaching us more about how CoVs cause disease. Travel-related cases continue to challenge the world’s surveillance and response capabilities, and more data are needed to understand unexplained primary transmission. Signs of genetic change have been recorded, but it remains unclear whether there is any impact on clinical disease. How camels came to carry the virus remains academic to the control of MERS. To date, human-to-human transmission has been inefficient, but virus surveillance, characterisation, and reporting are key to responding to any future change. MERS-CoV is not currently a pandemic threat; it is spread mainly with the aid of human habit and error.
Mage David T.
Full Text Available Introduction: The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is not likely to be explained by a currently measureable presence in all cases and absence in controls, as otherwise it would have been solved already. Indeed, any proposed physiological model for SIDS causation must explain the constant mathematical and statistical properties of SIDS age and gender. We have shown previously that SIDS are characterized by a common 4-parameter lognormal age distribution sparing neonatal infants, by a nominal 50% male excess, and by a higher rate in winter than summer. We test now whether SIDS is closely related to a fulminating prodromal Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI by a common increasing rate with the infants increasing Live Birth Order (LBO, all remaining the same, independent of the change in preferred sleeping positions of the infants, prone or supine.
Nunn, Laurence M; Lopes, Luis R; Syrris, Petros
AIMS: The targeted genetic screening of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS) probands in a molecular autopsy has a diagnostic yield of up to 35%. Exome sequencing has the potential to improve this yield. The primary aim of this study is to examine the feasibility and diagnostic utility...... of targeted exome screening in SADS victims, utilizing familial clinical screening whenever possible. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the feasibility and diagnostic yield of targeted exome sequencing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 59 SADS victims (mean age 25 years, range 1-51 years...... previously published rare (0.02-0.5%) candidate mutations-a total yield of 29%. Co-segregation fully confirmed two private SCN5A Na channel mutations. Variants of unknown significance were detected in a further 34% of probands. CONCLUSION: Molecular autopsy using targeted exome sequencing has a relatively...
Mitsumoto, H; Schwartzman, M J; Estes, M L; Chou, S M; La Franchise, E F; De Camilli, P; Solimena, M
Two women with typical stiff-man syndrome (SMS) developed increasingly frequent attacks of muscle spasms with severe paroxysmal autonomic dysfunctions such as transient hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, tachycardia, pupillary dilation, and arterial hypertension. Autoantibodies to GABA-ergic neurons were identified in the serum of both patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid of one. Both died suddenly and unexpectedly. General autopsy did not reveal the cause of death. Neuropathological studies revealed perivascular gliosis in the spinal cord and brain stem of one patient and lymphocytic perivascular infiltration in the spinal cord, brain stem, and basal ganglia of the other. The occurrence of a chronic inflammatory reaction in one of the two patients supports the idea that an autoimmune disease against GABA-ergic neurons may be involved in SMS. A review of the literature indicates that functional impairment in SMS is severe and prognosis is unpredictable because of the potential for sudden and unexpected death. Both muscular abnormalities and autonomic dysfunctions may result from autoimmunity directed against GABA-ergic neurons.
Yikilkan, Hulya; Unalan, Pemra Cobek; Cakir, Erkan; Ersu, Refika Hamutcu; Cifcili, Serap; Akman, Mehmet; Uzuner, Arzu; Dagli, Elif
Behavioral risk factors are associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Education about the risk factors of SIDS is important for prevention. Our aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude of parents and health professionals about SIDS. A total of 174 health professionals and 150 mothers were enrolled in this study. Mothers' data were collected by telephone interview and health-care professionals were interviewed by the same investigator. Only 39% of mothers were aware of SIDS. Forty-six percent of the mothers preferred a supine sleeping position for their infant and 16% of the parents were bed-sharing with their infants. Seventy-three percent of health professionals selected side, 17% supine and 10% prone sleeping position as the safest sleeping position. Frequencies for awareness of risk factors were: bed-sharing (75%), soft bedding (70%), pillow use (52%), toys in bed (90%), high room temperature (67%) and smoking (88%). Total knowledge score of health professionals who selected supine sleeping position as the safest was significantly higher (P sleeping position for their infant. Only 72% of health professionals recommended a certain sleeping position during family interviews. Health professionals are more often recommending the side sleeping position or prone. Education of families and health professionals for the risk factors of SIDS may reduce the number of deaths from SIDS in Istanbul. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; van Langen, I. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; van den Bout, J.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.
Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,
Hendriks, Karin S. W. H.; Grosfeld, FJM; van Tintelen, JP; van Langen, IM; Wilde, AAM; van den Bout, J; ten Kroode, HFJ
Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,
Davy, Christina M; Donaldson, Michael E; Willis, Craig K R; Saville, Barry J; McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather; Wilcox, Alana; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Misra, Vikram; Bollinger, Trent; Kyle, Christopher J
Mitigation of emerging infectious diseases that threaten global biodiversity requires an understanding of critical host and pathogen responses to infection. For multihost pathogens where pathogen virulence or host susceptibility is variable, host-pathogen interactions in tolerant species may identify potential avenues for adaptive evolution in recently exposed, susceptible hosts. For example, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and is responsible for catastrophic declines in some species in North America, where it was recently introduced. Bats in Europe and Asia, where the pathogen is endemic, are only mildly affected. Different environmental conditions among Nearctic and Palearctic hibernacula have been proposed as an explanation for variable disease outcomes, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. We report the first controlled, experimental investigation of response to P. destructans in a tolerant, European species of bat (the greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis ). We compared body condition, disease outcomes and gene expression in control (sham-exposed) and exposed M. myotis that hibernated under controlled environmental conditions following treatment. Tolerant M. myotis experienced extremely limited fungal growth and did not exhibit symptoms of WNS. However, we detected no differential expression of genes associated with immune response in exposed bats, indicating that immune response does not drive tolerance of P. destructans in late hibernation. Variable responses to P. destructans among bat species cannot be attributed solely to environmental or ecological factors. Instead, our results implicate coevolution with the pathogen, and highlight the dynamic nature of the "white-nose syndrome transcriptome." Interspecific variation in response to exposure by the host (and possibly pathogen) emphasizes the importance of context in studies of the bat-WNS system, and robust
Chibucos, Marcus C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu
We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G.?pannorum has a larger proteome than G.?destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes.
Chibucos, Marcus C; Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu
We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G. pannorum has a larger proteome than G. destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes.
Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is the leading cause of death in USA infants under one year of age accounting for approximately 2,700 deaths per year. Although formally SIDS dates back at least 2,000 years and was even mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Kings 3:19 its etiology remains unexplained prompting the CDC to initiate a sudden unexpected infant death case registry in 2010. Due to their total dependence, the ability of the infant to allostatically regulate stressors and stress responses shaped by genetic and environmental factors is severely constrained. We propose that SIDS is the result of cumulative painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that begin in utero and tax neonatal regulatory systems incompatible with allostasis. We also identify several putative biochemical mechanisms involved in SIDS. We argue that the important characteristics of SIDS, namely male predominance (60:40, the significantly different SIDS rate in USA Hispanics (80% lower compared to whites, 50% of cases occurring between 7.6 and 17.6 weeks after birth with only 10% after 24.7 weeks, and seasonal variation with most cases occurring during winter, are all associated with common environmental stressors, such as neonatal circumcision and seasonal illnesses. We predict that neonatal circumcision is associated with hypersensitive to pain and decreased heart rate variability which increase the risk for SIDS. We also predict that neonatal male circumcision will account for the SIDS gender bias and that cultures that practice high male circumcision rates, like USA whites, will have higher SIDS rates compared to cultures with lower circumcision rates. SIDS rates will also be higher in USA states where Medicaid covers circumcision and lower among cultures that do not practice neonatal circumcision and/or cannot afford to pay for circumcision. We last predict that winter-born premature infants who are circumcised will be at higher risk of SIDS compared to infants who
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among USA infants under 1 year of age accounting for ~2,700 deaths per year. Although formally SIDS dates back at least 2,000 years and was even mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Kings 3:19), its etiology remains unexplained prompting the CDC to initiate a sudden unexpected infant death case registry in 2010. Due to their total dependence, the ability of the infant to allostatically regulate stressors and stress responses shaped by genetic and environmental factors is severely constrained. We propose that SIDS is the result of cumulative painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that begin in utero and tax neonatal regulatory systems incompatible with allostasis. We also identify several putative biochemical mechanisms involved in SIDS. We argue that the important characteristics of SIDS, namely male predominance (60:40), the significantly different SIDS rate among USA Hispanics (80% lower) compared to whites, 50% of cases occurring between 7.6 and 17.6 weeks after birth with only 10% after 24.7 weeks, and seasonal variation with most cases occurring during winter, are all associated with common environmental stressors, such as neonatal circumcision and seasonal illnesses. We predict that neonatal circumcision is associated with hypersensitivity to pain and decreased heart rate variability, which increase the risk for SIDS. We also predict that neonatal male circumcision will account for the SIDS gender bias and that groups that practice high male circumcision rates, such as USA whites, will have higher SIDS rates compared to groups with lower circumcision rates. SIDS rates will also be higher in USA states where Medicaid covers circumcision and lower among people that do not practice neonatal circumcision and/or cannot afford to pay for circumcision. We last predict that winter-born premature infants who are circumcised will be at higher risk of SIDS compared to infants who experienced fewer
Wu, Xue; Yin, Jiani; Simpson, Jeremy; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Gu, Shengqing; Hong, Jenny H.; Bayliss, Peter; Backx, Peter H.
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart defects, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. NS is caused by germ line mutations in several components of the RAS–RAF–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, including both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired alleles of RAF1 (∼3 to 5%), which encodes a serine-threonine kinase for MEK1/2. To investigate how kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants cause NS, we generated knock-in mice expressing Raf1D486N. Raf1D486N/+ (here D486N/+) female mice exhibited a mild growth defect. Male and female D486N/D486N mice developed concentric cardiac hypertrophy and incompletely penetrant, but severe, growth defects. Remarkably, Mek/Erk activation was enhanced in Raf1D486N-expressing cells compared with controls. RAF1D486N, as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation. Furthermore, kinase-activating RAF1 mutants also required heterodimerization to enhance MEK/ERK activation. Our results suggest that an increased heterodimerization ability is the common pathogenic mechanism for NS-associated RAF1 mutations. PMID:22826437
Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS is a hereditary cancer predisposition caused by inactivating mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Mutations in the MSH6 DNA MMR gene account for approximately 18% of LS cases. Many LS-associated sequence variants are nonsense and frameshift mutations that clearly abrogate MMR activity. However, missense mutations whose functional implications are unclear are also frequently seen in suspected-LS patients. To conclusively diagnose LS and enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs to reduce morbidity as well as mortality, the functional consequences of these variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS must be defined. We present an oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis screen for the identification of pathogenic MSH6 VUS. In the screen, the MSH6 variant of interest is introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells by site-directed mutagenesis. Subsequent selection for MMR-deficient cells using the DNA damaging agent 6-thioguanine (6TG allows the identification of MMR abrogating VUS because solely MMR-deficient cells survive 6TG exposure. We demonstrate the efficacy of the genetic screen, investigate the phenotype of 26 MSH6 VUS and compare our screening results to clinical data from suspected-LS patients carrying these variant alleles.
Petutschnig, Elena K; Stolze, Marnie; Lipka, Ulrike; Kopischke, Michaela; Horlacher, Juliane; Valerius, Oliver; Rozhon, Wilfried; Gust, Andrea A; Kemmerling, Birgit; Poppenberger, Brigitte; Braus, Gerhard H; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Lipka, Volker
Plants detect pathogens by sensing microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors. Pattern recognition receptor complexes also have roles in cell death control, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we report isolation of cerk1-4, a novel mutant allele of the Arabidopsis chitin receptor CERK1 with enhanced defense responses. We identified cerk1-4 in a forward genetic screen with barley powdery mildew and consequently characterized it by pathogen assays, mutant crosses and analysis of defense pathways. CERK1 and CERK1-4 proteins were analyzed biochemically. The cerk1-4 mutation causes an amino acid exchange in the CERK1 ectodomain. Mutant plants maintain chitin signaling capacity but exhibit hyper-inducible salicylic acid concentrations and deregulated cell death upon pathogen challenge. In contrast to chitin signaling, the cerk1-4 phenotype does not require kinase activity and is conferred by the N-terminal part of the receptor. CERK1 undergoes ectodomain shedding, a well-known process in animal cell surface proteins. Wild-type plants contain the full-length CERK1 receptor protein as well as a soluble form of the CERK1 ectodomain, whereas cerk1-4 plants lack the N-terminal shedding product. Our work suggests that CERK1 may have a chitin-independent role in cell death control and is the first report of ectodomain shedding in plants. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.
Full Text Available Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. An emergency department (ED visit may provide an opportunistic ‘teachable moment’ for parents.Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1 that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS prevention than other recommendations, and (2 that an ED educational intervention would increase pacifier use in infants younger than six months, and (3 that otitis media would not occur more frequently in pacifier users.Methods. We did an intervention-group-only longitudinal study in a county hospital ED. We measured pacifier use infants and baseline knowledge of SIDs prevention recommendations in caregivers. We followed up three months later to determine pacifier use, and 12 months later to determine episodes of otitis media.Results. We analyzed data for 780 infants. Parents knew of advice against co-sleeping in 469/780 (60%, smoking in 660/776 (85%, and prone sleeping in 613/780 (79%. Only 268/777 (35% knew the recommendation to offer a pacifier at bedtime. At enrollment 449/780 (58% did not use a pacifier. Of 210/338 infants aged less than 6 months followed up 41/112 (37% non-users had started using a pacifier at bedtime (NNT 3. Over the same period, 37/98 (38% users had discontinued their pacifier. Otitis media did not differ between users and non-users at 12 months.Conclusion. Caregiver knowledge of the role of pacifiers in SIDS prevention was less than for other recommendations. Our educational intervention appeared to increase pacifier use. Pacifier use was not associated with increased otitis media.
Smith, Eric E; Malik, Harmit S
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is a human protein that confers immunity to Trypanosoma brucei infections but can be countered by a trypanosome-encoded antagonist SRA. APOL1 belongs to a family of programmed cell death genes whose proteins can initiate host apoptosis or autophagic death. We report here that all six members of the APOL gene family (APOL1-6) present in humans have rapidly evolved in simian primates. APOL6, furthermore, shows evidence of an adaptive sweep during recent human evolution. In each APOL gene tested, we found rapidly evolving codons in or adjacent to the SRA-interacting protein domain (SID), which is the domain of APOL1 that interacts with SRA. In APOL6, we also found a rapidly changing 13-amino-acid cluster in the membrane-addressing domain (MAD), which putatively functions as a pH sensor and regulator of cell death. We predict that APOL genes are antagonized by pathogens by at least two distinct mechanisms: SID antagonists, which include SRA, that interact with the SID of various APOL proteins, and MAD antagonists that interact with the MAD hinge base of APOL6. These antagonists either block or prematurely cause APOL-mediated programmed cell death of host cells to benefit the infecting pathogen. These putative interactions must occur inside host cells, in contrast to secreted APOL1 that trafficks to the trypanosome lysosome. Hence, the dynamic APOL gene family appears to be an important link between programmed cell death of host cells and immunity to pathogens.
Bravo, Karina; Eugenín, Jaime L; Llona, Isabel
High serotonin levels during pregnancy affect central nervous system development. Whether a commonly used antidepressant such as fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) taken during pregnancy may adversely affect respiratory control in offspring has not been determined. The objective was to determine the effect of prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine exposure on the respiratory neural network in offspring, particularly on central chemoreception. Osmotic minipumps implanted into CF-1 mice on Days 5-7 of pregnancy delivered 7 milligrams per kilogram per day of fluoxetine, achieving plasma levels within the range found in patients. Ventilation was assessed in offspring at postnatal Days 0-40 using head-out body plethysmography. Neuronal activation was evaluated in the raphe nuclei and in the nucleus tractus solitarius by c-Fos immunohistochemistry during normoxic eucapnia and hypercapnia (10% CO2). Respiratory responses to acidosis were evaluated in brainstem slices. Prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine did not affect litter size, birth weight, or the postnatal growth curve. Ventilation under eucapnic normoxic conditions was similar to that of control offspring. Fluoxetine exposure reduced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia at P8-P40 (P Fluoxetine applied acutely on control slices did not modify their respiratory response to acidosis. We concluded that prenatal-perinatal fluoxetine treatment impairs central respiratory chemoreception during postnatal life. These results are relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of respiratory failures, such as sudden infant death syndrome, associated with brainstem serotonin abnormalities and the failure of respiratory chemoreflexes.
Daniel H. De La Iglesia
Full Text Available Context-aware monitoring systems designed for e-Health solutions and ambient assisted living (AAL play an important role in today’s personalized health-care services. The majority of these systems are intended for the monitoring of patients’ vital signs by means of bio-sensors. At present, there are very few systems that monitor environmental conditions and air quality in the homes of users. A home’s environmental conditions can have a significant influence on the state of the health of its residents. Monitoring the environment is the key to preventing possible diseases caused by conditions that do not favor health. This paper presents a context-aware system that monitors air quality to prevent a specific health problem at home. The aim of this system is to reduce the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, which is triggered mainly by environmental factors. In the conducted case study, the system monitored the state of the neonate and the quality of air while it was asleep. The designed proposal is characterized by its low cost and non-intrusive nature. The results are promising.
Bauça, Josep Miquel; Yañez, Aina; Fueyo, Laura; de la Peña, Mónica; Pierola, Javier; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Mediano, Olga; Cabriada-Nuño, Valentín; Masdeu, María José; Teran-Santos, Joaquin; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Masa, Juan Fernando; Abad, Jorge; Sanchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran; Barceló, Antònia
Nucleosomes and cell-free double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) have been suggested as promising biomarkers in cell death-related diseases, such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Currently, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with ACS is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between OSA, dsDNA, and nucleosomes and to assess their potential implication in the development of ACS. Up to 549 patients were included in the study and divided into four groups (145 ACS; 290 ACS + OSA; 62 OSA; 52 controls). All patients underwent a sleep study, and serum concentrations of dsDNA and nucleosomes were measured. Nucleosome and dsDNA levels were higher in patients with OSA than in controls (nucleosomes: 1.47 ± 0.88 arbitary units [AU] vs. 1.00 ± 0.33 AU; p Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Yang, S; Li, X; Chen, C; Kyveryga, P; Yang, X B
Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery from 2004 to 2013 were used to assess the field-specific risks of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme in Iowa. Fields with a high frequency of significant decrease (>10%) of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observed in late July to middle August on historical imagery were hypothetically considered as high SDS risk. These high-risk fields had higher slopes and shorter distances to flowlines, e.g., creeks and drainages, particularly in the Des Moines lobe. Field data in 2014 showed a significantly higher SDS level in the high-risk fields than fields selected without considering NDVI information. On average, low-risk fields had 10 times lower F. virguliforme soil density, determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, compared with other surveyed fields. Ordinal logistic regression identified positive correlations between SDS and slope, June NDVI, and May maximum temperature, but high June maximum temperature hindered SDS. A modeled SDS risk map showed a clear trend of potential disease occurrences across Iowa. Landsat imagery was analyzed similarly, to discuss the ability to utilize higher spatial resolution data. The results demonstrated the great potential of both MODIS and Landsat imagery for SDS field-specific risk assessment.
DeForest, Anna; Blinderman, Craig D
Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium. Despite both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to improve his delirium, the patient ultimately continued to have symptoms of delirium and subsequently died in the CTICU. Efforts to reconsider the goals of care, given his family's understanding of his values, were met with resistance as his cardiothoracic surgeon believed that he had a reasonable chance of recovery since his organs were not in failure. This case description raises the question of whether we should consider persistent delirium as a prodrome syndrome before death in patients with CCI. Study and analysis of a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiothoracic surgery who was hemodynamically stable with persistent delirium. Further studies of the prevalence and outcomes of prolonged or persistent agitated delirium in patients with chronic critical illness are needed to provide prognostic information that can assist patients and families in receiving care that accords with their goals and values.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. In the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of autophagy cell death results in non-functional appressoria. Results We found that in the closely related plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, blocking of the cell cycle did not prevent spore germination and appressoria formation. The cell cycle always lagged behind the morphogenetic changes that follow spore germination, including germ tube and appressorium formation, differentiation of the penetrating hypha, and in planta formation of primary hyphae. Nuclear division was arrested following appressorium formation and was resumed in mature appressoria after plant penetration. Unlike in M. grisea, blocking of mitosis had only a marginal effect on appressoria formation; development in hydroxyurea-treated spores continued only for a limited number of cell divisions, but normal numbers of fully developed mature appressoria were formed under conditions that support appressoria formation. Similar results were also observed in other Colletotrichum species. Spores, germ tubes, and appressoria retained intact nuclei and remained viable for several days post plant infection. Conclusion We showed that in C. gloeosporioides the differentiation of infection structures including appressoria precedes mitosis and can occur without nuclear division. This phenomenon was also found to be common in other Colletotrichum species. Spore cell death did not occur during plant infection and the fungus primary infection structures remained viable
Sergeev, Valentine; Perry, Frances; Roston, Thomas M; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Tibbits, Glen F; Claydon, Thomas W
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is the most common cardiac ion channelopathy and has been found to be responsible for approximately 10% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Despite increasing use of broad panels and now whole exome sequencing (WES) in the investigation of SIDS, the probability of identifying a pathogenic mutation in a SIDS victim is low. We report a family-based study who are afflicted by recurrent SIDS in which several members harbor a variant, p.Pro963Thr, in the C-terminal region of the human-ether-a-go-go (hERG) gene, published to be responsible for cases of LQTS type 2. Functional characterization was undertaken due to the variable phenotype in carriers, the discrepancy with published cases, and the importance of identifying a cause for recurrent deaths in a single family. Studies of the mutated ion channel in in vitro heterologous expression systems revealed that the mutation has no detectable impact on membrane surface expression, biophysical gating properties such as activation, deactivation and inactivation, or the amplitude of the protective current conducted by hERG channels during early repolarization. These observations suggest that the p.Pro963Thr mutation is not a monogenic disease-causing LQTS mutation despite evidence of co-segregation in two siblings affected by SIDS. Our findings demonstrate some of the potential pitfalls in post-mortem molecular testing and the importance of functional testing of gene variants in determining disease-causation, especially where the impacts of cascade screening can affect multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jindal, Naresh; Patnayak, Devi P; Ziegler, Andre F; Lago, Alfonso; Goyal, Sagar M
An experimental study was conducted to determine the duration of growth depression and virus shedding in turkey poults after oral inoculation with intestinal contents from birds affected with poult enteritis syndrome (PES). Poults at day 14 of age were divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D) of 40 poults each and inoculated orally with unfiltered supernatant, filtered supernatant, sediment suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or PBS alone (control), respectively. The poults were observed daily for clinical signs, and their growth response, pathology, and pathogen shedding were examined at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days postinoculation (DPI). Body weights of eight poults in each group were recorded at each of these intervals followed by euthanasia. Dullness, depression, and diarrhea were observed in birds inoculated with supernatant or sediment suspension. All three treatments significantly reduced body weight gain of poults compared with the control group; average weight loss was 14%. Gross pathologic changes consisted of pale distended intestines with watery contents and distended ceca with frothy and watery contents. Astrovirus and rotavirus were detected in the inoculum by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, whereas Salmonella was identified on bacterial isolation. Both viruses were detected in treated poults by RT-PCR for up to 10 and 40 DPI, respectively. Of the three treatments, sediment suspension caused maximal decrease in weight gain as well as greatest pathologic lesions followed by unfiltered supernatant and filtered supernatant. These findings suggest a role for bacteria in increasing the severity of PES. Lower weight gain in treated poults (compared with controls) at 9 wk of age also indicates that PES-affected poults may not reach normal weight at marketing, leading to economic losses for the producer.
Schuenemann, Verena J; Bos, Kirsten; DeWitte, Sharon; Schmedes, Sarah; Jamieson, Joslyn; Mittnik, Alissa; Forrest, Stephen; Coombes, Brian K; Wood, James W; Earn, David J D; White, William; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N
Although investigations of medieval plague victims have identified Yersinia pestis as the putative etiologic agent of the pandemic, methodological limitations have prevented large-scale genomic investigations to evaluate changes in the pathogen's virulence over time. We screened over 100 skeletal remains from Black Death victims of the East Smithfield mass burial site (1348-1350, London, England). Recent methods of DNA enrichment coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing subsequently permitted reconstruction of ten full human mitochondrial genomes (16 kb each) and the full pPCP1 (9.6 kb) virulence-associated plasmid at high coverage. Comparisons of molecular damage profiles between endogenous human and Y. pestis DNA confirmed its authenticity as an ancient pathogen, thus representing the longest contiguous genomic sequence for an ancient pathogen to date. Comparison of our reconstructed plasmid against modern Y. pestis shows identity with several isolates matching the Medievalis biovar; however, our chromosomal sequences indicate the victims were infected with a Y. pestis variant that has not been previously reported. Our data reveal that the Black Death in medieval Europe was caused by a variant of Y. pestis that may no longer exist, and genetic data carried on its pPCP1 plasmid were not responsible for the purported epidemiological differences between ancient and modern forms of Y. pestis infections.
Steven A. Koehler
Full Text Available Sudden infant deaths syndrome (SIDS, the sudden and unexpected death of a normal and healthy infant, has remained a medical and forensic mystery. Despite years of research all attempts to ascertain the exact cause and manner of death have failed. The information collected during the course of the comprehensive investigation by the various investigation agencies and analysis of the data has not been in vain. The epidemiological, demographic, and pathological data have identified distinctive features and risk factors associated with infants that died from SIDS. Epidemiological data has provided the unique characteristics of infants that died of SIDS that differentiates them from non-SIDS infants. Analysis of information from the death scene investigation has identified key risk factor behaviour associated with SIDS, namely the prone sleeping position. Pathological examination of the internal organs, specifically the brain, has shown some differences between SIDS and non-SIDS infants. However, to gain a complete picture of SIDS data, all countries around the world must provide information, even basic information, to understand this syndrome better. Developing countries must understand their role and importance in developing plans to investigate, collect, and disseminate SIDS data to the rest of the world. This paper provides general guidelines for the investigation of SIDS in developing countries.
Lancien, Marion; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Dauvilliers, Yves; Kugener, Beatrice; Scholz, Sabine; Raverot, Veronique; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Guyon, Aurore; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Franco, Patricia
The temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep suggests that the arousability from sleep provides a protective mechanism for survival. Recently, the hypocretin system, which promotes wakefulness, has been implicated in SIDS, since it has been reported that SIDS victims have fewer hypocretin neurons than infants who have died from other causes. To understand the role of hypocretin in SIDS, it is essential to better understand how this system matures. The present study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin in children aged 2-6 months, which is the age of peak incidence for SIDS, to both younger and older children. Hypocretin levels were measured in CSF samples from 101 children who underwent a clinically relevant lumbar puncture. Children were separated into five age groups: 0-2 months, 2-6 months, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-18 years. Hypocretin levels were not significantly different between 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-18 years. Therefore, these three groups were pooled into a single one (1-18 years) for further analysis. Between the 0-2 month, 2-6 month, and 1-18 year groups, a significant difference in CSF hypocretin levels existed (p = 0.001). Simple comparisons showed that CSF hypocretin levels in the 2-6 month age group were significantly lower than hypocretin levels in both the 0-2 month and 1-18 year group (p hypocretin levels were lower at the age of peak incidence for SIDS. This could underlie an increased vulnerability to SIDS at this specific age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Dunne, K P
Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.
Full Text Available Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome. Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01, respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management.
Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.
Fleming, P J; Gilbert, R; Azaz, Y; Berry, P J; Rudd, P T; Stewart, A; Hall, E
OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between sleeping position and quantity of bedding and the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. DESIGN--A study of all infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly and of two controls matched for age and date with each index case. The parents of control infants were interviewed within 72 hours of the index infant's death. Information was collected on bedding, sleeping position, heating, and recent signs of illness for index and control infants. SETTING--A defined geographical area comprising most of the county of Avon and part of Somerset. SUBJECTS--72 Infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly (of whom 67 had died from the sudden infant death syndrome) and 144 control infants. RESULTS--Compared with the control infants the infants who had died from the sudden infant death syndrome were more likely to have been sleeping prone (relative risk 8.8; 95% confidence interval 7.0 to 11.0; p less than 0.001), to have been more heavily wrapped (relative risk 1.14 per tog above 8 tog; 1.03 to 1.28; p less than 0.05), and to have had the heating on all night (relative risk 2.7; 1.4 to 5.2; p less than 0.01). These differences were less pronounced in the younger infants (less than 70 days) than the older ones. The risk of sudden unexpected death among infants older than 70 days, nursed prone, and with clothing and bedding of total thermal resistance greater than 10 tog was increased by factors of 15.1 (2.6 to 89.6) and 25.2 (3.7 to 169.0) respectively compared with the risk in infants of the same age nursed supine or on their side and under less than 6 tog of bedding. CONCLUSIONS--Overheating and the prone position are independently associated with an increased risk of sudden unexpected infant death, particularly in infants aged more than 70 days. Educating parents about appropriate thermal care and sleeping position of infants may help to reduce the incidence of the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:2390588
Jia, Ying; Li, Xiaoge; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Ying; Li, Xin
The current study aims to identify the pathogenic sites in a core pedigree of Usher syndrome (USH). A core pedigree of USH was analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES). Mutations were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing. Two pathogenic variations (c.849+2T>C and c.5994G>A) in MYO7A were successfully identified and individually separated from parents. One variant (c.849+2T>C) was nonsense mutation, causing the protein terminated in advance, and the other one (c.5994G>A) located near the boundary of exon could cause aberrant splicing. This study provides a meaningful exploration for identification of clinical core genetic pedigrees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John
Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.
Zheng, Jinxiang; Huang, Erwen; Tang, Shuangbo; Wu, Qiuping; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Dongchuan; Quan, Li; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Jianding
To study the epidemiological characteristics of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) in the southern Chinese Han population during 2007 to 2013, we gathered 879 SUNDS victims from Dongguan City and in the Longgang District in Shenzhen City as the case group then selected 879 all-cause death cases, adopting a 1:1 pair method, as the control group I and collected 8142 all-cause death cases from the Bao'an District in Shenzhen City as the control group II, simultaneously. Case information collected was statistically analyzed. The annual incidence of SUNDS is 1.02 and 2.23 per 100,000 person-years for Dongguan City and in the Longgang District, respectively. The number of male and female victims is drastically different, with a ratio of 13.92:1, whereas the incidence between the 2 sexes is significantly different (χ2 = 78.734, P population is significant (χ2 = 767.12, P China, but the difference between the SUNDS victims and the all-cause death population is not significant (χ2 = 27.273, P > 0.05). The monthly incidence of SUNDS is relatively higher from March to June, whereas the difference of monthly distribution between SUNDS victims and all-cause death population is significant (χ2 = 9.869, P China and implicated that risk factors of this fatal disease still exist. The efficient strategy of early identification such as molecular diagnosis for SUNDS is extremely urgently required.
Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.
During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks
Joao A. N. Filipe; Richard C. Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Lee; Yana S. Valachovic; Alex R. Cook; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan
Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also...
Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der
During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks
Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S
A number of rare inherited metabolic disorders are known to lead to death in infancy. Deficiency of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase has, on clinical grounds, been related particularly to sudden infant death syndrome. The contribution of this disorder to the etiology of sudden infant death...... syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...... in the general population. A highly specific polymerase chain reaction assay was applied on dried blood spots. No over-representation of homo- or heterozygosity for G985 appears to exist in such a strictly defined population, for which reason it may be more relevant to look at a broader spectrum of clinical...
Anderson, J; Akond, M; Kassem, M A; Meksem, K; Kantartzi, S K
The best way to protect yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] due to sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki, O'Donnel, Homma & Lattanzi), is the development and use of resistant lines. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to SDS help developing resistant soybean germplasm through molecular marker-assisted selection strategy. QTL for SDS presented herein are from a high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map of MD 96-5722 (a.k.a 'Monocacy') by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred line using SoySNP6K Illumina Infinium BeadChip genotyping array. Ninety-four F 5:7 lines were evaluated for 2 years (2010 and 2011) at two locations (Carbondale and Valmeyer) in southern Illinois, USA to identify QTL controlling SDS resistance using disease index (DX). Composite interval mapping identified 19 SDS controlling QTL which were mapped on 11 separate linkage group (LG) or chromosomes (Chr) out of 20 LG or Chr of soybean genome. Many of these significant QTL identified in one environment/year were confirmed in another year or environment, which suggests a common genetic effects and modes of the pathogen. These new QTL are useful sources for SDS resistance studies in soybean breeding, complementing previously reported loci.
Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Ji-Hyuk
In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during May-November and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea.
Vasudeva, Akhila; Bhat, Rajeshwari G; Ramachandran, Amar; Kumar, Pratap
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among women admitted to obstetric intensive care units, and it contributes significantly, both directly and indirectly, to maternal deaths. We present a case series of ARDS in pregnant women caused by non-obstetric causes. The women were treated at a tertiary hospital in southern India. The striking features were delayed referral from the primary care unit and the lack of a primary diagnosis or treatment. Undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease, anemia, and malaria and H1N1 epidemics contributed to these cases of ARDS and maternal death. It is necessary to increase the awareness of evidence-based uniform protocols to tackle common medical complaints during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xiaoyan; Weigt, S. Sam; Palchevskiy, Vyacheslav; Lynch, Joseph P.; Ross, David J.; Kubak, Bernard M.; Saggar, Rajan; Fishbein, Michael C.; Ardehali, Abbas; Li, Gang; Elashoff, Robert; Belperio, John A.
Rationale: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly isolated gram-negative bacterium after lung transplantation and has been shown to up-regulate glutamic acid–leucine–arginine–positive (ELR+) CXC chemokines associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), but the effect of pseudomonas on BOS and death has not been well defined. Objectives: To determine if the influence of pseudomonas isolation and ELR+ CXC chemokines on the subsequent development of BOS and the occurrence of death is time dependent. Methods: A three-state model was developed to assess the likelihood of transitioning from lung transplant (state 1) to BOS (state 2), from transplant (state 1) to death (state 3), and from BOS (state 2) to death (state 3). This Cox semi-Markovian approach determines state survival rates and cause-specific hazards for movement from one state to another. Measurements and Main Results: The likelihood of transition from transplant to BOS was increased by acute rejection, CXCL5, and the interaction between pseudomonas and CXCL1. The pseudomonas effect in this transition was due to infection rather than colonization. Movement from transplant to death was facilitated by pseudomonas infection and single lung transplant. Transition from BOS to death was affected by the length of time in state 1 and by the interactions between any pseudomonas isolation and CXCL5 and aspergillus, either independently or in combination. Conclusions: Our model demonstrates that common post-transplantation events drive movement from one post-transplantation state to another and influence outcomes differently depending upon when after transplantation they occur. Pseudomonas and the ELR+ CXC chemokines may interact to negatively influence lung transplant outcomes. PMID:23328531
Zhenyu, Xie; Shaowen, Ke; Chaoqun, Hu; Zhixiong, Zhu; Shifeng, Wang; Yongcan, Zhou
White syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. Investigations during April to September in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread Porites andrewsi White syndrome (PAWS) in Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. However, the causes and etiology of PAWS have been unknown. A transmission experiment was performed on P. andrewsi in the Qilianyu Subgroup (QLY). The results showed that there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference between test and control groups after 28 days if the invalid replicates were excluded. Rates of tissue loss ranged from 0.90-10.76 cm(2) d(-1) with a mean of 5.40 ± 3.34 cm(2) d(-1) (mean ± SD). Bacterial strains were isolated from the PAWS corals at the disease outbreak sites in QLY of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea, and included in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Koch's postulates for establishing causality. Following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 10(5) cells mL(-1), the infected colonies exhibited similar signs to those observed in the field. Using phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis, classical phenotypic trait comparison, Biolog automatic identification system, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI Biotyper method, two pathogenic strains were identified as Vibrio alginolyticus . This is the first report of V. alginolyticus as a pathogenic agent of PAWS in the South China Sea. Our results point out an urgent need to develop sensitive detection methods for V. alginolyticus virulence strains and robust diagnostics for coral disease caused by this and Vibrio pathogenic bacterium in the South China Sea.
Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S; Willis, Craig K R
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3-4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.
Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.; Willis, Craig K.R.
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3–4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.
Chen, Xiao-Ren; Li, Yan-Peng; Li, Qi-Yuan; Xing, Yu-Ping; Liu, Bei-Bei; Tong, Yun-Hui; Xu, Jing-You
Peptides and small molecules produced by both the plant pathogen Phytophthora and host plants in the apoplastic space mediate the relationship between the interplaying organisms. Various Phytophthora apoplastic effectors, including small cysteine-rich (SCR) secretory proteins, have been identified, but their roles during interaction remain to be determined. Here, we identified an SCR effector encoded by scr96, one of three novel genes encoding SCR proteins in P. cactorum with similarity to the P. cactorum phytotoxic protein PcF. Together with the other two genes, scr96 was transcriptionally induced throughout the developmental and infection stages of the pathogen. These genes triggered plant cell death (PCD) in the Solanaceae, including Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. The scr96 gene did not show single nucleotide polymorphisms in a collection of P. cactorum isolates from different countries and host plants, suggesting that its role is essential and non-redundant during infection. Homologues of SCR96 were identified only in oomycetes, but not in fungi and other organisms. A stable protoplast transformation protocol was adapted for P. cactorum using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The silencing of scr96 in P. cactorum caused gene-silenced transformants to lose their pathogenicity on host plants and these transformants were significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress. Transient expression of scr96 partially recovered the virulence of gene-silenced transformants on plants. Overall, our results indicate that the P. cactorum scr96 gene encodes an important virulence factor that not only causes PCD in host plants, but is also important for pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
MacFarland, Aida Saihi; Al-Maashani, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Qassim; Al-Naamani, Aziz; El-Bouri, May; Al-Adawi, Samir
A number of reports from different parts of the world have challenged the assumption that Dhat syndrome is confined to populations in and around the Indian subcontinent. This single case study reports an Omani with features typical of Dhat syndrome. Psychometric measures showed elevated scores on indices of hypochondriasis, psychasthenia, and gender role development as defined in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. He rated adequately in measures assessing cognitive and executive functioning. Implementation of cognitive behavioral therapy, concurrent with a successful marriage proposal, resulted in a gradual resolution of the symptoms. This report concludes with a discussion on whether his Dhat syndrome should be viewed as a culture-reactive or culture-specific syndrome.
A two year old child, confirmed with Williams syndrome (WS) ... and no relevant cardiac history such as chest pain or episodes ... brain, abdominal and pelvic organ blocks. .... a fully functional operating theatre complex presents a number.
Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Larrieu, Lise; Le Guédard-Méreuze, Sandie; Hamroun, Dalil; Béroud, Christophe; Malcolm, Sue; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise
Using the Universal Mutation Database (UMD) software, we have constructed "UMD-USHbases", a set of relational databases of nucleotide variations for seven genes involved in Usher syndrome (MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, USH1G, USH3A and USH2A). Mutations in the Usher syndrome type I causing genes are also recorded in non-syndromic hearing loss cases and mutations in USH2A in non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Usher syndrome provides a particular challenge for molecular diagnostics because of the clinical and molecular heterogeneity. As many mutations are missense changes, and all the genes also contain apparently non-pathogenic polymorphisms, well-curated databases are crucial for accurate interpretation of pathogenicity. Tools are provided to assess the pathogenicity of mutations, including conservation of amino acids and analysis of splice-sites. Reference amino acid alignments are provided. Apparently non-pathogenic variants in patients with Usher syndrome, at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, are included. The UMD-USHbases currently contain more than 2,830 entries including disease causing mutations, unclassified variants or non-pathogenic polymorphisms identified in over 938 patients. In addition to data collected from 89 publications, 15 novel mutations identified in our laboratory are recorded in MYO7A (6), CDH23 (8), or PCDH15 (1) genes. Information is given on the relative involvement of the seven genes, the number and distribution of variants in each gene. UMD-USHbases give access to a software package that provides specific routines and optimized multicriteria research and sorting tools. These databases should assist clinicians and geneticists seeking information about mutations responsible for Usher syndrome.
Scala, Marcello; Accogli, Andrea; De Grandis, Elisa; Allegri, Anna; Bagowski, Christoph P; Shoukier, Moneef; Maghnie, Mohamad; Capra, Valeria
Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS) is the most common of the distal arthrogryposes (DAs), a group of disorders characterized by congenital non-progressive contractures. Patients with SHS present with contractures of the limbs and a distinctive triangular facies with prominent nasolabial folds. Calcaneovalgus deformity is frequent, as well as camptodactyly and ulnar deviation. Causative mutations in at least four different genes have been reported (MYH3, TNNI2, TPM2, and TNNT3). MYH3 plays a pivotal role in fetal muscle development and mutations in this gene are associated with Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, distal arthrogryposis 8 (DA8), and autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosis. The last two disorders are characterized by skeletal abnormalities, in particular bony fusions. The observation that MYH3 may be mutated in these syndromes has suggested the involvement of this gene in bone development. We report the case of a boy with a novel pathogenic MYH3 mutation, presenting with the classical clinical features of SHS in association with unilateral carpal bone fusion and multiple vertebral fusions. This distinctive phenotype has never been reported in the literature so far and expands the phenotypic spectrum of SHS, endorsing the clinical variability of patients with MYH3-related disorders. Our findings also support a role for MYH3 in both muscle and bone development, suggesting a phenotypic continuum in MYH3-related disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kina-Tanada, Mika; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kaname, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Taro; Nakasone, Junko; Kozuka, Chisayo; Ishida, Masayoshi; Kubota, Haruaki; Taira, Yuji; Totsuka, Yuichi; Kina, Shin-Ichiro; Sunakawa, Hajime; Omura, Junichi; Satoh, Kimio; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shiro; Ohya, Yusuke; Matsushita, Masayuki; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Arasaki, Akira; Tsutsui, Masato
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water. Nitrite and nitrate were undetectable in both the chow and the water. Three months of the LND did not affect food or water intake in wild-type C57BL/6J mice compared with a regular diet (RD). However, in comparison with the RD, 3 months of the LND significantly elicited visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance. Eighteen months of the LND significantly provoked increased body weight, hypertension, insulin resistance and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine, while 22 months of the LND significantly led to death mainly due to cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction. These abnormalities were reversed by simultaneous treatment with sodium nitrate, and were significantly associated with endothelial NOS downregulation, adiponectin insufficiency and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. These results provide the first evidence that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency gives rise to the metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular death in mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic role of the exogenous NO production system in the metabolic syndrome and its vascular complications.
Bagshaw Sean M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is the clinical phenomenon of acute neurologic symptoms attributed to cerebral edema that occurs during or following intermittent hemodialysis (HD. We describe a case of DDS-induced cerebral edema that resulted in irreversible brain injury and death following acute HD and review the relevant literature of the association of DDS and HD. Case Presentation A 22-year-old male with obstructive uropathy presented to hospital with severe sepsis syndrome secondary to pneumonia. Laboratory investigations included a pH of 6.95, PaCO2 10 mmHg, HCO3 2 mmol/L, serum sodium 132 mmol/L, serum osmolality 330 mosmol/kg, and urea 130 mg/dL (46.7 mmol/L. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated multifocal pneumonia, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder wall thickening. During HD the patient became progressively obtunded. Repeat laboratory investigations showed pH 7.36, HCO3 19 mmol/L, potassium 1.8 mmol/L, and urea 38.4 mg/dL (13.7 mmol/L (urea-reduction-ratio 71%. Following HD, spontaneous movements were absent with no pupillary or brainstem reflexes. Head CT-scan showed diffuse cerebral edema with effacement of basal cisterns and generalized loss of gray-white differentiation. Brain death was declared. Conclusions Death is a rare consequence of DDS in adults following HD. Several features may have predisposed this patient to DDS including: central nervous system adaptations from chronic kidney disease with efficient serum urea removal and correction of serum hyperosmolality; severe cerebral intracellular acidosis; relative hypercapnea; and post-HD hemodynamic instability with compounded cerebral ischemia.
Coulibaly, Béma; Sigaudy, Sabine; Girard, Nadine; Popovici, Cornel; Missirian, Chantal; Heckenroth, Hélène; Tasei, Anne-Marie; Fernandez, Carla
Coffine-Siris syndrome or "fifth digit" syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome with severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hirsutism and absent fifth fingernails or toenails or fifth distal phalanges. The etiology of this syndrome remains uncertain. Here we report a stillborn male baby born from consanguineous parents who might represent a very severe form of Coffine-Siris syndrome with cardiac defect and multiple brain malformations including corpus callosum agenesis and Dandy Walker malformation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case leading to intrauterine death. Karyotype and array comparative genomic hybridization were normal; these results give additional support to mendelian inheritance for this syndrome. In our family, the most likely mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive and the recurrence is probably as high as 25%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zukal, Jan; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brack, V.; Brichta, J.; Dolinay, M.; Jaron, K. S.; Kováčová, V.; Kovařík, M.; Martínková, Natália; Ondráček, K.; Řehák, Z.; Turner, G. G.; Pikula, J.
Roč. 9, č. 5 (2014), e97224 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : white-nose syndrom (WNS) * bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014
Hinrichsen, Inga; Brieger, Angela; Trojan, Jörg
Lynch syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in a mismatch repair gene, most commonly the MLH1 gene. However, one third of the identified alterations are missense variants with unclear clinical significance. The functionality of these variants can be tested in the laboratory, but the results...
Wiedermann, C. J.; Becker, A. E.; Hopferwieser, T.; Mühlberger, V.; Knapp, E.
The case history is documented of a young competitive athlete known to have the electrocardiographic pattern of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, but considered asymptomatic. On that basis competitive sport was not proscribed. In retrospect, he had experienced occasional tachycardias which were of
Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distinctive personality traits, facial features (so called “elfin face”) and cardiac abnormalities, of which supravalvular aortic stenosis is the most common lesion found. The cause is a deletion of a group of genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Administration of ...
Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu
Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...
Conclusion: The possibility of intrauterine brain death should be considered in all cases of prolonged fixed FHR pattern, accompanied by absence of neuromuscular parameters of BPP, polyhydramnios and demonstrated cessation of cerebral blood flow by Doppler US. Increased awareness of this event may prevent unnecessary emergency cesarean section.
Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai
In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cassano, Michele; Cassano, Pasquale; Luigi, Mappa; Gelardi, Matteo; Farràs, Aline Castelante; Fiorella, Maria Luisa
This study aims at defining the incidence of rhino-bronchial syndrome (RBS) in children in order both to verify the influence of nasal obstructions on the disease and to determine therapeutic strategies which may cure the syndrome effectively at its early stage. The investigation includes 128 non-allergic children with obstructive disorders (adenoid hypertrophy, septal deviation, etc.) and rhino-sinus inflammations associated with bronchopulmonary diseases (asthma, chronic cough, bronchopulmonary infections). Medical and/or surgical treatment was chosen in consideration of the type and entity of the patients' main nasal pathology. At least 1 year follow-up was provided for each case to establish the improvement in the disorders affecting both the lower and upper airways. The results were statistically assessed. Medical and mainly surgical treatment always cured the upper airways disorders in patients with chronic nasal obstruction and rhino-sinus inflammation. Improvement of bronchopulmonary disease was reported in about half of the patients (49.4%). Statistically significant results were obtained only in the group with recurrent bronchopulmonary infections (80.9%, pobstruction and rhino-sinus infections. In the population studied, among the lower airways disorders, only infective bronchopulmonary inflammation showed a significant correlation in the assessment between lower and upper airways disorders. In order to prevent the progression of the syndrome to serious pathologic events of the lower airways, a prompt and effective treatment of children's nasal disorders is thus recommended.
Helweg-Larsen, K; Banner, Jytte; Oyen, N
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of infection on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to analyse whether modifiable risk factors of SIDS, prone sleeping, covered head and smoking act as effect modifiers. In a consecutive multicentre case-control study of SIDS in Denmark, Norway...... regression. Significantly more cases than controls presenting symptoms of infectious diseases during the last week and/or last day were treated with antibiotics and had been seen by a physician. The finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an infectious mechanism in SIDS induced by local microorganism......, prone sleeping, head covered or parental smoking, was far greater than the sum of each individual factor. These risk factors thus modify the dangerousness of infection in infancy....
Fowler, Aja J; Evans, Patricia W; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottenbacher, Allison; Arnold, Cody
Our primary objective was to compare parents of infants cared for in newborn intensive care units (NICUs) and infants cared for in well-baby ("general") nurseries with regard to knowledge and practice of safe sleep practices/sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction measures and guidelines. Our secondary objective was to obtain qualitative data regarding reasons for noncompliance in both populations. Sixty participants (30 from each population) completed our survey measuring safe sleep knowledge and practice. Parents of NICU infants reported using 2 safe sleep practices-(a) always placing baby in crib to sleep and (b) always placing baby on back to sleep-significantly more frequently than parents of well infants. Additional findings and implications for future studies are discussed.
Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob
The aim of the present study was to investigate stress gene expression in cultured primary fibroblasts established from Achilles tendons collected during autopsies from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, and age-matched controls (infants dying in a traumatic event). Expression of 4 stress...... responsive genes, HSPA1B, HSPD1, HMOX1, and SOD2, was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of RNA purified from cells cultured under standard or various thermal stress conditions. The expression of all 4 genes was highly influenced by thermal stress in both SIDS and control cells. High...... interpersonal variance found in the SIDS group indicated that they represented a more heterogeneous group than controls. The SIDS group responded to thermal stress with a higher expression of the HSPA1B and HSPD1 genes compared to the control group, whereas no significant difference was observed...
G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); F. Liu (Fan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); K. van Duijn (Kate); M. Vermeulen (Mark); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. Engelberts (Adele); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)
textabstractUnclassified sudden infant death (USID) is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant that remains unexplained after thorough case investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. When the infant is below 1
Jing Zhou; Jun-O. Jin; Toshihisa Kawai; Qing Yu
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) down-modulates various immune responses by engaging the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 is elevated in the salivary glands of patients with Sj?gren?s syndrome (SS). The objective of this study is to define the role of endogenous PD-L1 in SS pathogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of this disease. We inhibited endogenous PD-L1 function by intraperitoneal administration of a blocking antibody to...
N. G. Ribeiro-Júnior
Full Text Available Abstract The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS. Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in
Sierra Romero, María Del Carmen; Navarrete Hernández, Eduardo; Canún Serrano, Sonia; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo E; Valdés Hernández, Javier
Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation with the clinical presentation of a series of well-defined characteristics. Advanced maternal age has been associated with DS. The databases of all the certificates of live births and fetal deaths in Mexico were combined. Codes based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 th Revision (ICD-10) in Chapter XVII "Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities" were selected. A database of 8,250,375 births during the period 2008-2011 was constructed: 99.2% were live births with 0.8% of fetal deaths and 3,076 cases diagnosed with DS. The importance of this report is to initiate an epidemiological surveillance of newborn cases of DS nationwide and by state using census information systems available in the country since 2008. An increased risk has been observed for having a child with DS since the mother is ≥ 35 years, as has been reported in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Y-Hassan, Shams; Feldt, Kari; Stålberg, Marcus
Events that induce emotional stress and frustration in a large number of subjects under specific circumstances, such as earthquakes, war conditions, and sporting occasions, may increase the incidence of cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. This report describes a married couple who expressed an apparently passionate interest in football with hazardous consequences after a tense football match during the FIFA 2014 World Championships. A series of emotional stressors initiated by defeat in this football game lead to cardiac arrest in a 58-year-old man caused by a thrombotic occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and ending in the death of the patient. An hour and 15 minutes after the onset of cardiac arrest of the patient, his 64-year-old wife also had chest pain caused by an acute midventricular takotsubo syndrome. She survived the acute stage of the disease, and there was complete resolution of the left ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Érlikh, A D
Independent predictors of death and death or myocardial infarction (MI) during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were determined using database of Russian independent ACS registry RECORD. These predictors (admission Killip class II, ST-segment elevation 1 mm, systolic blood pressure 100 mm Hg, hemoglobin <110 g/L, age 65 years, history of diabetes) were attributed equal weight (1 point) and combined in a prognostic scale for assessment of risk of inhospital death and death or MI. The scale did not include markers of necrosis, and the most time consuming component was measurement of hemoglobin. Sensitivity and specificity of risk scores for prediction of death were 78.5%. The use of GRACE score in this group of patients gave similar results. These preliminary data require confirmation on larger populations of patients with ACS.
Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC. Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
The "Back to Sleep" public health campaign, which recommends that infants be placed on their backs for sleeping help reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), was initiated in 1994. The campaign was led by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and co-sponsored by the U.S. Public Health Service, the…
Andersson, Hedvig Bille; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas
Aims: We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a larg...... than patients with obstructive CAD. Causes of death were less often cardiovascular. This suggests that STE-ACS patients without obstructive CAD warrant medical attention and close follow-up.......Aims: We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results: We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a large...
Neef, N A; Lysons, R J
A strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (NCTC 12718), isolated from a seven-week-old pig suffering from an ulcerative typhlocolitis, was inoculated orally into 16 growing pigs in two separate experiments. At necropsy 10 days later, typhlocolitis was present in nine of the pigs, and it was accompanied by diarrhoea in four cases. In both the original case and in the experimental pigs, the typhlocolitis was characterised by microabscesses of the lamina propria, frequently involving ulceration or erosion of the surface epithelium. The organism was of serotype IIa, which has not been isolated previously from pigs in the United Kingdom. Y pseudotuberculosis may be the aetiological agent responsible in some cases of porcine colitis syndrome.
Andersen, Sandra Breum; Vestergaard, Maj; Ainsworth, Tracy D.
White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2...... microelectrodes and histological techniques. The high spatial resolution of the microelectrode measurements enabled an evaluation of the extent of physiological changes at, and 2 cm away from, the WS border. Respiration of the coral host was decreased on the skeleton-tissue border but was comparable...... to that of healthy corals only 2 cm away from the border. Histological data, however, showed a decrease in mesogloea thickness on and 2 cm away from the WS border, which correlates with a previously observed allocation of photoassimilates away from the WS border. We suggest that there are colony-wide negative...
Roberts, Maegan E; Jackson, Sarah A; Susswein, Lisa R; Zeinomar, Nur; Ma, Xinran; Marshall, Megan L; Stettner, Amy R; Milewski, Becky; Xu, Zhixiong; Solomon, Benjamin D; Terry, Mary Beth; Hruska, Kathleen S; Klein, Rachel T; Chung, Wendy K
PurposeAn association of Lynch syndrome (LS) with breast cancer has been long suspected; however, there have been insufficient data to address this question for each of the LS genes individually.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective review of personal and family history in 423 women with pathogenic or likely pathogenic germ-line variants in MLH1 (N = 65), MSH2 (N = 94), MSH6 (N = 140), or PMS2 (N = 124) identified via clinical multigene hereditary cancer testing. Standard incidence ratios (SIRs) of breast cancer were calculated by comparing breast cancer frequencies in our study population with those in the general population (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 data).ResultsWhen evaluating by gene, the age-standardized breast cancer risks for MSH6 (SIR = 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56-2.86) and PMS2 (SIR = 2.92; 95% CI, 2.17-3.92) were associated with a statistically significant risk for breast cancer whereas no association was observed for MLH1 (SIR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83) or MSH2 (SIR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.72-2.06).ConclusionOur data demonstrate that two LS genes, MSH6 and PMS2, are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer and should be considered when ordering genetic testing for individuals who have a personal and/or family history of breast cancer.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 18 January 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.254.
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS causes economic losses in the pig industry worldwide, and PRRS viruses (PRRSV are classified into the two distinct genotypes "North American (NA, type 2" and "European (EU, type 1". In 2006, a highly pathogenic NA strain of PRRSV (HP-PRRSV, characterized by high fever as well as high morbidity and mortality, emerged in swine farms in China. Therefore, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay specific for HP-PRRSV was developed and combined with type 1- and type 2-specific RT-qPCR systems. Furthermore, an internal control, based on a heterologous RNA, was successfully introduced. This final multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR, detecting and typing PRRSV, had an analytical sensitivity of less than 200 copies per µl for the type 1-assay and 20 copies per µl for the type 2- and HP assays and a high diagnostic sensitivity. A panel of reference strains and field isolates was reliably detected and samples from an animal trial with a Chinese HP-PRRS strain were used for test validation. The new multiplex PRRSV RT-qPCR system allows for the first time the highly sensitive detection and rapid differentiation of PRRSV of both genotypes as well as the direct detection of HP-PRRSV.
Gollenberg, Audra; Fendley, Kim
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains a leading cause of infant death in the United States and in Virginia, the SIDS rate is higher than the national average. We sought to gauge the perceptions among community-identified stakeholders as to community resource needs to reduce SIDS. We used snowball sampling to identify important community stakeholders to be interviewed as key informants. A semi-structured interview lasting 45 min-2 hours was delivered to determine resource needs to reduce SIDS, and whether high-risk community members were aware of SIDS risk factors among stakeholders representing a variety of disciplines. Interviews were conducted in two geographic areas with higher than average rates of infant mortality, an urban district, Winchester City, VA and a rural district, Page County, VA. A total of 74 interviews were completed with stakeholders in healthcare, health departments, social services, law enforcement, education/childcare, faith-based institutions, non-profit agencies and non-affiliated community members. The majority of respondents perceive that high-risk community members are not aware of factors that can lead to SIDS (50%). Participants suggested that more "education" is needed to further reduce the rates of SIDS in their communities (73%). Respondents detailed that more pervasive, strategic, and multi-channeled education is necessary to reduce cases of SIDS. Community leaders perceive that high-risk community members are not fully aware of risk factors that can lead to SIDS. Maternal/child health stakeholders in these Virginia locales suggested more community-based education as a potential solution to SIDS.
Wilson, Michael B.; Held, Benjamin W.; Freiborg, Amanda H.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Salomon, Christine E.
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may pr...
Michael J Sweet
Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is
Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.
Blair, R; Jacob, J P; Gardiner, E E
Three experiments were conducted to compare the incidence of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in male Peterson by Arbor Acre broiler chickens fed diets with either corn or wheat as the grain type and meat meal or soybean meal as the main protein source. In the first two experiments, the broilers were raised in floor pens to 6 wk of age, and in the third experiment they were raised in battery-brooder cages to 4 wk of age. In both floor pen studies, total mortality and the incidence of SDS were significantly higher for wheat-fed birds, while SDS as a percentage of total mortality was not affected by cereal type. In the brooder study, neither total mortality nor mortality from SDS was significantly affected by cereal type. In the floor pen studies, the incidence of SDS as a percentage of the birds housed, was reduced by the inclusion of meat meal in the diet. In the brooder study, total mortality and the incidence of SDS were not affected by protein source, but SDS as a percentage of total mortality was reduced with the inclusion of meat meal in the diet.
Byard, Roger W; Lee, Vivian
The use of different definitions of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may make comparison of data among studies difficult. Fifty randomly selected papers dealing with SIDS that were published between 2010 and 2011 in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed to determine whether one of three internationally accepted definitions of SIDS had been either written in the text or referenced. A significant improvement in the use of definitions has occurred since 2005, with the percentage of papers either quoting or referencing a standard definition increasing by 26%, from 42 to 68%. The 1989 NICHD definition remained the most commonly used definition (35.1%) followed by the 2004 San Diego definition (26.3%). Although the percentage of papers where either no definition was provided or where an idiosyncratic or mis-cited definition was used fell 26%, from 58 to 32%, nearly one in three papers published on SIDS in peer-reviewed journals that were included in this study still did not cite a standard definition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rognum, Ingvar J.; Tran, Hoa; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Hyland, Keith; Paterson, David S.; Haynes, Robin L.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Harty, Brian J.; Mena, Othon; Krous, Henry F.; Kinney, Hannah C.
Clinical biomarkers are urgently needed in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to identify living infants at risk because it because it occurs without occurs without clinical warning. Previously, we reported multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in nuclei of the medulla oblongata that help mediate protective responses to homeostatic stressors. Here we test the hypothesis that 5-HT-related measures are abnormal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SIDS infants compared to autopsy controls, as a first step towards their assessment as diagnostic biomarkers of medullary pathology. Levels of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), the degradative products of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 57 SIDS and 29 non-SIDS autopsy cases. Tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr), the substrates of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were also measured. There were no significant differences in 5-HIAA, Trp, HVA, or Tyr levels between the SIDS and non-SIDS groups. These data preclude use of 5-HIAA, HVA, Trp or Tyr measurements as CSF biomarkers of 5-HT medullary pathology in infants at risk. They provide, however, important information about monoaminergic measurements in human CSF at autopsy and their developmental profile in infancy that is applicable to multiple pediatric disorders beyond SIDS. PMID:24423636
Andreasen, Charlotte Hartig; Refsgaard, Lena; Nielsen, Jonas B
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grand Opportunity (NHLBI GO) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) provided important knowledge on genetic variation in the background population. Our aim was to identify all variants previously associated with SIDS in ESP to improve the discrimination between plausible......Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. The genetic contribution to SIDS has been investigated intensively and to date, 14 cardiac channelopathy genes have been associated with SIDS. Newly published data from...
Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS, an autosomal-dominant disorder with an increased risk of predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancers, is caused by germ-line mutations in mismatch repair genes. The identification of germ-line mutations that predispose to cancer is important to further our understanding of tumorigenesis, guide patient management and inform the best practice for healthcare. A 45-year-old woman with atypical endometrial hyperplasia who suffered colon cancer at the age of 30 years underwent hysterectomy and genetic counseling. Pedigree analysis revealed her family fulfilling the Amsterdam I criteria. Next-generation sequencing was offered to the patient. A mutation in the MLH1 gene, c.1145dupA, was identified and verified by Sanger sequencing. In addition, her nine family members were tested for the mutation. Two were affected (colon cancer at the age of 43 years and 45 years and one healthy relative carried the same mutation in the MLH1 gene. The mutation resulted in a frame-shift (p.Met383Aspfs*12 located in exon12, as well as a polypeptide truncation of 393 amino acids by the formation of a premature stop codon. An immunohistochemistry analysis of endometrial hyperplasia tissues revealed defects in MLH1 and PMS2 protein expression in the patient. Based on the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG guideline, we report this MLH1 c.1145dupA variation to be a pathogenic mutation that contributes to a strongly increased cancer risk in this LS family. Proper screening suggestions were offered to the three affected patients and the healthy carrier. To the best of our knowledge, this germ-line mutation of MLH1 was previously submitted to the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD database, but no comprehensive evidence or supporting observations were reported previously in the literature. The present report found a single nucleotide insertion in exon12 of the MLH1 gene, which can be considered causative of Lynch phenotype
Full Text Available The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam gene is an extraordinary example of diversity that can produce thousands of isoforms and has so far been found only in insects and crustaceans. Cumulative evidence indicates that Dscam may contribute to the mechanistic foundations of specific immune responses in insects. However, the mechanism and functions of Dscam in relation to pathogens and immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the genome organization and alternative Dscam exons from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. These variants, designated EsDscam, potentially produce 30,600 isoforms due to three alternatively spliced immunoglobulin (Ig domains and a transmembrane domain. EsDscam was significantly upregulated after bacterial challenge at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, bacterial specific EsDscam isoforms were found to bind specifically with the original bacteria to facilitate efficient clearance. Furthermore, bacteria-specific binding of soluble EsDscam via the complete Ig1–Ig4 domain significantly enhanced elimination of the original bacteria via phagocytosis by hemocytes; this function was abolished by partial Ig1–Ig4 domain truncation. Further studies showed that knockdown of membrane-bound EsDscam inhibited the ability of EsDscam with the same extracellular region to promote bacterial phagocytosis. Immunocytochemistry indicated colocalization of the soluble and membrane-bound forms of EsDscam at the hemocyte surface. Far-Western and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated homotypic interactions between EsDscam isoforms. This study provides insights into a mechanism by which soluble Dscam regulates hemocyte phagocytosis via bacteria-specific binding and specific interactions with membrane-bound Dscam as a phagocytic receptor.
Full Text Available Concomitant use of some drugs can lead to interactions between them resulting in severe adverse effects. To date, there are few reports of incidences of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS associated with combination drug administration. Therefore, we studied the relationship between drug combinations and SJS-related mortality, with the hope that a retrospective study of this nature would provide information crucial for the prevention of future drug-drug interaction related deaths attributable to SJS. This retrospective longitudinal study used mortality cases from 1999 to 2008 that were diagnosed as erythema multiforme (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 695.1 from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. Statistical comparisons of the results were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent sample t-tests, and odds ratio (OR. In this way, the relationship between combinations of SJS-inducing drugs and mortality could be determined. A total of 111 patients who had died, including 63 males and 48 females (66.0 ± 20 and 70.0 ± 17.7 years, respectively, were suspected of having experienced drug-drug interaction-related adverse effects. The associated drug combinations included allopurinol and ampicillin (p = 0.049, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (TMP (p < 0.0001, carbamazepine and phenytoin (p < 0.0001, sulfamethoxazole/TMP and phenytoin (p = 0.015, sulfadoxine and piroxicam (p = 0.045, phenobarbital and cephalexin (p < 0.0001, ampicillin and erythromycin (p < 0.0001, erythromycin and minocycline (p < 0.0001, and vancomycin and ethambutol (p < 0.0001 administered 1 month before the patients' deaths. Caution should be exercised when administering any drugs that may possibly induce SJS. In addition, attention should be paid to ensure prompt identification of possible drug-drug interactions, and patients should be closely monitored. Furthermore
Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam
Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ependyma, the lining providing a protective barrier and filtration system separating brain parenchyma from cerebrospinal fluid, is still inadequately understood in humans. In this study we aimed to define, by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, the sequence of developmental steps of the human ependyma in the brainstem (ventricular ependyma and thoracic spinal cord (central canal ependyma of a large sample of fetal and infant death victims, aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months. Additionally, we investigated a possible link between alterations of this structure, sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and maternal smoking. Results Our results demonstrate that in early fetal life the human ependyma shows a pseudostratified cytoarchitecture including many tanycytes and ciliated cells together with numerous apoptotic and reactive astrocytes in the subependymal layer. The ependyma is fully differentiated, with a monolayer of uniform cells, after 32 to 34 gestational weeks. We observed a wide spectrum of ependymal pathological changes in sudden death victims, such as desquamation, clusters of ependymal cells in the subventricular zone, radial glial cells, and the unusual presence of neurons within and over the ependymal lining. These alterations were significantly related to maternal smoking in pregnancy. Conclusions We conclude that in smoking mothers, nicotine and its derivatives easily reach the cerebrospinal fluid in the fetus, immediately causing ependymal damage. Consequently, we suggest that the ependyma should be examined in-depth first in victims of sudden fetal or infant death with mothers who smoke.
Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Sharifi, Farshad; Fadayevatan, Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Alireza; Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Naderimagham, Shohreh
The substantial increase in life expectancy during recent decades has left all countries with a high number of elderly people that have particular health needs. Health policy-makers must be aware of the most prevalent causes of deaths and DALYs in this age group, as well as geriatric syndromes, in order to provide appropriate care and allocate resources in an equitable manner. The Global Burden of Disease study 2010 (GBD 2010), conducted by the institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation team, estimated the worldwide burden of diseases from 1990 to 2010. Its estimations were conducted on the basis of the proportion of deaths, the duration of symptoms and disability weights for sequelae, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to different diseases. In the present study, we extracted the data regarding the top five most prevalent causes of deaths, DALYs, and geriatric syndromes in the elderly based on the aforementioned GBD 2010, discussed the results using some tables and figures, reviewed the results, described the limitations of GBD 2010, and finally provided some recommendations as potential solutions. According to GBD 2010, the total number of deaths in Iran in 1990 was 321,627, of which 116,100 were in elderly people (those aged 60 years and above), meaning that 36.10% of all deaths occurred in the elderly. Among all diseases in this year, the first to third ranked causes of death were ischemic heart disease (IHD; 29.44%), neoplasms (13.52%), and stroke (7.24%). In comparison, the total number of deaths in Iran increased to 351,814 in 2010, with 213,116 of these occurring in the elderly (60.58% of deaths), but the most prevalent causes of death remained the same as in 1990. The highest 1990 DALYs rates were the result of IHD (21.56%), neoplasms (10.70%), and stroke (4.85%). IHD (22.77%), neoplasms (9.48%), and low back pain (LBP; 5.72%) were the most prevalent causes of DALYs in
Ganaha, Akira; Kaname, Tadashi; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Tono, Tetsuya; Usami, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Mikio
Pendred syndrome (PS) and nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are caused by SLC26A4 mutations. The Okinawa Islands are the southwestern-most islands of the Japanese archipelago. And ancestral differences have been reported between people from Okinawa Island and those from the main islands of Japan. To confirm the ethnic variation of the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations, we investigated the frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations and clinical manifestations of patients with EVA or PS living in the Okinawa Islands. We examined 22 patients with EVA or PS from 21 unrelated families in Okinawa Islands. The patient's clinical history, findings of physical and otoscopic examinations, hearing test, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones were recorded. To detect mutations, all 21 exons and the exon-intron junctions of SLC26A4 were sequenced for all subjects. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SLC26A4 and calculations using the comparative CT (2(-ΔΔCT)) method were used to determine the pathogenicity associated with gene substitutions. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 21 of the 22 patients. We found a compound heterozygous mutation for IVS15 + 5G > A/H723R in nine patients (41%), a homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in six patients (27%), and homozygous mutation for H723R in five patients (23%). The most prevalent types of SLC26A4 alleles were IVS15 + 5G > A and H723R, which both accounted for 15/22 (68%) of the patients. There were no significant correlations between the types of SLC26A4 mutation and clinical manifestations. Based on qRT-PCR results, expression of SLC26A4 was not identified in patients with the homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A. The substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 was the most common mutation in uniquely found in patients with PS and EVA in Okinawa Islands. This suggested that the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutation differed
Michael B Wilson
Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may provide insight into the natural history of P. destructans. We compared the relatedness, resource capture, and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates with P. destructans to determine if they have similar adaptations for survival in hibernacula sediment. All non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates grew faster, utilized a broader range of substrates with higher efficiency, and were generally more resistant to antifungals compared to P. destructans. All isolates also showed the ability to displace P. destructans in co-culture assays, but only some produced extractible antifungal metabolites. These results suggest that P. destructans would perform poorly in the same environmental niche as non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus, and must have an alternative saprophytic survival strategy if it establishes active populations in hibernaculum sediment and non-host surfaces.
Wilson, Michael B; Held, Benjamin W; Freiborg, Amanda H; Blanchette, Robert A; Salomon, Christine E
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating fungal disease that has been causing the mass mortality of hibernating bats in North America since 2006 and is caused by the psychrophilic dermatophyte Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Infected bats shed conidia into hibernaculum sediments and surfaces, but it is unknown if P. destructans can form stable, reproductive populations outside its bat hosts. Previous studies have found non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus in bat hibernacula, and these fungi may provide insight into the natural history of P. destructans. We compared the relatedness, resource capture, and competitive ability of non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates with P. destructans to determine if they have similar adaptations for survival in hibernacula sediment. All non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus isolates grew faster, utilized a broader range of substrates with higher efficiency, and were generally more resistant to antifungals compared to P. destructans. All isolates also showed the ability to displace P. destructans in co-culture assays, but only some produced extractible antifungal metabolites. These results suggest that P. destructans would perform poorly in the same environmental niche as non-pathogenic Pseudogymnoascus, and must have an alternative saprophytic survival strategy if it establishes active populations in hibernaculum sediment and non-host surfaces.
Full Text Available The appearance of novel pathogens of humans with epidemic potential and high mortality rates have threatened global health security for centuries. Over the past few decades new zoonotic infectious diseases of humans caused by pathogens arising from animal reservoirs have included West Nile virus, Yellow fever virus, Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Lassa Fever virus, Hanta virus, Dengue fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, and Zika virus. The recent Ebola Virus Disease epidemic in West Africa and the ongoing Zika Virus outbreak in South America highlight the urgent need for local, regional and international public health systems to be be more coordinated and better prepared. The One Health concept focuses on the relationship and interconnectedness between Humans, Animals and the Environment, and recognizes that the health and wellbeing of humans is intimately connected to the health of animals and their environment (and vice versa. Critical to the establishment of a One Health platform is the creation of a multidisciplinary team with a range of expertise including public health officers, physicians, veterinarians, animal husbandry specialists, agriculturalists, ecologists, vector biologists, viral phylogeneticists, and researchers to co-operate, collaborate to learn more about zoonotic spread between animals, humans and the environment and to monitor, respond to and prevent major outbreaks. We discuss the unique opportunities for Middle Eastern and African stakeholders to take leadership in building equitable and effective partnerships with all stakeholders involved in human and health systems to take forward a ‘One Health’ approach to control such zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential.
Dziedzic, Magdalena; Marjańska, Agata; Bąbol-Pokora, Katarzyna; Urbańczyk, Anna; Grześk, Elżbieta; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kołtan, Sylwia
Pediatric autoinflammatory diseases are rare and still poorly understood conditions resulting from defective genetic control of innate immune system, inter alia from anomalies of NOD2 gene. The product of this gene is Nod2 protein, taking part in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Clinical form of resultant autoinflammatory condition depends on NOD2 genotype; usually patients with NOD2 defects present with Blau syndrome, NOD2-associated autoinflammatory disease (NAID) or Crohn's disease. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with co-existing symptoms of two rare diseases, Blau syndrome and NAID. Overlapping manifestations of two syndromes raised a significant diagnostic challenge, until next-generation molecular test (NGS) identified presence of three pathogenic variants of NOD2 gene: P268S, IVS8 +158 , 1007 fs, and established the ultimate diagnosis. Presence of multiple genetical abnormalities resulted in an ambiguous clinical presentation with overlapping symptoms of Blau syndrome and NAID. Final diagnosis of autoinflammatory disease opened new therapeutic possibilities, including the use of biological treatments.
Srour, Ali; Afzal, Ahmed J; Blahut-Beatty, Laureen; Hemmati, Naghmeh; Simmonds, Daina H; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Miao; Town, Christopher D; Sharma, Hemlata; Arelli, Prakash; Lightfoot, David A
Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.)) resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I.), or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O'Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK) GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence) within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. A BAC (B73p06) encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location) with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30-50%). In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control) as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. The inference that soybean has adapted part of an existing pathogen recognition and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I., or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS, was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. Results A BAC (B73p06 encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30–50%. In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. Conclusions The inference that soybean has
Lorena T. C. Geib
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Quantificar a incidência de síndrome da morte súbita do lactente no município de Passo Fundo (RS e descrever o perfil dos óbitos. MÉTODOS: Coorte de base populacional, de nascidos vivos no período de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004, domiciliados na zona urbana. Excluíram-se lactentes hospitalizados desde o nascimento, crianças em processo de adoção e óbitos ocorridos antes da coleta de dados. Dos 2.634 nascidos vivos, foram incluídas 2.411 crianças, acompanhando-se 2.285 (94,8%. Os dados foram coletados no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, declarações de óbito, registros do comitê de mortalidade infantil e mediante entrevistas domiciliares com a mãe social. Os instrumentos foram adaptados de formulários validados previamente. Os dados foram analisados no Epi-Info, com estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram registrados 10 óbitos (0,4%. Quatro de causa indeterminada puderam ser incluídos na categoria III de síndrome da morte súbita do lactente. Ocorreram entre os 2 e 5 meses, no domicílio, em crianças que dormiam na posição lateral, em cama com adultos, utilizando colchão macio, travesseiro e fralda sobre a face. Eram filhos de mãe jovens, fumantes, pré-natal incompleto, multíparas e de classes econômicas desfavorecidas. A incidência de suspeita dessa síndrome foi de 1,75/1.000. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de incidência de suspeita de síndrome da morte súbita do lactente em Passo Fundo é compatível com os maiores coeficientes internacionais, sugerindo medidas de vigilância e prevenção de riscos.OBJECTIVES: To quantify the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome in the town of Passo Fundo, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to describe the profile of the deaths observed. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of the live births from February 2003 to January 2004 to parents resident in the urban area. Infants were excluded if they had been hospitalized since birth, were in the
Patrycja Anna Naesgaard
Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.
Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...
Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.
Clemens, Daniel J; Lentino, Anne R; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Ye, Dan; Zhou, Wei; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J
Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ∼10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ≥10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Song, Shao-Na; Zhang, Bi-Li; Wang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Xuan
To investigate the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) complicated by urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective analysis was performed on the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in 97 children with NS complicated by UTI, who hospitalized from January to December, 2011. The incidence of UTI in children with NS was 36.5%. It was significantly more common in children with recurrent NS than in those with primary NS (44.0% vs 31.9%; Ppathogenic bacteria (50.5%), including Enterococcus faecium (29.4%) and Enterococcus faecalis (21.1%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (15.6%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.7%). Enterococcus was highly sensitive to nitrofurantoin, vacomycin and linezolid, but was highly resistant to tetracycline and moxifloxacin. More multi-resistant strains were detected in Enterococcus faecium than in Enterococcus faecalis (72% vs 17%; Pbacteria, 25% produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). ESBLs-producing bacteria had 100% sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam but were highly resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin and ceftriaxone. Children with recurrent NS are more susceptible to UTI than those with primary NS. Enterococcus is becoming major pathogenic bacteria for UTI in children with NS and has relatively high drug resistance, and most strains of Enterococcus faecium are multi-resistant.
Boczek, Nicole J.; Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.
Annually thousands of sudden deaths involving young individuals (autopsy. In fact, epidemiological studies have estimated that over half of sudden deaths involving previously healthy young individuals have no morphological abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS), leave no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving investigators to only speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation, through the use of a cardiological and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives and/or a molecular autopsy, may pinpoint the underlying mechanism attributing to the sudden death and allow for the identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable to an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden death. PMID:22993115
Sommer, Harriet; Wolkewitz, Martin; Schumacher, Martin
A variety of primary endpoints are used in clinical trials treating patients with severe infectious diseases, and existing guidelines do not provide a consistent recommendation. We propose to study simultaneously two primary endpoints, cure and death, in a comprehensive multistate cure-death model as starting point for a treatment comparison. This technique enables us to study the temporal dynamic of the patient-relevant probability to be cured and alive. We describe and compare traditional and innovative methods suitable for a treatment comparison based on this model. Traditional analyses using risk differences focus on one prespecified timepoint only. A restricted logrank-based test of treatment effect is sensitive to ordered categories of responses and integrates information on duration of response. The pseudo-value regression provides a direct regression model for examination of treatment effect via difference in transition probabilities. Applied to a topical real data example and simulation scenarios, we demonstrate advantages and limitations and provide an insight into how these methods can handle different kinds of treatment imbalances. The cure-death model provides a suitable framework to gain a better understanding of how a new treatment influences the time-dynamic cure and death process. This might help the future planning of randomised clinical trials, sample size calculations, and data analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford
Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most...
Yang, Ren-Qiang; Jabbari, Javad; Cheng, Xiao-Shu
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:5,000. More than 1000 variants have been previously reported to be associated with MFS. However, the disease-causing effect of these variants may be questionable...
Bergman, Jorieke E H; Janssen, Nicole; van der Sloot, Almer M
CHARGE syndrome is characterized by the variable occurrence of multisensory impairment, congenital anomalies, and developmental delay, and is caused by heterozygous mutations in the CHD7 gene. Correct interpretation of CHD7 variants is essential for genetic counseling. This is particularly diffic...
Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu
Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...... and the tumor pathological data suggested that the missense variation in MSH2, the more common susceptibility gene in LS, would be the predisposing alteration. However, MSH2 VUS was surprisingly found to be MMR proficient in an in vitro MMR assay and a tolerant alteration in silico. By supplying evidence...... identified VUS before predictive gene testing and genetic counseling are offered to a family....
Tong, Elisa K; England, Lucinda; Glantz, Stanton A
Prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects maternal and child health. Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been linked causally with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in major health reports. In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first noted an association between SHS and SIDS, and both prenatal exposure and postnatal SHS exposure were listed as independent risk factors for SIDS in a 1997 California EPA report (republished in 1999 by the National Cancer Institute) and a 2004 US Surgeon General report. The tobacco industry has used scientific consultants to attack the evidence that SHS causes disease, most often lung cancer. Little is known about the industry's strategies to contest the evidence on maternal and child health. In 2001, a review was published on SIDS that acknowledged funding from the Philip Morris (PM) tobacco company. Tobacco industry documents related to this review were examined to identify the company's influence on the content and conclusions of this review. Tobacco industry documents include 40 million pages of internal memos and reports made available to the public as a result of litigation settlements against the tobacco industry in the United States. Between November 2003 and January 2004, we searched tobacco industry document Internet sites from the University of California Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and the Tobacco Documents Online website. Key terms included "SIDS" and names of key persons. Two authors conducted independent searches with similar key terms, reviewed the documents, and agreed on relevancy through consensus. Thirty documents were identified as relevant. Two drafts (an early version and a final version) of an industry-funded review article on SIDS were identified, and 2 authors independently compared these drafts with the final publication. Formal comments by PM executives made in response to the first draft were also reviewed. We used Science Citation Index in July 2004 to determine
TOBE, TJM; DELANGEN, CDJ; BINKBOELKENS, MTE; MOOK, PH; VIERSMA, JW; LIE, KI; WESSELING, H
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of late potentials and their relation to QT prolongation in a family with a high incidence of sudden death during sleep at a young age and bradycardia-dependent QT prolongation (n = 9) and to compare the findings with those in consanguineous
Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Wu, Ryan T Y; Wu, Min
to MSeA-induced necrotic death. Co-treatment with the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase inhibitor KU55933 desensitized the control shRNA cells, but not WRN shRNA cells, to MSeA treatment. WRN did not affect MSeA-induced ATM phosphorylation on Ser-1981 or H2A.X phosphorylation on Ser-139...
... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...
Andersson, Hedvig Bille; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas; Helqvist, Steffen; Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Jørgensen, Erik; Kelbæk, Henning; Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Saunamäki, Kari; Bates, Eric; Grande, Peer; Holmvang, Lene; Clemmensen, Peter
We aimed to study survival and causes of death in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STE-ACS) with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We included 4793 consecutive patients with STE-ACS triaged for acute coronary angiography at a large cardiac invasive centre (2009-2014). Of these, 88% had obstructive CAD (stenosis ≥50%), 6% had non-obstructive CAD (stenosis 1-49%), and 5% had normal coronary arteries. Patients without obstructive CAD were younger and more often female with fewer cardiovascular risk factors. Median follow-up time was 2.6 years. Compared with patients with obstructive CAD, the short-term hazard of death (≤30 days) was lower in both patients with non-obstructive CAD [hazard ratio (HR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.89, P = 0.018] and normal coronary arteries (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.83, P = 0.021). In contrast, the long-term hazard of death (>30 days) was similar in patients with non-obstructive CAD (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.77-1.72, P = 0.487) and higher in patients with normal coronary arteries (HR 2.44, 95% CI 1.58-3.76, P Causes of death were cardiovascular in 70% of patients with obstructive CAD, 38% with non-obstructive CAD, and 32% with normal coronary arteries. Finally, patients without obstructive CAD had lower survival compared with an age and sex matched general population. STE-ACS patients without obstructive CAD had a long-term risk of death similar to or higher than patients with obstructive CAD. Causes of death were less often cardiovascular. This suggests that STE-ACS patients without obstructive CAD warrant medical attention and close follow-up. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D; Mackay, Deborah
in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.......Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations...... of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR...
Nof, Eyal; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Pérez, Guillermo J
the mother (both asymptomatic), led to 2 cases of sudden infant death. METHODS AND RESULTS: KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, CACNA1c, CACNB2b, and KCNJ2 genes were amplified and analyzed by direct sequencing. Functional electrophysiological studies were performed with the single nucleotide polymorphism...... and mutation expressed singly and in combination in Chinese ovary (CHO-K1) and COS-1 cells. An asymptomatic woman presenting after the death of her 2-day-old infant and spontaneous abortion of a second baby in the first trimester was referred for genetic analysis. The newborn infant had nearly incessant...... ventricular tachycardia while in utero and a prolonged QTc (560 ms). The mother was asymptomatic but displayed a prolonged QTc. Genetic screening of the mother revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation (P926AfsX14) in KCNH2, predicting a stop codon. The father was asymptomatic with a normal QTc but had...
Barigye, Robert; Schamber, Ev; Newell, Teresa K; Dyer, Neil W
Routine postmortem examination and histologic evaluation of tissue sections demonstrated hepatic lipidosis (HL) in 2 adult captive porcupines with a history of sudden death. The male porcupine had a markedly enlarged pale liver that microscopically showed large unilocular vacuoles within hepatocellular cytoplasm. The periparturient female had similar but less marked hepatic lesions and an incidental pulmonary mycosis. These findings suggest HL as an important differential of spontaneous death in captive porcupines. It is hypothesized that in addition to the widely documented causes, HL in captive porcupines may be specifically associated with nutritional imbalances caused by the feeding of unsuitable commercial diets. The possible association of the condition with dietary and other factors in captive porcupines needs to be thoroughly investigated.
Wang, Yunyun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Rongshuai; Huang, Sizhe; Yang, Mingzhen; Liu, Liang; Liu, Qian
To investigate the sudden death of a 36-year-old Chinese man, a medicolegal autopsy was performed, combining forensic pathological examinations and genetic sequencing analysis to diagnose the cause of death. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from blood and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Major findings included a dilated aortic root with a ruptured and dissected aorta and consequent tamponade of the pericardial sac. Moreover, arachnodactyly and other skeletal deformities were noted. By sequencing the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), five genetic variations were found, including four previously known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a novel frameshift mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. The frameshift mutation (c.4921delG, p.glu1641llysFsX9) detected in exon 40 led to a stop codon after the next 8 amino acids. The four SNPs included a splice site mutation (c.3464-5 G>A, rs11853943), a synonymous mutation (p.Asn625Asn, rs25458), and two missense mutations (p.Pro1148Ala, rs140598; p.Cys472Tyr, rs4775765). Genetic screening was recommended for the relatives as it was reported that the father and brother of the deceased had died at the ages of 40 and 25, respectively, from sudden cardiac failure. The son of the deceased lacked the relevant mutations. This report emphasizes the important contribution of medicolegal postmortem analysis on the molecular pathogenesis study of Marfan syndrome and early diagnosis of at-risk relatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.
Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged
Zhou, Jing; Jin, Jun-O; Kawai, Toshihisa; Yu, Qing
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) down-modulates various immune responses by engaging the co-inhibitory receptor programmed death-1. Expression of PD-L1 and programmed death-1 is elevated in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The objective of this study is to define the role of endogenous PD-L1 in SS pathogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of this disease. We inhibited endogenous PD-L1 function by intraperitoneal administration of a blocking antibody to 6 week-old female NOD/ShiLtJ mice repeatedly during a 9-day period. PD-L1 blockade accelerated leukocyte infiltration and caspase-3 activation in the submandibular gland (SMG), production of antinuclear and anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) autoantibodies and impairment of saliva secretion, indicative of accelerated development and onset of SS. The effect of PD-L1 blockade was associated with increased T- and B cells and T helper 1 cytokine IFN-γ in the SMG. Local administration of exogenous IFN-γ to the SMG led to impaired salivary secretion accompanied by down-regulation of aquaporin 5 and an increase in anti-M3R autoantibodies. Conversely, neutralization of IFN-γ markedly improved salivary secretion and aquaporin 5 expression in anti-PD-L1-treated NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Hence, endogenous PD-L1 hinders the development and onset of SS in NOD mice, in part by suppressing IFN-γ production.
Chen, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Jui-Ming; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Hu, Sheng-Chuan; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chen, Shee-Ping; Jeng, Jing-Ren; Wu, Chieh-Lin; Ho, Jar-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ping
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms have been associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, several controversial results have also been found in different studied populations. This hospital-based, emergency room, case-control study in Taiwan retrospectively investigated 111 ACS patients, and 195 non-coronary subjects as a control group, to study the effects of ACE I/D polymorphism in the most urgent ACS patients. ACE I/D polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based assays and their associations with ACS risk, severity, and sudden cardiac death were determined. The ACE DD genotype was associated with ACS incidence. The DD genotype was associated with a significant 4-fold higher risk of ACS in multivariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.295; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.436-12.851, p = 0.009), and a 3.35-fold higher risk of acute myocardial infarction. DD genotype carriers also had more than 3-fold higher risks of stenosis in all the three coronary arteries, left anterior descending artery infarction, and anterior wall infarction. In addition, the DD genotype was also associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death (OR = 6.484, 95% CI: 1.036-40.598, p = 0.046). This study demonstrated that the ACE DD genotype is an independent risk factor for ACS, and in particular, for acute myocardial infarction. In addition, the ACE DD genotype is also associated with greater ACS severity and a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. ACE genotyping is recommended for patients with a history of ACS, and more intensive preventive care is suggested for patients with the DD genotype.
Full Text Available Abstract A decrease in the incidence of human immune deficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS and regression of some established HIV-KS lesions is evident after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART, and is attributed to generalized immune restoration, to the reconstitution of human herpesvirus (HHV-8 specific cellular immune responses, and to the decrease in HIV Tat protein and HHV-8 loads following HAART. However, a small subset of HIV-seropositive subjects with a low CD4+ T cell count at the time of introduction of HAART, may develop HIV-KS as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS within 8 weeks thereafter.
Verant, Michelle L.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David
Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, aff. Thelebolales) are closely related groups of globally occurring soil-associated fungi. Recently, these genera of fungi have received attention because a newly identified species, Pseudogymnoascus (initially classified as Geomyces) destructans, was discovered in association with significant and unusual mortality of hibernating bats in North America (Blehert et al. 2009; Gargas et al. 2009; Minnis and Linder 2013). This emergent disease called bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), has since caused drastic declines in populations of hibernating bats in the United States and Canada (Turner, Reeder, and Coleman 2011; Thogmartin et al. 2012) and threatens some species with regional extinction (Frick et al. 2010; Langwig et al. 2012; Thogmartin et al. 2013). As primary predators of insects and keystone species for cave ecosystems, the loss of bats due to WNS has important economic and ecological implications.
Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar
Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.
Quintana, Gabriel; Niederle, Maria V; Minahk, Carlos J; Picariello, Gianluca; Nader-Macías, María E F; Pasteris, Sergio E
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1584 isolated from a bullfrog hatchery produces a bacteriocin that inhibits both indigenous Citrobacter freundii (a Red-Leg Syndrome related pathogen) and Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes as well. Considering that probiotics requires high cell densities and/or bacteriocin concentrations, the effect of the temperature on L. lactis growth and bacteriocin production was evaluated to find the optimal conditions. Thus, the growth rate was maximal at 36 °C, whereas the highest biomass and bacteriocin activity was achieved between 20 and 30 °C and 20-25 °C, respectively. The bacteriocin synthesis was closely growth associated reaching the maximal values at the end of the exponential phase. Since bacteriocins co-production has been evidenced in bacterial genera, a purification of the bacteriocin/s from L. lactis culture supernatants was carried out. The active fraction was purified by cationic-exchange chromatography and then, a RP-HPLC was carried out. The purified sample was a peptide with a 3353.05 Da, a molecular mass that matches nisin Z, which turned out to be the only bacteriocin produced by L. lactis CRL 1584. Nisin Z showed bactericidal effect on C. freundii and L. monocytogenes, which increased in the presence L-lactic acid + H 2 O 2 . This is the first report on nisin Z production by L. lactis from a bullfrog hatchery that resulted active on a Gram-negative pathogen. This peptide has potential probiotic for raniculture and as food biopreservative for bullfrog meat.
Forsythe, Adrian; Giglio, Victoria; Asa, Jonathan; Xu, Jianping
White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an ongoing epizootic affecting multiple species of North American bats, caused by epidermal infections of the psychrophilic filamentous fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans Since its introduction from Europe, WNS has spread rapidly across eastern North America and resulted in high mortality rates in bats. At present, the mechanisms behind its spread and the extent of its adaptation to different geographic and ecological niches remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the geographic patterns of phenotypic variation and the potential evidence for adaptation among strains representing broad geographic locations in eastern North America. The morphological features of these strains were evaluated on artificial medium, and the viability of asexual arthroconidia of representative strains were investigated after storage at high (23°C), moderate (14°C), and low (4°C) temperatures at different lengths of times. Our analyses identified evidence for a geographic pattern of colony morphology changes among the clonal descendants of the fungus, with trait values correlated with increased distance from the epicenter of WNS. Our genomic comparisons of three representative isolates revealed novel genetic polymorphisms and suggested potential candidate mutations that might be related to some of the phenotypic changes. These results show that even though this pathogen arrived in North America only recently and reproduces asexually, there has been substantial evolution and phenotypic diversification during its rapid clonal expansion. Importance The causal agent of White-nose Syndrome in bats is Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a filamentous fungus recently introduced from its native range in Europe. Infections caused by P. destructans have progressed across the eastern parts of Canada and the United States over the last ten years. It is not clear how the disease is spread as the pathogen is unable to grow above 23°C and ambient
Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.
White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.
Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M
White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.
Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M; McMichael, James W; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Stern, Daniel W F; Lumadue, Shayne S; Sigler, Lauren E; Winters, Harrison D; Vodzak, Megan E; Kurta, Allen; Kath, Joseph A; Field, Kenneth A
An estimated 5.7 million or more bats died in North America between 2006 and 2012 due to infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) during hibernation. The behavioral and physiological changes associated with hibernation leave bats vulnerable to WNS, but the persistence of bats within the contaminated regions of North America suggests that survival might vary predictably among individuals or in relation to environmental conditions. To investigate variables influencing WNS mortality, we conducted a captive study of 147 little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) inoculated with 0, 500, 5000, 50,000, or 500,000 Pd conidia and hibernated for five months at either 4 or 10°C. We found that female bats were significantly more likely to survive hibernation, as were bats hibernated at 4°C, and bats with greater body condition at the start of hibernation. Although all bats inoculated with Pd exhibited shorter torpor bouts compared to controls, a characteristic of WNS, only bats inoculated with 500 conidia had significantly lower survival odds compared to controls. These data show that host and environmental characteristics are significant predictors of WNS mortality, and that exposure to up to 500 conidia is sufficient to cause a fatal infection. These results also illustrate a need to quantify dynamics of Pd exposure in free-ranging bats, as dynamics of WNS produced in captive studies inoculating bats with several hundred thousand conidia may differ from those in the wild.
Joseph S Johnson
Full Text Available An estimated 5.7 million or more bats died in North America between 2006 and 2012 due to infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS during hibernation. The behavioral and physiological changes associated with hibernation leave bats vulnerable to WNS, but the persistence of bats within the contaminated regions of North America suggests that survival might vary predictably among individuals or in relation to environmental conditions. To investigate variables influencing WNS mortality, we conducted a captive study of 147 little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus inoculated with 0, 500, 5000, 50,000, or 500,000 Pd conidia and hibernated for five months at either 4 or 10°C. We found that female bats were significantly more likely to survive hibernation, as were bats hibernated at 4°C, and bats with greater body condition at the start of hibernation. Although all bats inoculated with Pd exhibited shorter torpor bouts compared to controls, a characteristic of WNS, only bats inoculated with 500 conidia had significantly lower survival odds compared to controls. These data show that host and environmental characteristics are significant predictors of WNS mortality, and that exposure to up to 500 conidia is sufficient to cause a fatal infection. These results also illustrate a need to quantify dynamics of Pd exposure in free-ranging bats, as dynamics of WNS produced in captive studies inoculating bats with several hundred thousand conidia may differ from those in the wild.
MA Badhul Haq
Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.
Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Kim, Seeun; Park, Kee Hwan; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee
The objective of this study was to compare clinical, microbiologic, immunologic, and pathologic parameters in pigs each concurrently administered porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine from 1 of 2 commercial sources at 21 days of age and challenged with field strains of each of the 3 pathogens. Pigs were challenged with PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days of age (-14 days post-challenge, dpc) followed by a challenge with PCV2 at 56 days of age (0 dpc). Significant differences were observed between vaccinated challenged and unvaccinated challenged groups in clinical (average daily gain and clinical signs), microbiologic (viremia and nasal shedding), immunologic (antibodies and interferon-γ secreting cells), and pathologic (lesions) outcomes. Significant differences were observed among the 3 vaccinated challenged groups in microbiologic (nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and viremia of PCV2) and immunologic ( M. hyopneumoniae - and PCV2-specific interferon-γ secreting cells) outcomes. The vaccination regimen for PRRSV vaccine, M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, and PCV2 vaccine is efficacious for controlling triple challenge with PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, and PCV2 from weaning to finishing period.
Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R
Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Islam, Mohammed Saiful; Sharif, Ahmad Raihan; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Khan, A K M Dawlat; Hasan, Murshid; Akter, Shirina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, James D; Gurley, Emily S
Recurrent outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children in lychee growing areas in Asia highlight the need to better understand the etiology and the context. We conducted a mixed-methods study to identify risk factors for disease, and behaviors and practices around lychee cultivation in an AES outbreak community in northern Bangladesh in 2012. The outbreak affected 14 children; 13 died. The major symptoms included unconsciousness, convulsion, excessive sweating, and frothy discharge. The median time from illness onset to unconsciousness was 2.5 hours. The outbreak corresponded with lychee harvesting season. Multiple pesticides including some banned in Bangladesh were frequently used in the orchards. Visiting a lychee orchard within 24 hours before onset (age-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 11.6 [1.02-109.8]) and 3 days (aOR = 7.2 [1.4-37.6]), and family members working in a lychee orchard (aOR = 7.2 [1.7-29.4]) and visiting any garden while pesticides were being applied (aOR = 4.9 [1.0-19.4]) in 3 days preceding illness onset were associated with illness in nearby village analysis. In neighborhood analysis, visiting an orchard that used pesticides (aOR = 8.4 [1.4-49.9]) within 3 days preceding illness onset was associated with illness. Eating lychees was not associated with illness in the case-control study. The outbreak was linked to lychee orchard exposures where agrochemicals were routinely used, but not to consumption of lychees. Lack of acute specimens was a major limitation. Future studies should target collection of environmental and food samples, acute specimens, and rigorous assessment of community use of pesticides to determine etiology.
Broadbelt, Kevin G; Barger, Melissa A; Paterson, David S; Holm, Ingrid A; Haas, Elisabeth A; Krous, Henry F; Kinney, Hannah C; Markianos, Kyriacos; Beggs, Alan H
An important subset of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is associated with multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in regions of the medulla oblongata. The mouse ortholog of the fifth Ewing variant gene (FEV) is critical for 5-HT neuronal development. A putatively rare intronic variant [IVS2-191_190insA, here referred to as c.128-(191_192)dupA] has been reported as a SIDS-associated mutation in an African-American population. We tested this association in an independent dataset: 137 autopsied cases (78 SIDS, 59 controls) and an additional 296 control DNA samples from Coriell Cell Repositories. In addition to the c.128-(191_192)dupA variant, we observed an associated single-base deletion [c.128-(301-306)delG] in a subset of the samples. Neither of the two FEV variants showed significant association with SIDS in either the African-American subgroup or the overall cohort. Although we found a significant association of c.128-(191_192)dupA with SIDS when San Diego Hispanic SIDS cases were compared with San Diego Hispanic controls plus Mexican controls (p = 0.04), this became nonsignificant after multiple testing correction. Among Coriell controls, 33 of 99 (33%) African-American and 0 of 197 (0%) of the remaining controls carry the polymorphism (c.128-(191_192)dupA). The polymorphism seems to be a common, likely nonpathogenic, variant in the African-American population.
Tornimbene, B; Frossard, J-P; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Guitian, J; Drew, T W
Since 2006, reports from China and Viet Nam have alerted of an emergent highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in that region. The frequent occurrence of outbreaks in these countries puts Cambodian pig farms at high risk of infection, but no study had been conducted to investigate the presence of HP-PRRS in Cambodian farms. We investigated the presence of HP-PRRS in medium-scale (semi-commercial) swine farms in the Cambodian southeastern region. Specifically, one province bordering Viet Nam (Takeo) was selected due to the concentration of most semi-commercial farms in that province. A cross-sectional study was carried out, between July and September 2010 to assess whether the prevalence of infection in these farms was indicative of recent spread of PPRSV and to identify risk factors for infection. The number of farms to be sampled was established using methods for Lot Quality Assurance Surveys (LQAS), in order to achieve a pre-established ability to discriminate between two different prevalence settings. The target population comprised all semi-commercial farms in Takeo province from which a random sample of 35 farms was selected. Selected farms were visited and questionnaires administered to gather information on farm characteristics and husbandry practices. Blood samples from individual pigs were collected in each of the study farms and tested for PRRSV, along with a number of other swine respiratory pathogens in order to investigate potential interactions. Our results showed that the virus was already present in Takeo semi-commercial pig population (LQAS herd prevalence ≥85%) at the time of sampling. The presence of sows in the farm and farm density were significantly associated (P<0.05) with the introduction and the presence of PRRS - but this was an unadjusted association as small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Spatiotemporal description of the supposed pattern of infection revealed that the
Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A
This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.
Full Text Available Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD and culture-independent (CI methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'. CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS. The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS.
Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu
Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS.
Pan, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Cui, Hongyu
In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks. The pathogenicity of HLJDAd15 was evaluated in SPF chickens and ducks. The results showed that chickens were more susceptible to this new genotype of fowl adenovirus, and it was more difficult to infect ducks than chickens with the duck origin virus. Thus, it appears that this severe HPS in ducks is far more likely to have been transmitted from chickens to ducks than from ducks to ducks. Therefore, transmission from chickens to ducks constitutes a threat to the duck farming industry, and this transmission route is a very important consideration for the prevention and control of the new genotype of fowl adenovirus. This is the first whole genome sequence of a FAdV-4 isolated from ducks, and this information is important for understanding the molecular characteristics and evolution of aviadenoviruses. The potential risks of infection with this new hypervirulent FAdV-4 genotype in chickens and ducks urgently require an effective vaccine.
Full Text Available The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize monoculture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean monoculture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean monoculture. Bulk density (BD was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+ bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum was markedly higher (15% under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality.
Perez-Brandan, C.; Arzeno, J. L.; Huidobro, J.; Conforto, C.; Grumberg, B.; Hilton, S.; Bending, G. D.; Meriles, J. M.; Vargas-Gil, S.
The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species) was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize mono culture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean mono culture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean mono culture. Bulk density (BD) was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+) bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content) in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum) was markedly higher (15%) under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality. (Author)
Full Text Available Mutations in CHD7 have been shown to be a major cause of CHARGE syndrome, which presents many symptoms and features common to other syndromes making its diagnosis difficult. Next generation sequencing (NGS of a panel of intellectual disability related genes was performed in an adult patient without molecular diagnosis. A splice donor variant in CHD7 (c.5665 + 1G > T was identified. To study its potential pathogenicity, exons and flanking intronic sequences were amplified from patient DNA and cloned into the pSAD® splicing vector. HeLa cells were transfected with this construct and a wild-type minigene and functional analysis were performed. The construct with the c.5665 + 1G > T variant produced an aberrant transcript with an insert of 63 nucleotides of intron 28 creating a premature termination codon (TAG 25 nucleotides downstream. This would lead to the insertion of 8 new amino acids and therefore a truncated 1896 amino acid protein. As a result of this, the patient was diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome. Functional analyses underline their usefulness for studying the pathogenicity of variants found by NGS and therefore its application to accurately diagnose patients.
Villate, Olatz; Ibarluzea, Nekane; Fraile-Bethencourt, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Alberto; Velasco, Eladio A; Grozeva, Detelina; Raymond, F L; Botella, María P; Tejada, María-Isabel
Mutations in CHD7 have been shown to be a major cause of CHARGE syndrome, which presents many symptoms and features common to other syndromes making its diagnosis difficult. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of a panel of intellectual disability related genes was performed in an adult patient without molecular diagnosis. A splice donor variant in CHD7 (c.5665 + 1G > T) was identified. To study its potential pathogenicity, exons and flanking intronic sequences were amplified from patient DNA and cloned into the pSAD ® splicing vector. HeLa cells were transfected with this construct and a wild-type minigene and functional analysis were performed. The construct with the c.5665 + 1G > T variant produced an aberrant transcript with an insert of 63 nucleotides of intron 28 creating a premature termination codon (TAG) 25 nucleotides downstream. This would lead to the insertion of 8 new amino acids and therefore a truncated 1896 amino acid protein. As a result of this, the patient was diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome. Functional analyses underline their usefulness for studying the pathogenicity of variants found by NGS and therefore its application to accurately diagnose patients.
Landes, Scott D
Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem.
Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza
Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...
The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis
Bezzina, Connie; Barc, Julien; Mizusawa, Yuka
Brugada syndrome is a rare cardiac arrhythmia disorder, causally related to SCN5A mutations in around 20% of cases. Through a genome-wide association study of 312 individuals with Brugada syndrome and 1,115 controls, we detected 2 significant association signals at the SCN10A locus (rs10428132) a...
Causes of death and prognostic factors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a prospective study: comparison of 106 MEN1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients with 1613 literature MEN1 patients with or without pancreatic endocrine tumors.
Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J; Jensen, Robert T
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking.To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%-14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature
Rutter, Paul D; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Darzi, Ara; Donaldson, Liam J
Objective To estimate the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) among patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. Setting Hospitals providing secondary and tertiary care throughout the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants Cases reported to the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) in which the reporter clearly describes severe acute patient deterioration associated with cement use in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur (assessed independently by two reviewers). Outcome measures Primary—number of reported deaths, cardiac arrests and periarrests per year. Secondary—timing of deterioration and outcome in relation to cement insertion. Results Between 2005 and 2012, the NRLS received 62 reports that clearly describe death or severe harm associated with the use of cement in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. There was one such incident for every 2900 hemiarthroplasties for fractured neck of femur during the period. Of the 62 reports, 41 patients died, 14 were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and 7 from periarrest. Most reports (55/62, 89%) describe acute deterioration occurring during or within a few minutes of cement insertion. The vast majority of deaths (33/41, 80%) occurred on the operating table. Conclusions These reports provide narrative evidence from England and Wales that cement use in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur is associated with instances of perioperative death or severe harm consistent with BCIS. In 2009, the National Patient Safety Agency publicised this issue and encouraged the use of mitigation measures. Three-quarters of the deaths in this study have occurred since that alert, suggesting incomplete implementation or effectiveness of those mitigation measures. There is a need for stronger evidence that weighs the risks and benefits of cement in hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur. PMID
Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane
Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...
This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission
Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without
This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as
This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.
Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.
Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J
Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.
This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source
de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno D.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.
In recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the
Fernández Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella Brugada, Georgia; Brugada Terradellas, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano Larrea, Oscar
Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, a...
Full Text Available For almost 20 years, apoptosis and secondary necrosis have been considered the major source of autoantigens and endogenous adjuvants in the pathogenic model of systemic autoimmune diseases. This focus is justified in part because initial evidence in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE guided investigators toward the study of apoptosis, but also because other forms of cell death were unknown. To date, it is known that many other forms of cell death occur, and that they vary in their capacity to stimulate as well as inhibit the immune system. Among these, NETosis (an antimicrobial form of death in neutrophils in which nuclear material is extruded from the cell forming extracellular traps, is gaining major interest as a process that may trigger some of the immune features found in SLE, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener’s granulomatosis and Felty’s syndrome. Although there have been volumes of very compelling studies published on the role of cell death in autoimmunity, no unifying theory has been adopted nor have any successful therapeutics been developed based on this important pathway. The recent inclusion of NETosis into the pathogenic model of autoimmune diseases certainly adds novel insights into this paradigm, but also reveals a previously unappreciated level of complexity and raises many new questions. This review discusses the role of cell death in systemic autoimmune diseases with a focus on apoptosis and NETosis, highlights the current short comings in our understanding of the vast complexity of cell death, and considers the potential shift in the cell death paradigm in autoimmunity. Understanding this complexity is critical in order to develop tools to clearly define the death pathways that are active in systemic autoimmune diseases, identify drivers of disease propagation, and develop novel therapeutics.
Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.
Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Sala, Paola; Evans, D Gareth; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Blanco, Ignacio; Sijmons, Rolf; Jeffries, Jacqueline; Vasen, Hans; Burn, John; Nakken, Sigve; Hovig, Eivind; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Wouter H; Hill, James; Wijnen, Juul; Jenkins, Mark; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Sunde, Lone; Mints, Miriam; Bertario, Lucio; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Morak, Monika; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Frayling, Ian M; Plazzer, John-Paul; Pylvanainen, Kirsi; Genuardi, Maurizio; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Möslein, Gabriela; Sampson, Julian R; Capella, Gabriel
Objective Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do
Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Darkner, Stine
The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of str...
Full Text Available Individuals with X-HIGM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand; consequently they cannot mount effective protective antibody responses against pathogenic bacteria. We evaluated, compared, and characterized the humoral immune response of wild type (WT and C57-CD40L deficient (C57-CD40L−/− mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Basal serum isotype levels were similar for IgM and IgG3 among mice, while total IgG and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in C57-CD40L−/− mice compared with WT. Essentially IgG1 and IgG2c levels were detectable only in WT mice. C57-CD40L−/− animals, orally inoculated with 2×109 CFU, presented several clinical manifestations since the second week of infection and eventually died. In contrast at this time point no clinical manifestations were observed among C57-CD40L−/− mice infected with 1×107 CFU. Infection was subclinical in WT mice inoculated with either bacterial dose. The serum samples from infected mice (1×107 CFU, collected at day 14 after infection, had similar C. rodentium-specific IgM titres. Although C57-CD40L−/− animals had lower IgG and IgG2b titres than WT mice, C57-CD40L−/− mice sera displayed complement-mediated bactericidal activity against C. rodentium. C. rodentium-infected C57-CD40L−/− mice are capable of producing antibodies that are protective. C57-CD40L−/− mouse is a useful surrogate model of X-HIGM syndrome for studying immune responses elicited against pathogens.
Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation.
Mo, Bin-Feng; Lu, Qiu-Fen; Lu, Shang-Biao; Xie, Yu-Quan; Feng, Xiang-Fei; Li, Yi-Gang
The CHA2DS2-VASc score is used clinically for stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to investigate whether the CHA2DS2-VASc score predicts stroke and death in Chinese patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) after pacemaker implantation and to evaluate whether the predictive power of the CHA2DS2-VASc score could be improved by combining it with left atrial diameter (LAD) and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). A total of 481 consecutive patients with SSS who underwent pacemaker implantation from January 2004 to December 2014 in our department were included. The CHA2DS2-VASc scores were retrospectively calculated according to the hospital medical records before pacemaker implantation. The outcome data (stroke and death) were collected by pacemaker follow-up visits and telephonic follow-up until December 31, 2015. During 2151 person-years of follow-up, 46 patients (9.6%) suffered stroke and 52 (10.8%) died. The CHA2DS2-VASc score showed a significant association with the development of stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.75, Ppacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.
Moh. Toriqul Chaer
Full Text Available When the tide of unemployment hit the USA and Europe, in Japan the opposite phenomenon occurs. In 2002, in Japan deaths were recorded because of excessive works. In this country, the phenomenon of death because of excessive works is called Karoshi. Karoshi is common in Japan. It becomes deadly syndrome as a consequence of long hours works. The debate about deaths from excessive work already sticking out in Japan since the 70s. The first official case of Karoshi was reported in 1969 when a 29-year-old male worker died because of stroke. It is estimated over ten thousand workers died each year due to death by brain and stroke caused by an overload work. Karoshi often happen to male workers dominantly. The main cause of karoshi is stress due to high pressure in the work environment, and work habits of exceeding a standard of normal working time (8 hours. In addition, their extra time to work is imbalance with and the salary they earn. In its development, the phenomenon of karoshi contributes to the term salaryman and workaholic.
such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...
Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini
Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.
Pathogens have always had a major interest to humans due to their central role in sickness and death. Influenza A annually kills at least 250,000 humans, and has been the cause of millions of further deaths during pandemic years in the past. Plague (Yersinia pestis) has been the cause of the Black...... capture for the detection of Y. pestis in samples from the Justinian plague (600 AD) as an attempt to detect this pathogen as a cause of death in the victims....
Zampieri, Carisa A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Nabel, Gary J
Ebola virus is a highly virulent pathogen capable of inducing a frequently lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively subverts both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses as it inflicts direct tissue damage. The host immune system is ultimately overwhelmed by a combination of inflammatory factors and virus-induced cell damage, particularly in the liver and vasculature, often leading to death from septic shock. We summarize the mechanisms of immune dysregulation and virus-mediated cell damage in Ebola virus-infected patients. Future approaches to prevention and treatment of infection will be guided by answers to unresolved questions about interspecies transmission, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and protective adaptive and innate immune responses to Ebola virus.
Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe
Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...
Jacobsen, Michael Hviid
be labelled ‘spectacular death’ in which death, dying and mourning have increasingly become spectacles. Moreover, the author proposes that what is currently happening in contemporary Western society can be interpreted as an expression of a ‘partial re-reversal’ of ‘forbidden death’ to some...
Gerald A. Matua
Full Text Available The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world’s most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies.
Matua, Gerald A; Van der Wal, Dirk M; Locsin, Rozzano C
The Ebola virus is a highly virulent, single-stranded ribonucleic acid virus which affects both humans and apes and has fast become one of the world's most feared pathogens. The virus induces acute fever and death, with haemorrhagic syndrome occurring in up to 90% of patients. The known species within the genus Ebolavirus are Bundibugyo, Sudan, Zaïre, Reston and Taï Forest. Although endemic in Africa, Ebola has caused worldwide anxiety due to media hype and concerns about its international spread, including through bioterrorism. The high fatality rate is attributed to unavailability of a standard treatment regimen or vaccine. The disease is frightening since it is characterised by rapid immune suppression and systemic inflammatory response, causing multi-organ and system failure, shock and often death. Currently, disease management is largely supportive, with containment efforts geared towards mitigating the spread of the virus. This review describes the classification, morphology, infective process, natural ecology, transmission, epidemic patterns, diagnosis, clinical features and immunology of Ebola, including management and epidemic containment strategies.
Full Text Available There is no standardised criterion on the handling of Classical Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and Gray Zone SIDS. Particularly international discussion is needed on the handling of Gray Zone cases. Autopsy findings for Classical SIDS and Gray Zone SIDS in Japan has been analysed in preparing the basic data for this discussion in this report. The material analysed was found in the Japanese Pathology and Autopsy Report from the Japanese Society of Pathology (January 1982 to December 1986. A x2 test was required to find the difference between Classical SIDS and Gray Zone SIDS in each autopsy finding. In addition, factor analysis (the principal factor method with Varimax rotation was carried out to identify the structure of the autopsy findings not only for Gray Zone SIDS but also for Classical SIDS. Using the x2 test a lymph tissue enlargement was found to have a high statistical value in Classical SIDS. Congestion, thymus enlargement, pulmonary oedema, adrenal gland atrophy, lymph tissue enlargement and neonate were recorded with .high factor loadings in Classical SIDS by factor analysis. Pneumonia, premature baby, and cardiomegaly was recorded with high statistical value in Gray Zone SIDS by the x2 test. Asphyxia, congestion, atelectasis, pulmonary emphysema, adrenal gland atrophy, premature baby, thymus hypoplasia, cardial malformation and ectopic hemopoesis were recorded as having high factor loadings in Gray Zone SIDS using factor analysis. Thymus enlargement and adrenal gland atrophy were recorded in the third factor of Gray Zone SIDS having rather high negative factor loading using factor analysis. It is remarkable that asphyxia was extracted in the first factor of Gray Zone SIDS with the highest loading factor using factor analysis. This fact might suggest indirectly that a percentage of Gray Zone SIDS would be underdiagnosed because of a substitutional diagnosis of asphyxia as being an external cause of death in Japan, even in general
Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.
Full Text Available The prompt and efficient clearance of unwanted and abnormal cells by phagocytes is termed efferocytosis and is crucial for organism development, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and regulation of the immune system. Dying cells are recognized by phagocytes through pathways initiated via “find me” signals, recognition via “eat me” signals and down-modulation of regulatory “don’t eat me” signals. Pathogen infection may trigger cell death that drives phagocytic clearance in an immunologically silent, or pro-inflammatory manner, depending on the mode of cell death. In many cases, efferocytosis is a mechanism for eliminating pathogens and pathogen-infected cells; however, some pathogens have subverted this process and use efferocytic mechanisms to avoid innate immune detection and assist phagocyte infection. In parallel, phagocytes can integrate signals received from infected dying cells to elicit the most appropriate effector response against the infecting pathogen. This review focuses on pathogen-induced cell death signals that drive infected cell recognition and uptake by phagocytes, and the outcomes for the infected target cell, the phagocyte, the pathogen and the host.
Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D
Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases.
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Asmundo, A; Aragona, M; Gualniera, P; Aragona, F
The sudden death by hypoglycemia is an aspect of the forensic pathology frequently neglected. Authors initially described the pathogenesis of different hypoglycemia forms, distinguishing the primary ones due to hyperinsulinism and the secondary ones due to functional insufficiency of other organs (hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, liver); after that Authors described three cases of sudden death induced hypoglycemia by hyperinsulinism: two were unweaned with nesidioblastosis and one adolescent. In any form of hypoglycemia the central nervous system damage is present with evident neuronal degenerative-necrotic phenomena, widespread edema with microhemorrhage, swollen and dissociation of myelin sheath, glial cells hyperplasia. Death caused by primary hypoglycemia is histopathologically different from the secondary one because of the maintenance of hepatic glycogen content in the former, that increase in striated muscles, including the heart, in spite of the constant secretion of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla. Glycogen is depleted in secondary hypoglycemia. In the primary form, behind the adrenal medulla hyperfunction, the increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex is moderate, contrasting with the seriousness of the syndrome, due prevalently to inhibit the gluconeogenesis response conditioned by the persistence of stored glycogen in the liver, heart and striated muscles. The rare anoxic processes coming with resynthesis of hepatic glycogen have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The primary hypoglycemic death, especially in unweaned, is frequently promoted by other processes inducing hypoxia (fetal asphyxia outcome, pneumonia, etc.) or worsening the hypoglycemia (hypothyroidism, etc.). The secondary hypoglycemias are characterized by the normality of exocrine pancreas and by organic alterations that cause glycogen depletion from the liver.
Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad A; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Karbasi, Golaleh; Bahramian, Mohammad H; Salimpoor, Abdolrahman; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad R
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and iris as well as sensorineural hearing loss. WS is subdivided into 4 major types (WS1-4), where WS2 is characterized by the absence of dystopia canthorum. This study was launched to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of WS in an extended Iranian WS2 family. A comprehensive clinical investigation was performed. Peripheral blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Affected members of the family were studied for possible mutations within the SOX10 , MITF , and SNAI2 genes. Six WS2 individuals affected from a large Iranian WS2 kindred were enrolled. All affected members carried the novel substitution c.877C>T at exon 9 in the MITF gene, which resulted in p.Arg293* at the protein level. None of the healthy members and also of 50 ethnically matched controls had this variant. In addition, a spectrum of unique ocular findings, including nystagmus, chorioretinal degeneration, optic disc hypoplasia, astigmatism, and myopia, was segregated with the mutant allele in the pedigree. Our data provide insight into the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS2 in an Iranian family and could further expand the spectrum of MITF mutations and have implications for genetic counseling on WS in Iran.
Stronks, Dirk L.; Dik, Willem A.; Schreurs, Marco W. J.
The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml) versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml), p CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (89.5%). Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS. PMID:28634419
Yadav, Manoj K; Pradhan, Pravata K; Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Verma, Dev K; Chauhan, U K; Punia, Peyush; Jena, Joy K
Infection with Aphanomyces invadans, also known as epizootic ulcerative syndrome, is a destructive disease of freshwater and brackishwater fishes. Although more than 130 species of fish have been confirmed to be susceptible to this disease, some of the commercially important fish species like common carp, milk fish and tilapia are reported to be resistant. Species that are naturally resistant to a particular disease, provide a potential model to study the mechanisms of resistance against that disease. In the present study, following experimental infection with A. invadans in common carp Cyprinus carpio, sequential changes in various innate immune parameters and histopathological alterations were monitored. Some of the studied innate immunity parameters viz. respiratory burst, alternative complement and total antiproteases activities of the infected common carp were higher compared to control fish, particularly at early stages of infection. On the other hand, some parameters such as myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and alpha-2 macroglobulin activities were not altered. Histopathological examination of the muscle at the site of injection revealed well developed granulomas at 12 days post infection, with subsequent regeneration of muscle fibers. From the results, it could be inferred that innate defense mechanisms of common carp are able to neutralize the virulence factors secreted by A. invadans, thereby, preventing its invasive spread and containing the infection. The results obtained here will help to better understand the mechanisms underlying resistance against A. invadans infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori; Kokame, Koichi; Isonishi, Ayami; Soejima, Kenji; Akiyama, Nobu; Tomiyama, Junji; Natori, Kazuhiko; Kuranishi, Yasunobu; Imamura, Yutaka; Inoue, Nobumasa; Higasa, Satoshi; Seike, Masako; Kozuka, Teruhiko; Hara, Masamichi; Wada, Hideo; Murata, Mitsuru; Ikeda, Yasuo; Miyata, Toshiyuki; George, James N
Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) due to mutations in the gene that encodes for ADAMTS13 (ADAMTS13), but its clinical signs may be mild or absent during childhood. We have identified 37 patients with USS (24 females, 13 males) belonging to 32 families. The nine women from six families who were diagnosed during their first pregnancy are the focus of this report. Six of the nine women had episodes of thrombocytopenia during childhood misdiagnosed as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Thrombocytopenia occurred during the second-third trimesters in each of their 15 pregnancies, with 16 babies (one twin pregnancy), often followed by TTP. Of 15 pregnancies, eight babies were stillborn or died soon after birth, and the remaining seven were all premature except one, who was born naturally following plasma infusions to the mother that had started at 8 weeks' gestation. All nine USS women had severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity. ADAMTS13 analyses demonstrated that eight women were compound heterozygotes of Y304C/G525D (2 siblings), R125VfsX6/Q1302X (2 siblings), R193W/R349C (2 siblings), I178T/Q929X, and R193W/A606P; one woman was homozygous for R193W. Only the R193W mutation has been previously reported. These observations emphasize the importance of measuring ADAMTS13 activity in the evaluation of thrombocytopenia during childhood and pregnancy.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...
Full Text Available The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses.
Berlay Margarita Vasilievna; Kopylov Anatoliy Vasilievich; Karpov Sergey Mikhailovich
The “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” stands for unexpected nonviolent death of apparently healthy chest age child when there is no history or pathomorphological features which can be adequate explanations for death reasons. In Russian Federation, the death rate from this syndrome in the range of 0,06 to 2,8 per 1000 live births. In Stavropol region, average figures are equal to 0,36 per 1000 live births in the period of 2005–2014. Rates of incidence sudden infant death syndrome are similar to t...
Krishna D. Bharwani
Full Text Available The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml, p<0.001, resp.. Furthermore, sIL-2R level seems to be a good discriminator between CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (89.5%. Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS.
Martínez Monseny, A; Bobillo Pérez, S; Martínez Planas, A; García García, J J
Home apnea monitors detect abnormalities in cardiac and respiratory frequency, but their use in the diagnosis of respiratory -related sleep disturbances in children has not been demonstrated, as was originally thought. To describe the type of patients being monitored, for how long and their outcome. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients with controlled home cardiorespiratory monitoring from October 2008 to September 2012 in the Outpatient department of a Maternity tertiary hospital. During the study period 88 patients were included, 58% of them were male, with a median age of 15.5 days, and followed up for a period of 4.7 months. The reason for monitoring was in a 20.5% due to a history of sudden death without finding underlying pathology in 20.5%, 25% due to apnea of prematurity, 20.5% due to apparent life-threatening event, and 14.8% due to choking. Other causes accounted for 19.3% (apnea/hypopnea, desaturation and periodic breathing). Of these last three groups, pathological events were observed in 50% of them: reflux disease (9), apnea of prematurity (2), neurological causes (3), and apnea of unknown cause (10). Suspected infant apnea is a cause for consultation that creates a great deal of concern to the family and the pediatrician. Home monitoring is useful in detecting changes in cardiac and respiratory frequency, but is necessary to limit its indications and ensure proper monitoring of these patients, avoiding the abuse of other tests or treatments. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lorena Teresinha Consalter Geib
Full Text Available O estudo transversal, que descreve os hábitos de sono com risco potencial para a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente, incluiu todas as crianças nascidas vivas em 2003, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com coleta de dados nas Declarações de Nascidos Vivos e em entrevistas, analisados com estatística descritiva e teste de qui-quadrado. Dos 2.634 nascidos vivos, selecionaram-se 2.285 (86,75%, com exclusão de 8,4% e perda de 5,2%. Dentre os hábitos protetores, constatou-se, em 77% dos lactentes, uso de vestuário adequado, 90% envolvidos frouxamente, 69% com cobertas de espessura fina, 98% dormindo no quarto dos pais e 56%, no berço. Dos hábitos com potencial risco, observaram-se decúbito lateral (92%, uso de travesseiro (88% e os pés distanciados da borda inferior do berço (96%. Nas classes econômicas pobres, o hábito da criança de compartilhar a cama foi significativo (p = 0,00. Assim, num município com baixa prevalência de síndrome da morte súbita, os lactentes são expostos tanto a hábitos de sono protetores como de risco, sugerindo que, em populações desfavorecidas de países em desenvolvimento, outros fatores de risco dessa síndrome devam ser considerados.This cross-sectional study on sleeping habits with potential risk for sudden infant death syndrome included all live births in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003 with data collection from Certificates of Live Birth and interviews, analyzed with descriptive statistics and the qui-squared test. From the 2,634 live births, 2,285 children were selected (86.75%, with 8.4% exclusion and 5.2% losses. Protective habits included 77% of infants with appropriate clothing, 90% loosely wrapped, 69% with thin blankets, 98% sleeping in the parents' bedroom, and 56% in the crib. Potentially risky habits included lateral decubitus (92%, use of a pillow (88%, and feet far from the lower edge of the crib (96%. Among low-income families, bed-sharing with other
Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...
Peter S Blair
Full Text Available The risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS among infants who co-sleep in the absence of hazardous circumstances is unclear and needs to be quantified.Combined individual-analysis of two population-based case-control studies of SIDS infants and controls comparable for age and time of last sleep.Parents of 400 SIDS infants and 1386 controls provided information from five English health regions between 1993-6 (population: 17.7 million and one of these regions between 2003-6 (population:4.9 million.Over a third of SIDS infants (36% were found co-sleeping with an adult at the time of death compared to 15% of control infants after the reference sleep (multivariate OR = 3.9 [95% CI: 2.7-5.6]. The multivariable risk associated with co-sleeping on a sofa (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.1-47.4] or next to a parent who drank more than two units of alcohol (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.7-43.5] was very high and significant for infants of all ages. The risk associated with co-sleeping next to someone who smoked was significant for infants under 3 months old (OR = 8.9 [95% CI: 5.3-15.1] but not for older infants (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.7-2.8]. The multivariable risk associated with bed-sharing in the absence of these hazards was not significant overall (OR = 1.1 [95% CI: 0.6-2.0], for infants less than 3 months old (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 0.96-2.7], and was in the direction of protection for older infants (OR = 0.1 [95% CI: 0.01-0.5]. Dummy use was associated with a lower risk of SIDS only among co-sleepers and prone sleeping was a higher risk only among infants sleeping alone.These findings support a public health strategy that underlines specific hazardous co-sleeping environments parents should avoid. Sofa-sharing is not a safe alternative to bed-sharing and bed-sharing should be avoided if parents consume alcohol, smoke or take drugs or if the infant is pre-term.
You, Jin-song; Huang, Yan; Cai, Ye-feng; Guo, Jian-wen; Liang, Wei-xiong; Huang, Pei-xin; Liu, Mao-cai
To explore the composition characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in patients with acute ischemic stroke of yin or yang syndrome by investigating the characteristics of TCM syndromes at different periods after onset. One thousand two hundred and forty-six patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted in twenty hospitals. According to the "diagnostic criteria of syndrome differentiation of stroke", the characteristics of syndromes in the patients were investigated at the periods of 1-3 days, 4-10 days and 11-30 days after they had ischemic stroke. General distribution of six basic syndromes was compared between the patients with yin syndrome and the patients with yang syndrome at the three periods. The six basic syndromes were wind syndrome, pathogenic fire syndrome, phlegm syndrome, blood stasis syndrome, qi deficiency syndrome, and syndrome of yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity. The percentages of wind, pathogenic fire, and phlegm syndromes in the patients were decreased at the period of 11-30 days as compared with the period of 1-3 days (87.1% vs 79.3%, 52.1% vs 38.7% and 67.1% vs 57.4% respectively, P0.05). There were no differences in the distribution of yin and yang syndromes among the three periods (P>0.05). The percentages of syndromes of wind, pathogenic fire, phlegm, and yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity were higher (Pfour or five syndromes were higher, and the percentages of single-syndromes and complex syndromes of two syndromes were lower in patients with yang syndrome than in patients with yin syndrome (P<0.05, P<0.01). The most frequent complex syndromes in patients with yin syndrome were complex syndrome of wind, phlegm, blood stasis and qi deficiency, and complex syndrome of wind, phlegm and qi deficiency; while the most frequent complex syndromes in patients with yang syndrome were complex syndrome of wind, pathogenic fire, phlegm and qi deficiency, and complex syndrome of wind, pathogenic fire and phlegm. The
Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the
Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel LMNA Splice-Site Mutation and Multigenic Heterozygosity of Potential Modifiers in a Family with Sick Sinus Syndrome, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, and Sudden Cardiac Death.
Michael V Zaragoza
Full Text Available The goals are to understand the primary genetic mechanisms that cause Sick Sinus Syndrome and to identify potential modifiers that may result in intrafamilial variability within a multigenerational family. The proband is a 63-year-old male with a family history of individuals (>10 with sinus node dysfunction, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and sudden death. We used exome sequencing of a single individual to identify a novel LMNA mutation and demonstrated the importance of Sanger validation and family studies when evaluating candidates. After initial single-gene studies were negative, we conducted exome sequencing for the proband which produced 9 gigabases of sequencing data. Bioinformatics analysis showed 94% of the reads mapped to the reference and identified 128,563 unique variants with 108,795 (85% located in 16,319 genes of 19,056 target genes. We discovered multiple variants in known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes that may serve as potential modifiers in disease expression. To identify candidate mutations, we focused on ~2,000 variants located in 237 genes of 283 known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes. We filtered the candidates to 41 variants in 33 genes using zygosity, protein impact, database searches, and clinical association. Only 21 of 41 (51% variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We selected nine confirmed variants with minor allele frequencies G, a novel heterozygous splice-site mutation as the primary mutation with rare or novel variants in HCN4, MYBPC3, PKP4, TMPO, TTN, DMPK and KCNJ10 as potential modifiers and a mechanism consistent with haploinsufficiency.
Larissa D Cunha
Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome occurs in response to a notably high number of pathogenic microbes and is a broad innate immune response that effectively contributes to restriction of pathogen replication and generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of these platforms leads to caspase-1- and/or caspase-11-dependent secretion of proteins, including cytokines, and induction of a specific form of cell death called pyroptosis, which directly or indirectly contribute for restriction of pathogen replication. Not surprisingly, bona fide intracellular pathogens developed strategies for manipulation of cell death to guarantee intracellular replication. In this sense, the remarkable advances in the knowledge of the inflammasome field have been accompanied by several reports characterizing the inhibition of this platform by several pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we review some processes used by pathogenic bacteria, including Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Francisella tularensis, Shigella flexneri, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii to evade the activation of the inflammasome and the induction of pyroptosis.
Laura A. Brannelly
Full Text Available Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection.
... SADS Foundation UK SADS Foundation Netherlands SADS Foundation China SADS Foundation Hong Kong Search for: Log in ... research crucial for health of patients and the economy 7/18/2017 More funding for heart disease ...
... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...
Apr 4, 2004 ... There were no other significant positive anatomical findings from the autopsy. Postmortem toxicological findings: Toxicological analyses by gas chromatography were performed on postmortem femoral blood, gastric and duodenal contents, liver and kidney extracts by the Government. Chemist Department.
Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...
van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.
Cantwell, John D.
Marfan's Syndrome, a disorder of connective tissue, has gained increased attention since the death of volleyball star Flo Hyman. This article reviews the disease and discusses methods of detection and management. (Author/MT)
Mesquita, Inês Morais; Moreira, Diana; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal
During host–pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recogn...
Fuchs, Thilo Martin
Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually . Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.
Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 7/18/2011.
... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...
Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G
Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack......, and these inducible PCD forms are intensively studied due their experimental tractability. In general, evidence exists for plant cell death pathways which have similarities to the apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic forms described in yeast and metazoans. Recent research aiming to understand these pathways...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...
This article briefly overviews the criteria for and physiological process of death, contrasting physical death with biblical passages revealing how God interceded in this universal process when Jesus was on earth.
Value of Combining Left Atrial Diameter and Amino-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide to the CHA2DS2-VASc Score for Predicting Stroke and Death in Patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome after Pacemaker Implantation
Conclusions: CHA2DS2-VASc score is valuable for predicting stroke and death risk in patients with SSS after pacemaker implantation. The addition of LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved its predictive power for stroke and death, respectively, in this patient cohort. Future prospective studies are warranted to validate the benefit of adding LAD and NT-proBNP to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for predicting stroke and death risk in non-AF populations.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....
Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees
The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Death and Grief KidsHealth / For Teens / Death and Grief What's in this article? What Is ... the reaction we have in response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, ...
A D Macleod
Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.
Full Text Available Long QT syndrome (LQTS is a cardiac repolarization disorder characterized by prolonged QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG and increased propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and cardiac events. LQTS might be acquired or congenital, which presents a group of channelopathies that occur due to mutation in one of 15 so far identified genes. The most frequent types of congenital LTQS are LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3. Prolonged or delayed repolarization leads to the increase of action potential duration which predisposes early afterdepolarization, as well as the amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization, both contributing to the development of Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia. Clinical manifestations of LQTS are palpitations, syncope, aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death, but it can also be asymptomatic. Trigger factors for symptoms are specific for certain genotype. LQTS examination includes thorough clinical and family history focused on distinctive data (repeated syncopes, cases of sudden cardiac death in the family, hereditary arrhythmias, resting ECG, exercise stress testing and genetic analysis, with additional methods (serial ECG records, 24h ECG Holter, epinephrine test. Clinical LQTS diagnosis is based on Schwartz's scoring system, while the criteria for final diagnosis of LQTS depend on Schwartz's score, QT interval duration, presence of pathogenic mutation and clinical symptoms. Treatment approach begins with lifestyle modifications and β-blockers therapy, while other options include implantable cardioverter- defibrillator, permanent pacemaker or surgical sympathectomy. Sudden cardiac death is the reason of 90% of sudden deaths in young athletes, while LQTS is one of its causes. Recommendations for physical activities in children with congenital LQTS arise from the ones for adults and they presume very strict limitations. Further researches are expected to advance the understanding of genotype
Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.
Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L
Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.
Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...
Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...
Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J
Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.
Andika Indrarespati; Kaka Renaldi
Refeeding Syndrome is a syndrome which occurs as a result of food administration in poorly nourished individuals. In this syndrome, there are wide range of biochemical alterations, clinical manifestations, and complications, starting from mild (asymptomatic) to severe (death). This syndrome was initially proposed in 1950s; however, there is still no agreement for its clear definition, causing clinicians to be less aware and tend to overlook this condition. Clinical manifestations which usuall...
Amiri, Mandana; Bezaatpour, Abolfazl; Jafari, Hamed; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine
Bacterial infections remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of deaths due to infections is declining every year by only 1% with a forecast of 13 million deaths in 2050. Among the 1400 recognized human pathogens, the majority of infectious diseases is caused by just a few, about 20 pathogens only. While the development of vaccinations and novel antibacterial drugs and treatments are at the forefront of research, and strongly financially supported by policy makers, another manner to limit and control infectious outbreaks is targeting the development and implementation of early warning systems, which indicate qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of a pathogen. As toxin contaminated food and drink are a potential threat to human health and consequently have a significant socioeconomic impact worldwide, the detection of pathogenic bacteria remains not only a big scientific challenge but also a practical problem of enormous significance. Numerous analytical methods, including conventional culturing and staining techniques as well as molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction amplification and immunological assays, have emerged over the years and are used to identify and quantify pathogenic agents. While being highly sensitive in most cases, these approaches are highly time, labor, and cost consuming, requiring trained personnel to perform the frequently complex assays. A great challenge in this field is therefore to develop rapid, sensitive, specific, and if possible miniaturized devices to validate the presence of pathogens in cost and time efficient manners. Electrochemical sensors are well accepted powerful tools for the detection of disease-related biomarkers and environmental and organic hazards. They have also found widespread interest in the last years for the detection of waterborne and foodborne pathogens due to their label free character and high sensitivity. This Review is focused on the current
Mesquita, Inês; Moreira, Diana; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo
During host-pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in microbial growth and persistence. Extensive studies have documented the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a central cellular hub involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we highlight the most recent advances detailing how pathogens hijack cellular metabolism by suppressing or increasing the activity of the host energy sensor AMPK. We also address the role of lower eukaryote AMPK orthologues in the adaptive process to the host microenvironment and their contribution for pathogen survival, differentiation, and growth. Finally, we review the effects of pharmacological or genetic AMPK modulation on pathogen growth and persistence.
Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into
The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process
Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L
The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area
Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph
Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles.
Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes
One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...
De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...
Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug
psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...
Qian, Jiejing; Tong, Hongyan; Chen, Feifei; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare disease that has an extremely low incidence rate. CSS prognosis is good, in general; and there are no reports of multiple-organ hemorrhage in CSS. We report a unique case of CSS, wherein, an elderly man experienced multiple organ hemorrhage -- a particularly huge hematoma under the capsule of the liver and poor prognosis. PMID:25419420
Advances in resuscitation science have indicated that, contrary to perception, death by cardiorespiratory criteria can no longer be considered a specific moment but rather a potentially reversible process that occurs after any severe illness or accident causes the heart, lungs, and brain to stop functioning. The resultant loss of vital signs of life (and life processes) is used to declare a specific time of death by physicians globally. When medical attempts are made to reverse this process, it is commonly referred to as cardiac arrest; however, when these attempts do not succeed or when attempts are not made, it is called death by cardiorespiratory criteria. Thus, biologically speaking, cardiac arrest and death by cardiorespiratory criteria are synonymous. While resuscitation science has provided novel opportunities to reverse death by cardiorespiratory criteria and treat the potentially devastating consequences of the resultant postresuscitation syndrome, it has also inadvertently provided intriguing insights into the likely mental and cognitive experience of death. Recollections reported by millions of people in relation to death, so-called out-of-body experiences (OBEs) or near-death experiences (NDEs), are often-discussed phenomena that are frequently considered hallucinatory or illusory in nature; however, objective studies on these experiences are limited. To date, many consistent themes corresponding to the likely experience of death have emerged, and studies have indicated that the scientifically imprecise terms of NDE and OBE may not be sufficient to describe the actual experience of death. While much remains to be discovered, the recalled experience surrounding death merits a genuine scientific investigation without prejudice. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Chou, Deng-Wei; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chung, Kuo-Mou; Han, Shu-Chen; Cheung, Bruno Man-Hon
OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%). The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%), peripheral nodules without cavities (80%) or with cavities (65%), and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%). The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%), followed by pneumonia (25%). The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50%) and Staphylococcus aureus (35%). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential. PMID:27759843
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 85% of the patients, and acute respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (75%. The most common computed tomographic findings included a feeding vessel sign (90%, peripheral nodules without cavities (80% or with cavities (65%, and peripheral wedge-shaped opacities (75%. The most common primary source of infection was liver abscess (40%, followed by pneumonia (25%. The two most frequent causative pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (50% and Staphylococcus aureus (35%. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly higher serum creatinine, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and they were significantly more likely to have acute kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and lung abscesses. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30%. Pneumonia was the most common cause of death, followed by liver abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care, especially those with pneumonia and liver abscess, are associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention and respiratory support are essential.
Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations
Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus
Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...
Kurian, Sobha; Crowell, Edward B.; Ertan, Esmer; Rassekh, Christopher; Ducatman, Barbara
Maffucci's syndrome consists of multiple cutaneous hemangiomas, dyschondroplasia, and enchondromas with potential for malignant change. We report a case of a 33-year-old man with Maffucci's syndrome who presented with a several month history of nasal congestion, facial pain, and diminished vision in his left eye. Radiological studies showed a large soft tissue mass centered in the sinonasal area, extending bilaterally into maxillary sinuses and orbits with compression of left optic nerve. Biopsy of the mass showed esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma). Chemotherapy resulted in initial improvement, but the tumor recurred and did not respond to further treatment, resulting in his death. Sarcomatous tumors are reported in Maffucci's syndrome, but this is a rare case of a neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with Maffucci's syndrome. (orig.)
Maher, Sean P; Kramer, Andrew M; Pulliam, J Tomlin; Zokan, Marcus A; Bowden, Sarah E; Barton, Heather D; Magori, Krisztian; Drake, John M
Wildlife and plant diseases can reduce biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem services and threaten human health. Emerging pathogens have displayed a variety of spatial spread patterns due to differences in host ecology, including diffusive spread from an epicentre (West Nile virus), jump dispersal on a network (foot-and-mouth disease), or a combination of these (Sudden oak death). White-nose syndrome is a highly pathogenic infectious disease of bats currently spreading across North America. Understanding how bat ecology influences this spread is crucial to management of infected and vulnerable populations. Here we show that white-nose syndrome spread is not diffusive but rather mediated by patchily distributed habitat and large-scale gradients in winter climate. Simulations predict rapid expansion and infection of most counties with caves in the contiguous United States by winter 2105-2106. Our findings show the unique pattern of white-nose syndrome spread corresponds to ecological traits of the host and suggest hypotheses for transmission mechanisms acting at the local scale.
The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.
Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease. Heart failure may lead to acute kidney injury and vice versa. Chronic kidney disease may affect the clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disorders. Renal impairment with any degree of albuminuria has been increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalizations, while chronic heart failure may cause chronic kidney disease. The bidirectional nature of these disorders contributes to the complexity and the composite definitions of cardiorenal syndromes. However, the most important clinical trials in heart failure tend to exclude patients with significant renal dysfunction. The mechanisms whereby renal insufficiency worsens the outcome in heart failure are not known, and several pathways could contribute to the ‘‘vicious heart/kidney circle.’’ Traditionally, renal impairment has been attributed to the renal hypoperfusion due to reduced cardiac output and decreased systemic pressure. The hypovolemia leads to sympathetic activity, increased renin-angiotensin aldosterone pathway, and arginine-vasopressin release. These mechanisms cause fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, and volume overload. Therapy to improve renal dysfunction, reduce neurohormonal activation and ameliorate renal blood flow could lead to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with cardiorenal syndrome.
The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.
DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven
... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...
Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council
... not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â...
Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.
The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed
northern and southern Europe that the pathogen responsible is the Yersinia pestis bacterium that causes bubonic ... To describe the risks of getting the disease (Bubonic plague). 2. .... The plague bacillus grows readily on most culture media.
The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care professionals cannot confer on patients either dignity or death with dignity. They can, however, attempt to ensure that the patient dies without indignity. Indignities are affronts to human dignity, and include such things as serious pain and the exclusion of patients from involvement in decisions about their lives and deaths. This fairly modest conception of death with dignity avoids the traps of being overly subjective or of viewing the sick and helpless as "undignified". PMID:12161582
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.
R.E. Linzer; M. Garbelotto
Two recently described pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, have overlapping host and geographic ranges in California and Oregon forests with P. ramorum, causal agent of ?sudden oak death? disease. Preliminary genetic evidence indicates P. nemorosa and P....
Richard C. Cobb; David M. Rizzo
Phytophthora ramorum is an emergent pathogen in redwood forests which causes the disease sudden oak death. Although the disease does not kill coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), extensive and rapid mortality of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus) has removed this...
Machingambi, N. M.; Dreyer, L. L.; Oberlander, Kenneth; Roux, J.; Roets, F.
Roč. 64, č. 5 (2015), s. 1149-1156 ISSN 0032-0862 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bark beetle * root pathogen * Geosmithia * Phomopsis * tree death Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2015
Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza
Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...
Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David
Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Contreras Z, Eduardo; Gomez M, Juan E; Zuluaga M, Sandra X.
Long QT syndrome is a disease characterized by the electrocardiographic alteration in ventricular repolarization manifested by prolonged QT interval, secondary to prolonged ventricular repolarization. This makes these patients more vulnerable to very fast ventricular arrhythmias such as torsade des pointes or ventricular fibrillation. This syndrome is generally observed in young people and is associated with sudden death. It may appear as part of congenital LQTS (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen and Romano- Ward), or may be secondarily acquired due to metabolic or toxic alterations or to other pathophysiologic factors.
Child malnutrition is a complex global problem, of which lack of food is only one component. Enteric pathogens and malnutrition work in a cyclic manner to depress a child’s intestinal immunity, while decreasing nutrient absorption. This cycle leads to stunting, wasting, and death. Often malnourished...
BACKGROUND: Food-borne pathogens are the leading cause of illness and death in developing countries. Changes in eating habits, mass catering, unsafe food storage conditions and poor hygiene practices are major contributing factors to food associated illnesses. In Ethiopia, the widespread habit of raw beef ...
Cann, F; Corbett, M; O'Sullivan, D; Tennant, S; Hailey, H; Grieve, J H K; Broadhurst, P; Rankin, R; Dean, J C S
A phenotype-driven approach to molecular autopsy based in a multidisciplinary team comprising clinical and laboratory genetics, forensic medicine and cardiology is described. Over a 13 year period, molecular autopsy was undertaken in 96 sudden cardiac death cases. A total of 46 cases aged 1-40 years had normal hearts and suspected arrhythmic death. Seven (15%) had likely pathogenic variants in ion channelopathy genes [KCNQ1 (1), KCNH2 (4), SCN5A (1), RyR2(1)]. Fifty cases aged between 2 and 67 had a cardiomyopathy. Twenty-five had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), 10 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 15 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Likely pathogenic variants were found in three ARVC cases (12%) in PKP2, DSC2 or DSP, two DCM cases (20%) in MYH7, and four HCM cases (27%) in MYBPC3 (3) or MYH7 (1). Uptake of cascade screening in relatives was higher when a molecular diagnosis was made at autopsy. In three families, variants previously published as pathogenic were detected, but clinical investigation revealed no abnormalities in carrier relatives. With a conservative approach to defining pathogenicity of sequence variants incorporating family phenotype information and population genomic data, a molecular diagnosis was made in 15% of sudden arrhythmic deaths and 18% of cardiomyopathy deaths. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tom Holmes; Bill Smith
Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...
Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.
Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and 30-day...
Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø
processes of facing brain death and deciding about organ donation. This study suggests that organ donation should be understood as a ‘strange figure’ challenging traditions and attitudes regarding the boundaries between life and death and the practices surrounding dead human bodies. Simultaneously, organ...... donation can be comforting and furthermore enable some families to make sense of a sudden tragic death. Throughout the thesis, the concept of ‘orchestration’ serves as the overall theoretical framework to understand how families, hospital staff and, on a larger scale, Danish society attempt to perform......, reinterpret and translate death and organ donation into something culturally acceptable and sense making. With chapters focusing analytically on the performance of trust, the transformative practices of hope, the aesthetization of ambiguous bodies, the sociality of exchangeable organs and the organ donation...
Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...
Milner, George R.; Boldsen, Jesper L.
Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - provider data. This data set includes provider data for the hip/knee complication measure, CMS Patient Safety Indicators of serious...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and...
Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana
Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778
Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär
Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.
Chiu, Charles Y
Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672
van Dijk, F. S.; Hamel, B. C.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Timmermans, J.; Pals, G.; Cobben, J. M.
We report two families in which the probands have compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome (MFS). The proband of family I has the R2726W FBN1 mutation associated with isolated skeletal features on one allele and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation on the other allele. The phenotype of the compound-heterozygous
Gambotto, Andrea; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses have spread relentlessly across the globe since 2003, and they are associated with widespread death in poultry, substantial economic loss to farmers, and reported infections of more than 300 people with a mortality rate of 60%. The high pathogenicity of
Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.
Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.
Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...
Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...
Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...
宗, 友厚; 伊藤, 勇; 諏訪, 哲也; 武田, 純; MUNE, Tomoatsu
Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature.
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...
Boulouiz, Redouane; Li, Yun; Abidi, Omar; Bolz, Hanno; Chafik, Abdelaziz; Kubisch, Christian; Roub, Hassan; Wollnik, Bernd; Barakat, Abdelhamid
Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B), the most common USH1 subtype, which accounts for the largest proportion of USH1 cases in most populations. Molecular genetic diagnosis in Usher syndrome is well established and identification of the underlying mutations in Usher patients is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling. We analyzed a large consanguineous USH1 family from Morocco and linked the disease in this family to the MYO7A/USH1B locus. We identified the frequently described missense change p.Y1719C. In addition, we found the homozygous c.1687G>A mutation in the last nucleotide of exon 14, which is predicted to result in aberrant splicing and may lead to loss of MYO7A transcript. We further showed that p.Y1719C is not disease-causing but does represent a frequent polymorphism in the Moroccan population, with an estimated carrier frequency of 0.07. This finding has an important impact for molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling in USH1B families.
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.
Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.
Jansen, C.A.; de Geus, E.D.; van Haarlem, D.A.; van de Haar, P.M.; Löndt, B.Z; Graham, S.P.; Göbel, T.W.; van Eden, W.; Brookes, S.M.; Vervelde, L.
Infection of chickens with low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus results in mild clinical signs while infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses causes death of the birds within 36–48 hours. Since natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to play an important role in influenza-specific immunity, we hypothesise that NK cells are involved in this difference in pathogenicity. To investigate this, the role of chicken NK-cells in LPAI virus infection was studied. Next...
Tozzoli, Rosangela; Grande, Laura; Michelacci, Valeria; Ranieri, Paola; Maugliani, Antonella; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic E. coli causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC are characterized by a constellation of virulence factors additional to Stx and have long been regarded as capable to cause HC and HUS when possessing the ability of inducing the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion to the enterocyte, although strains isolated from such severe infections sometimes lack this virulence feature. Interestingly, the capability to cause the A/E lesion is shared with another E. coli pathogroup, the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In the very recent times, a different type of STEC broke the scene causing a shift in the paradigm for HUS-associated STEC. In 2011, a STEC O104:H4 caused a large outbreak with more than 800 HUS and 50 deaths. Such a strain presented the adhesion determinants of Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC). We investigated the possibility that, besides STEC and EAggEC, other pathogenic E. coli could be susceptible to infection with stx-phages. A panel of stx2-phages obtained from STEC isolated from human disease was used to infect experimentally E. coli strains representing all the known pathogenic types, including both diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). We observed that all the E. coli pathogroups used in the infection experiments were susceptible to the infection. Our results suggest that the stx2-phages used may not have specificity for E. coli adapted to the intestinal environment, at least in the conditions used. Additionally, we could only observe transient lysogens suggesting that the event of stable stx2-phage acquisition occurs rarely. PMID:24999453
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...
... Kravis EM, Zhou L, Rand CM, Weese-Mayer DE. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: PHOX2B mutations and phenotype. Am J Respir Crit ... BA, Leurgans SE, Berry-Kravis EM, Weese-Mayer DE. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: PHOX2B genotype determines risk for sudden death. Pediatr ...
Full Text Available Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose.The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed.The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13-95 years and included 39 (68% males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63% and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%. Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46% and dysphagia (44%. Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%, aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%, and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%. Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33% patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90% with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis.We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death.
... 2016:chap 153. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and other systemic complications of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...
Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A
There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.
Claveria, Cristina; Torres, Miguel
Multicellular organisms eliminate unwanted or damaged cells by cell death, a process essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Cell death is a tightly regulated event, whose alteration by excess or defect is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune syndromes, and neurodegenerative processes. Studies in model organisms, especially in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have been crucial in identifying the key molecules implicated in the regulation and execution of programmed cell death. In contrast, the study of cell death in Drosophila melanogaster, often an excellent model organism, has identified regulators and mechanisms not obviously conserved in other metazoans. Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway
Mitchell, Bruce L.
Sickle cell trait continues to be the leading cause of sudden death for young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. The syndrome may have caused the death of up to 10 college football players since 1974 and, as recently as 2000, was suspected as the cause of death of three U.S. Army recruits. The penal military-style boot camps in the United States and the recent death of two teenagers with sickle cell trait merits renewed vigor in the education of athletic instructors, the military and the public about conditions associated with sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17393956
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
Lloyd, J W
In contrast with the other lectures given in the course on humanics and bioethics at the UOEH, which address the questions of life and death from the standpoint of the physician or the philosopher, this lecture considers these issues as seen by the cancer patient who has had a close encounter with death. The attitudes of Americans concerning abortion, the use of life-support systems, "mercy killings", suicide and the use of cancer chemotherapy are discussed with particular emphasis on restraints imposed by the courts, the churches and the family systems. An attempt is made to contrast the American and Japanese attitudes on these questions but this is difficult because of different cultural and religious backgrounds. The author describes his own experiences as a cancer patient who has approached death very closely and the changes in his own attitude toward life which results from the encounter with death. He also talks about the joy of being alive and describes his own experience with receiving cancer chemotherapy, the resulting discomfort and inconveniences and his feelings about a "tolerable" existence. Finally, the author considers the question of the "quality of life" for the cancer patient who has a violent reaction to certain forms of chemotherapy. This is a dilemma for the patient and the doctor who must consider the choice between death and a miserable existence.
Sparre-Sørensen, Maja; Kristensen, Gustav N
Studies have shown that malnutrition increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and costs in the elderly population. Approximately one third of all patients admitted to geriatric wards in Denmark are malnourished according to the Danish Geriatric database. The aim of this study is to describe and examine the sudden increase in deaths due to malnutrition in the elderly population in Denmark from 1999 and, similarly, the sudden decline in malnutrition related deaths in 2007. A descriptive epidemiologic study was performed. All Danes listed in the national death registry who died from malnutrition in the period from 1994 to 2012 are included. The number of deaths from malnutrition increased significantly during the period from 1999 to 2007, especially in the age group 70 years and over. Additionally, we document a surprising similarity between the development in excess mortality from malnutrition in the five Danish regions during the same period. During the period 1999-2007 malnutrition was the direct cause of 340 extra deaths, and probably ten times more registered under other diseases. This development in excess mortality runs parallel in all five Danish regions over time. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Following previous research on the linguistic concept of а 'bad death' which lexical expression is the word family of the verb ginuti, I focus my attention in this paper on the relationship between language conceptualization of а 'bad death' and the representation of а 'bad death' in traditional and contemporary culture. Diachronically based language corpus makes possible to trace the changes of referential frame and use of verb ginuti and its derivatives. In the traditional culture а 'bad death' is marked in action code by irregular way of burial and beliefs in demons stemming from the 'impure dead'. In the paper I explore the degree of synonymy of the symbols of all three codes: verbal code, action code and code of beliefs. In the contemporary culture the lack of individual control and choice is considered to be the key element of the concept of a 'bad death'. This change of conceptual content manifests itself in the use of its lexical expressions.
Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.
Sunil Kumar Kota
Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome.  This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group.  Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50
Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.
S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri
This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and âsudden larch deathâ in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...
Sandhya Manohar MD
Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is increasingly recognized as a cause of sudden cardiac death. Many of these patients do not get diagnosed due its dynamic and often hidden nature. We have come a long way in understanding the disease process, and its electrophysiology appears to be intimately linked with sodium channel mutations or disorders. The cardiac rhythm in these patients can deteriorate into fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This makes it important for the clinician to be aware of the conditions in which arrhythmogenicity of Brugada syndrome is revealed or even potentiated. We present such an instance where our patient’s Brugada syndrome was unmasked by fever.
Péricles Maranhão Filho
Full Text Available Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev was a Russian innovative neuroscientist, extraordinary in the study, diagnosis, and research in the fields of neurology, psychology, morphology, physiology, and psychiatry. Considering the ample and multifaceted scientific feats, only some are touched in a very brief manner. However, it is necessary to highlight his contributions to neurology, with the description of structures, signs and syndromes, to physiology, including reflexology, which later underpinned behaviorism, to psychology, including objective psychology and suggestion. His accomplishments and legacy remained until the present days. Some comments about the scenery that involved his death are also presented.
Sandrini, Michael; Shannon, O.; Clausen, A.R.
Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against pathog...... alternative for combating pathogenic bacteria.......Common bacterial pathogens are becoming progressively more resistant to traditional antibiotics, representing a major public-health crisis. Therefore, there is a need for a variety of antibiotics with alternative modes of action. In our study, several nucleoside analogs were tested against...... pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. We show that pyrimidine-based nucleoside analogs, like 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2',2'-difluoro-2'deoxycytidine (gemcitabine), are specifically activated by the endogenous bacterial deoxyribonucleoside kinases, leading to cell death. Deoxyribonucleoside...
Hugenschmitt, Delphine; Allonneau, Alexandre; Cesareo, Éric; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Lefort, Hugues
In the past, death was a family and community affair, but today it is institutional and entrusted to healthcare personnel. Thanks to a questionnaire on their feelings about prehospitalisation deaths, the experience and training needs for healthcare personnel at a mobile emergency and intensive care service were analysed. The majority of these professionals had been confronted with difficulties when faced with prehospitalisation deaths. There is little understanding of religious rites, even though this is an important point in dealing with the situation. There is a strong desire for training. The pedagogical support offered in response to the needs expressed was recognised as being useful and should be more widespread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A
Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.
Tormey, W P
BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.
Tormey, W P
The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.
Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F.
BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread interest in competing causes of death, empirical information on interrelationships between causes of death is scarce. We have used death certificate information to estimate the prevalence of competing causes of death at the moment of dying from specific underlying
Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Defossez, A C; Fassin, D
Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality
The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care pr...
徐先栋; 谢珍玉; 欧阳吉隆; 王世锋; 周永灿
从海南陵水新村港网箱养殖脱鳞病濒死褐点石斑鱼（Epinephelus fuscoguttatus）体内分离到3株优势菌株XC08061、XC08062和XC08063,经回归感染试验确定为致病菌。这3株细菌经生化鉴定以及16S rDNA测序分析,确定均为哈氏弧菌（Vibrio harveyi）。其中,XC08061对体长为12～14 cm褐点石斑鱼的半致死剂量为5.8×102CFU/g鱼体质量。药敏试验表明,该菌具有较强的耐药性,在所检测的25种抗菌药物中,仅对新生霉素、头孢噻肟、先锋必/舒巴坦、诺氟沙星、依诺沙星和庆大霉素6种抗菌药物敏感。%A serious scale-peeled disease was broken out in the cage cultured brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus（weight 30-35g） in Lingshui County,Hainan province,China.The moribund/dead groupers were characterized by scale-peeled,rupture of gallbladder and ascites.Three strains of bacteria,XC08061、XC08062 and XC08063,were isolated from the liver,spleen and /or the kidney of the diseased grouper and they were all proved to be pathogens by artificial infection.The moribund/dead fish exhibited scale-peeled as that observed in natural outbreak.All these three strains were identified to be Vibrio harveyi by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequences analysis.The LD 50 value of XC08061 for 12-14 cm E.fuscoguttatus is 5.8×10 2 colony forming units（CFU）/g of fish body.Drug susceptibility tests with 25 antibiotics indicated that the pathogen was only sensitive to novobiocin,cefotaxime,cefobid/sulbactam,norfloxacin,enoxacin and gentamicin,exhibiting relatively strong drug tolerance.
Veenstra-Knol, HE; Kleibeuker, A; Timmer, A; ten Kate, LP; van Essen, AJ
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS) is a severe autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by neonatal or intrauterine death in most cases, severe popliteal webbing, oligosyndactyly, genital abnormalities, and typical face with short palpebral fissures, ankylo-blepharon, hypoplastic nose, orofacial
Ryan, John Paul; Eden, John Michael
Examines the reasons for the death penalty, the reasons why the death penalty attracts so much attention, whether the death penalty is applied consistently, and the evidence that the application of the death penalty may be racially biased. Provides an accompanying article on "Teaching Ideas" by Ronald A. Banaszak. (CMK)
Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559
Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.
Clifford, Amie L.
Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)
Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger
This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger
the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...
Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...
Molitoris, Joseph John
and accidents, (5) perinatal causes, and (6) unspecified causes. RESULTS The results show that class differentials in nearly all causes of death converged during the demographic transition. The only exception to this was the airborne infectious disease category, for which the gap between white collar...
) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The chapter explores the heterogeneous and hierarchical composition of the basti and unfolds the case of the social exclusion and ultimate death of a patient with tuberculosis who belonged to the poorest section of the basti, called Pradhan sahi. The case of both...
Harvig, Lise Lock; Kveiborg, Jacob; Lynnerup, Niels
This paper presents osteoarchaeological analyses of the human skeletal material from a burnt down house in Jutland, Denmark, dated to the first century bc. We describe how the osteological analyses of this complex site were approached and illustrate how we reconstructed the death of the human...
Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Lachica, E
case was inconclusive. After studying the circumstances of death, the number of discrepancies were reduced to 20, so that concordance was reached in 86% of all the cases. The results show that the combination of different methods leads to a diagnosis of myocardial infarction in far more cases than...
Alarm bells are ringing all over the world about the death of bee populations. Although it is not known exactly how severe the decline is, it is important to take the problem seriously. The signals are alarming and the bee is important, not just for natural ecosystems but also for the pollination of
The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.
Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence
Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all
Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J
Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...
Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn; Glass, Kathryn; Hall, Gillian
In Australia circa 2010, 4.1 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 2.3–6.4 million) episodes of foodborne gastroenteritis occurred, many of which might have resulted in sequelae. We estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and reactive arthritis that were associated with contaminated food in Australia. Data from published studies, hospital records, and mortality reports were combined with ...
Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of
Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C. from an unknown cause. Physical depictions of this historical figure reveal the likelihood of a cervical scoliotic deformity. This is substantiated with the medical history and is correlated with his untimely death. For the first time, it is concluded that Alexander's death may have ensued from the sequelae of congenital scoliotic syndrome.
Full Text Available During the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection showed a dramatic increase in incidence and virulence in the Northern hemisphere. This incessantly challenging disease is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial infectious diarrhea and became life-threatening especially among elderly people. It is generally assumed that all human bacterial pathogens are heterotrophic organisms, being either saccharolytic or proteolytic. So far, this has not been questioned as colonization of the human gut gives access to an environment, rich in organic nutrients. Here, we present data that C. difficile (both clinical and rumen isolates is also able to grow on CO2+H2 as sole carbon and energy source, thus representing the first identified autotrophic bacterial pathogen. Comparison of several different strains revealed high conservation of genes for autotrophic growth and showed that the ability to use gas mixtures for growth decreases or is lost upon prolonged culturing under heterotrophic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of C. difficile (heterotrophic growth on various substrates as well as autotrophy could allow the organism in the gut to avoid competition by niche differentiation and contribute to its survival when stressed or in unfavorable conditions that cause death to other bacteria. This may be an important trait for the pathogenicity of C. difficile.
Parkinson, Louisamarie E; Shivas, Roger G; Dann, Elizabeth K
Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis, and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with 'Reed' avocado (Persea americana) seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting, and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation. Isolates of C. ilicicola from peanut, papaya, and custard apple were also shown to be aggressive pathogens of avocado, demonstrating a broad host range. An isolate of a Calonectria sp. from blueberry and avocado isolates of Dactylonectria macrodidyma, D. novozelandica, D. pauciseptata, and D. anthuriicola caused significant root rot but not stunting within 5 to 9 weeks of inoculation. An isolate of an Ilyonectria sp. from grapevine closely related to Ilyonectria liriodendri, and avocado isolates of Cylindrocladiella pseudoinfestans, Gliocladiopsis peggii, and an Ilyonectria sp. were not pathogenic to avocado.
Kemaloglu, Tugba; Ozer, Nihat; Fikri Yapici, Mehmet
In Turner syndrome, cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of early mortality. Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are found in approximately one third of Turner syndrome patients. Developments in diagnosis and treatment have decreased the rate of mortality related to these abnormalities. In recent years, many papers have mentioned that coronary artery disease developing at early ages in patients with Turner syndrome causes sudden deaths. The patient, a 27-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain at rest. She was diagnosed with Turner Syndrome in her teenage years due to amenorrhea. Patients with ECG changes and cardiac enzyme elevations were treated with acute coronary syndrome. The young woman with Turner Syndrome have several risk factors for early Coronary Artery Disease development. In such cases, dramatic results like sudden death or heart attack at an early age may occur in cases of insufficient follow-up and treatment.
REVIEW. Introduction. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal ... that affect the skin and mucous membranes. ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the .... pathogenic components are removed from plasma. The.
Hofius, Daniel; Schultz-Larsen, Torsten; Joensen, Jan
Autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism to restrict programmed cell death (PCD) associated with the pathogen-triggered hypersensitive response (HR) during plant innate immunity. This model is based on the observation that HR lesions spread in plants with reduced autophagy gene...... expression. Here, we examined receptor-mediated HR PCD responses in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg), and show that infection-induced lesions are contained in atg mutants. We also provide evidence that HR cell death initiated via Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR)-type immune receptors through...... the defense regulator EDS1 is suppressed in atg mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PCD triggered by coiled-coil (CC)-type immune receptors via NDR1 is either autophagy-independent or engages autophagic components with cathepsins and other unidentified cell death mediators. Thus, autophagic cell death...
V. E. Gromov
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper studies the problem of death penalty justifiableness in terms of democratic society from the metaphysical viewpoint. Philosophical argumentation to justify death penalty is proposed as opposed to the common idea of inhuman and uncivilized nature of court practice of sentencing to death. The essence of the study is not to rehabilitate law-based murder but to explain dialectic relation of the degrees of moral responsibility of criminals and society nourishing evildoers. The author believes that refusal from death penalty under the pretence of rule of humanism is just a liberal façade, plausible excuse for defective moral state of the society which, rejecting its own guiltiness share as for current disregards of the law, does not grow but downgrades proper human dignity. Methodology. The author applies an approach of dialectic reflection being guided by the perception of unity, relativeness and complementarity of evil and good striving to determine efficient way of resolving their contradictions in the context of moral progress of the society. Originality. Proposing philosophic approach to a death penalty problem instead of legal one, the author is not going to discuss the role of horrification, control or cruelty of the measure of restraint; moreover, he does not consider the issue of its efficiency or inefficiency. The author also does not concern vexation of mind of a criminal sentenced to life imprisonment for “humanitarian” reasons. The purpose of the author is to demonstrate that aim of the punishment is to achieve justice which becomes spiritual challenge and moral recompense not only for the criminal but for the whole society. Conclusions. Crime is first of all a problem of a society; thus, criminal behaviour of certain individuals should only be considered through a prism of moral state of the whole community. Attitude to a death penalty is the problem of spirituality and its dramatic sophistication. The author
Marfan syndrome is a multi-system disorder of dominant inheritance in which the cardiovasculature, in particular the aorta, the eyes and the skeleton are affected. Diagnostic assessment and treatment of patients who are suspected of or have Marfan syndrome should preferably be done by multidisciplinary teams such as those found in specialised Marfan syndrome centres. The practice guideline is intended for all care givers involved with the recognition, diagnosis, consultations and the medicinal and surgical treatment of Marfan patients; it includes referral criteria and information on the referral process. A diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is based on international criteria in which aortic root dilatation and dissection, ectopia lentis, an affected first-degree family member and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation are the cardinal features. Alternative diagnoses are also included in the practice guideline. Recommendations are given for the monitoring and treatment of Marfan patients during pregnancy and delivery. Advice on lifestyle is mainly focussed on sports activities.
Colebunders, R; Post, R; O'Neill, S; Haesaert, G; Opar, B; Lakwo, T; Laudisoit, A; Hendy, A
We aim to review the current epidemiology of nodding syndrome (NS) and discuss relevant gaps in research. NS and convulsive epilepsy of unknown aetiology are clustered within the same villages and families in onchocerciasis-endemic areas. They are therefore potentially different clinical expressions of the same disease. It has been difficult to perform full autopsies on NS patients who die in remote villages. Adequate fixation of tissue immediately after death is critical for the examination of brain tissue. Therefore, post-mortem transsphenoidal brain biopsies, performed immediately after death by trained nurses, will provide the best option for obtaining tissue for analysis. We suspect that certain blackflies in onchocerciasis-endemic areas may transmit a novel pathogen that could cause NS and epilepsy. This is supported by a recent drop in the number of new NS cases coinciding with vector control activities aimed at reducing blackfly populations in northern Uganda. We propose that metagenomic studies of human samples, blackflies and microfilariae are conducted to screen for pathogens, and that a clinical trial is planned to evaluate the impact of larviciding against NS and epilepsy epidemics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders
Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Karoshi (death by overwork) is one of social medical terms, which used by survivors of victims who attacked with cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. In Dec. 2000, Compensation Standard of cardiovascular diseases in Workers' Insurance was changed and admitted the relationship between chronic fatigue and cardiovascular attacks. As a result, compensation numbers of Karoshi attributed to three hundred and more from about 80 cases. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare thinks that most of Karoshi caused by long working hours continuing for several months, especially without payment, so that the Labour Standard Inspector Office requests to decrease overtime work more than 45 hours per month to firm administrators.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable
Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)
Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy.Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death.In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections.Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.
Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy. Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death. In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections. Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.
Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J
Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.
Quantitative troponin and death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest and new heart failure in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS): insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events.
Jolly, Sanjit S; Shenkman, Heather; Brieger, David; Fox, Keith A; Yan, Andrew T; Eagle, Kim A; Steg, P Gabriel; Lim, Ki-Dong; Quill, Ann; Goodman, Shaun G
The objective of this study was to determine if the extent of quantitative troponin elevation predicted mortality as well as in-hospital complications of cardiac arrest, new heart failure and cardiogenic shock. 16,318 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) were included. The maximum 24 h troponin value as a multiple of the local laboratory upper limit of normal was used. The population was divided into five groups based on the degree of troponin elevation, and outcomes were compared. An adjusted analysis was performed using quantitative troponin as a continuous variable with adjustment for known prognostic variables. For each approximate 10-fold increase in the troponin ratio, there was an associated increase in cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) (1.0, 2.4, 3.4, 5.9 and 13.4%; p<0.001 for linear trend), cardiogenic shock (0.5, 1.4, 2.0, 4.4 and 12.7%; p<0.001), new heart failure (2.5, 5.1, 7.4, 11.6 and 15.8%; p<0.001) and mortality (0.8, 2.2, 3.0, 5.3 and 14.0%; p<0.001). These findings were replicated using the troponin ratio as a continuous variable and adjusting for covariates (cardiac arrest, sustained VT or VF, OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.39 to 1.74; cardiogenic shock, OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.18; and new heart failure, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.71). The degree of troponin elevation was predictive of early mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81; p<0.001 for days 0-14) and longer term mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30, p=0.001 for days 15-180). The extent of troponin elevation is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality.
A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a university teaching hospital to determine the prospective risk of unexpected fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after viability. All MCDA twins delivered at or after 24 weeks\\' gestation from July 1999 to July 2007 were included. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, growth restriction, structural abnormalities, or twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence were excluded. Of the 144 MCDA twin pregnancies included in our analysis, the risk of intrauterine death was 4.9%. The prospective risk of unexpected intrauterine death was 1 in 43 after 32 weeks\\' gestation and 1 in 37 after 34 weeks\\' gestation. Our results demonstrate that despite close surveillance, the unexpected intrauterine death rate in uncomplicated MCDA twin pregnancies is high. This rate seems to increase after 34 weeks\\' gestation, suggesting that a policy of elective preterm delivery warrants evaluation.
Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A
We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism.
Full Text Available Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it’s link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.
Full Text Available Perthes syndrome, or traumatic asphyxia, is a clinical syndrome associating cervicofacial cyanosis with cutaneous petechial haemorrhages and subconjonctival bleeding resulting from severe sudden compressive chest trauma. Deep inspiration and a Valsalva maneuver just prior to rapid and severe chest compression, are responsible for the development of this syndrome. Current treatment is symptomatic: urgent relief of chest compression and cardiopulmonary resuscitation if needed. Outcome may be satisfactory depending on the duration and severity of compression. Prolonged thoracic compression may sometimes lead to cerebral anoxia, irreversible neurologic damage and death. We report a fatal case of Perthes syndrome resulting from an industrial accident.
Luhmann, Ulrich F.O.
Summary Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive congenital blindness, sometimes associated with deafness and mental retardation. In this thesis the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome should be elucidated using the Ndph knockout mouse model. Gene expression studies but also histology and protein biochemistry were used to characterize the affected organs, eye and brain. Gene expression analyses of eyes at p21 using cDNA subtrac...
G. D'Attoma, A. Giampetruzzi, V.N. Savino, D. Boscia, P. Saldarelli.
The recent findings of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), infecting several plant species in Italy and France, raised major concerns for its potential impact on the EU and Mediterranean agriculture. In the current EU outbreaks, olive is the predominantly affected crop, in which the bacterium has been consistently associated with a new severe syndrome, denoted “Olive Quick Decline”. So far, no effective treatments are available to cure infected plants. However, several app...
Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued
Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.
This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…
Rigouzzo, A; Tessier, V; Zieleskiewicz, L
Over the period 2010-2012, maternal mortality from infectious causes accounted for 5% of maternal deaths by direct causes and 16% of maternal deaths by indirect causes. Among the 22 deaths caused by infection occurred during this period, 6 deaths were attributed to direct causes from genital tract origin, confirming thus the decrease in direct maternal deaths by infection during the last ten years. On the contrary, indirect maternal deaths by infection, from extragenital origin, doubled during the same period, with 16 deaths in the last triennium, dominated by winter respiratory infections, particularly influenza: the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic was the leading cause of indirect maternal mortality by infection during the studied period. The main infectious agents involved in maternal deaths from direct causes were Streptococcus A, Escherichia Coli and Clostridium perfringens: these bacterias were responsible for toxic shock syndrome, severe sepsis, secondary in some cases to cellulitis or necrotizing fasciitis. Of the 6 deaths due to direct infection, 4 were considered avoidable because of inadequate management: delayed or missed diagnosis, delayed or inadequate initiation of a specific medical and/or surgical treatment. Of the 16 indirect maternal deaths due to infection causes, the most often involved infectious agents were influenza A (H1N1) virus and Streptococcus pneumonia with induced purpura fulminans: the absence of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, delayed diagnosis and emergency initiation of a specific treatment, were the main contributory factors to these deaths and their avoidability in 70% of the cases analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Among hantaviruses (HTNV, 22 are known as pathogenic for humans. HTNV can cause two clinical entities: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. In most countries of Eastern Europe as well as in Kosovo, HTNV infection is presented mainly as HFRS. Here, we report a 20-year-old man with HFRS and HCPS caused by Dobrava hantavirus strain, successfully treated in Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. In HFRS endemic areas, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome need to be evaluated for Dobrava hantavirus strain as a possible causative agent.
Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...
Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...
Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...
Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...
Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...
Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.
A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt
... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ... have also been reported. × Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ...
Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...
... other possible long-term consequences of the syndrome. Children with Pendred syndrome should start early treatment to gain communication skills, such as learning sign language or cued speech or learning to ...
... and supports a broad program of basic and clinical research on all types of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome. Study of the genetic defects responsible for Dravet syndrome and related ... Publications Definition Dravet ...
Clarke Sarah LN
Full Text Available Abstract First described in 1983, Barth syndrome (BTHS is widely regarded as a rare X-linked genetic disease characterised by cardiomyopathy (CM, skeletal myopathy, growth delay, neutropenia and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGCA. Fewer than 200 living males are known worldwide, but evidence is accumulating that the disorder is substantially under-diagnosed. Clinical features include variable combinations of the following wide spectrum: dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE, left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC, ventricular arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, prolonged QTc interval, delayed motor milestones, proximal myopathy, lethargy and fatigue, neutropenia (absent to severe; persistent, intermittent or perfectly cyclical, compensatory monocytosis, recurrent bacterial infection, hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, growth and pubertal delay, feeding problems, failure to thrive, episodic diarrhoea, characteristic facies, and X-linked family history. Historically regarded as a cardiac disease, BTHS is now considered a multi-system disorder which may be first seen by many different specialists or generalists. Phenotypic breadth and variability present a major challenge to the diagnostician: some children with BTHS have never been neutropenic, whereas others lack increased 3-MGCA and a minority has occult or absent CM. Furthermore, BTHS was first described in 2010 as an unrecognised cause of fetal death. Disabling mutations or deletions of the tafazzin (TAZ gene, located at Xq28, cause the disorder by reducing remodeling of cardiolipin, a principal phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane. A definitive biochemical test, based on detecting abnormal ratios of different cardiolipin species, was first described in 2008. Key areas of differential diagnosis include metabolic and viral cardiomyopathies, mitochondrial diseases, and many causes of neutropenia and
Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. It can affect humans and animals. In humans, it can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms. It is known as the most common zoonosis in the world. The typical presentation of the disease is an acute biphasic febrile illness with or without jaundice. Less common clinical manifestations may result from involvement of different human body systems. In many places, this disease may be under-diagnosed, especially when associated with neurological complications. Moreover, without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to organ damages, and even death. Neurological complications are uncommon and are reported in a few cases. Cavernous sinus thrombosis syndrome and brainstem involvement are rare complications of leptospirosis and are associated with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, no such cases have been reported in the literature.
Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele
Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.
Weinlich, Ricardo; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R
An old puzzle in the field of cell death was recently solved: the mysterious embryonic lethality of animals deficient either in caspase-8 or FADD, proteins involved in a pathway of apoptosis. This lethality is caused by a failure to develop the yolk sac vasculature rather than a lack of apoptosis. Remarkably, development is rescued by ablation of either of two Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases (RIPKs). Despite being well-known cell killers, caspase-8 and FADD act together to block RIPK-med...
... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...
Ramesh Y Bhat
Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.
... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) × Definition Aicardi syndrome is a rare genetic ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) View Full Definition Treatment There is no ...
Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....
Lockshin, M. D.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is the disease in which the antiphospholipid syndrome was first described more than 20 years ago and which is the most frequent underlying disorder in secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. With respect to pathogenic concepts and treatment, the subjects of this review, no
Zegers, Richard H C; Weigl, Andreas; Steptoe, Andrew
The early death of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart on 5 December 1791 has fascinated the world for more than 2 centuries. It has been suggested that his final illness was caused by poisoning, renal failure, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, trichinosis, and many other conditions. The official daily register of deaths in Mozart's Vienna was evaluated to provide an epidemiologic framework into which the observations of contemporary witnesses of his death can be integrated. All recorded deaths in Vienna during November and December 1791 and January 1792 were analyzed, together with the corresponding periods in 1790 to 1791 and 1792 to 1793. The deaths of 5011 adults (3442 men, 1569 women) were recorded over these periods. The mean ages of death were 45.5 years (SD, 18.5) for men and 54.5 years (SD, 19.9) for women. Tuberculosis and related conditions accounted for the highest number of deaths; cachexia and malnutrition ranked second, and edema was the third most common cause. According to eyewitness accounts, the hallmark of Mozart's final disease was severe edema. Deaths from edema were markedly increased among younger men in the weeks surrounding Mozart's death compared with the previous and following years. This minor epidemic may have originated in the military hospital. Our analysis is consistent with Mozart's last illness and death being due to a streptococcal infection leading to an acute nephritic syndrome caused by poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Scarlet fever, which represents the same underlying disease from an etiologic perspective, is a less likely possibility.
Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.
L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz
Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plantâpathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...
Kemmerling, B.; Schwedt, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Mazzotta, S.; Frank, M.; Abu Qamar, S.; Mengiste, T.; Betsuyaku, S.; Parker, J.E.; Müssig, C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Albrecht, C.; Vries, de S.C.; Hirt, H.; Nürnberger, T.
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a common host response to microbial infection [1-3]. In plants, PCD is associated with immunity to biotrophic pathogens, but it can also promote disease upon infection by necrotrophic pathogens . Therefore, plant cell-suicide programs must be strictly controlled.
Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Rasmussen, Niels Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme
Dravet syndrome is an epileptic syndrome of infancy and early childhood. Most cases of Dravet syndrome seem to be due to a genetic defect causing the sodium channel to malfunction. We describe the main features of the syndrome. This epilepsy is medically intractable, but we call attention...... to the fact that some medications are of benefit and some could exacerbate the condition. Early recognition of the syndrome including by genetic testing could possibly improve outcome and reduce the need for other specialized investigations. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Feb-22...
Full Text Available Infectious diseases constitute a major public health burden, particularly in developing countries. Amongst the pathogens afflicting humans, malaria, HIV, shigellosis and tuberculosis (TB cause a large number of deaths. Whilst antivirals, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs have all helped to reduce the burden of disease, problems of drug resistance are increasingly common, presenting the need to come up with alternative approaches to disease prevention. Ideally, effective prophylactic vaccines would be developed against each of these infections, but unfortunately with the exception of TB, no vaccine is currently available against the other three infections. Baring a breakthrough, coming for example from the application of newer more potent adjuvants to vaccine candidates, new paradigms are needed to help tackle these infectious diseases.
Ana edo Vale
Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In today's world, Islamic jurisprudence encounters new issues. One of the areas where jurisprudence gets involved is the issues concerned with brain death, whether brain death in jurisprudence and Islamic law is considered the end of life. In this study, brain death was discussed from the Shiite jurisprudence perspective and also the opinions of the specialists are taken into account. METHODS: This study is designed based on library collection and review of the literature in the field of brain death. Also, Quranic verses, hadiths and fatwas (religious opinions of the scholars are used. Some of the articles which were centered around Islamic jurisprudence, particularly Shiite jurisprudence that explain and deal with brain death were given special consideration. FINDINGS: Brain death from religious and jurisprudence perspective is considered the termination of life and removing the vital organs from the body is not viewed as committing manslaughter. A person with brain death is not a normally known injured man who is still alive. The brain death patinets have no life and getting rid of the body does not constitute a case of manslaughter. Amputation of the organs of brain death patients for donation and transplantation amounts to the amputation of a dead body. If the life of a Muslim is subject to transplant of organs from the body of a brain death patient, it will be permissible. CONCLUSION: In principle, if the life of a Muslim entails transplant of organs of brain death patients, it will be permissible
Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.
Hamed, Radi Ma
The congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is an uncommon disorder with onset of the nephrotic syndrome usually in the first three months of life. Several different diseases may cause the syndrome. These may be inherited, sporadic, acquired or part of a general malformation syndrome. The clinical course is marked by failure to thrive, recurrent life threatening bacterial infections, and early death from sepsis and/or uremia. A characteristic phenotype may be seen in children with CNS. The majority of reported cases of CNS are of the Finnish type (CNF). Although the role of the glomerular basement membrane has been emphasized as the barrier for retaining plasma proteins, recent studies have clearly shown that the slit diaphragm is the structure most likely to be the barrier in the glomerular capillary wall. The gene (NPHS1) was shown to encode a novel protein that was termed nephrin, due to its specific location in the kidney filter barrier, where it seems to form a highly organized filter structure. Nephrin is a transmembrane protein that probably forms the main building block of an isoporous zipper-like slit diaphragm filter structure. Defects in nephrin lead to the abnormal or absent slit diaphragm resulting in massive proteinuria and renal failure.
Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir
Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.
Faizan, M.; Anwar, S.; Hameed, A.; Manzoor, J.; Saleem, M.; Mehmood, Q.; Ali, A. S.
Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, alongwith histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed. (author)
Geldreich, Edwin E.
Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.
Zhou, Ya-bing; Wu, Min
Pathogen incubation theory includes "no manifestation after infection" and "manifestation after incubation". Clinical data showed that the incidence and recurrence of tic disorders in children had a strong relevance to six exogenous factors. The pathogenesis is similar to the pathogenic mechanism based on incubation of pathogen theory, so we proposed a theory of "tic disorder induced by incubation of pathogen". Pathogenic wind can be classified into exterior wind and endogenous wind. Pathogenic wind is more apt to move, rise and migrate. The characteristics of pathogenic wind, especially easy mobility, determine the symptoms and signs of tic disorder, for pathogenic wind can be characterized by vibration and involuntary movement such as convulsion and tremor. If exogenous pathogenic wind moves into half-exterior and half-interior phase from the exterior, both the exterior and interior syndromes should be treated at the same time. We should regulate the function of the liver and the lung, expel pathogenic wind by dispersing the lung, and calm endogenous wind by removing obstruction in the collaterals and soothing the liver.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The risk of developing it is significantly increased by the metabolic syndrome cluster of risk factors: waist measurement and other factors, such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Klein Cátia S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger
health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...
Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.
Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).
Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E
Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choe, Young June; Kim, Jong-Hee; Son, Hyun Jin; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Duk-hyoung
Because the peak age for incidence of sudden deaths in infancy temporally coincides with the age of infant primary immunization, some have raised the question as to whether immunization is a risk factor for sudden death in infancy. Recent occurrence of two sudden deaths in infants in Korea has renewed concerns about the causal association between immunization and sudden deaths in infants. We carried out a retrospective review of data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System and Vaccine Compensation programs. From 1994 to 2011, a total of 45 cases of sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization were reported in Korea. The causes of death were classified as follows: infectious diseases (n= 13); accidental injuries (n= 7); congenital abnormalities (n= 2); and malignancy (n= 1). Of 20 sudden deaths in infancy, nine deaths met Brighton Collaboration case definition level I and II, and therefore were classified as possible sudden infant death syndrome cases. Hepatitis B vaccine (n= 13) was the most frequent vaccine with temporal association with sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life. Few sudden deaths in the first 2 years of life following immunization have been reported, despite the use of universal immunization in Korea. The majority of deaths in infancy did not meet case definition for sudden infant death syndrome. Encouraging investigators to perform thorough investigation, including postmortem autopsy and death scene examination, may promote data comparability and provide guidance on decision-making in the vaccine-safety monitoring and response system in Korea. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.
Toffol, G.J.; Lansky, L.L.; Hughes, J.R.; Blend, M.J.; Pavel, D.G.; Kecskes, S.A.; Ortega, R.E.; Tan, W.S.
A 3-year-old child with phenotypic trisomy 18 syndrome survived 26 days after a cardiopulmonary arrest, secondary to an acute viral illness. The child was deeply comatose. No barbiturates, other sedatives, or aminoglycoside antibiotics had been recently administered. The child was normothermic with adequate cardiovascular function. Brain stem function was absent, as assessed by testing of brain stem reflexes. Serial cerebral radionuclide angiograms (CRAG) documented intact cerebral blood flow while electrocerebral silence (ECS) was present on two consecutive EEG recordings within 24 hours. Preservation of intracranial circulation was confirmed by rapid rotational computed tomographic (CT) scans. Cranial CT scans also revealed communicating hydrocephalus, and bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages. This unusual case illustrates discordance between apparent irreversible loss of cortical function as indicated by electrocerebral silence with preserved cerebral blood flow. The implications of these apparent paradoxical events will be discussed in the context of defining brain death in children
Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Cai, Dongsheng
Inflammatory reaction is a fundamental defense mechanism against threat towards normal integrity and physiology. On the other hand, chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis, have been causally linked to chronic, low-grade inflammation in various metabolic tissues. Recent cross-disciplinary research has led to identification of hypothalamic inflammatory changes that are triggered by overnutrition, orchestrated by hypothalamic immune system, and sustained through metabolic syndrome-associated pathophysiology. While continuing research is actively trying to underpin the identity and mechanisms of these inflammatory stimuli and actions involved in metabolic syndrome disorders and related diseases, proinflammatory IκB kinase-β (IKKβ), the downstream nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and some related molecules in the hypothalamus were discovered to be pathogenically significant. This article is to summarize recent progresses in the field of neuroendocrine research addressing the central integrative role of neuroinflammation in metabolic syndrome components ranging from obesity, glucose intolerance to cardiovascular dysfunctions.
Nielsen, Trine Skov; Dalager, Søren; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl
An autopsy in a 28-year-old man did not explain the cause of sudden unexpected death. However, a history of episodes with tachycardia and dizziness and a reassessed previous electrocardiogram exhibiting ventricular pre-excitation was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. In this p......An autopsy in a 28-year-old man did not explain the cause of sudden unexpected death. However, a history of episodes with tachycardia and dizziness and a reassessed previous electrocardiogram exhibiting ventricular pre-excitation was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome...