WorldWideScience

Sample records for dear experimental setup

  1. DEAR Monte Carlo simulation versus experimental data in measurements with the DEAR NTP setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragadireanu, A.M.; Iliescu, M.; Petrascu, C.; Ponta, T.

    1999-01-01

    The DEAR NTP setup was installed in DAΦNE and is taking background data since February 1999. The goal of this work is to compare the measurements, in terms of charged particle hits (clusters), with the DEAR Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account the main effects due to which the particles are lost from circulating beams: Touschek effect and beam-gas interaction. To be mentioned that, during this period, no collisions between electrons and positrons have been achieved in the DEAR Interaction Point (IP) and consequently we don't have any experimental data concerning the hadronic background coming from φ-decays directly, or as secondary products of hadronic interactions. The NTP setup was shielded using lead and copper which gives a shielding factor of about 4. In parallel with the NTP setup, the signals from two scintillator slabs (150 x 80 x 2 mm) collected by 4 PMTs, positioned bellow the NTP setup and facing the IP, were digitized and counted using a National Instruments Timer/Counter Card. To compare experimental data with results of the Monte Carlo simulation we selected periods with only one circulating beam (electrons or positrons), in order to have a clean data set and we selected data files with CCD occupancy lower than 5%. As concerning the X-rays, the statistics was too poor to perform any quantitative comparison. The comparison between Monte Carlo, CCD data and kaon monitor data, for two beams are shown. It can be seen the agreement is fairly good and promising along the way of checking our routines which describes the experimental setup and the physical processes occurring in the accelerator environment. (authors)

  2. First measurements at the DAPHINE phi-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Egger, J P; Gartner, B; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M A; King, R; Lauss, B; Petrascu, C; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DAPHINE e sup + e sup - collider was investigated using the first-stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy.

  3. First measurements at the DAΦNE φ-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augsburger, M.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Petrascu, C.; Iliescu, M.; Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Magurele, Bucharest; Egger, J.-P.; Gartner, B.; Zmeskal, J.; King, R.; Guaraldo, C.; Lauss, B

    1999-01-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X-rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DAΦNE e +e- collider was investigated using the first stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy

  4. The DEAR case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The scientific program and the experimental setup of the DEAR (DA{Phi}NE Exotic Atom Research) experiment at the new {phi}-factory DA{Phi}NE of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, are described. The objective of DEAR is to perform a 1% measurement of the K{sub {alpha}} line shift due to the strong interaction in kaonic hydrogen. A measurement will also be performed on kaonic deuterium for the first time. The aim is to investigate low-temperature pressurized gaseous target; and of a detector for soft X rays - the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD)-characterized by a good resolution and by an unprecedented background rejection capability. The DEAR experiment represents a major effort in the study of low energy KN interactions and has the potential to produce a breakthrough in the field.

  5. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  6. Measurements of operator performance - an experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netland, K.

    1980-01-01

    The human has to be considered as an important element in a process control system, even if the degree of automation is extremely high. Other elements, e.g. computer, displays, etc., can to a large extent be described and quantified. The human (operator), is difficult to describe in a precise way, and it is just as difficult to predict his thinking and acting in a control room environment. Many factors influence his performance, such as: experience, motivation, level of knowledge, training, control environment, job organization, etc. These factors have to a certain degree to be described before guidelines for design of the man-process interfaces and the control room layout can be developed. For decades, the psychological science has obtained knowledge of the human mind and behaviour. This knowledge should have the potential of a positive input on our effort to describe the factors influencing the operator performance. Even if the human is complex, a better understanding of his thinking and acting, and a more precise description of the factors influencing his performance can be obtained. At OECD Halden Reactor Project an experimental set-up for such studies has been developed and implemented in the computer laboratory. The present set-up includes elements as a computer- and display-based control room, a simulator representing a nuclear power plant, training programme for the subjects, and methods for the experiments. Set-up modules allow reconfiguration of experiments. (orig./HP)

  7. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  8. An experimental set-up to test heatmoisture exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ünal (N.); J.C. Pompe (Jan); W.P. Holland (Wim); I. Gultuna; P.E.M. Huygen; K. Jabaaij (K.); C. Ince (Can); B. Saygin (B.); H.A. Bruining (Hajo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The purpose of this study was to build an experimental set-up to assess continuously the humidification, heating and resistance properties of heat-moisture exchangers (HMEs) under clinical conditions. Design: The experimental set-up consists of a patient model, measurement

  9. Experimental Setup for Studying Guiding of Proton Microbeam

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and construction of our experimental setup for studying the transmission of proton microbeam through a single, cylindrical shape, macroscopic insulating capillary. The intensity as a function of time, the energy distribution as a function of the transmission and the deflection of the transmitted particles can be measured with the new setup.

  10. The Dear Kaon Monitor at Daphne

    CERN Document Server

    Lucherini, V; Beer, G; Curceanu, C; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M A; Ponta, T; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Zmeskal, J

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics and performance of the Kaon Monitor of the DEAR experiment at the DAPHINE collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati are described. The full TDC and ADC information collected from the detectors of the setup allows a clean observation of the charged kaon pairs from phi-decay by means of their different arrival times with respect to the background particles. The number of detected kaons can be used to obtain an absolute luminosity measurement in the DEAR interaction point at DAPHINE.

  11. MATLAB simulation for an experimental setup of digital feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lifang; Liu Songqiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the digital feedback simulation using MATLAB for an experimental accelerator control setup. By analyzing the plant characteristic in time-domain and frequency-domain, a guideline for design of digital filter and PID controller is derived. (authors)

  12. Off-line software for large experimental setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyant, F.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of Off-line software for large experimental setups in High Energy Physics. Simple notions of program structuring, data structuring and software organization are discussed in the context of the software developped for the European Hybrid Spectrometer. (author)

  13. Experimental setup for rapid crystallization using favoured chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sent paper we describe a small scale experimental setup for rapid crystallization in which growth is favoured by chemical potential and hydrodynamic conditions. Using this we have grown KH2PO4 (KDP) single crystals up to. 40 × 43 × 66 mm3 in dimensions on a point seed in a glass crystallizer of 5 l capacity in about 72 h.

  14. Eye-in-Hand Manipulation for Remote Handling: Experimental Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longchuan; Suominen, Olli; Aref, Mohammad M.; Mattila, Jouni; Ruiz, Emilio; Esque, Salvador

    2018-03-01

    A prototype for eye-in-hand manipulation in the context of remote handling in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)1 is presented in this paper. The setup consists of an industrial robot manipulator with a modified open control architecture and equipped with a pair of stereoscopic cameras, a force/torque sensor, and pneumatic tools. It is controlled through a haptic device in a mock-up environment. The industrial robot controller has been replaced by a single industrial PC running Xenomai that has a real-time connection to both the robot controller and another Linux PC running as the controller for the haptic device. The new remote handling control environment enables further development of advanced control schemes for autonomous and semi-autonomous manipulation tasks. This setup benefits from a stereovision system for accurate tracking of the target objects with irregular shapes. The overall environmental setup successfully demonstrates the required robustness and precision that remote handling tasks need.

  15. Optimizing the application of entomopathogenic nematodes: experimental set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, E; Steurbaut, W; Sonck, B

    2007-01-01

    The complex issue concerning the spray application of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) with a hydraulic sprayer is still not solved. This research project focuses on the effect of spray application technique on the viability and deposition of EPNs. In this paper the experimental set-up used for this evaluation is described. A modular spray application system has been developed and is currently used to evaluate the effect of different parts of a sprayer on the viability of the EPNs. Based on the results of experiments using this modular spray application system, recommendations regarding pump type, mixing system, nozzle type and filter size will be formulated. Because of the large number of experiments in this research project, an image analysis system for the determination of the viability of the nematodes is developed. This paper describes two experiments comparing the new developed image processing technique with the standard microscopic counting technique.

  16. Numerical and experimental dosimetry of petri dish exposure setups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, M.; Pokovic, K.; Gnos, M.; Schmid, T.; Kuster, N. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Crawford TEM cells are often used to exposure cell cultures or small animals in order to study the effects caused by high-frequency fields. They are self-contained, easy-to-use setups that provide a rather homogeneous field distribution in a large area around its center, corresponding approximately to far-field conditions. However, a number of conditions must be met if such TEM cells are intended to be used for in vitro experiments. For instance, poor interaction with the incident field must be maintained to avoid significant field disturbances in the TEM cell. This is best achieved with E-polarization, i.e., when the E-field vector is normal to the investigated cell layer lining the bottom of a synthetic Petri dish. In addition, E-polarization provides the most homogeneous field distribution of all polarizations within the entire layer of cells. In this paper, the authors present a detailed dosimetric assessment for 60 and 100 mm Petri dishes as well as for a 48-well titer plate at 835 MHz. The dosimetry was performed by using numerical computations. The modeling and the simplifications are validated by a second numerical technique and by experimental measurements. For thin liquid layers, an approximation formula is provided with which the induced field strength for many other experiments conducted in Petri dishes can be assessed reliably.

  17. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a new electron-recoil ion/photon coincidence setup for investigating some of the electron ... quisition system consisting of a 200 MHz Pentium based 8K-multichannel analyzer and a standard network of a .... electron gun via a differential pumping while the other one couples a Faraday cup. A de- tachable ...

  18. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a new electron-recoil ion/photon coincidence setup for investigating some of the electron induced collision processes, such as electron bremsstrahlung, electron backscattering, innershell excitation and multiple ionization of target atoms/molecules in bombardment of electrons having energies from 2.0 keV ...

  19. Novel Experimental Setups for In Situ Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; H. Gjørup, Frederik; Mørch, Mathias

    Modern synchrotron and neutron sources provide the intensities needed for performing never-before-seen experiments. With the imminent launch of the scattering facilities MAX IV & ESS, it is interesting to explore novel setups that enable new experiments at these sites. X-ray and neutron technique...

  20. An experimental set-up to test heat-moisture exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, N.; Pompe, J. C.; Holland, W. P.; Gültuna, I.; Huygen, P. E.; Jabaaij, K.; Ince, C.; Saygin, B.; Bruining, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build an experimental set-up to assess continuously the humidification, heating and resistance properties of heat-moisture exchangers (HMEs) under clinical conditions. The experimental set-up consists of a patient model, measurement systems and a ventilator. Surgical

  1. Search for hybrid baryons with CLAS12 experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Lucille [Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    It is crucial to study the meson electroproduction in the kinematic region dominated by the formation of resonances. CLAS12 setup in Hall B at Jefferson Lab is particularly suitable for this task, since it is able to detect scattered electrons at low polar angles thanks to the Forward Tagger (FT) component. The process that we propose to study is ep → e'K+Λ, where the electron beam will be provided by the CEBAF accelerator with energies of 6.6, 8.8, and 11 GeV. This thesis work describes the setup and calibration of the FT calorimeter and the studies related to the search of hybrid baryons through the measurement of the K+ Λ electroproduction cross section.

  2. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here, an experimental set-up developed for the first time in India for the determination of mixing ratio and carbon isotopic ratio of air-CO2. The set-up includes traps for collection and extraction of CO2 from air samples using cryogenic procedures, followed by the measurement of CO2 mixing ratio using an MKS ...

  3. Reconstruction of dynamic structures of experimental setups based on measurable experimental data only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Yu; Chen, Yang; Yang, Hu-Jiang; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Hu, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, massive amounts of data have been accumulated in various and wide fields, it has become today one of the central issues in interdisciplinary fields to analyze existing data and extract as much useful information as possible from data. It is often that the output data of systems are measurable while dynamic structures producing these data are hidden, and thus studies to reveal system structures by analyzing available data, i.e., reconstructions of systems become one of the most important tasks of information extractions. In the past, most of the works in this respect were based on theoretical analyses and numerical verifications. Direct analyses of experimental data are very rare. In physical science, most of the analyses of experimental setups were based on the first principles of physics laws, i.e., so-called top-down analyses. In this paper, we conducted an experiment of “Boer resonant instrument for forced vibration” (BRIFV) and inferred the dynamic structure of the experimental set purely from the analysis of the measurable experimental data, i.e., by applying the bottom-up strategy. Dynamics of the experimental set is strongly nonlinear and chaotic, and itʼs subjects to inevitable noises. We proposed to use high-order correlation computations to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to treat noise effects. By applying these approaches, we have successfully reconstructed the structure of the experimental setup, and the dynamic system reconstructed with the measured data reproduces good experimental results in a wide range of parameters.

  4. A new tribological experimental setup to study confined and sheared monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L; Favier, D; Charitat, T; Gauthier, C; Rubin, A

    2016-03-01

    We have developed an original experimental setup, coupling tribology, and velocimetry experiments together with a direct visualization of the contact. The significant interest of the setup is to measure simultaneously the apparent friction coefficient and the velocity of confined layers down to molecular scale. The major challenge of this experimental coupling is to catch information on a nanometer-thick sheared zone confined between a rigid spherical indenter of millimetric radius sliding on a flat surface at constant speed. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of this setup to investigate nanometer-scale sliding layers, we studied a model lipid monolayer deposited on glass slides. It shows that our experimental setup will, therefore, help to highlight the hydrodynamic of such sheared confined layers in lubrication, biolubrication, or friction on solid polymer.

  5. Contact Angle Measurements Using a Simplified Experimental Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Guillaume; Hamraoui, Ahmed; Buvailo, Andrii; Xing, Yangjun; Keuleyan, Sean; Prakash, Vivek; Eftekhari-Bafrooei, Ali; Borguet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A basic and affordable experimental apparatus is described that measures the static contact angle of a liquid drop in contact with a solid. The image of the drop is made with a simple digital camera by taking a picture that is magnified by an optical lens. The profile of the drop is then processed with ImageJ free software. The ImageJ contact…

  6. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR): a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other radiation therapy modalities, clinical electron beam therapy has remained practically unchanged for the past few decades even though electron beams with multiple energies are widely available on most linacs. In this paper, we present the concept of dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR), a new conformal electron therapy technique with synchronized couch motion. DEAR utilizes combination of gantry rotation, couch motion, and dose rate modulation to achieve desirable dose distributions in patient. The electron applicator is kept to minimize scatter and maintain narrow penumbra. The couch motion is synchronized with the gantry rotation to avoid collision between patient and the electron cone. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of DEAR delivery and demonstrate the potential of DEAR to improve dose distributions on simple cylindrical phantoms. DEAR was delivered on Varian's TrueBeam linac in Research Mode. In conjunction with the recorded trajectory log files, mechanical motion accuracies and dose rate modulation precision were analyzed. Experimental and calculated dose distributions were investigated for different energies (6 and 9 MeV) and cut-out sizes (1×10 cm 2  and 3×10 cm 2  for a 15×15 cm 2  applicator). Our findings show that DEAR delivery is feasible and has the potential to deliver radiation dose with high accuracy (root mean square error, or RMSE of <0.1 MU, <0.1° gantry, and <0.1 cm couch positions) and good dose rate precision (1.6 MU min −1 ). Dose homogeneity within ±2% in large and curved targets can be achieved while maintaining penumbra comparable to a standard electron beam on a flat surface. Further, DEAR does not require fabrication of patient-specific shields. These benefits make DEAR a promising technique for conformal radiotherapy of superficial tumors. (paper)

  7. The experimental setup for studying the molecular composition of nanoscale films and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turiev A M; Butkhuzi T G; Ramonova A G; Magkoev T T; Tsidaeva N I

    2011-01-01

    It is offered the method of measurement and design of the experimental setup, allowing to control the flow of particles from the surface of organic films during annealing by pulsed laser radiation. The method is based on the TOF(Time Of Flight) principle of detecting particles, desorbed from the surface by laser pulses, used for annealing. The principle of registration and the structure (block- scheme) of the experimental setup and its constituent parts are detailed in the work The setup consists of the analytical part, the system of laser irradiation and computer measurement system. The basis of the analytical part of the installation is a TOF(Time Of Flight) mass spectrometer of original construction.

  8. Space Robotics: an Experimental Set-up based on RTAI-Linux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macchelli, A.; Melchiorri, C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Guidetti, M.

    2002-01-01

    In space application, it is of great interest the development of autonomous or semi-autonomous robotic devices that can substitute the astronauts in routine operations in order to free them from repetitive tasks and reduce mission costs. In this work, an experimental setup based on a 6 degrees of

  9. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. Tania Guha Prosenjit Ghosh. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 623-638 ...

  10. Experimental designs and their recent advances in set-up, data interpretation, and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaegher, Bieke; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2011-09-10

    In this review, the set-up and data interpretation of experimental designs (screening, response surface, and mixture designs) are discussed. Advanced set-ups considered are the application of D-optimal and supersaturated designs as screening designs. Advanced data interpretation approaches discussed are an adaptation of the algorithm of Dong and the estimation of factor effects from supersaturated design results. Finally, some analytical applications in separation science, on the one hand, and formulation-, product-, or process optimization, on the other, are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An experimental set-up to measure Light Yield of Scintillating Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, C; Joram, C; Kenzie, M W

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the LHCb SciFi Tracker project, an experimental set up was designed and built to provide reliable and reproducible measurements of the light yield of scintillating fibres. This document describes the principle and technical realisation of the set-up. A few examples illustrate the operation and data analysis. In the first implementation of the set-up a photomultiplier tube with bialkali photocathode was used for the reading of the light from the fibres under test. In order to measure also green emitting fibres, the photomultiplier was replaced in January 2016 by a SiPM with higher sensitivity and larger spectral coverage1.

  12. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, V.A.P. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N., E-mail: nemitala@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medina, N.H.; Macchione, E.L.A.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Aguirre, F.R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Seixas, L.E. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 28}Si, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 63}Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm{sup 2} for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm{sup 2} for in-vacuum irradiation.

  13. Experimental setup for Single Event Effects at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, V. A. P.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Aguirre, F. R.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Santos, R. B. B.; Seixas, L. E.

    2014-08-01

    In this work we present an experimental setup mounted in one of the beam lines at the São Paulo 8UD Pelletron Accelerator in order to study Single Event Effects in electronic devices. The basic idea is to use elastic scattering collisions to achieve a low-flux with a high-uniformity ion beam to irradiate several devices. 12C, 16O, 28Si, 35Cl and 63Cu beams were used to test the experimental setup. In this system it is possible to use efficiently LET values of 17 MeV/mg/cm2 for an external beam arrangement and up to 32 MeV/mg/cm2 for in-vacuum irradiation.

  14. Integrated trimodal SSEP experimental setup for visual, auditory and tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Rafał; Spustek, Tomasz; Zieleniewska, Magdalena; Duszyk, Anna; Rogowski, Piotr; Suffczyński, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), the brain responses to repetitive stimulation, are commonly used in both clinical practice and scientific research. Particular brain mechanisms underlying SSEPs in different modalities (i.e. visual, auditory and tactile) are very complex and still not completely understood. Each response has distinct resonant frequencies and exhibits a particular brain topography. Moreover, the topography can be frequency-dependent, as in case of auditory potentials. However, to study each modality separately and also to investigate multisensory interactions through multimodal experiments, a proper experimental setup appears to be of critical importance. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a novel SSEP experimental setup providing a repetitive stimulation in three different modalities (visual, tactile and auditory) with a precise control of stimuli parameters. Results from a pilot study with a stimulation in a particular modality and in two modalities simultaneously prove the feasibility of the device to study SSEP phenomenon. Approach. We developed a setup of three separate stimulators that allows for a precise generation of repetitive stimuli. Besides sequential stimulation in a particular modality, parallel stimulation in up to three different modalities can be delivered. Stimulus in each modality is characterized by a stimulation frequency and a waveform (sine or square wave). We also present a novel methodology for the analysis of SSEPs. Main results. Apart from constructing the experimental setup, we conducted a pilot study with both sequential and simultaneous stimulation paradigms. EEG signals recorded during this study were analyzed with advanced methodology based on spatial filtering and adaptive approximation, followed by statistical evaluation. Significance. We developed a novel experimental setup for performing SSEP experiments. In this sense our study continues the ongoing research in this field. On the

  15. Dear Diary” revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Catrina; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the Journal of Geography in Higher Education to provide a reflection piece about our article ‘Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences’ (2011) that won the journal's biennial award...

  16. EDITORIAL: Dearing strikes again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken

    1996-05-01

    Extra-territorial readers of this journal must surely hover between amazement and boredom at the periodic references to the time and energy spent in England in reviewing, changing, re-reviewing and re-changing its educational programmes from ages 5-18. (Scotland has its own educational system and seems to be doing quite well, thank you.) Recently, Sir Ron Dearing, the Government's educational trouble-shooter, who in a few short months managed to sort out the 5-16 curriculum to the satisfaction (more or less) of both Establishment and politicians, was given the task of redefining the principles underlying the education of 16-19 year-olds. In March 1996 he produced a report that has been greeted, initially at least, with the universal approval of the press and politicians of all parties. The main and century-old problem with the English educational system is the deep divide between academic (pre-university) and vocational education. This may reflect the broad division between `gentlemen' and players (artisans) that seems to be a feature of English society, and which may be too wide for a mere education system to bridge. A second problem has been the perceived narrowness, due to overspecialization into just three subjects, of pre-university courses, which has tended to produce yet another divide - between arts graduates (interesting, lively, well-read, cultured) and science graduates (boring, uncouth, illiterate). However, the rather boringly titled Review of Qualifications for 16-19 Year Olds, Summary ReportFootnote is at least clear in its intentions of bridging both gaps. It reviews the continuing decline in the popularity of mathematics and science subjects as pre-university (A-level) courses, and records that the parallel vocational courses (GNVQ) in science do not yet match their status and their acceptance by employers, and people in general. It accepts the failure of Advanced Supplementary courses to provide a broadening of the 16-19 curriculum. It makes many

  17. Vortex-Concept for Radioactivity Release Prevention at NPP: Development of Computational Model of Lab-Scale Experimental Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana; Sung, Yim Man; Park, Jin Soo; Sung Hyung Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The experimental validation of the vortex-like air curtain concept and use of an appropriate CFD modelling approach for analyzing the problem becomes crucial. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed to validate the proposed concept and CFD modeling approach as a part of validation process. In this study, a computational model of this lab-scale experiment setup is developed using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. The computational results will be compared with experimental data for validation purposes in future, when experimental data is available. 1) A computation model of a lab-scale experimental setup, designed to validate the concept of artificial vortex-like airflow generation for application to radioactivity dispersion prevention in the event of severe accident, was developed. 2) The mesh sensitivity study was performed and a mesh of about 2 million cells was found to be sufficient for this setup.

  18. Design of an experimental four-camera setup for enhanced 3D surface reconstruction in microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzi Christian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Future fully digital surgical visualization systems enable a wide range of new options. Caused by optomechanical limitations a main disadvantage of today’s surgical microscopes is their incapability of providing arbitrary perspectives to more than two observers. In a fully digital microscopic system, multiple arbitrary views can be generated from a 3D reconstruction. Modern surgical microscopes allow replacing the eyepieces by cameras in order to record stereoscopic videos. A reconstruction from these videos can only contain the amount of detail the recording camera system gathers from the scene. Therefore, covered surfaces can result in a faulty reconstruction for deviating stereoscopic perspectives. By adding cameras recording the object from different angles, additional information of the scene is acquired, allowing to improve the reconstruction. Our approach is to use a fixed four-camera setup as a front-end system to capture enhanced 3D topography of a pseudo-surgical scene. This experimental setup would provide images for the reconstruction algorithms and generation of multiple observing stereo perspectives. The concept of the designed setup is based on the common main objective (CMO principle of current surgical microscopes. These systems are well established and optically mature. Furthermore, the CMO principle allows a more compact design and a lowered effort in calibration than cameras with separate optics. Behind the CMO four pupils separate the four channels which are recorded by one camera each. The designed system captures an area of approximately 28mm × 28mm with four cameras. Thus, allowing to process images of 6 different stereo perspectives. In order to verify the setup, it is modelled in silico. It can be used in further studies to test algorithms for 3D reconstruction from up to four perspectives and provide information about the impact of additionally recorded perspectives on the enhancement of a reconstruction.

  19. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  20. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...... roughness of the samples was determined by means of two different stylus-based methods, one having a 1.6 mm ball stylus (giving the macro-roughness) and the other having a needle type stylus (giving the micro-roughness). It is demonstrated that, in the case of ideal painted surfaces (low macro...

  1. Development of an experimental setup for testing the properties of γ/γ' superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Siret; Bernard, Viguier; Claude, Salabura Jean; Eric, Andrieu; Sandrine, Lesterlin

    2010-07-01

    Certification tests on turboshaft engines for helicopters can expose components as high pressure turbine blades to very high temperature during short time periods. To simulate these complex temperature and mechanical stress loadings and to study dimensional and microstructural stability under severe testing conditions, an experimental set-up has been recently developed. In this paper, we first present this new device and describe its performances. Then, the device is used to study the effect of heating procedure on creep results at 1200°C and rafting during primary creep on the single crystal nickel-based superalloy MC2.

  2. New Experimental Setup for Boron Isotopes Separation by the Laser Assisted Retardation of Condensation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhov, Konstantin; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2015-11-01

    Demand in isotopically pure boron is steadily growing in industry and medicine. It makes necessary to search for cheaper ways of isotopes production. We propose a new experimental setup design for boron isotope separation by laser assisted retardation of condensation (SILARC) method based on an energy efficiency use relevant optimization method. This optimization method is based on the transport model for rarefied gas flow dynamics in laser field with frequency tuned for excitation of specific isotopomer. Because product cut and enrichment factor corresponding to the optimal conditions are rather small, target isotopomers should be recovered iteratively.

  3. Experimental set-up for advanced aeroelastic tests on sectional models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Radomil; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Náprstek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2016), s. 3-13 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0094; GA AV ČR IAA200710902; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bridge aeroelasticity * wind tunnel * experimental set-up * non-linear response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40799-015-0004-6

  4. Methodology and experimental setup for measuring short-lives fission product yields in actinides induced fission by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, A.V.

    1995-07-01

    The theoretical principles and the laboratory set-up for the fission products yields measurements are described. The procedures for the experimental determinations are explain in detail. (author). 43 refs., 5 figs

  5. Long-term electromagnetic exposure of developing neuronal networks: A flexible experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Stefan; Daus, Andreas W; Erbes, Christian; Goldhammer, Michael; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are considered one of the most promising targets of research to assess potential electromagnetic field induced effects on neuronal functionality. A few exposure studies revealed there is currently no evidence of any adverse health effects caused by weak electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless, some published results are inconsistent. Particularly, doubts have been raised regarding possible athermal biological effects in the young brain during neuronal development. Therefore, we developed and characterized a flexible experimental setup based on a transverse electromagnetic waveguide, allowing controlled, reproducible exposure of developing neuronal networks in vitro. Measurement of S-parameters confirmed very good performance of the Stripline in the band of 800-1000 MHz. Simulations suggested a flexible positioning of cell culture dishes throughout a large exposure area, as specific absorption rate values were quite independent of their position (361.7 ± 11.4 mW/kg) at 1 W, 900 MHz. During exposure, thermal drift inside cellular medium did not exceed 0.1 K. Embryonic rat cortical neurons were cultivated on microelectrode array chips to non-invasively assess electrophysiological properties of electrogenic networks. Measurements were taken for several weeks, which attest to the experimental setup being a reliable system for long-term studies on developing neuronal tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  7. First Measurements at the Daphne $\\phi$-Factory with the DEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Egger, J P; Gartner, B; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M A; King, R; Lauss, B; Petrascu, C; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy Xrays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DAPHNE e^+e^- collider was inves-tigated using the first stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. $9 An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected $9 background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the $9 planned level of accuracy.

  8. Using smartphones and tablet PCs for β−-spectroscopy in an educational experimental setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Molz, Alexander; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic spectrometer is used to gather the β − -spectrum of 90 Sr /Y with a focus on two aspects. (1) The intensity of β − -radiation is measured by the camera sensor module of a tablet PC together with the RadioactivityCounter app and by a Geiger–Müller tube. We evaluate the quality of mobile devices as radioactive radiation detectors by using polyenergetic β − -radiation as an example and by comparing the spectra measured with the two detector types. (2) For educational purposes we implement a simple experimental setup, which consists of separate devices for measuring the electron’s kinetic energy and intensity, which are available in laboratories in educational settings. Comparison of the measured β − -spectra published in the literature should encourage students to think about the energy resolution power of the β − -spectrometer. Theoretical considerations show the low, yet sufficient energy resolution power of this spectrometer, especially for low energy levels. (paper)

  9. Using smartphones and tablet PCs for β--spectroscopy in an educational experimental setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Molz, Alexander; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-11-01

    A magnetic spectrometer is used to gather the β--spectrum of 90 Sr /Y with a focus on two aspects. (1) The intensity of β--radiation is measured by the camera sensor module of a tablet PC together with the RadioactivityCounter app and by a Geiger-Müller tube. We evaluate the quality of mobile devices as radioactive radiation detectors by using polyenergetic β--radiation as an example and by comparing the spectra measured with the two detector types. (2) For educational purposes we implement a simple experimental setup, which consists of separate devices for measuring the electron’s kinetic energy and intensity, which are available in laboratories in educational settings. Comparison of the measured β--spectra published in the literature should encourage students to think about the energy resolution power of the β--spectrometer. Theoretical considerations show the low, yet sufficient energy resolution power of this spectrometer, especially for low energy levels.

  10. Method for calculating thermal properties of lightweight floor heating panels based on an experimental setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Lightweight floor heating systems consist of a plastic tube connected to a heat distribution aluminium plate and are used in wooden floor constructions. The thermal properties of lightweight floor heating systems cannot be described accurately. The reason is a very complex interaction of convection......, radiation and conduction of the heat transfer between pipe and surrounding materials. The European Standard for floor heating, EN1264, does not cover lightweight systems, while the supplemental Nordtest Method VVS127 is aimed at lightweight systems. The thermal properties can be found using tabulated values...... or experiments. Neither includes dynamic properties. This article describes a method to find steady-state and dynamical thermal properties in an experimental setup based on finding a characteristic thermal resistance between pipe and heat transfer plate, which can be directly implemented in a numerical...

  11. A computerized experimental set-up for in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, J; Vereecken, R L; Schellemans, D

    1986-12-01

    A fully automated system is designed and developed for the investigation of in vitro contractility of muscle tissue in response to dose-dependent pharmacologic and/or electrical stimulation. The heart of the set-up is a personal technical computer. It drives the experiment by selecting and changing drug concentrations, by applying electrical stimulation, by sampling the tissue's contractile response and by real-time calculation of results. Parameters of interest are derived and updated for further selection and statistical manipulation. Alpha-numerical or graphical hardcopies may be drawn at any time. Investigator's intervention is limited to preparing perfusing solutions, mounting the muscle tissue strips, deciding test condition parameters, supervising the experimental progress and leading statistical calculations.

  12. An experimental setup for the study of the steady air flow in a diesel engine chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanero José María

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental setup for studying the steady air flow in a diesel engine chamber. An engine block containing the inlet manifold was placed on a test bench. A steady air stream crossed the inlet manifold and entered a glass chamber driven by a fan. A PIV system was set up around the bench to measure the in-chamber flow. An air spray gun was used as seed generator to producing sub-millimeter droplets, easily dragged by the air stream. Images of the in-flow chamber were acquired in the course of the experiments, and processed to measure the velocity field. The pressure drop driven the air current and the mass flow rate were also measured.

  13. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experimental setup at CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cocolios, T E; Procter, T J; Rothe, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Franchoo, S; Marsh, B A; Verney, D; Papuga, J; Strashnov, I; Billowes, J; de Groote, R P; Le Blanc, F; Simpson, G S; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Wood, R T; Budincevic, I; Mason, P J R; Wendt, K D A; Flanagan, K T; De Schepper, S; Rajabali, M M; Al Suradi, H H; Walker, P M; Smith, A J

    2013-01-01

    The CRIS setup at CERN-ISOLDE is a laser spectroscopy experiment dedicated to the high-resolution study of the spin, hyperfine structure and isotope shift of radioactive nuclei with low production rates (a few per second). It combines the Doppler-free resolution of the in-flight collinear geometry with the high detection efficiency of resonant ionisation. A recent commissioning campaign has demonstrated a 1\\% experimental efficiency, and as low as a 0.001\\% non-resonant ionisation. The current status of the experiment and its recent achievements with beams of francium isotopes are reported. The first identified systematic effects are discussed. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of experimental setup for investigation of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živný Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes experimental setup for investigation of the impact load from collapsing cavitation bubble on a solid wall. A vapour bubble is generated inside a cubic chamber by local heating of water inside a thin channel in a button. The bubble collapse is initiated by a piezoelectric actuator attached to the flexible wall of the chamber. A laser diode with a linear CCD sensor are used to detect the bubble position during its buoyancy-driven rise to the upper wall of the chamber. The bubble collapse impact load is measured using a PVDF piezoelectric transducer glued to the upper wall of the chamber and recorded by high-speed CCD camera illuminated by a high-power LED diode. The pressure inside the chamber is measured by the dynamic pressure transducer. All the system components are controlled and synchronized by an oscilloscope and pulse generator using the LabView software.

  15. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  16. Precise measurement of the HFS of positronium using the zeeman effect I: Experimental set-up and RF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, G; Ishida, A; Sasaki, Y; Miyazaki, A; Kato, K; Asai, S [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Suehara, T; Namba, T; Kobayashi, T [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, H [Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M; Tanaka, K; Yamamoto, A [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Urushizaki, Y; Ogawa, I; Idehara, T [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region (FIR-FU), University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: akimoto@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str, 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Positronium is a QCD-free system and the measurement of its hyperfine splitting provides a strict test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Recent research revealed a discrepancy of 3.9{sigma} between the QED prediction and previous experimental results. We report on the prototype run of an improved experimental set-up and the performance of its RF system.

  17. Experimental evaluation and set-up of a new apparatus designed for transitional flow experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozehnal Dalibor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental exercise has been conducted to validate the capability of a new test apparatus. The test stand has been designed and constructed at the laboratory of aerodynamics, University of Defence to carry out the experimental investigation of transitional flow prediction and development over flat plate. The test facility consists of a rectangular duct set on the suction side of air source apparatus. The working section is 2 m long with a cross section of 0.44 m in width and 0.25 m in height. The exercise is performed into two stages. In the first stage, the basic parameters such as freestream velocity, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient in streamwise direction were measured and manipulated to setup acceptable values. Second stage of the exercise, the bottom wall of the test section was used as a flat plate model to conduct turbulent boundary-layer experiment. The characteristics of the boundary layer obtained by using the apparatus are represented by a qualitative and quantitative agreement with those predicted by boundary-layer theory for turbulent boundary layer while more improvements seems to be required to satisfy the rules of boundary layer stability experiments. The results are show a fair agreement for mean velocity profile, U∞, boundary layer thickness, δ, momentum thickness, θ, and skin friction coefficient, Cf.

  18. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes; Diseno experimental para la caracterizacion de los procesos de hidratacion de la bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J.M.

    2001-07-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Commissioning of two RF operation modes for RF negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Chen, D.; Liu, K.; Zhao, P.; Zuo, C.; Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L.

    2017-08-01

    An RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup, without a cesium oven and an extraction system, has been built at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The working gas is hydrogen, and the typical operational gas pressure is 0.3 Pa. The RF generator is capable of delivering up to 20 kW at 0.9 - 1.1 MHz, and has two operation modes, the fixed-frequency mode and auto-tuning mode. In the fixed-frequency mode, it outputs a steady RF forward power (Pf) at a fixed frequency. In the auto-tuning mode, it adjusts the operating frequency to seek and track the minimum standing wave ratio (SWR) during plasma discharge. To achieve fast frequency tuning, the RF signal source adopts a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). To withstand high SWR during the discharge, a tetrode amplifier is chosen as the final stage amplifier. The trend of maximum power reflection coefficient |ρ|2 at plasma ignition is presented at the fixed frequency of 1.02 MHz with the Pf increasing from 5 kW to 20 kW, which shows the maximum |ρ|2 tends to be "steady" under high RF power. The experiments in auto-tuning mode fail due to over-current protection of screen grid. The possible reason is the relatively large equivalent anode impedance caused by the frequency tuning. The corresponding analysis and possible solution are presented.

  20. An experimental setup for visualizations and measurements on free hypersonic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tordella Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The free hypersonic jets can be found in several technological applications and even in astrophysical observations. This article is mainly devoted to explain an experiment about visualizations and measurements on free hypersonic jets extending on length scales in the order of hundreds of initial diameters and traveling in a medium not necessarily made of the same gas of the jets. The experiments are performed by means of special facilities where the jet Mach numbers and the jetto-ambient density ratios can be set independently of each other, what permits the investigation of a wide parameters range in the relevant physics. The Mach number of the jets ranges from 5 to 20 and the jet-to ambient density ratio, which plays an important role in the jets morphology, can be set from 0.1 up to values exceeding 100. The present setup produces the jets by means of a fast piston system (for high Mach numbers or injection valves (for low Mach numbers, both coupled with de Laval nozzles. The visualizations and measurements are based on the electron beam technique: the jets are weakly ionized, then a fast CMOS camera captures images that are analyzed by image processing techniques. A sample of the results obtained by this experimental system is included at the end of this work.

  1. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  2. Bias determination for space accelerometers using the ZARM Catapult system - experimental setup and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Accelerometers for space applications - like the electrostatic differential accelrometer for the MICROSCOPE mission for testing the equivalence principle in space - have to be tested and qualified in μg-conditions in order to demonstrate the system operation and to determine the characteristic sensor parameters. One important characteristic property is the sensor bias. In principle one can determine the sensor bias directly by using the ZARM catapult system as test platform. Even in the evacuated drop tube the residual air pressure results in an air friction that depends on the capsule velocity. At the apex (highest point of the capsule trajectory) the acceleration (relative to the gravitational acceleration g) becomes zero due to the zero velocity at the apex. The direct measurement of the vertical linear acceleration sensor bias is affected by some additional effects that have to be understood in order to be able to determine the sensor bias. Two catapult campaigns have been carried out to demonstrate the principles of the bias determination using a SuperStar accelerometer (Onera). The presentation gives an overview on the experimental setup and on the corresponding data analysis.

  3. Mirror image technique for the thermal analysis in cryoablation: Experimental setup and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretto, Valter; Passerone, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a set of experiments that were performed to characterize the freezing front propagation in water first, and in an agar-gel solution afterwards. The experimental setup made of Peltier devices, to emulate the cryogenic effect, and a copper cold finger, to mimic the cold probe interface, are described. We claim that by monitoring some temperatures at the generating cryodevice, several pieces of information can be derived through the cold interface to assess the outside thermodynamic changes. The employed technique, known as mirror image, allows determining the occurrence of the initial ice formation outside the cryo-probe and in the surrounding material, also with different magnitudes of the thermal contact resistance at the cold interface. For both water and agar the ice penetration was found to be non linear versus time, and proportional to the square root of time in the performed experiments. The ice drift velocity decreases according to its penetration inside the tested materials. At the beginning of ice formation, the measured drift velocities are approximately 0.11 mm/s and 0.06 mm/s for water and agar, respectively, and after the ice penetrates 2 mm, they become approximately 0.03 mm/s for both materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of

  5. Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment by Paul S Duvall Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Experimental Setup to Assess Blast and Penetration-Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain...Induced Secondary Debris in a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  6. A Simple Experimental Setup to Clearly Show That Light Does Not Recombine after Passing through Two Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; del Mazo, Alejandro; Velasco, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap experimental setup that clearly shows how the colors of the white light spectrum after passing a prism do not recombine when emerging from an identical second prism, as it is still found in many references.

  7. Integrated Diagnostic/Prognostic Experimental Setup for Capacitor Degradation and Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes the experiments and setups for studying diagnosis and prognosis of electrolytic capacitors in DC-DC power converters. Electrolytic capacitors and...

  8. Protein Crystal Growth Under Forced Solution Flow: Experimental Setup and General Response of Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekilov, P. G.; Rosenberger, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the effects of solution flow on the growth kinetics of the protein lysozyme. To this end, we have expanded our interferometry setup by a novel crystallization cell and solution recirculation system. This combination permits monitoring of interface morphology and kinetics with a depth resolution of 200 A at bulk flow rates of up to 2000 micron/s. Particular attention was paid to the prevention of protein denaturation that is often associated with the pumping of protein solutions. We found that at bulk flow rates it less than 250 microns/s the average growth rate and step velocity, R(sub avg) and upsilon(sub avg) increase with increasing it. This can be quantitatively understood in terms of the enhanced, convective solute supply to the interface. With high-purity solutions, it u greater than 250 microns/s lead to growth deceleration, and, at low supersaturations sigma, to growth cessation. When solutions containing approx. 1% of other protein impurities were used, growth deceleration occurred at any u greater than 0 and cessation in the low sigma experiments was reached at about half the it causing cessation with pure solution. The flow-induced changes in R(sub avg) and upsilon(sub avg) including growth cessation, were reversible and reproducible, independent of the direction of the u-changes and solution purity. Hence, we attribute the deceleration to the convection-enhanced supply of impurities to the interface, which at higher flow rates overpowers the effects of enhanced interfacial solute concentration. Most importantly, we found that convective transport leads to a significant reduction in kinetics fluctuations, in agreement with our earlier expectations for the lysozyme system. This supports our hypothesis that these long-term fluctuations represent an intrinsic response feature of the coupled bulk transport-interfacial kinetics system in the mixed growth control regime.

  9. A new station for monitoring electromagnetic fields in Duronia (Italy: experimental setup and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Di Lorenzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Since the end of 2007 a new electromagnetic field monitoring station has been in operation in Central Italy in the area of a village called Duronia. The station was created in the framework of the MEM (Magnetic and Electric

    fields Monitoring Project composed of a team headed by the Abruzzo region. The main target of the MEM Project is to create in the Adriatic Area a network of observatories to monitor the environmental electromagnetic signals in the frequency band from 0.001Hz to 100kHz (ULF-ELF-VLF. The peculiarity of the Duronia installation is the low electromagnetic background noise of the site and the low noise of the instrumentation. Here we show the experimental setup, with a brief discussion on the installed instrumentation and on the preliminaresults obtained in the first months of operation. The research activity is mainly focused on the analysis of the spectral structure of the Schumann Resonance in the range of frequencies [5.0-35.0]Hz, and the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator in the range of frequencies [0.1-7.0]Hz and their evolution in time. Another target concerns the long-term monitoring of local magnetic field anomalies possiblelated to the local geodynamical processes.



  10. Experimental setup for the investigation of fluid–structure interactions in a T-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuschewski, M., E-mail: mario.kuschewski@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kulenovic, R., E-mail: rudi.kulenovic@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Laurien, E., E-mail: eckart.laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Water experiments were carried out for fluid structure interaction aspects of non-isothermal mixing in a T-junction which is part of a new test facility. The main subject of this paper is firstly to present the new facility and secondly, to demonstrate the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence (NWLED-IF) technique, which is a new experimental method for studying fluid–structure interaction under conditions similar to those in LWR. The Fluid–Structure-Interaction-Setup is a closed-loop T-junction facility with a design pressure of 75 bar and a maximum temperature of 280 °C. The water streams are mixed in a horizontally aligned, sharp-edge, 90° T-junction. The forged T-junction is made of austenitic steel 1.4550 (X6 CrNiNb 18-10) with reduced carbon content in accordance with the German KTA 3201.1. It is equipped with 24 thermocouples (1 mm in diameter) in blind holes, which have a surface offset of 1–3 mm. The facility design comprises interchangeable modules, which can be arranged upstream or downstream of the T-junction. Two of these modules provide an optical access to the fluid by means of flanges and tubes made of glass. Additional experiments are conducted in an isothermal T-junction facility and at the Fluid–Structure Interaction Facility. It is demonstrated that the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence technique is an image-based measurement method that provides spatially and temporally resolved information of the turbulent flow in the mixing region of the T-junction even under presence of high density differences. In all experiments a buoyancy-driven stratified flow is observed. The light fluid arranges itself on top of the denser which is characterized by a meander-like structure. The experiments are conducted under different fluid-mechanical boundary conditions, yet fluid patterns were similar and the stratification and the meander-like structures were captured by the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence technique. The presented experiment is the first

  11. Experimental setup for the investigation of fluid–structure interactions in a T-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschewski, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.

    2013-01-01

    Water experiments were carried out for fluid structure interaction aspects of non-isothermal mixing in a T-junction which is part of a new test facility. The main subject of this paper is firstly to present the new facility and secondly, to demonstrate the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence (NWLED-IF) technique, which is a new experimental method for studying fluid–structure interaction under conditions similar to those in LWR. The Fluid–Structure-Interaction-Setup is a closed-loop T-junction facility with a design pressure of 75 bar and a maximum temperature of 280 °C. The water streams are mixed in a horizontally aligned, sharp-edge, 90° T-junction. The forged T-junction is made of austenitic steel 1.4550 (X6 CrNiNb 18-10) with reduced carbon content in accordance with the German KTA 3201.1. It is equipped with 24 thermocouples (1 mm in diameter) in blind holes, which have a surface offset of 1–3 mm. The facility design comprises interchangeable modules, which can be arranged upstream or downstream of the T-junction. Two of these modules provide an optical access to the fluid by means of flanges and tubes made of glass. Additional experiments are conducted in an isothermal T-junction facility and at the Fluid–Structure Interaction Facility. It is demonstrated that the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence technique is an image-based measurement method that provides spatially and temporally resolved information of the turbulent flow in the mixing region of the T-junction even under presence of high density differences. In all experiments a buoyancy-driven stratified flow is observed. The light fluid arranges itself on top of the denser which is characterized by a meander-like structure. The experiments are conducted under different fluid-mechanical boundary conditions, yet fluid patterns were similar and the stratification and the meander-like structures were captured by the Near-Wall LED-Induced-Fluorescence technique. The presented experiment is the first

  12. Experimental Evaluation of MIMO Terminals with User Influence in OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    channel models in a practical 3D multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup. A terminal mock-up, operating at 2.55 GHz, together with a realistic user phantom was used, and channel models with different spatial and polarization profiles, DUT with different operation modes and orientation angles were tested....

  13. Development of an experimental setup for analyzing the influence of Magnus effect on the performance of airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktharuzzaman, Md; Sarker, Md. Samad; Safa, Wasiul; Sharah, Nahreen; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2017-12-01

    Magnus effect is a phenomenon where pressure difference is created according to Bernoulli's effect due to induced velocity changes caused by a rotating object in a fluid. Using this concept, the idea of delaying boundary layer separation on airfoil by providing moving surface boundary layer control has been developed. In order to analyze the influence of Magnus effect on the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil, there is no alternative of developing an experimental setup. This paper aims to develop such an experimental setup which will be capable of analyzing the influence of Magnus effect on both symmetric and asymmetric airfoils by placing a cylinder at the leading edge. To provide arrangements for a rotating cylinder at the leading edge of airfoil, necessary modifications and additions have been done in the test section of an AF100 subsonic wind tunnel.

  14. Experimental setup combining digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and fluorescence imaging to study gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Rakoski, Mirko S.; Steltner, Benjamin; Kalies, Stefan; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-03-01

    Our research combines Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and ˛uorescence microscopy to study the basic mechanisms of gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. Herein we describe the technical aspects of the setup and holographic image reconstruction. Furthermore, results pertaining to cell volume change and calcium response of cells in laser manipulation will be presented and discussed. For the reconstruction of phase images from fringe image data, a phase unwrapping algorithm is presented that shows great potential to cope with the vast amount of data that was captured. This algorithm is a hybrid between a tile unwrapping technique and a path following unwrapper. It combines the robustness of a path following algorithm and a parallelizable tile unwrapping preprocessing step. The experimental setup enables simultaneous acquisition of ˛uorescence and phase images. For cell manipulation, a picosecond laser was coupled into the setup and weakly focused on cells incubated with gold nanoparticles. To study the cell volume change in the ˝rst minute, phase images were captured with a frame rate of 33 fps. Fluorescence images yielded the calcium signal of the cells as well as the dynamics of the F-actin cytoskeleton after irradiation. The setup is suitable to study fast changes in biophysical and morphological para

  15. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  16. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial) plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-07-01

    Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy-transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  17. "Dear Diary" Revisited: Reflecting on Collaborative Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catrina A.; Ricker, Britta; Christensen, Julia; Heller, Elizabeth; Kagan, Emily; Osano, Philip M.; Long, Lindsay; Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The genesis of this article was a request from the "Journal of Geography in Higher Education" to provide a reflection piece about our article 'Dear Diary: Early Career Geographers Collectively Reflect on their Qualitative Field Research Experiences' (2011) that won the journal's biennial award for 2009-2011. This request has afforded us…

  18. A high-resolution frequency variable experimental setup for studying ferrofluids used in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, E. E.; Villa-Martínez, E.; Hernández-Sámano, A.; Córdova-Fraga, T.; Ibarra-Sánchez, J. J.; Calleja, H. A.; Leyva Cruz, J. A.; Barrera, A.; Estrada, J. C.; Paz, J. A.; Quintero, L. H.; Cano, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    A scanning system for specific absorption rate of ferrofluids with superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented in this study. The system contains an induction heating device designed and built with a resonant inverter in order to generate magnetic field amplitudes up to 38 mT, over the frequency band 180-525 kHz. Its resonant circuit involves a variable capacitor with 1 nF of capacitance steps to easily select the desired frequency, reaching from 0.3 kHz/nF up to 5 kHz/nF of resolution. The device performance is characterized in order to compare with the theoretical predictions of frequency and amplitude, showing a good agreement with the resonant inverters theory. Additionally, the setup is tested using a synthetic iron oxide with 10 ± 1 nm diameter suspended in liquid glycerol, with concentrations at 1%. Meanwhile, the temperature rise is measured to determine the specific absorption rate and calculate the dissipated power density for each f. This device is a suitable alternative to studying ferrofluids and analyzes the dependence of the power absorption density with the magnetic field intensity and frequency.

  19. A high-resolution frequency variable experimental setup for studying ferrofluids used in magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, E E; Villa-Martínez, E; Hernández-Sámano, A; Córdova-Fraga, T; Ibarra-Sánchez, J J; Calleja, H A; Leyva Cruz, J A; Barrera, A; Estrada, J C; Paz, J A; Quintero, L H; Cano, M E

    2017-08-01

    A scanning system for specific absorption rate of ferrofluids with superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented in this study. The system contains an induction heating device designed and built with a resonant inverter in order to generate magnetic field amplitudes up to 38 mT, over the frequency band 180-525 kHz. Its resonant circuit involves a variable capacitor with 1 nF of capacitance steps to easily select the desired frequency, reaching from 0.3 kHz/nF up to 5 kHz/nF of resolution. The device performance is characterized in order to compare with the theoretical predictions of frequency and amplitude, showing a good agreement with the resonant inverters theory. Additionally, the setup is tested using a synthetic iron oxide with 10 ± 1 nm diameter suspended in liquid glycerol, with concentrations at 1%. Meanwhile, the temperature rise is measured to determine the specific absorption rate and calculate the dissipated power density for each f. This device is a suitable alternative to studying ferrofluids and analyzes the dependence of the power absorption density with the magnetic field intensity and frequency.

  20. On a novel low cost high accuracy experimental setup for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discetti, Stefano; Ianiro, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the critical aspects related to cost reduction of a Tomo PIV setup and to the bias errors introduced in the velocity measurements by the coherent motion of the ghost particles. The proposed solution consists of using two independent imaging systems composed of three (or more) low speed single frame cameras, which can be up to ten times cheaper than double shutter cameras with the same image quality. Each imaging system is used to reconstruct a particle distribution in the same measurement region, relative to the first and the second exposure, respectively. The reconstructed volumes are then interrogated by cross-correlation in order to obtain the measured velocity field, as in the standard tomographic PIV implementation. Moreover, differently from tomographic PIV, the ghost particle distributions of the two exposures are uncorrelated, since their spatial distribution is camera orientation dependent. For this reason, the proposed solution promises more accurate results, without the bias effect of the coherent ghost particles motion. Guidelines for the implementation and the application of the present method are proposed. The performances are assessed with a parametric study on synthetic experiments. The proposed low cost system produces a much lower modulation with respect to an equivalent three-camera system. Furthermore, the potential accuracy improvement using the Motion Tracking Enhanced MART (Novara et al 2010 Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 035401) is much higher than in the case of the standard implementation of tomographic PIV. (paper)

  1. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  2. BrainCycles: Experimental Setup for the Combined Measurement of Cortical and Subcortical Activity in Parkinson's Disease Patients during Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratkowski, Maciej; Storzer, Lena; Butz, Markus; Schnitzler, Alfons; Saupe, Dietmar; Dalal, Sarang S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that bicycling ability remains surprisingly preserved in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who suffer from freezing of gait. Cycling has been also proposed as a therapeutic means of treating PD symptoms, with some preliminary success. The neural mechanisms behind these phenomena are however not yet understood. One of the reasons is that the investigations of neuronal activity during pedaling have been up to now limited to PET and fMRI studies, which restrict the temporal resolution of analysis, and to scalp EEG focused on cortical activation. However, deeper brain structures like the basal ganglia are also associated with control of voluntary motor movements like cycling and are affected by PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted for therapy in PD patients provide rare and unique access to directly record basal ganglia activity with a very high temporal resolution. In this paper we present an experimental setup allowing combined investigation of basal ganglia local field potentials (LFPs) and scalp EEG underlying bicycling in PD patients. The main part of the setup is a bike simulator consisting of a classic Dutch-style bicycle frame mounted on a commercially available ergometer. The pedal resistance is controllable in real-time by custom software and the pedal position is continuously tracked by custom Arduino-based electronics using optical and magnetic sensors. A portable bioamplifier records the pedal position signal, the angle of the knee, and the foot pressure together with EEG, EMG, and basal ganglia LFPs. A handlebar-mounted display provides additional information for patients riding the bike simulator, including the current and target pedaling rate. In order to demonstrate the utility of the setup, example data from pilot recordings are shown. The presented experimental setup provides means to directly record basal ganglia activity not only during cycling but also during other movement tasks in patients who

  3. Assessment of volatile organic compound removal by indoor plants-a novel experimental setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Müller, Renate; Svensmark, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Indoor plants can remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air. The majority of knowledge comes from laboratory studies where results cannot directly be transferred to real-life settings. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental test system to assess VOC removal by indoor...

  4. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

    2013-11-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45 km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (≈3.7 km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed.

  5. A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO 2 (110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

  6. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different harbour sediments was investigated. Electrodialytic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made with calcareous and non-calcareous harbour sediments. Two different experimental set-ups were used for the study, one with stirring...... of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... sediment slurry. Electrodialytic experiments without stirring of calcareous sediment gave high removals (84% Zn, 58% Pb and 48% Cu), but there were problems with precipitations in the sediment, which limited the removal. The stirred experiments gave the highest removals of heavy metals and the voltage...

  7. An experimental setup for measurement of neutron energy spectra in lithium with collimated 14.7 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, R.; Tsechanski, A.; Profio, A. E.; Shani, G.

    1989-06-01

    Neutron energy spectra in an 88 cm diameter, 88 cm long lithium tank were measured with the Ben Gurion University experimental setup. In this setup, the lithium tank is separated from the DT neutron generator by a 120 cm thick paraffin wall with a 6 cm diameter collimator through it, along the axis of the neutron generator and the lithium tank. This enables unidirectionality and monoenergeticity of the neutrons penetrating the lithium tank. A neutron energy spectrum is obtained by unfolding with the code FORIST of proton-recoil spectra measured by an NE213 liquid scintillator. The important features of the spectrometry system, comprised of the NE213 scintillator and the attached electronic system, are the high pulse shape discrimination capability of the NE213 scintillator, which enables the separation of neutron and gamma events, relatively high energy resolution, and the system linearity. Also the simultaneous measurement of the low gain and high gain proton-recoil spectra prevents a distortion of the unfolded neutron spectrum. The neutron energy spectra are absolutely normalized and internormalized to each other by an absolutely calibrated, second NE213 scintillator, placed close to the neutron generator. The measured neutron energy spectra inside the lithium tank were compared to some preliminary calculations of the spectra, carried out with the discrete-ordinates transport code DOT4.2. Both spectra are in poor agreement. These discrepancies are assigned mainly to the inadequancy of the transport calculations. Finally, the distribution of the tritium production in the lithium tank, with the same experimental configurations, was calculated with the code DOT4.2 as well. The results indicate that the collimated neutron beam configuration is inappropriate for the purpose of tritium breeding ratio measurements.

  8. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly......Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer...... and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti-γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance in a Vehicle Cabin Test Setup With Pcm in the Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; kota, Saichand; Cornilius, C. Sam; Siva, R.

    2017-05-01

    Heat flow from the roof with radiation through glass windows obviously high level that contributes to the total heat gained of a vehicle cabin. The cabin temperature of closed stationary vehicles in direct sunlight can quickly rise to a very level that may damage property and harm children or pets left in the vehicle. The problem that is faced by many car users today is very hot interior after certain minutes or hours of parking in open or un-shaded parking area. The heat accumulated inside the vehicle with undesired temperature rise would cause the parts of the car’s interior to degrade. Even the passengers are affected with the thermal condition inside the vehicle itself. The passenger has to wait for a certain time before getting into the car to cool down the interior condition either by lowering down the window or switching on the air conditioner at high speed that really affect the fuel consumption. A new roofing structure to improve its total thermal resistance is developed. Its uses phase change material properties to trap the heat from solar radiation and then release it back to the outer atmosphere by external convection when the vehicle is in use or during the nocturnal cycle. Phase change material, which has become an attractive means to store. Thermal energy, which has a wide range of applications, has been used. Phase change material has a high heat of fusion which is able to store and release large amount of energy. This PCM has been insulated in the roof of the vehicle to arrest the heat entering into the vehicle cabin. Experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to compare the thermal performance of the new roofing structure and the normal roofing. By this experiment, the cooling process of the cabin could be much lower. The experimental investigation revealed that, on a hot day, the interior temperature of the vehicles cabin was approximately 22ºCe higher than the ambient temperature. The results show that the new roofing structure

  10. Minimizing Experimental Setup Time and Effort at APS beamline 1-ID through Instrumentation Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, Erika; Almer, Jonathan; Kenesei, Peter; Mashayekhi, Ali; Okasinksi, John; Park, Jun-Sang; Ranay, Rogelio; Shastri, Sarvijt

    2016-01-01

    Sector 1-ID at the APS accommodates a number of dif-ferent experimental techniques in the same spatial enve-lope of the E-hutch end station. These include high-energy small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM, both near and far field modes) and high-energy X-ray tomography. These techniques are frequently combined to allow the users to obtain multimodal data, often attaining 1 μm spatial resolution and <0.05º angular resolution. Furthermore, these techniques are utilized while the sam-ple is thermo-mechanically loaded to mimic real operat-ing conditions. The instrumentation required for each of these techniques and environments has been designed and configured in a modular way with a focus on stability and repeatability between changeovers. This approach allows the end station to be more versatile, capable of collecting multi-modal data in-situ while reducing time and effort typically required for set up and alignment, resulting in more efficient beam time use. Key instrumentation de-sign features and layout of the end station are presented.

  11. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, J.N.; Currell, F.J.; Prise, K.M.; Schettino, G.; Currell, F.J.; Timson, D.J.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Bassler, N.; Herrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti-γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region. A qualitative analysis of the foci detected in the Bragg peak and plateau region indicates significant differences highlighting the different severity of DNA lesions produced along the particle path. Irradiation of desalted plasmid DNA with 5 Gy antiprotons at the Bragg peak resulted in a significant portion of linear plasmid in the resultant solution. (authors)

  12. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    is no insulating layer formed. The oxides are washed out by electrolyte flow. The method provides a constant escape of abrasive grain. The grain escape reaches 100-120% of average diameter.Adaptation of ECD on conventional grinding machine is performed. For this, the copper electrode is mounted to the grinding wheel. The electrolyte circulates in the gap between the wheel and electrode. The control system for the normal and tangential forces of process is also used during the adaptation.The enterprise VNIIINSTRUMENT has designed a special experimental stand for diamond grinding. At this stand the ECD-dressing of diamond wheel with metal bond is implemented. This machine consists of a longitudinal support and a cross slide. Spindle of grinding wheel is set on the longitudinal support. A rotating speed of this spindle is about 50-3000 rev/min. A spindle of work piece is set on the cross slide. A rotating speed of this spindle is about 10-1000 rev/min.The copper electrode is mounted on the spindle of grinding wheel. An area of electrode surface is 1/3 of the wheel area. The gap between the grinding wheel and electrode is about 0.3 mm. The electrolyte is placed in the gap.The electrode is anode and the grinding wheel is cathode. Wheel and electrode are connected to the direct current source. When switching on the power source, the process of electrolysis begins. A bond of the wheel is oxidized and washed out. Waste of dressing is carried away with electrolyte.The electrolyte leaves the zone of cutting. Next, the liquid gets into a special trough. Thereafter, the electrolyte enters the filter unit to have three steps of purification. The purified liquid is supplied to the pump, and then again enters the cutting zone.ECD provides a large escape abrasive grain out of bond. It ensures that the cutting force is constant. The constant cutting force ensures the surface finish consistency, decreased surface roughness, and improved accuracy of work piece form.Due to ECD, space

  13. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. I. Experimental setup, data processing, and test of the spacing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C; Buhse, Thomas; de la Calleja, Elsa María; González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Montoya-Nava, Fernando; Ramírez-Álvarez, Elizeth; Rivera-Islas, Marco; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Aurora; Müller, Markus F

    2016-05-07

    Since the early work on Liesegang rings in gels, they have been a reference point for the study of pattern formation in chemical physics. Here we present a variant of the Liesegang experiment in gas phase, where ammonia and hydrochloric acid react within a glass tube producing a precipitate, which deposits along the tube wall producing a spatial pattern. With this apparently simple experiment a wide range of rich phenomenon can be observed due to the presence of convective flows and irregular dynamics reminiscent of turbulent behavior, for which precise measurements are scarce. In this first part of our work, we describe in detail the experimental setup, the method of data acquisition, the image processing, and the procedure used to obtain an intensity profile, which is representative of the amount of precipitate deposited at the tube walls. Special attention is devoted to the techniques rendering a data series reliable for statistical studies and model building, which may contribute to a characterization and understanding of the pattern formation phenomenon under consideration. As a first step in this direction, based on our data, we are able to show that the observed band pattern follows, with slight deviations, the spacing law encountered in common Liesegang rings, despite that the experimental conditions are very different. A further statistical correlation analysis of the data constitutes Paper II of this research.

  14. Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváti, Kata; Bacsa, Bernadett; Mlinkó, Tamás; Szabó, Nóra; Hudecz, Ferenc; Zsila, Ferenc; Bősze, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC 50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.

  15. Intertextuality in Ba's So Long a Letter and Umunnakwe's Dear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality takes for granted the interdependence of literary texts because every artistic creation is a re-echoing of past knowledge. Mariama Ba's So Long A Letter and Ndubisi Umunnakwe's Dear Ramatoulaye are African examples. This work examines how Ba's So Long A Letter intertextualises with Umunnakwe's Dear ...

  16. Residual stress analysis of energy-dispersive diffraction data using a two-detector setup: Part II - Experimental implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Daniel; Meixner, Matthias; Liehr, Alexander; Klaus, Manuela; Degener, Sebastian; Wagener, Guido; Franz, Christian; Zinn, Wolfgang; Genzel, Christoph; Scholtes, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theoretical concept of a two-detector setup for the energy-dispersive diffraction method (Apel et al., 2017), the experimental implementation of the proposed measurement concepts is demonstrated. The measurement configurations as well as the formalism for data evaluation introduced in the first part of this series are applied to the analysis of in- and out-of-plane near surface residual stress gradients in mechanically surface treated steel. Diffraction experiments carried out with the Bremsstrahlung of a conventional X-ray tube are shown to yield results with a quality comparable to measurements conducted at a synchrotron beamline. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the simultaneous measurement of the positive and the negative ψ-branch can partly compensate for the much higher counting times due to the lower photon flux of the X-ray tube. The results are compared and assessed with those obtained by means of synchrotron radiation (beamline EDDI@BESSY II) and the layer removal method (LRM).

  17. An experimental set-up to study carbon, water, and nitrate uptake rates by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, J L; Le Bot, J; Gary, C; Sappe, G; Orlando, P; Brunel, B; Sarrouy, C

    1996-01-01

    The experimental system described allows concomitant hourly measurements of CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by plants grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. Plants are enclosed in an airtight chamber through which air flows at a controlled speed. Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration rates are determined from respective differences of concentrations of CO2 and water vapor of the air at the system inlet and outlet. This set-up is based on the "open-system" principle with improvements made on existing systems. For instance, propeller anemometers are used to monitor air flow rates in the chamber. From their signal it is possible to continuously adjust air speed to changing environmental conditions and plant activity. The air temperature inside the system therefore never rises above that outside. Water and NO3 uptake rates are calculated at time intervals from changes in the volume and the NO3 concentration of the nutrient solution in contact with the roots. The precise measurement of the volume of solution is achieved using a balance which has a higher precision than any liquid level sensors. Nitrate concentration is determined in the laboratory from aliquots of solution sampled at time intervals. A number of test runs are reported which validate the measurements and confirm undisturbed conditions within the system. Results of typical diurnal changes in CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by fruiting tomato plants are also presented.

  18. TANGRA - an experimental setup for basic and applied nuclear research by means of 14.1 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskov, Ivan; Kopatch, Yury; Bystritsky, Vyacheslav; Skoy, Vadim; Shvetsov, Valery; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Noy, Roberto Capote; Grozdanov, Dimitar; Zontikov, Artem; Rogov, Yury; Zamyatin, Nikolay; Sapozhnikov, Mikhail; Slepnev, Vyacheslav; Bogolyubov, Evgeny; Sadovsky, Andrey; Barmakov, Yury; Ryzhkov, Valentin; Yurkov, Dimitry; Valković, Vladivoj; Obhođaš, Jasmina; Aliyev, Fuad

    2017-09-01

    For investigation of the basic characteristics of 14.1 MeV neutron induced nuclear reactions on a number of important isotopes for nuclear science and engineering, a new experimental setup TANGRA has been constructed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. For testing its performance, the angular distribution of γ-rays (and neutrons) from the inelastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons on high-purity carbon was measured and the angular anisotropy of γ-rays from the reaction 12C(n, n'γ)12C was determined. This reaction is important from fundamental (differential cross-sections) and practical (non-destructive elemental analysis of materials containing carbon) point of view. The preliminary results for the anisotropy of the γ-ray emission from the inelastic scattering of 14.1- MeV neutrons on carbon are compared with already published literature data. A detailed data analysis for determining the correlations between inelastic scattered neutron and γ-ray emission will be published elsewhere.

  19. Transport channel of secondary ion beam of experimental setup for selective laser ionization with gas cell GALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbekyan, G. G.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.; Bashevoy, V. V.; Ivanenko, I. A.; Kazarinov, N. Yu; Kazacha, V. I.; Osipov, N. F.

    2017-07-01

    GALS is the experimental setup intended for production and research of isobaric and isotopically pure heavy neutron-rich nuclei. The beam line consists of two parts. The initial part is used for transport of the primary 136Xe ion beam with the energy of 4.5-9.0 MeV/amu from the FLNR cyclotron U-400M to the Pb target for production of the studying ion beams. These beams have the following design parameters: the charge Z = +1, the mass A = 180-270 and the kinetic energy W = 40 keV. The second part placed after the target consists of the SPIG (QPIG) system, the accelerating gap, the electrostatic Einzel lens, 90-degree spectrometric magnet (calculated value of the mass-resolution is equal to 1400) and the beam line for the transportation of the ions from the magnet focal plane to a particle detector. The results of simulation of the particle dynamics and the basic parameters of all elements of the beam line are presented.

  20. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  1. STABILITY OF MOTION OF MOBILE MODULE OF EXPERIMENTAL SETUP IN THE STUDY OF ACTIVE ROTARY WORKING OF MACHINES FOR SOIL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper is devoted to the theoretical study of stability of movement of the movable unit of the experimental setup intended for the exploration of the active rotational working organs of the car for soil treatment. This takes into account the design features of the mobile unit and features active rotary force interaction of working bodies with the soil. From the analysis of previously conducted both theoretical and experimental studies of this type of working bodies noted the possibility of breaking the stability of the mobile stroke unit, which in turn will have a negative impact on the enforcement of a given method of the experiment program. From the analysis of previous studies shows that the assumptions under which they were made, not allow you to fully take into account the nature of the effect occurring dynamic processes of interaction of active rotary working bodies with the soil on the experimental setup truck driving stability. Materials and Methods. To address the shortcomings in the research, based on a synthesis of the main provisions and laws of mechanics and the experimental data of active rotary force interaction of working bodies with the soil, carried out theoretical studies of stability of movement of the movable unit of the experimental setup in view of its design features and conditions of the experiment. Results. A theoretical study was composed of loading trolley design scheme of the experimental setup with regard to its design features and power factors acting on its working elements, namely, the wheel bearing and studied active rotary working bodies. Processing results of the study allowed the weary twist zone of stable and unstable movement of the movable unit Expo tal installation. The presence of unstable movement zone carts at-leads to a breach of the conditions set by the plan of experimental-governmental research and a negative impact on their quality and purity. Discussion and Conclusions. All of

  2. Developing a reproducible non-line-of-sight experimental setup for testing wireless medical device coexistence utilizing ZigBee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSorte, Nickolas J; Rajab, Samer A; Refai, Hazem H

    2012-11-01

    The integration of heterogeneous wireless technologies is believed to aid revolutionary healthcare delivery in hospitals and residential care. Wireless medical device coexistence is a growing concern given the ubiquity of wireless technology. In spite of this, a consensus standard that addresses risks associated with wireless heterogeneous networks has not been adopted. This paper serves as a starting point by recommending a practice for assessing the coexistence of a wireless medical device in a non-line-of-sight environment utilizing 802.15.4 in a practical, versatile, and reproducible test setup. This paper provides an extensive survey of other coexistence studies concerning 802.15.4 and 802.11 and reports on the authors' coexistence testing inside and outside an anechoic chamber. Results are compared against a non-line-of-sight test setup. Findings relative to co-channel and adjacent channel interference were consistent with results reported in the literature.

  3. The experimental setup of the Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation collaboration at Mainzer Mikrotron: Design, commissioning, and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietti, D., E-mail: Daniela.Lietti@cern.ch [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Backe, H.; Lauth, W. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Berra, A.; Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Carturan, S.; De Salvador, D. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Silicon/germanium flat/bent crystals are thin devices able to efficiently deflect charged particle GeV-energy beams up to a few hundreds of μrad; moreover, high intensity photons can be efficiently produced in the so-called Multi-Volume Reflection (MVR) and Multiple Volume Reflections in One Crystal (MVROC) conditions. In the last years, the research interest in this field has moved to the dynamic studies of light negative leptons in the low energy range: the possibility to deflect negative particles and to produce high intensity γ sources via the coherent interactions with crystals in the sub-GeV energy range has been proved by the ICE-RAD (Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation) Collaboration at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI, Germany). This paper describes the setup used by the ICE-RAD experiment for the crystals characterization (both in terms of deflection and radiation emission properties): a high precision goniometer is used to align the crystals with the incoming beam, while a silicon based profilometer and an inorganic scintillator reconstruct, respectively, the particle position and the photon spectra after the samples. The crystals manufacturing process and their characterization, the silicon profilometer commissioning at the CERN PS T9 beamline, and the commissioning of the whole setup installed at MAMI are presented.

  4. Feelings and Ethics Education: The Film 'Dear Scientists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Semendeferi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, ‘the feelings method,’ for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities—a promising sign.

  5. Feelings and ethics education: the film dear scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, 'the feelings method,' for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities-a promising sign.

  6. Cover Letter Dear Editor, Please find enclosed a paper entitled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajamein

    Dear Editor,. Please find enclosed a paper entitled ' Intrinsic Kinetics of Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis Over a. Promoted Iron Catalyst '. I am submitting to your journal to be considered for publication as a research paper in Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. The manuscript has not been previously published, is not ...

  7. The development of a state-of-the-art experimental setup demonstrated by the investigation of fuel cell reactions in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik

    2010-10-04

    The objectives of this work can be separated into three different topics: the design and development of a state-of-the art electrochemical experiment setup, which is then followed by two separate experimental studies in alkaline electrolyte. These studies demonstrate the capabilities of the experimental setup, and each focus on separate model catalysts. The first study investigated the influence of Pt oxide formation on the measured catalytic activity of FC relevant reactions on polycrystalline Pt in alkaline electrolyte. The second study focused on the characterisation of the ORR for a non-platinum catalyst, in this case Ag, by adapting the established thin-film RDE methodology employed for characterising Pt based electrocatalysts. A state-of-the-art electrochemical experimental setup comprises of a largely automated setup that allows meticulous control over experimental parameters such as potential, temperature, purging gas and solution convection. In order to realise such a setup, both experimental hardware and software were developed. In particular, a custom built analogue potentiostat optimised for single working electrode measurements was constructed. The potentiostat features R{sub sol}-compensation which can be monitored online due to its fully analogue design, allowing the precise current and potential relationship to be measured. In addition, the experimental throughput was enhanced by fabricating a modular add-on device, the MWE, which allows simultaneous electrochemical measurement on up to 8 parallel working electrodes. The MWE device is compatible with any single channel potentiostat, enhancing existing instrumentation. Several Teflon cells were designed for electrochemical investigations in acid and alkaline electrolytes, and were adapted to work using either the RDE or MWE. A gas changer was also assembled, which enabled computer controlled switching of electrolyte purge gas. Furthermore, in order to control the potentiostat and the accessory

  8. Experimental setup and procedure for the measurement of the 7Be(n,p)7Li reaction at n_TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M.; Andrzejewski, J.; Mastromarco, M.; Perkowski, J.; Damone, L. A.; Gawlik, A.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Dressler, R.; Heinitz, S.; Kivel, N.; Schumann, D.; Colonna, N.; Aberle, O.; Amaducci, S.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Bečvář, F.; Bellia, G.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cristallo, S.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; García, A. R.; Gilardoni, S.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Johnston, K.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Kalamara, A.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Martins-Correia, J. G.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Pappalardo, A. D.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Piscopo, M.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Radeck, D.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schell, J.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weiss, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2018-04-01

    Following the completion of the second neutron beam line and the related experimental area (EAR2) at the n_TOF spallation neutron source at CERN, several experiments were planned and performed. The high instantaneous neutron flux available in EAR2 allows to investigate neutron induced reactions with charged particles in the exit channel even employing targets made out of small amounts of short-lived radioactive isotopes. After the successful measurement of the 7Be(n, α) α cross section, the 7Be(n,p)7Li reaction was studied in order to provide still missing cross section data of relevance for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), in an attempt to find a solution to the cosmological Lithium abundance problem. This paper describes the experimental setup employed in such a measurement and its characterization.

  9. Multivariate dynamic linear models for estimating the effect of experimental interventions in an evolutionary operations setup in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Kristensen, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary operations is a method to exploit the association of often small changes in process variables, planned during systematic experimentation and occurring during the normal production flow, to production characteristics to find a way to alter the production process to be more efficient...... from a herd, and an intervention effect on a given day. The model was constructed to handle any number of cows, experimental interventions, different data sources, or presence of control groups. In this study, data from 2 commercial Danish herds were used. In herd 1, data on 98,046 and 12,133 milkings...... tank records. The presented model proved to be a flexible and dynamic tool, and it was successfully applied for systematic experimentation in dairy herds. The model can serve as a decision support tool for on-farm process optimization exploiting planned changes in process variables and the response...

  10. A simple experimental set-up to disentangle the effects of altered temperature and moisture regimes on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, Eveline J.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Berg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate manipulation experiments in the field and laboratory incubations are common methods to study the impact of climate change on soils and their biota. However, both types of methods have drawbacks either on their mechanistic interpretation or ecological relevance. We propose an experimental

  11. A simple experimental setup to disentangle the effects of altered temperature and moisture regimes on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krab, E.J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Berg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate manipulation experiments in the field and laboratory incubations are common methods to study the impact of climate change on soils and their biota. However, both types of methods have drawbacks either on their mechanistic interpretation or ecological relevance. We propose an experimental

  12. The Impact of Training Approaches on Experimental SetUp and Design of Wearable Vibrotactiles for Hunting Dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Møller, Rune Heide; Manresa-Yee, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    with four hunting dogs who had been trained in either obedience, hunting, competitive or non-competitive styles into the finished design. We contribute to research that incorporates technology to enhance communication and mobility with working and companion animals. We increment foundational research...... on wearable vibrotactile solutions for navigation that assist disabled dogs and/or dogs working at distances, highlighting the necessity to directly anticipate and address different training styles in the experimental set up in order to include a broader variety of dogs....

  13. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    The interest on outdoor photocatalytic materials is growing in the last years. Nevertheless, most of the experimental devices designed for the assessment of their performance operate at controlled laboratory conditions, i.e., pollutant concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and water vapor contents, far from those of real outdoor environments. The aim of the present study was the design and development of an experimental device for the continuous test of photocatalytic outdoor materials under sun irradiation using real outdoor air as feed, with the concomitant fluctuation of pollutant concentration, temperature, and water vapor content. A three-port measurement system based on two UV-transparent chambers was designed and built. A test chamber contained the photoactive element and a reference chamber to place the substrate without the photoactive element were employed. The third sampling point, placed outdoors, allowed the characterization of the surrounding air, which feeds the test chambers. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and UV-A irradiance were monitored at each sampling point with specific sensors. NO x concentration was measured by a chemiluminescence NO x analyzer. Three automatic valves allowed the consecutive analysis of the concentration at the three points at fixed time intervals. The reliability of the analytical system was demonstrated by comparing the NO x concentration data with those obtained at the nearest weather station to the experimental device location. The use of a chamber-based reaction system leads to an attenuation of NO x and atmospheric parameter profiles, but maintaining the general trends. The air characterization results showed the wide operating window under which the photoactive materials should work outdoors, depending on the traffic intensity and the season, which are reproduced inside the test chambers. The designed system allows the measurement of the photoactivity of outdoor materials or the comparison of several

  14. Model Test Setup and Program for Experimental Estimation of Surface Loads of the SSG Kvitsøy Pilot Plant from Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul

    This report presents the preparations done prior to model tests planned for November 2005 focusing on experimental estimation of the surface loads on the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG) due to extreme wave conditions. SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank....... reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...

  15. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  16. Feelings and Ethics Education: The Film Dear Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, ‘the feelings method,’ for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering ...

  17. Experimental setup and procedure for the measurement of the {sup 7}Be(n,α)α reaction at n-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia DFA, Università di Catania (Italy); Barbagallo, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy); Pappalardo, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Colonna, N.; Damone, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari (Italy); Piscopo, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Finocchiaro, P., E-mail: FINOCCHIARO@LNS.INFN.IT [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Schumann, D.; Dressler, R.; Kivel, N. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Aberle, O. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andrzejewski, J. [Uniwersytet Łódzki, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Ayranov, M. [European Commission, DG-Energy (Luxembourg); Bacak, M. [Atominstitut der Österreichischen Universitäten, Technische Universität Wien (Austria); Barros, S. [C2TN-Instituto Superior Tecníco, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Balibrea-Correa, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-09-11

    The newly built second experimental area EAR2 of the n-TOF spallation neutron source at CERN allows to perform (n, charged particles) experiments on short-lived highly radioactive targets. This paper describes a detection apparatus and the experimental procedure for the determination of the cross-section of the {sup 7}Be(n,α)α reaction, which represents one of the focal points toward the solution of the cosmological Lithium abundance problem, and whose only measurement, at thermal energy, dates back to 1963. The apparently unsurmountable experimental difficulties stemming from the huge {sup 7}Be γ-activity, along with the lack of a suitable neutron beam facility, had so far prevented further measurements. The detection system is subject to considerable radiation damage, but is capable of disentangling the rare reaction signals from the very high background. This newly developed setup could likely be useful also to study other challenging reactions requiring the detectors to be installed directly in the neutron beam.

  18. Our dear boson – and so what?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    A long-sought particle finally found. On Wednesday 4 July, enthusiasm spread from CERN to the worldwide media. But a question legitimately arises: why is this particle attracting so much interest? In other words, how is it different from all the others? (And, by the way, what is a boson?).   CERN, 4 July 2012: a long-sought particle finally found. Strictly speaking, we cannot even call it the “Higgs” boson yet. Only after careful checking of its properties will physicists be able to say if the new boson corresponds to the particle that theorists predicted in 1964. However, the experimental data we have so far already tells us, unambiguously, that this new particle is different from all the other elementary particles we know. “Every particle is either a boson or a fermion,” explains John Ellis, former CERN theorist and currently professor at King's College in London. “All known particles spin like small tops, with the known bosons tha...

  19. Optimization of Monte Carlo particle transport parameters and validation of a novel high throughput experimental setup to measure the biological effects of particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshana; Bronk, Lawrence; Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher R; Brons, Stephan; Dokic, Ivana; Abdollahi, Amir; Rittmüller, Claudia; Jäkel, Oliver; Grosshans, David; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of particle beams requires increased systematic in vitro studies with human cell lines with care towards minimizing uncertainties in biologic assays as well as physical parameters. In this study, we describe a novel high-throughput experimental setup and an optimized parameterization of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique that is universally applicable for accurate determination of RBE of clinical ion beams. Clonogenic cell-survival measurements on a human lung cancer cell line (H460) are presented using proton irradiation. Experiments were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with support from the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany using a mono-energetic horizontal proton beam. A custom-made variable range selector was designed for the horizontal beam line using the Geant4 MC toolkit. This unique setup enabled a high-throughput clonogenic assay investigation of multiple, well defined dose and linear energy transfer (LETs) per irradiation for human lung cancer cells (H460) cultured in a 96-well plate. Sensitivity studies based on application of different physics lists in conjunction with different electromagnetic constructors and production threshold values to the MC simulations were undertaken for accurate assessment of the calculated dose and the dose-averaged LET (LET d ). These studies were extended to helium and carbon ion beams. Sensitivity analysis of the MC parameterization revealed substantial dependence of the dose and LET d values on both the choice of physics list and the production threshold values. While the dose and LET d calculations using FTFP_BERT_LIV, FTFP_BERT_EMZ, FTFP_BERT_PEN and QGSP_BIC_EMY physics lists agree well with each other for all three ions, they show large differences when compared to the FTFP_BERT physics list with the default electromagnetic constructor. For carbon ions, the dose corresponding to the largest LET d

  20. Development of an experimental set-up for the measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections of highly radioactive fissile nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companis Iulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of many actinides is complicated by the difficulty in separating capture γ-rays from the large fission-fragment prompt γ-ray background. For example, current estimates of the capture cross section of 233U show large discrepancies, with differences of more than 20%. To improve the accuracy of data, a new experimental set-up for the simultaneous measurement of the neutron-induced capture and fission cross sections was designed, assembled and optimized. The measurements will be performed at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility in Belgium, where neutron cross sections can be measured over a wide energy range with high energy resolution. The fission detector consists of a dedicated multi-plate high-efficiency ionization chamber (IC. The γ-rays produced in capture reaction are detected by an array of C6D6 scintillators. Fission γ–rays are distinguished from capture γ–rays by the anticoincidence signals from the IC and the C6D6 detectors. For the undetected fission events a correction has to be applied based on the efficiency of the IC that should be high and known with a high accuracy. The performance of the IC during dedicated test experiments is presented, focusing on the determination of the detection efficiency.

  1. An experimental setup for growth of thin films and advanced sample analysis coupled to the 5 MV tandem accelerator of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.; Andrzejewski, R.; Guirao, A.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Andrzejewska, E.; Gordillo, N.; Prieto, J.E.; Boerma, D.O.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an experimental setup with a unique set of features. It consists of a number of ultra-high vacuum chambers (UHV) connected by transfer rods. It is employed for epitaxial growth of thin films. The surface symmetry of the as-grown samples can be investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and their composition as well as the atomic positions in external layers can be studied by low energy ion scattering (LEIS) with time-of-flight (TOF). The power of this unique multiple-hit LEIS/TOF equipment is based on the use of a 1D-position sensitive detector. In addition, ions with energies in the MeV range are used to perform Rutherford backscattering with channelling (RBS/channeling) or elastic recoil detection (ERD). Ellipsometry, Kerr effect and resistivity measurements will also be available in situ. The combination of these techniques allows us to extensively characterize grown samples. In addition, high-energy heavy ions are exploited for film modification

  2. Water-hammer experimental set-up and water-hammer experimental study for new types of check valve applied to PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanxun.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a self-designed constant temperature water-hammer shock test rig with stainless steel loop in which deionized water is used as working medium. To conduct water-hammer shock simulation tests for the countercurrent phenomenon occurred in the process of shutting, stopping, parallelling and switching the coolant loops of nuclear reactor, a specially designed four-way switching valve and its pneumatic mechanism are used. Water-hammer experimental study is performed for two types of PWR's nonshock check valve with diameter of 150 mm and 200 mm simultaneously. Transient performance of the shock waves, magnitude of their peaks and durations of their fluctuation, is obtained. Some analyses for existing calculational method on water-hammer are made

  3. Análisis de confiabilidad y riesgo de una instalación experimental para el tratamiento de aguas residuales//Reliability and risk analysis of an experimental set-up for wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adelfa Abreu‐Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las exigencias modernas para el uso de equipos en todas las ramas de la economía, la ciencia y la educación, es su explotación segura. En este trabajo, se realizó el análisis de confiabilidad y riesgo de una instalación experimental para el tratamiento de aguas residuales con radiación ultravioleta. Se empleó la técnica del árbol de fallos y se analizaron dos variantes de cálculo. La primera variante consideró fuentes no confiables de suministro de energía eléctrica y la segunda consideró la existencia de fuentes confiables. Como resultado se identificaron 20 conjuntos mínimos de corte, 12 de primer orden y 8 de tercer orden. Además, se infirió, la necesidad de contar con una fuente alternativa de electricidad y que esimportante establecer redundancia de grupo de componentes para instalaciones a escala industrial. El análisis demostró que la instalación es segura para su uso en la experimentación a escala de laboratorio.Palabras claves: confiabilidad, riesgo, instalación experimental, tratamiento de aguas residuales, radiación ultravioleta, árbol de fallos.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractOne of the modern requirements for using equipments in all the areas of economy, science and education, is its safety operation. In this work, it was carried out the reliability and risk analysis of an experimental setup for the wastewater treatment with ultraviolet radiation. The fault tree technique was used and two variants of calculation were analyzed. The first variant considered unreliable sources of electricity supply and the second considered the existence of reliable sources. As a result, 20 minimal cut sets were identified 12 of first-order and 8 of third-order. Besides, the necessity of an alternative supply electrical power source was inferred and it is important to establish redundant components group for industrial scalefacilities. The analysis demostrated the set-up

  4. New experimental set-up and procedure for analyzing the dynamics of permeation of H2(g) across Pd-based metallic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, C.; Millet, P.; Decaux, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation through metallic membranes is an industrial process used for purification purposes. Palladium-based alloys are generally used as permeation materials at operating temperatures above the critical value so that the metal-H system remains monophasic and that diffusion proceeds at sufficient rate. In state of the art systems, metallic membranes with typical thickness of a few tens of microns are used and rate limitation are generally attributed to atomic H transport by diffusion. Because of cost considerations, it is necessary to reduce the thickness of these membranes. In the micron thick range, surface contributions are expected to become rate determining, or at least to play an increasing role. Further, when the membrane is used on the exit side of a gas reformer to directly extract hydrogen, corrosion problems are expected to occur on the upstream side of the membrane. For all these reasons, there is a need to separately measure surface and bulk (diffusion) rate contributions to the overall permeation flux. A new experimental equipment has been specifically designed for this purpose. This setup can be operated in two different modes: for sorption or permeation experiments. In a typical sorption experiment, the metallic membrane is disposed in the reaction chamber and hydrogen is allowed to react from both side of the surface. This procedure allows the separate measurement of surface absorption and desorption resistances associated with the chemisorption step. In a typical permeation experiment, the membrane is mounted between two volume chambers, a pressurized hydrogen source reservoir and an empty sink reservoir. Initially, a difference of pressure is set between the two reservoirs. When the valve of the source tank is opened, H 2 (g) flows to the membrane and permeation proceeds until pressure reaches an equilibrium value. In both experimental configurations, gas pressure transients are synchronously sampled all along the experiment

  5. Methodology and experimental setup for measuring short-lives fission product yields in actinides induced fission by charged particles; Metodologia e montagem experimental para a medicao de rendimentos de produtos de fissao de meia vida curta na fissao de actinideos por particulas carregadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, A.V.

    1995-07-01

    The theoretical principles and the laboratory set-up for the fission products yields measurements are described. The procedures for the experimental determinations are explain in detail. (author). 43 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Impact of in-barn manure separation on biological air quality in an experimental setup identical to that in swine buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J; Godbout, S; Lemay, S P; Belzile, M

    2009-07-01

    In-barn manure separation systems are becoming popular due to various environmental pressures on the swine industry. According to the literature, separation of feces and urine directly underneath the slats should have a positive impact on barn air quality. Removal and rapid separation of the two phases (solid/liquid) would reduce the dust and bioaerosol emissions, which would significantly improve the air quality in pig-housing facilities. From an occupational health and safety perspective, the maximum endotoxin and total bacteria concentrations to ensure workers' safety should not exceed 450 endotoxin units per cubic meter of air (EU m(-3)) and 10(4) colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m(-3)), respectively. In the current study, the effect on air quality of six in-barn manure handling systems was measured. A flat scraper system and four separation systems installed under the slats (a conveyor belt system, a conveyor net system, and a V-shaped scraper operated at two operation frequencies) were evaluated and compared to a conventional pull-plug system (control). The experiment took place in twelve independent and identical rooms housing four grower-finisher pigs each, and air samples were collected and analyzed for total dust, endotoxins, bacteria, and mold counts. The results obtained from this experimental setup show that the separation of feces and urine under the slats would concentrate at least 80% of the phosphorus in the solid phase. The total bacteria and endotoxin concentrations are lower than those found in commercial hog barns but remain higher than the recommended levels. Only the total dust concentrations are approximately 10% of their regulated value. This separation has no impact on dust and bioaerosol concentrations compared to the control.

  7. Setup planning for machining

    CERN Document Server

    Hazarika, Manjuri

    2015-01-01

    Professionals as well as researchers can benefit from this comprehensive introduction into the topic of setup planning, which reflects the latest state of research and gives hands-on examples. Starting with a brief but thorough introduction, this book explains the significance of setup planning in process planning and includes a reflection on its external constraints. Step-by-step the different phases of setup planning are outlined and traditional as well as modern approaches, such as fuzzy logic based setup planning, on the solution of setup planning problems are presented. Three detailed examples of applications provide a clear and accessible insight into the up-to-date techniques and various approaches in setup planning.

  8. The Theme of Marriage in Dear Ramatoulaye as a Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultural milieu has triggered off this campaign although not very much welcome by masculinist or gender bias sexist like Umunnakwe in Dear Ramatoulaye. This lively debate between Mariama Ba and Umunnakwe is what is termed gender war, ...

  9. A novel Brain Computer Interface for classification of social joint attention in autism and comparison of 3 experimental setups: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos P; Simões, Marco A; Mouga, Susana; Andrade, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel virtual-reality P300-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm using social cues to direct the focus of attention. We combined interactive immersive virtual-reality (VR) technology with the properties of P300 signals in a training tool which can be used in social attention disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the novel social attention training paradigm (P300-based BCI paradigm for rehabilitation of joint-attention skills) in 13 healthy participants, in 3 EEG systems. The more suitable setup was tested online with 4 ASD subjects. Statistical accuracy was assessed based on the detection of P300, using spatial filtering and a Naïve-Bayes classifier. We compared: 1 - g.Mobilab+ (active dry-electrodes, wireless transmission); 2 - g.Nautilus (active electrodes, wireless transmission); 3 - V-Amp with actiCAP Xpress dry-electrodes. Significant statistical classification was achieved in all systems. g.Nautilus proved to be the best performing system in terms of accuracy in the detection of P300, preparation time, speed and reported comfort. Proof of concept tests in ASD participants proved that this setup is feasible for training joint attention skills in ASD. This work provides a unique combination of 'easy-to-use' BCI systems with new technologies such as VR to train joint-attention skills in autism. Our P300 BCI paradigm is feasible for future Phase I/II clinical trials to train joint-attention skills, with successful classification within few trials, online in ASD participants. The g.Nautilus system is the best performing one to use with the developed BCI setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Model test setup and program for experimental estimation of surface loads of the SSG Kvitsoey pilot plant from extreme wave conditions[Seawave Slot-cone Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Larsen, B.; Kofoed, J.P.

    2005-10-15

    The purpose of the tests is to find the wave induced surface loads on the SSG pilot plant when exposed to extreme wave conditions, ie. the design loads. The design sea states used in the model tests are found through a study of the wave climate from a number of different sources, as described in chapter 2. Based on the hereby obtained extreme wave data for the SSG pilot plant location a test program has been designed to establish the surface loads on the SSG pilot plant in various relevant sea states, see chapter 3. A description of the test setup and the model is made in detail including a description of the instrumentation and data acquisition and also the data analysis. (au)

  11. The Evaluation of a Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) Under Vertical Loading Conditions: Part 1 - Experimental Setup and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 16 vertical tests were conducted on a Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) - NT 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the tests conducted at NASA LaRC was threefold. The first was to add vertical response data to the growing test database for THOR-NT development and validation. Second, the THOR-NT analytical computational models currently in development must be validated for the vertical loading environment. The computational models have been calibrated for frontal crash environments with concentration on accurately replicating head/neck, thoracic, and lower extremity responses. Finally, familiarity with the THOR ATD is necessary because NASA is interested in evaluating advanced ATDs for use in future flight and research projects. The THOR was subjected to vertical loading conditions ranging between 5 and 16 g in magnitude and 40 to 120 milliseconds (msec) in duration. It was also tested under conditions identical to previous tests conducted on the Hybrid II and III ATDs to allow comparisons to be made. Variations in the test setup were also introduced, such as the addition of a footrest in an attempt to offload some of the impact load into the legs. A full data set of the THOR-NT ATD will be presented and discussed. Results from the tests show that the THOR was largely insensitive to differences in the loading conditions, perhaps due in part to their small magnitudes. THOR responses, when compared to the Hybrid II and III in the lumbar region, demonstrated that the THOR more closely resembled the straight spine Hybrid setup. In the neck region, the THOR behaved more like the Hybrid III. However in both cases, the responses were not identical, indicating that the THOR would show differences in response than the Hybrid II and III ATDs when subjected to identical impact conditions. The addition of a footrest did not significantly affect the THOR response due to the nature of how

  12. Experimental setup for study of drilling fluids filtration and invasion; Unidades experimentais para o estudo de filtracao e invasao de fluidos de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcada, Luis Americo; Scheid, Claudia Miriam; Martins, Lorrane Faria; Araujo, Cristiano Agenor Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: calcada@ufrrj.br, scheid@ufrrj.br; Waldmann, Alex Tadeu de Almeida [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). P e D em Geoengenharia e Engenharia de Poco. Gerencia de Interacao Rocha-Fluido (Brazil)], e-mail: awaldmann@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    We investigated experimentally and theoretically the filtration and fluid invasion in well drilling operation. Based on experimental data, we validated theoretical models based on Darcy's law and on the mass conservation. These models predicted the filter cake buildup and the filtrate flow rate for Newtonian suspensions. Relying on both models and the experimental data, we calculate the filter cake parameter's values. We evaluated the effects of the filtration configuration as dynamic and static. Finally, we simulate the filtrate flow rate and, for the dynamic filtration experiments, we predict the filter cake thickness. (author)

  13. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  14. “Too late for tears, dear sister”: Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column 'Dear Dolly' from 1984 to 2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Krige; Marcelyn Oostendorp

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in South Africa. The article uses critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2003) as main analytical tool, but also draws on critical feminist theory (Bourke 2007). The findings suggest that th...

  15. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  16. Development of a portable cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for the measurement of ambient NO3 and N2O5: experimental setup, lab characterizations, and field applications in a polluted urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haichao; Chen, Jun; Lu, Keding

    2017-04-01

    A small and portable incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS) for NO3 and N2O5 measurement has been developed. The instrument features a mechanically aligned non-adjustable optical mounting system, and the novel design of the optical mounting system enables a fast setup and stable operation in field applications. To remove the influence of the strong nonlinear absorption by water vapour, a dynamic reference spectrum through NO titration is used for the spectrum analysis. The wall loss effects of the sample system were extensively studied, and the total transmission efficiencies were determined to be 85 and 55 % for N2O5 and NO3, respectively, for our experimental setup. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 2.4 pptv (1σ) and 2.7 pptv (1σ) at 1 s intervals for NO3 and N2O5, respectively. The associated uncertainty of the field measurement was estimated to be 19 % for NO3 and 22-36 % for N2O5 measurements from the uncertainties of transmission efficiency, absorption cross section, effective cavity length, and mirror reflectivity. The instrument was successfully deployed in two comprehensive field campaigns conducted in the winter and summer of 2016 in Beijing. Up to 1.0 ppb NO3+N2O5 was observed with the presence of high aerosol loadings, which indicates an active night-time chemistry in Beijing.

  17. Numerical and experimental studies on a Building integrated Semi-transparent Photovoltaic Thermal (BiSPVT) system: Model validation with a prototype test setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Ankita; Tiwari, G.N.; Ménézo, Christophe; Al-Helal, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical models for c-Si BiSPVT systems are developed & verified experimentally. • Expressions for thermal and electrical parameters of BiSPVT system are derived. • Energy and exergy analysis are performed. • The system is optimized for various design parameters and number of air changes. - Abstract: The work concerns experimental and theoretical studies of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal (BiSPVT) system. The analytical expressions for temperature dependent electrical efficiencies of the system have been established. It concerns a roof integrated semitransparent mono crystalline silicon (c-Si) PV with two options: (i) with air duct or (ii) without air duct. An experiment has been performed on a specially designed proto-type c-Si BiSPVT set up built in Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India. Theoretically calculated results using derived expressions have been validated with experimentally measured thermal and electrical parameters for both cases. A fair agreement between theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values is observed. The characteristic curves, energy and exergy analysis have also been performed particularly under cold climatic conditions of Srinagar, India. Further, to maximize the electrical and thermal efficiencies, BiSPVT system has been optimized for various design parameters as cross sectional area of air duct, duct height, fluid flow velocity, packing factor and number of air change. Without air duct, the efficiency (η m ) and the average room temperature (T r ) are found to be 12% and 25 °C respectively, whereas with air duct the BiSPVT systems inflicted the efficiency (η m ) and temperature (T r ) to be 13.11% and 10.1 °C respectively.

  18. A Closer Look: The Representation of Slavery in the "Dear America" Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. Lee

    2009-01-01

    The "Dear America" series is one of the most successful brands in children's literature. It inspired the publisher, Scholastic Books, to produce four related series that include more than 90 titles. Each book seeks to personalize important events in American history through the diary of a fictionalized main character. According to the publisher,…

  19. “Too late for tears, dear sister”: Constructing victims and perpetrators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in South ...

  20. An edge over diagnostic setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic setup proposed by H.D. Kingsley serves as a practical aid in treatment planning and diagnosis. These setups have some inherent shortcomings. A simple technique of duplication of the setups in dental stone can solve problems encountered before as well as provide many other advantages over the conventional procedure. The diagnostic setup is prepared by the conventional method [Figure 1]. An alginate impression is then taken of the setups and poured in dental stone to obtain the derived treatment model [Figure 2]. The same setup can now be further modified for alternate lines of treatment. Subsequently models could then be obtained as required [Figure 3].

  1. Laser-Assisted Bending of Sharp Angles With Small Fillet Radius on Stainless Steel Sheets: Analysis of Experimental Set-Up and Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Barletta, Massimiliano; Venettacci, Simone; Veniali, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Achievement of sharp bending angles with small fillet radius on stainless steel sheets by mechanical bending requires sophisticated bending device and troublesome operational procedures, which can involve expensive molds, huge presses and large loads. In addition, springback is always difficult to control, thus often leading to final parts with limited precision and accuracy. In contrast, laser-assisted bending of metals is an emerging technology, as it often allows to perform difficult and multifaceted manufacturing tasks with relatively small efforts. In the present work, laser-assisted bending of stainless steel sheets to achieve sharp angles is thus investigated. First, bending trials were performed by combining laser irradiation with an auxiliary bending device triggered by a pneumatic actuator and based on kinematic of deformable quadrilaterals. Second, laser operational parameters, that is, scanning speed, power and number of passes, were varied to identify the most suitable processing settings. Bending angles and fillet radii were measured by coordinate measurement machine. Experimental data were elaborated by combined ANalysis Of Mean (ANOM) and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Based on experimental findings, the best strategy to achieve an aircraft prototype from a stainless steel sheet was designed and implemented.

  2. Experimental setup to determine the pulse energies and radiant exposures for excimer lasers with repetition rates ranging from 100 to 1050 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Wuellner, Christian; Rose, Kristin; Donitzky, Christof

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of surface profiling for central ablation depth measurements and determine experimentally the required single-pulse energies and radiant exposures to achieve equivalent central ablation depths on bovine corneas for a myopic correction of -6.00 diopters (optical zone 6.5 mm) performed with laser repetition rates ranging from 100 to 1050 Hz. Institute for Refractive and Ophthalmic Surgery, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. Freshly enucleated bovine corneas and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The shot pattern for the myopic correction was maintained during all experiments; the pulse laser energy was adjusted to achieve equal ablation depths for all repetition rates. Pulse energy, radiant exposure, and pulse duration were monitored to determine the required laser parameter. The variations (standard deviation) of the profile measurements were +/-0.45 microm or less for PMMA and +/-1.50 microm or less for bovine corneas. Measurements with bovine corneas should be performed within 3 minutes or less to avoid larger variations in profile measurements. Increasing the repetition rate from 100 Hz to 1050 Hz required an increase in peak radiant exposure from 400 mJ/cm(2) to 530 mJ/cm(2) to achieve equal ablation for the myopic correction. The required increase in the mean radiant exposure ranged from 190 to 260 mJ/cm(2). Higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers require increased radiant exposure. Further experimental studies should be performed to determine the relevance of spatial and temporal spot positioning, ablation-plume dynamics, and temperature increases during high-repetition-rate laser treatments.

  3. Experimental set-up for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering studies of nanoparticles formation using a free-jet micromixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmiroli, Benedetta [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Grenci, Gianluca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Cacho-Nerin, Fernando; Sartori, Barbara; Laggner, Peter [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria); Businaro, Luca [TASC INFM/CNR, SS 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, TS (Italy); Amenitsch, Heinz, E-mail: heinz.amenitsch@elettra.trieste.i [Institute for Biophysics and Nanosystem Research, Austrian Academy of Science, Schmiedlstrasse 6, Graz (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Recently, we have designed, fabricated and tested a free-jet micromixer for time resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of nanoparticles formation in the <100 mus time range. The microjet has a diameter of 25 mum and a time of first accessible measurement of 75 mus has been obtained. This result can still be improved. In this communication, we present a method to estimate whether a given chemical or biological reaction can be investigated with the micromixer, and to optimize the beam size for the measurement at the chosen SAXS beamline. Moreover, we describe a system based on stereoscopic imaging which allows the alignment of the jet with the X-ray beam with a precision of 20 mum. The proposed experimental procedures have been successfully employed to observe the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) nanoparticles from the reaction of sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The induction time has been estimated in the order of 200 mus and the determined radius of the particles is about 14 nm.

  4. Server farms with setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandhi, A.; Harchol-Balter, M.; Adan, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider server farms with a setup cost. This model is common in manufacturing systems and data centers, where there is a cost to turn servers on. Setup costs always take the form of a time delay, and sometimes there is additionally a power penalty, as in the case of data centers.

  5. A new compact self-referenced holographic setup tested on a fluorescent target

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Márton Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new self-referenced holographic microscope setup based on a special bifocal lens. This setup can detect and visualize fluorescent objects. The new principle and the experimental results of the imaging are also presented.

  6. The Banana Transcriptional Repressor MaDEAR1 Negatively Regulates Cell Wall-Modifying Genes Involved in Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Fu, Chang-Chun; Shan, Wei; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Ye, Yu-Jie; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Duan, Xue-Wu; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are key transcription factors (TFs) involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3, and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening.

  7. The banana transcriptional repressor MaDEAR1 negatively regulates cell wall-modifying genes involved in fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-qi Fan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene plays an essential role in many biological processes including fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs are key transcription factors (TFs involved in ethylene perception and are divided into AP2, RAV, ERF and DREB sub-families. Although a number of studies have implicated the involvement of DREB sub-family genes in stress responses, little is known about their roles in fruit ripening. In this study, we identified a DREB TF with a EAR motif, designated as MaDEAR1, which is a nucleus-localized transcriptional repressor. Expression analysis indicated that MaDEAR1 expression was repressed by ethylene, with reduced levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation at its regulatory regions during fruit ripening. In addition, MaDEAR1 promoter activity was also suppressed in response to ethylene treatment. More importantly, MaDEAR1 directly binds to the DRE/CRT motifs in promoters of several cell wall-modifying genes including MaEXP1/3, MaPG1, MaXTH10, MaPL3 and MaPME3 associated with fruit softening during ripening and represses their activities. These data suggest that MaDEAR1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of cell wall-modifying genes, and may be negatively involved in ethylene-mediated ripening of banana fruit. Our findings provide new insights into the involvement of DREB TFs in the regulation of fruit ripening.

  8. Dear Author,

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lenovo

    Members in two Chinese NSCL/P families, and 200 normal controls were enrolled in this study. Then DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis for TBX22 were performed. The results showed that a novel and essential splicing site mutation, IVS6-1G>C, was detected in a family with cleft palate. The bioinformatic analysis ...

  9. Dear Author,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pepsi

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... system is still needed (Seo et al., 2007). Plant regenera- tion via adventitious shooting has been described from different carnation's explants including, petals (Frey and. Janick, 1991; Nugent et al., 1991; Messeguer et al., 1993;. Fisher and Vainstein 1993; Nakano et al., 1994), leaves. (Van Altvorst et al., ...

  10. Dear Author,

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lenovo

    Orofacial clefts, including cleft lip/palate (CL/P) are common congenital birth defects in human, and the reported prevalence is about 1/700 to 1/2000 for live births in worldwide (Murray 2002), as well as about 1.64‰ in China. The etiology of orofacial clefts is greatly unclear, and a generally accepted consensus is multiple.

  11. Dear Colleagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Borup

    2010-01-01

    to radiochemistry, calls for both fundamental and applied contributions in this field of growing academic and industrial interests. Special attention will be paid to paper which has a high degree of novelty, which can contribute to making everyday life easier for radio chemists, which can have a (potential...

  12. Setup reduction approaches for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1997-04-01

    Rapid setup is a common improvement approach in press working operations such as blanking and shearing. It has paid major dividends in the sheet metal industry. It also has been a major improvement thrust for high-production machining operations. However, the literature does not well cover all the setup operations and constraints for job shop work. This review provides some insight into the issues involved. It highlights the floor problems and provides insights for further improvement. The report is designed to provide a quick understanding of the issues.

  13. “Too late for tears, dear sister”: Constructing victims and perpetrators of rape in the advice column 'Dear Dolly' from 1984 to 2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krige

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the ways in which the rape of women by men is constructed in the advice column Dear Dolly, published in the South African periodical Drum Magazine. The data collected for the study spans from 1984 to 2004, encompassing both 10 years before and 10 years after the onset of democracy in South Africa. The article uses critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2003 as main analytical tool, but also draws on critical feminist theory (Bourke 2007. The findings suggest that there has been a decrease in explicit victim blaming after 1994, but that subtle and opaque victim blaming is still evident in readers’ letters and in the responses. These rape discourses presented in Drum after 1994 are, as Bakhtin (1981 suggests, made up of multiple voices articulating different gendered discourses. In this article, we argue that even though the use of less explicit victim blaming might seem like a positive move in the representation of rape and gender, this is not always the case. The more subtle forms of victim blaming avoid contestation and consequently often go unchecked (Fairclough 2003: 58. Additionally, new rape myths are created to mitigate the responsibility of males. These processes of subtle victim blaming and new myth-making manufacture consent and make it more difficult to counteract dominant discourses.

  14. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  15. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  16. Weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina encounter nasty neighbors rather than dear enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Philip S; Robson, Simon K A; Crozier, Ross H

    2010-08-01

    The evolution of territorial behavior requires that the benefits of territoriality outweigh the costs. The costs are primarily those of territorial defense against encroaching neighbors or against floaters seeking to establish their own territory. One way to reduce the cost of defense might be to restrict serious conflict to encounters with those posing the greatest threat. Studies of many animals have found that less aggression is shown toward neighbors than toward, strangers, a phenomenon known as the "dear enemy" effect. However, the opposite can also be true, namely, that more aggression is shown toward neighbors than strangers: the "nasty neighbor" effect. This may be particularly true of group-living species that defend a resource-based territory. Here we show that (1) colonies of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina were able to recognize a greater proportion of workers from neighboring colonies as non-colony members; and (2) when recognized as non-colony members, more aggression was exhibited toward neighbors than non-neighbors. We present for the first time evidence that differential levels of aggression involve both a perceptual and behavioral component. On the other hand, we found no evidence that weaver ant workers were better able to recognize workers from previously unknown colonies or responded more aggressively to them, even after a 10-day period of contact. This contrasts with other species in which rapid learning of the identity of new potential enemies has been demonstrated. We suggest that such a response is unnecessary for weaver ants, as encounters with intruders from non-neighboring colonies are probably rare and of little consequence. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that the nasty neighbor effect may be much more common than the dear enemy effect among group-living species.

  17. The COMPASS Setup for Physics with Hadron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, Ph.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, Ana Sofia; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rousse, J.Y.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This article describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.

  18. DEAR1 is a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis and an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Lott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women tends to have a natural history of aggressive disease for which rates of recurrence are higher than in breast cancers detected later in life. Little is known about the genetic pathways that underlie early-onset breast cancer. Here we report the discovery of DEAR1 (ductal epithelium-associated RING Chromosome 1, a novel gene encoding a member of the TRIM (tripartite motif subfamily of RING finger proteins, and provide evidence for its role as a dominant regulator of acinar morphogenesis in the mammary gland and as an independent predictor of local recurrence-free survival in early-onset breast cancer.Suppression subtractive hybridization identified DEAR1 as a novel gene mapping to a region of high-frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a number of histologically diverse human cancers within Chromosome 1p35.1. In the breast epithelium, DEAR1 expression is limited to the ductal and glandular epithelium and is down-regulated in transition to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, an early histologic stage in breast tumorigenesis. DEAR1 missense mutations and homozygous deletion (HD were discovered in breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Introduction of the DEAR1 wild type and not the missense mutant alleles to complement a mutation in a breast cancer cell line, derived from a 36-year-old female with invasive breast cancer, initiated acinar morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D basement membrane culture and restored tissue architecture reminiscent of normal acinar structures in the mammary gland in vivo. Stable knockdown of DEAR1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs recapitulated the growth in 3D culture of breast cancer cell lines containing mutated DEAR1, in that shDEAR1 clones demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of apical basal polarity, diffuse apoptosis, and failure of lumen formation. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray from a cohort of 123 young

  19. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  20. Setup Analysis: Combining SMED with Other Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadnicka Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose the methodology for the setup analysis, which can be implemented mainly in small and medium enterprises which are not convinced to implement the setups development. The methodology was developed after the research which determined the problem. Companies still have difficulties with a long setup time. Many of them do nothing to decrease this time. A long setup is not a sufficient reason for companies to undertake any actions towards the setup time reduction. To encourage companies to implement SMED it is essential to make some analyses of changeovers in order to discover problems. The methodology proposed can really encourage the management to take a decision about the SMED implementation, and that was verified in a production company. The setup analysis methodology is made up of seven steps. Four of them concern a setups analysis in a chosen area of a company, such as a work stand which is a bottleneck with many setups. The goal is to convince the management to begin actions concerning the setups improvement. The last three steps are related to a certain setup and, there, the goal is to reduce a setup time and the risk of problems which can appear during the setup. In this paper, the tools such as SMED, Pareto analysis, statistical analysis, FMEA and other were used.

  1. A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices from room to cryogenic temperatures is presented. The setup allows testing microwave devices at variable temperatures ranging from 300 to 77 K. Frequency doubler (94/188 GHz) has been cooled to 77 K and peak efficiency of 32......% at an input-power level of 207 mW is achieved. For verification experimental results the millimeter-wave GaAs Schottky barrier diode model is developed for CAD simulator. The simulated peak efficiency is 37% at 77 K. The estimation of simulated and measured data of the doubler efficiency versus temperature...... has the same trend from 77 to 300 K which confirmed the cryogenic measurement setup applicability....

  2. Preliminary study of the {alpha} ratio measurement, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to the fission one for {sup 233}U, on the PEREN platform. Development and study of the experimental setup; Etude preliminaire de la mesure du rapport {alpha}, rapport de la section efficace moyenne de capture sur celle de fission de l'{sup 233}U, sur la plateforme PEREN. Developpement et etude du dispositif experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, M.A

    2007-12-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emission and to meet high energy demand, implies three conditions to the nuclear plants of the IV. generation: safety improvements, radioactive waste minimization, and fuel breeding for a sustainable use of the resources. The Thorium fuel cycle used in Molten Salt Reactors seems promising. Many numerical studies based on probabilistic codes are carried out in order to analyse the behaviour of such reactors. Nevertheless, one of the most important parameters is badly known: the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U, ratio of the neutron capture cross section to fission one for {sup 233}U. This key-parameter is necessary to calculate the breeding ratio and thus, the deployment capacities of those reactors. This Ph-D thesis was intended to prepare a precise measurement of the alpha ratio of {sup 233}U between 1 eV and 10 keV. Preliminary measurements have been performed on the experimental platform PEREN. This experimental environment is composed of a lead slowing-down time spectrometer associated with an intense pulsed neutron generator. Capture and fission rates are measured thanks to eight scintillators with their photomultipliers, surrounding a fission chamber. A software analysis sets the coincidence rate between the scintillators. In order to understand perfectly the experimental setup, preliminary tests using a {sup 235}U fission chamber have been done. This experiment resulted in a very low signal to background ratio (1 %). The background coming from the scintillators themselves seriously handicapped the measurement. Another series of experiment has been done with scintillators 5 times thinner. Nevertheless, the signal to background ratio should still be increased to measure the capture of {sup 235}U. To make sure that the experimental setup has totally been understood, we made many comparisons between experimental results and simulations. Two simulation codes were mainly used: MCNP and GEANT4. We paid

  3. Control of a high temperature DLTS setup

    OpenAIRE

    Marklund, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with a DLTS-setup and how this can be controlled. The controlling program is constructed in LABVIEW, where a previous built program measuring transients at varying pulses been handled and tried to be implemented for this setup. Parts of the program was implemented successfully, other part needs more work. The heater in the setup has further been connected directly to the sample. This one has been tested to see that the setup can handle the heat and that the difference betwee...

  4. Improved mortar set-up technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of the most cumbersome aspects of a mortar set-up, namely the use of aiming posts. The prismatic mirror and bearing dials is described as well as the required setup procedures. The measurement of effectiveness, of a mortar system, showed that the concept has...

  5. Virtual setup: application in orthodontic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camardella, L.T.; Rothier, E.K.; Vilella, O.V.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Breuning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A plaster dental model is a patient's traditional three-dimensional (3D) record. If the dental crowns from a plaster model are separated and positioned in wax, this setup of the crowns can be used to simulate orthodontic treatment. The traditional way to make this dental setup requires

  6. Split Scheduling with Uniform Setup Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, F.; Sitters, R.A.; van der Ster, S.L.; Stougie, L.; Verdugo, V.; van Zuylen, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a machine cannot process or

  7. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  8. Set-up for differential manometers testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratushnyj, M.I.; Galkin, Yu.V.; Nechaj, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Set-up characteristic for controlling and testing metrological characteristics of TPP and NPP differential manometers with extreme pressure drop upto 250 kPa is briefly described. The set-up provides with automatic and manual assignment of values of gauge air pressure with errors of 0.1 and 0.25% correspondingly. The set-up is supplied with standard equipment to measure output signals. Set-up supply is carried out by a one-phase alternating current circuit with 220 V. Air supply is carried out by O.4-0.6 MPa. pressure of a pneumatic system. Application of the set-up increases operating efficiency 5 times while checking and turning differential manometers

  9. SU-G-BRC-10: Feasibility of a Web-Based Monte Carlo Simulation Tool for Dynamic Electron Arc Radiotherapy (DEAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A; Wu, Q; Sawkey, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: DEAR is a radiation therapy technique utilizing synchronized motion of gantry and couch during delivery to optimize dose distribution homogeneity and penumbra for treatment of superficial disease. Dose calculation for DEAR is not yet supported by commercial TPSs. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a web-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool (VirtuaLinac) to calculate dose distributions for a DEAR delivery. Methods: MC simulations were run through VirtuaLinac, which is based on the GEANT4 platform. VirtuaLinac utilizes detailed linac head geometry and material models, validated phase space files, and a voxelized phantom. The input was expanded to include an XML file for simulation of varying mechanical axes as a function of MU. A DEAR XML plan was generated and used in the MC simulation and delivered on a TrueBeam in Developer Mode. Radiographic film wrapped on a cylindrical phantom (12.5 cm radius) measured dose at a depth of 1.5 cm and compared to the simulation results. Results: A DEAR plan was simulated using an energy of 6 MeV and a 3×10 cm 2 cut-out in a 15×15 cm 2 applicator for a delivery of a 90° arc. The resulting data were found to provide qualitative and quantitative evidence that the simulation platform could be used as the basis for DEAR dose calculations. The resulting unwrapped 2D dose distributions agreed well in the cross-plane direction along the arc, with field sizes of 18.4 and 18.2 cm and penumbrae of 1.9 and 2.0 cm for measurements and simulations, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary feasibility of a DEAR delivery using a web-based MC simulation platform has been demonstrated. This tool will benefit treatment planning for DEAR as a benchmark for developing other model based algorithms, allowing efficient optimization of trajectories, and quality assurance of plans without the need for extensive measurements.

  10. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisi, E.A., E-mail: elisabettaalessandra.durisi@unito.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Visca, L. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Corsi, J. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dughera, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferrarese, W. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N. [Fondazione Centro per la Conservazione ed il Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale”, Piazza della Repubblica, 10078 Venaria Reale, Torino (Italy); Grazzi, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); and others

    2013-10-21

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field. -- Highlights: A full characterization of the present INES imaging set-up was carried out. Two CCD cameras and two scintillators (ZnS/{sup 6}LiF) of different thicknesses were tested. Linearity, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution were determined. Radiographies of steep wedges were performed using the highest dynamic range setup. Tomography of a bronze cube was performed using the best spatial resolution setup.

  11. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  12. Digital setup for Doppler broadening spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J; Vlcek, M; Prochazka, I

    2011-01-01

    New digital spectrometer for measurement of the Doppler shift of annihilation photons was developed and tested in this work. Digital spectrometer uses a fast 12-bit digitizer for direct sampling of signals from HPGe detectors. Analysis of sampled waveforms is performed off-line in software. Performance of the new digital setup was compared with its traditional analogue counterpart. Superior energy resolution was achieved in the digital setup. Moreover, the digital setup allows for a better control of the shape of detector signals. This enables to eliminate undesired signals damaged by pile-up effects or by ballistic deficit.

  13. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based...... on a reconfigured feedback controller. This will make the proposed AFD approach very useful in connection with fault tolerant control (FTC). The setup will make it possible to let the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant controller remain unchanged after a change in the feedback controller. The setup for AFD...... is based on the YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization of all stabilizing feedback controllers and the dual YJBK parameterization. It is shown that the AFD is based directly on the dual YJBK transfer function matrix. This matrix will be named the fault signature matrix when...

  14. Sending a Dear John Letter: Public Information Campaigns and the Movement to “End Demand” for Prostitution in Atlanta, GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Majic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines “Dear John”, a public information campaign that ran from 2006–2008 in Atlanta, GA, to ask what narrative it conveys about commercial sex and those who engage in it, in order to understand the gendered (and other discursive constructions it produces, reflects, and complicates about these activities and subjects. Drawing from both policy and sex work/trafficking scholarship, this paper argues that Dear John used symbolic images and direct and consequential text to convey a “male demand” narrative, which holds that men’s demand for sexual services harms girls and young women and will not be tolerated. Yet, in so doing, Dear John also reinforced particularly gendered characterizations of individuals who trade sex, while de-emphasizing other factors that increase young peoples’ vulnerabilities to and within sex work. The paper concludes by discussing Dear John’s outcomes and significance for scholars concerned with sex work, policy, and social change.

  15. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  16. Free Space Optics – Monitoring Setup for Experimental Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Tóth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with advanced Free Space Optics communication technology. Two FSO nodes are needed in order to make a connection. Laser diodes are used as light sources. Simple OOK modulation is involved in this technology. FSO system offers multiple advantages indeed. However, a direct visibility is required in order to set up a communication link. This fact yields perhaps the most significant weakness of this technology. Obviously, there is no a chance to fight the weather phenomena like fog, heavy rain, dust and many other particles which are naturally present in the atmosphere. That’s why there is a key task to find a suitable solution to keep FSO link working with high reliability and availability. It turns out that it’s necessary to have knowledge about weather situation when FSO link operates (liquid water content - LWC, geographical location, particle size distribution, average particle diameter, temperature, humidity, wind conditions, pressure and many other variable weather parameters. It’s obvious that having most of mentioned parameter’s values stored in database (implicitly in charts would be really beneficial. This paper presents some of mentioned indicators continuously gathered from several sensors located close to one of FSO nodes.

  17. Experimental setup for generating and probing He II flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chagovets, Tymofiy; Doležal, Ladislav; Dupák, Jan; Gordeev, A. V.; Prachařová, Jarmila; Rotter, M.; Soukup, František; Šindelář, J.; Skrbek, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2006), s. 173-176 ISSN 0323-0465. [Conference of Czech and Slovak Physicist /15./. Košice, 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : He II flow * He II turbulence Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2006

  18. The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boca Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt is an experiment that will run at the GSI laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 2019. A high intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will collide on a fixed proton target (pellet target or jet target. A wide range of physics topics will be investigated: char- monium states and open charm states above the DD¯$D\\overline D $ threshold; exotic states like glueballs, oddballs, hybrids, multiquarks, molecules; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons; non-perturbative QCD dynamics in the pp¯$p\\overline p $ production cross section of charm and strange baryons and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; hypernuclear physics; electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region; the CP violation in the charm sector, rare and forbidden decays of charm baryons and mesons.

  19. The PANDA experiment: physics goals and experimental setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) is an experiment that will run at the GSI laboratory, Darmstadt, Germany, in 2019. A high intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will collide on a fixed proton target (pellet target or jet target). A wide range of physics topics will be investigated: char- monium states and open charm states above the Doverline D threshold; exotic states like glueballs, oddballs, hybrids, multiquarks, molecules; the spectroscopy of the excited states of strange and charm baryons; non-perturbative QCD dynamics in the poverline p production cross section of charm and strange baryons and their spin correlations; the behaviour of hadrons in nuclear matter; hypernuclear physics; electromagnetic proton form factors in the timelike region; the CP violation in the charm sector, rare and forbidden decays of charm baryons and mesons.

  20. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  1. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zone through a teflon tubing attached to the hypodermic needle. Provision is made to move the needle's tip up or down for its proper alignment with respect to the electron beam. A horizontal flat aluminium platform of dimensions 130 mm x39 mm x1 mm is attached to the above cylinder for mounting the TOF and the CEM on ...

  2. Experimental setup for rapid crystallization using favoured chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rapid crystallization process is schematically shown in figure 1. Referring to the figure, the solution is contained in a 5 l cylindrical flask F ... prevents rapid temperature fluctuations and hence ensures very good temperature control. The thermostatic bath is heated with an infrared lamp I at the base of the unit and the control is ...

  3. Experimental Setup for Cyclic Lateral Loading of Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The majority of all offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles, i.e. large diameter stiff piles. During the environmental loading of the wind turbine the monopile is subjected to millions of load cycles which might cause an accumulated rotation of the wind turbine. In this paper the influe...

  4. P300-based brain computer interface experimental setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arboleda, C.; Garcia Cossio, E.; Posada, A.; Torres, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Brain-Computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that enables the generation of a control signal from brain signals such as sensorymotor rhythms and evoked potentials; therefore, it constitutes a novel communication option for people with severe motor disabilities (such as Amyotrophic

  5. Microcontroller-Based Experimental Setup and Experiments for SCADA Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, S.; Olmez, M.; Isler, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of automation technology, research and development for industrial applications has increased rapidly in recent years. Therefore, industrial automation and control education is a very important element of the industrialization process in developing countries, such as Turkey, which needs to keep abreast for the latest developments in…

  6. Experimental Setup for the Investigation of Superconducting Persistent Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    able to carry high currents in background fields of 1.5–3 Tesla even at a temperature of 77 K, open new possibilities for superconducting magnetic...temperature data were acquired simultaneously with magnetic field data in the experiments. 2.3.6 Magnet and Cryostat A 5- Tesla Cryomagnetics low...has 4 cold heads with individual valves to control the helium gas from each cold head to cryostat. Each cold head has its individual compressor. The

  7. Recreating Riser Slugging Flow Based on an Economic Lab-sized Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    slug model, besides extensive experimental tests. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this simple setup can recreate the key features of slugging flow phenomenon reasonably precise, and it serves as a good platform for further slug control study.......As a kind of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions, due to its limitation of production rate, periodic overload processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergent shutdown. This work studies the emulation of the riser...... slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production, by constructing an economical lab-sized setup in the university campus. Firstly, the construction and used components for the lab setup are illustrated; then, the constructed setup is validated by checking the consistency with some existing typical riser...

  8. Optymisation of equipment setup processes in enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast equipment setup in a machine on production line is the key precondition to increase the fl exibility of the production. Methodology of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die is an example which allows reducing the time of setup practically to the minimum. The article presents the theoretical bases and required rules as well as case study conducted in one of chosen enterprises. This paper also answers the question if SMED methodology is applicable in metallurgical sector, presenting the example of shortening the time between the production of various metallurgical products manufactured in the machine for continuous casting of steel (COS in Polish.

  9. Braneworld setup and embedding in teleparallel gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behboodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the setup of a five-dimensional braneworld scenario in teleparallel gravity. Both cases of Minkowski and Friedmann–Robertson–Walker branes embedded in anti-de Sitter bulk are studied and the effective 4D action were studied. 4-dimensional local Lorentz invariance is found to be recovered in both cases. However, due to different junction conditions, the equations governing the 4D cosmological evolution differ from general relativistic case. Using the results of Ref. [13], we consider a simple inflationary scenario in this setup. The inflation parameters are found to be modified compared to general relativistic case.

  10. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  11. ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Dan

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  12. Advanced setup for high-pressure and low-temperature neutron diffraction at hydrostatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokshin, Konstantin A.; Zhao Yusheng

    2005-01-01

    We describe a design of the experimental setup for neutron diffraction studies at low temperatures and hydrostatic pressure. The significant benefit of the setup, compared to the previous methods, is that it makes possible the simultaneous collection of neutrons diffracted at the 30 deg. -150 deg. range with no contamination by the primary scattering from the sample surroundings and without cutting out the incident and diffracted beams. The suggested design is most useful for third-generation time-of-flight diffractometers and constant wavelength instruments. Application of the setup expands the capabilities of high-pressure neutron diffraction, allowing time-resolved kinetics and structural studies, multihistogram Rietveld, and pair distribution function and texture analyses. The high efficiency of the setup was proven for the HIPPO diffractometer at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center under pressures up to 10 kbar and temperatures from 4 to 300 K

  13. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v2i1.1A Dear Rwanda Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Edition

    DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v2i1.1A. EDITORIAL. Dear Rwanda Journal Series A readers,. On behalf of the editorial board, I am pleased to have this volume number 2 of Rwanda Journal of. Arts and Humanities out! With contributions from scholars and lecturers in the field of arts and humanities and philosophy, this ...

  14. Aligning the μs-ALEX Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanidis, Achillefs; Majumdar, Devdoot; Heilemann, Mike; Nir, Eyal; Weiss, Shimon

    2015-11-02

    To achieve single-molecule sensitivity and thus have the ability to detect single diffusing fluorophores, careful alignment of the microsecond-alternating laser excitation (μs-Alex) setup is crucial. The following protocol describes routine alignment for 2c-ALEX (532 nm/635 nm) with spectral windows G(550-620)R(650-750). © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deangelis@iaps.inaf.it; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  16. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  17. High-resolution continuous-flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) continuous-flow measurements and provide metrics defining the performance of the setup during a major ice core measurement campaign (Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution; RICE). We also use the metrics to compare alternate systems. Our setup is the first continuous-flow laser spectroscopy system that is using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research, LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze water samples from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotope Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to (1) enable measurements on several water standards, (2) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time and (3) reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the continuous-flow analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The custom setups provide a shorter response time (~ 54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~ 62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the custom setups have a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the custom and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the custom 2013 setup the precision after integration times of 103 s is 0.060 and 0.070 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. The corresponding σAllan values for the custom 2014 setup are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043 ‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042 ‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the custom setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The

  18. ESR spectrometer based setup for microwave investigation of high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, M K; Muminov, A T; Olimov, B A; Usmanov, R R; Kholbaev, I

    2002-01-01

    The experimental setup adjusted for investigation of non-resonant microwave absorption in high-temperature superconductors has been developed on the basis of ESR spectrometer. Having original temperature system-of-art the setup has made it possible to study not only the field spectrum of detected signal partial deriv R/partial deriv H but the temperature spectrum of one. In the region of superconducting transition the setup allows one to measure the temperature derivative partial deriv R/partial deriv T as well. Using the multi-layer magnetic cylindrical shield ensures the conduction for precise measurements in the weak magnetic fields. Acquisition, processing and visual presentation of experimental data are fulfilled by CAMAC on-line IBM PC. (author)

  19. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  20. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure...... modes for small-scale offshore foundations. Results from trial tests on two small-scale bucket foundations, subjected to transient or cyclic loading, are presented. Tests showed that cavitation limits the undrained bearing capacity. Hence, a high pore-water pressure is important for simulating offshore...

  1. Probe Selection in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    is costly, so finding ways to limit the number of probes while still reproducing the target channels accurately could make the test system both cheaper and simpler to implement. Several probe selection algorithms are presented in this paper to address this issue. The proposed techniques provide a probe...... selection framework for the channel emulation techniques published in the literature. Simulation results show that good channel emulation accuracy can be achieved with the selected subset of probes for the considered target channel models. The probe selection algorithm is further supported by measurement...... results in a practical multiprobe setup...

  2. Composite Inflation Setup and Glueball Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We explore the paradigm according to which inflation is driven by a four-dimensional strongly coupled dynamics coupled non-minimally to gravity. We start by introducing the general setup, both in the metric and Palatini formulation, for generic models of composite inflation. We then analyze......-minimally to gravity. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve successful inflation with the confining scale of the underlying Yang-Mills theory naturally of the order of the grand unified energy scale. We also argue that within the metric formulation models of composite inflation lead to a more consistent...

  3. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  4. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40 Ca + and 88 Sr + ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40 Ca + is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10 -15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40 Ca + ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  5. Magnet Test Setup of the CMS Tracker ready for installation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The pieces of the Tracker that will be operated in the forthcoming Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) have been transported inside the dummy tracker support tube to the CMS experimental hall (Point 5, Cessy). The operation took place during the night of 12th May, covering the ~15km distance in about three hours. The transport was monitored for shocks, temperature and humidity with the help of the CERN TS-IC section. The Tracker setup comprises segments of the Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB), the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) and Tracker EndCaps (TEC) detectors. It represents roughly 1% of the final CMS Tracker. Installation into the solenoid is foreseen to take place on Wednesday 17th May.

  6. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed based...... on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as material, and different mold temperatures were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the basis...

  7. Distributed Drives Monitoring and Control: A Laboratory Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Sreejeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory setup of distributed drives system comprising a three-phase induction motor (IM drive and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive is modeled, designed, and developed for the monitoring and control of the individual drives. The integrated operation of IM and PMSM drives system has been analyzed under different operating conditions, and their performance has been monitored through supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system. The necessary SCADA graphical user interface (GUI has also been created for the display of drive parameters. The performances of IM and PMSM under parametric variations are predicted through sensitivity analysis. An integrated operation of the drives is demonstrated through experimental and simulation results.

  8. Development of a New Downscale Setup for Wheel-Rail Contact Experiments under Impact Loading Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Petrov, R.H.; Sietsma, J.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new downscale test rig is developed for investigating the contact between the wheel and rail under impact-like loading conditions. This paper presents the development process of the setup, including review and synthesis of the potential experimental techniques, followed by scalability, mechanical

  9. An ImageJ based measurement setup for automated phenotyping of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokorian, J.; Polder, G.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Olortegui Guzman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of plant phenotyping studies is to understand the relationship between a plant’s genotype and phenotype. In our study we focus on the leaf morphology of Arabidopsis seedlings. Our experimental setup consists of a table of 0.9 m × 3.8 m with a matrix of about 1500 small cubes of

  10. Impact of bending speed and setup on flex cracks in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Caroline; Kristensen, Ole; Varescon, Elise

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of bending speed and experimental setups using 3-point or 4-point bending for introduction of flex cracks into multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) in a controlled manner is presented. The impact of bending speed and corresponding strain rates on the formed flex cracks detected by X...

  11. PV inverter test setup for European efficiency, static and dynamic MPPT efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Valentini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    (Denmark) on a commercial transformerless PV inverter. Thanks to the available experimental test setups, that provide the required high measuring accuracy, and the developed PV simulator, which is required for MPPT performance evaluation, PV Inverters can be pretested before being tested by accredited...

  12. High precision neutron interferometer setup S18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Lemmel, H.

    2011-01-01

    The present setup at S18 is a multi purpose instrument. It is used for both interferometry and a Bonse-Hart camera for USANS (Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering) spectroscopy with wide range tunability of wavelength. Some recent measurements demand higher stability of the instrument, which made us to propose a new setup dedicated particularly for neutron interferometer experiments requiring high phase stability. To keep both options available, we suggest building the new setup in addition to the old one. By extending the space of the present setup by 1.5 m to the upstream, both setups can be accommodated side by side. (authors)

  13. A photovoltaic module diagnostic setup for lock-in-thermography and lock-in electroluminescence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parikh, Harsh; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) imaging and infrared (IRT) thermography techniques have become indispensable tools in recent years for health diagnostic of PV modules in solar industry application. Complementary to these imaging methods, lock-in techniques can effectively remove noise by periodically......, for developing new light noise removal techniques. The purpose of the diagnostic setup is to support research in PV failure quantification though aerial drone imaging of PV plants. With this intention, along with the principle of lock in thermography (LIT), a flexible setup is designed and described to carry out...... experimental work on a (36/72) cell solar module using combined (EL) or (IRT) lock-in-thermography. The setup allows one to investigate the different technological problems that can occur when performing PV diagnostics in drone-based inspections....

  14. Virtual instrument automation of ion channeling setup for 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.; Viswanathan, B.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual instrument based automated ion channeling experimental setup has been developed and implemented in a 1.7 MV tandetron accelerator. Automation of the PC based setup is done using a windows based virtual instrument software allowing the setup to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. The virtual instrument software has been chosen to achieve quick and easy development of versatile, multi-purpose user friendly graphical interface for carrying out channeling experiments. The software has been modular designed to provide independent control of the stepper motors for fixing the sample at any user defined orientation, running and on-line display of azimuthal and tilt angular scans, auto storage of the angular scan data. Using this automated setup, the crystallographic axis of the sample can be aligned with the incident ion beam rapidly minimizing the beam damages to the sample. A standard single crystalline GaAs(100) has been characterized with this set up using 2 MeV He ++ ion beam. The crystalline quality (χ min ) and channeling half angle (ψ 1sol2 ) are measured to be 3.7% and 0.48 deg., respectively, which are close to the theoretical values. Salient features, working principles and design details of the automated setup are discussed in this paper

  15. Development of a fatigue testing setup for dielectric elastomer membrane actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Rizzello, G.; Seelecke, S.

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE's) represent a transduction technology with high potential in many fields, including industries, due to their low weight, flexibility, and small energy consumption. For industrial applications, it is of fundamental importance to quantify the lifetime of DE technology, in terms of electrical and mechanical fatigue, when operating in realistic environmental conditions. This work contributes toward this direction, by presenting the development of an experimental setup which permits systematic fatigue testing of DE membranes. The setup permits to apply both mechanical and electrical stimuli to several membranes simultaneously, while measuring at the same time their mechanical (force, deformation) and electrical response (capacitance, resistance). In its final state, the setup will allow to test up to 15 DE membranes at the same time for several thousands of cycles. Control of the modules, monitoring of the actuators, and data acquisition are realized on a cRio FPGA-system running with LabVIEW. The setup is located in a climate chamber, in order to investigate the fatigue mechanisms at different environmental conditions, i.e., in terms of temperature and humidity. The setup consists of two main parts, namely a fatigue group and a measurement group. The fatigue group stays permanently in the climate chamber, while the measurement group is assembled to the fatigue group and allows to perform measurements at 20°C.

  16. Introduction to heat transfer test setup for the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; Harms, Thomas M.; von Backström, Theodor W.

    2017-06-01

    The Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) receiver is a novel external tubular metallic central receiver concept. The SCRAP receiver is designed to increase an air-receivers solar-thermal performance. This is aimed to be achieved by enhancing heat transfer to the pressurized air-stream within the absorber assemblies (spikes) by utilizing an internally finned tube geometry. The fin shape is defined to create rectangular ducts as passages for the air flow, therewith a high heat transfer coefficient. The spikes are arranged in such a way that they trap incoming concentrated radiation (reduce reflection losses) and minimize thermal radiation losses from the receiver to ambient. In previous work, the modeling of a SCRAP receiver was discussed on. This included the modeling of the internal air flow and heat transfer within a spike, analysis of the optical characteristics of a SCRAP receiver and the impingement heat transfer capabilities in the spike tip (exposed to the highest flux). Further, analysis of the thermal interaction of spikes with one another and with ambient (convective and radiative heat loss) permitted drawing of first conclusions of the receiver performance potential. To validate the models predicting the pressurized air flow and heat transfer within a spike, an experimental test setup was designed, constructed and built at the heat transfer laboratories at Stellenbosch University. This work introduces the design of the test setup and will discuss preliminary results obtained during its commissioning. From first analysis the predictions made for the pressure drop within the internally finned section appear adequate. The heat transfer behavior will require further detailed analysis to develop sufficient confidence to allow for conclusions. Initial results, however, show good general agreement between measured and simulated data.

  17. Compact electrically detected magnetic resonance setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, Michael; Harneit, Wolfgang; Behrends, Jan; Münter, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) is a commonly used technique for the study of spin-dependent transport processes in semiconductor materials and electro-optical devices. Here, we present the design and implementation of a compact setup to measure EDMR, which is based on a commercially available benchtop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer. The electrical detection part uses mostly off-the-shelf electrical components and is thus highly customizable. We present a characterization and calibration procedure for the instrument that allowed us to quantitatively reproduce results obtained on a silicon-based reference sample with a “large-scale” state-of-the-art instrument. This shows that EDMR can be used in novel contexts relevant for semiconductor device fabrication like clean room environments and even glove boxes. As an application example, we present data on a class of environment-sensitive objects new to EDMR, semiconducting organic microcrystals, and discuss similarities and differences to data obtained for thin-film devices of the same molecule

  18. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  19. Dear Dr XXX,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... transferase (GGT), Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine (CRE), and decrease in protein and albumin concentration in serum ... changes lead to portal hypertension, hepatosplanchnic pooling of blood and a ..... induced cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) a suitable model for study of spontaneously ...

  20. Dear ATLAS colleagues,

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    We are collecting old pairs of glasses to take out to Mali, where they can be re-used by people there. The price for a pair of glasses can often exceed 3 months salary, so they are prohibitively expensive for many people. If you have any old spectacles you can donate, please put them in the special box in the ATLAS secretariat, bldg.40-4-D01 before the Christmas closure on 19 December so we can take them with us when we leave for Africa at the end of the month. (more details in ATLAS e-news edition of 29 September 2008: http://atlas-service-enews.web.cern.ch/atlas-service-enews/news/news_mali.php) many thanks! Katharine Leney co-driver of the ATLAS car on the Charity Run to Mali

  1. Dear CERN Computing Community,

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This is to remind you that LXPLUS6 cluster will be switched off on: Friday May 30th 2003 12:00 CETPlease start using lxplus.cern.ch now to avoid unnecessary problems at the last minute. Note especially, that telnet and ftp to lxplus.cern.ch are not provided and will not work, instead secure protocols such as ssh and sftp should be used. Also LINUX6 resources in LXBATCH will no longer be available from the same date - Friday May 30th 2003 8:00 CET. See: http://cern.ch/plus/issues.html for other know issues. Vladimir Bahyl CERN/IT/FIO/FS

  2. Dear CERN Computing Community,

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This is to remind you that LXPLUS6 cluster will be switched off on: Friday May 30th 2003 12:00 CET Please start using lxplus.cern.ch now to avoid unnecessary problems at the last minute. Note especially, that telnet and ftp to lxplus.cern.ch are not provided and will not work, instead secure protocols such as ssh and sftp should be used. Also LINUX6 resources in LXBATCH will no longer be available from the same date - Friday May 30th 2003 8:00 CET. See: http://cern.ch/plus/issues.html for other know issues. Vladimir Bahyl CERN/IT/FIO/FS

  3. Dear Maria Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Paula K.

    2005-01-01

    Responding to Montessori's work, the author penned this letter, which teachers should find valuable for their own practice and reflection. Sections of the response include: (1) The Key for Me; (2) Observe: Freedom of Choice; (3) Observe: The Method; and (4) And Yet. A "Montessori Timeline" is also included.

  4. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, G N; Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  5. Concepção de bancada e montagem de experimento para a análise in vitro de próteses cardíacas mitrais Design conception and experimental setup for in vitro evaluation of mitral prosthetic valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Bazan

    2011-06-01

    prosthetic heart valves is due to disturbances of flow, its hydrodynamic characterization is a useful aid in the design of new prostheses. Simulations of pulsatile flow in cardiac prostheses began nearly 40 years ago, through the development of different mock human circulatory systems, improving the clinical results interpretation. A new design of a pulse duplicator system was developed at Polytechnic School of USP to study prosthetic heart valves. OBJECTIVE: To present the conception of a new mock circulatory system for hydrodynamic simulations of cardiac prosthetic valves and the assembly plan of an experiment whose focus is the test of mitral prosthesis. METHODS: Its conception is based on the state-of-art's review of these studies and the experience got with the previous mock circulatory systems, particularly the one used in the Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. RESULTS: In this design, an electric servomotor controlled by computer emits, through a hydraulic piston, a pulse to the left ventricular chamber model, where the heart valves are accomodated. To characterize, in the future, the dynamic operation of mitral prosthetic valves, an experimental setup was mounted to provide measurements of volumetric flow, instantaneous pressure and velocity fields on these valves. Optical access is conveniently provided on the design, making possible the use, in the future, of a LDA system. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve the analysis of hydrodynamic shear stress and prediction of haemolysis, the experimental results may be used to regulate a numerical model using 'Computational Fluid Dynamics' (CFD.

  6. A new setup for the underground study of capture reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, C.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Campajola, L.; Cocconi, P.; Corvisiero, P.; Cruz, J.; D' Onofrio, A.; Formicola, A.; Fueloep, Z.; Gervino, G.; Gialanella, L.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyurky, G.; Loiano, A.; Imbriani, G.; Jesus, A.P.; Junker, M.; Musico, P.; Ordine, A.; Parodi, F.; Parolin, M.; Pinto, J.V.; Prati, P. E-mail: prati@ge.infn.it; Ribeiro, J.P.; Roca, V.; Rogalla, D.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, M.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Rottura, A.; Schuemann, F.; Somorjai, E.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Vomiero, A.; Zavatarelli, S

    2002-08-21

    For the study of astrophysically relevant capture reactions in the underground laboratory LUNA a new setup of high sensitivity has been implemented. The setup includes a windowless gas target, a 4{pi} BGO summing crystal, and beam calorimeters. The setup has been recently used to measure the d(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He cross-section for the first time within its solar Gamow peak, i.e. down to 2.5 keV c.m. energy. The features of the optimized setup are described.

  7. A new setup for the underground study of capture reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Bemmerer, D; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Campajola, L; Cocconi, P; Corvisiero, P; Cruz, J; D'Onofrio, A; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Gialanella, L; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, G; Loiano, A; Imbriani, G; Jesus, A P; Junker, M; Musico, P; Ordine, A; Parodi, F; Parolin, M; Pinto, J V; Prati, P; Ribeiro, J P; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Rossi-Alvarez, C; Rottura, A; Schuemann, F; Somorjai, E; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A; Zavatarelli, S

    2002-01-01

    For the study of astrophysically relevant capture reactions in the underground laboratory LUNA a new setup of high sensitivity has been implemented. The setup includes a windowless gas target, a 4 pi BGO summing crystal, and beam calorimeters. The setup has been recently used to measure the d(p,gamma) sup 3 He cross-section for the first time within its solar Gamow peak, i.e. down to 2.5 keV c.m. energy. The features of the optimized setup are described.

  8. High-resolution continuous flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) continuous flow measurements. It is the first continuous flow laser spectroscopy system that is using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research - LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze sample from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotopic Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to: (1) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time (2) enable measurements on several water standards, and (3) to reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The modified setup provides a shorter response time (~54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the modified setup has a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the modified WVISS and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the 2013 modified setup the precision after integration times of 103 s are 0.060 and 0.070‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For the WVISS setup the corresponding σAllan values are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the modified setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The σAllan values for δ18O of 0.30 and 0.18‰ for the modified (2013) and WVISS setup, respectively after averaging times of 104 s (2.78 h). The Isotopic Water Analyzer (IWA)-modified WVISS setup used during the

  9. Fault tolerant control - a residual based set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    A new set-up for fault tolerant control (FTC) for stable systems is presented in this paper. The new set-up is based on a simple implementation of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. This implementation of the YJBK parameterization will allow a direct and simple reconfigurati...

  10. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES IN MID FORMAT CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pivnicka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU, the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and

  11. Development of a Low Cost MQL Setup for Turning Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Sumaiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of MQL application on the tool wear, surface roughness and chip formation in turning Aluminum alloy 6061 is investigated. Experiments were carried out by plain turning of an Aluminum bar with varying depth of cut, cutting speeds (spindle speed and cutting environments (Dry, Wet and MQL. A newly designed, cost efficient and portable MQL setup was developed for this study. For each experimental trial, five passes were carried out in order to promote the formation of tool wear. After each pass, the tool surface was examined under a microscope and the surface roughness was measured using a stylus based surface tester. The extent of tool wear from each pass is measured by using ImageJ software. Chips were collected after the five passes and were physically examined. The newly designed MQL delivery system was successful in delivering a fine mist of lubricant at the cutting point. MQL lubrication provided lower surface roughness and tool wear values compared to wet and dry conditions due to effective temperature reduction and improved lubrication penetration of cutting zones, as well as better chip flushing. Chip formed under MQL conditions had reduced chip thickness due to reduced temperatures. MQL was found to have the greatest positive impact on tool wear and surface roughness parameters based on ANOVA results.

  12. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  13. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  14. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data.

    OpenAIRE

    Labouta, Hagar I; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, ski...

  15. Coincidence set-up with a high duty-cycle, high energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1981-01-01

    Important studies are now undertaken to develop continuous wave electron accelerators with energy ranging from 1 to 4 Gev. So very important effort must be now put on the development of the experimental set-up matching the performances expected from the electron beam. Major steps in the understanding of the nuclear systems will come from more and more exclusive experiments where well defined mechanisms will be selected

  16. A versatile low-temperature setup for the electrical characterization of single-molecule junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A.; Smit, Roel H. M.; Egmond, Ruud van; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a modular high-vacuum setup for the electrical characterization of single molecules down to liquid helium temperatures. The experimental design is based on microfabricated mechanically controllable break junctions, which offer control over the distance of two electrodes via the bending of a flexible substrate. The actuator part of the setup is divided into two stages. The slow stage is based on a differential screw drive with a large bending range. An amplified piezoceramic actuator forms the fast stage of the setup, which can operate at bending speeds of up to 800 μm/s. In our microfabricated break junctions this is translated into breaking speeds of several 10 nm/s, sufficient for the fast acquisition of large statistical datasets. The bandwidth of the measurement electronics has been optimized to enable fast dI/dV spectroscopy on molecular junctions with resistances up to 100 MΩ. The performance of the setup is demonstrated for a π-conjugated oligo(phenylene-ethynylene)-dithiol molecule.

  17. Gaydar, Marriage, and Rip-Roaring Homosexuals: Discourses About Homosexuality in Dear Abby and Ann Landers Advice Columns, 1967-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick M; Holmes, Kwame A

    2017-12-04

    Over the past 70 years, the history of acceptance of the lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) community within the United States has seen much change and fluctuation. One of the places that this dialogue has been preserved is through the syndicated advice columns of Dear Abby and Ann Landers, in which individuals in the United States were writing in for advice to deal with their anxiety over a newly emerging and highly visible new community of individuals once considered to be mentally ill and dangerous. Using discourse analysis, this article traces the evolution of public and scientific opinions about the LGBT community during the years leading up to the Stonewall riots all the way to right before the AIDs epidemic. This analysis sheds light on several moral panics that emerged regarding this newly visible population, especially in regard to disturbances within the domestic sphere and a stigmatization of bisexuality.

  18. TRANSMISSION OF CULTURAL SPECIFIC ITEMS INTO ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF “DEAR SHAMELESS DEATH” BY LATİFE TEKİN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ÖZTEMEL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at demonstrating which translation strategies are preferred in order to deal with the translation of culture-specific items in Latife Tekin’s Sevgili Arsız Ölüm (1983 and its English translation entitled Dear Shameless Death (2001. To achieve this primary aim, a comparative analysis is carried out between Sevgili Arsız Ölüm and Dear Shameless Death, translated into English by Saliha Paker and Mel Kenne, and a sample set consisting of 100 conspicuous examples for culture-specific items is created. Subsequently, the culture-specific items in the sample set is classified according to Newmark’s (1988 categorization of culture-specific items. These culture-specific items are assessed according to Venuti’s (1995 domestication and foreignization methods in broad sense. Finally, a common strategy group is created based on Eirlys E. Davies (2003 and Javier Franco Aixelá’s (1996 taxonomies proposed for translation of culture-specific items and the samples are analyzed according to these taxonomies. When the sample group of 100 culture-specific items are analyzed, it has been seen that the translators used both foreignization strategies such as addition, preservation, orthographic adaptation and domestication strategies such as omission, globalization and localization in order to deal with translation of various culture-specific items. The most frequently used strategy among others has been determined to be globalization strategy. In this article, 28 of 100 culture-specific items will be exemplified in order to provide an insight into the study.

  19. An Improved Automated Setup for Solubility Determination of Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanbari 1, Yashar Sarbaz, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Karim Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Jafar Soleymani, Abolghasem Jouyban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solubility of a drug/drug candidate is an essential information in the pharmaceutical area. Classical solubility determination method used in the laboratories are expensive and time-consuming. Attempts were made to provide an automated solubility determination setup based on a laser monitoring technique. Methods: In a previously developed setup, drug powder was added to a given quantity of the solvent which made some troubles in practical applications. The present work reports another setup which adds solvent to a given mass of the drug. The validity of the measured solubilities is checked by comparing the measured solubilities of acetaminophen at two temperatures in water and ethanol mixtures with the corresponding data from the literature. Results: The results reveal that the improved setup could overcome the limitations of the previously developed setup and could be used for drug solubility determination. Conclusion: The improved setup overcomes the troubles made in the previous setup and could be used in generating large amount of solubility data to be used in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Collider shot setup for Run 2 observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annala, J.; Joshel, B.

    1996-01-01

    This note is intended to provoke discussion on Collider Run II shot setup. We hope this is a start of activities that will converge on a functional description of what is needed for shot setups in Collider Run II. We will draw on observations of the present shot setup to raise questions and make suggestions for the next Collider run. It is assumed that the reader has some familiarity with the Collider operational issues. Shot setup is defined to be the time between the end of a store and the time the Main Control Room declares colliding beams. This is the time between Tevatron clock events SCE and SCB. This definition does not consider the time experiments use to turn on their detectors. This analysis was suggested by David Finley. The operational scenarios for Run II will require higher levels of reliability and speed for shot setup. See Appendix I and II. For example, we estimate that a loss of 3 pb -1 /week (with 8 hour stores) will occur if shot setups take 90 minutes instead of 30 minutes. In other words: If you do 12 shots for one week and accept an added delay of one minute in each shot, you will loose more than 60 nb -1 for that week alone (based on a normal shot setup of 30 minutes). These demands should lead us to be much more pedantic about all the factors that affect shot setups. Shot setup will be viewed as a distinct process that is composed of several inter- dependent 'components': procedures, hardware, controls, and sociology. These components don't directly align with the different Accelerator Division departments, but are topical groupings of the needed accelerator functions. Defining these components, and categorizing our suggestions within them, are part of the goal of this document. Of course, some suggestions span several of these components

  1. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, Volker; Hammoud, Mohamed; Pillay, Yogin; Alaradi, Abdul Aziz; Mohamed, Adel; Altuwaijri, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM). Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) of the head and neck (n = 31), chest (n = 72), abdomen (n = 15), and pelvis (n = 30) were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV). In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended

  2. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM. Methods and materials Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT of the head and neck (n = 31, chest (n = 72, abdomen (n = 15, and pelvis (n = 30 were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV. In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. Results The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. Conclusion In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOT-MANIPULATOR SETUPS IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the most important aspects of industrial robot-manipulator setups implementation as an educational tool for the workshop part of advanced technologies in robotics and control engineering courses.

  4. A Test Setup for Quality Assurance of Front End Hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus; Camps, Clemens; Commichau, Volker; Flügge, Günter; Franke, Torsten; Hangarter, Klaus; Ilgin, Can; Mnich, Joachim; Niehusmann, Jan; Poettgens, Michael; Schorn, Peter; Schulte, Reiner; Struczinski, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The APV Readout Control (ARC) Test Setup is a compact, cost efficient test and diagnostic tool which is suited for full operation and characterisation of FE hybrids and Si-Detector modules. This note gives an overview of the construction and the features of the test facility. Based on the ARC setup and the experience gained with one prototype FE hybrid, possible quality assurance scenarios for short and long term tests of FE hybrids are also presented.

  5. Flexibility and utility of pre-processing methods in converting STXM setups for ptychography - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, Catherine [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Ptychography is an advanced diffraction based imaging technique that can achieve resolution of 5nm and below. It is done by scanning a sample through a beam of focused x-rays using discrete yet overlapping scan steps. Scattering data is collected on a CCD camera, and the phase of the scattered light is reconstructed with sophisticated iterative algorithms. Because the experimental setup is similar, ptychography setups can be created by retrofitting existing STXM beam lines with new hardware. The other challenge comes in the reconstruction of the collected scattering images. Scattering data must be adjusted and packaged with experimental parameters to calibrate the reconstruction software. The necessary pre-processing of data prior to reconstruction is unique to each beamline setup, and even the optical alignments used on that particular day. Pre-processing software must be developed to be flexible and efficient in order to allow experiments appropriate control and freedom in the analysis of their hard-won data. This paper will describe the implementation of pre-processing software which successfully connects data collection steps to reconstruction steps, letting the user accomplish accurate and reliable ptychography.

  6. In vivo stimulus presentation to the mouse vomeronasal system: Surgery, experiment, setup, and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoles-Frenkel, Michal; Cohen, Oksana; Bansal, Rohini; Horesh, Noa; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2017-06-15

    Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing. Here, we describe all these aspects in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to readily adopt it. We also present a custom written MATLAB based software with a graphical user interface that controls all aspects of the actual experiment, including trial sequencing, hardware control, and data logging. The method allows measurement of stimulus evoked sensory responses in brain regions that receive vomeronasal inputs. An experienced investigator can complete the entire surgical procedure within thirty minutes. This is the only approach that allows repeated and controlled stimulus delivery to the intact VNO, employing the natural mode of stimulus uptake. The approach is economical with respect to stimuli, requiring stimulus volumes as low as 1-2μl. This comprehensive description will allow other investigators to adapt this setup to their own experimental needs and can thus promote our physiological understanding of this fascinating chemosensory system. With minor changes it can also be adapted for other rodent species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design Of A Novel Online Experiment Setup For PID Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Kaçar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an internet based remote access experiment setup was developed for induction direct current motor speed control with PID controller which can be used as a support material in engineering education. The experiment setup is wireless and communicates with the remote server using transfer control protocol/internet protocol through a wireless ADSL modem. Users can perform the experiments as real time accessing the web pages in the remote server by using any computer which has internet connection. By means of interactively-designed web pages, users can monitor the speed change executing alterations of the PID controller parameter and motor reference speed. Also users can save the measured values on their own computers. In addition to this, with the support of a webcam, the running of the experimental set can be monitored on the web page. Additionally, for the experimental set, preparing the peripheral units card, the interaction was expanded between the user and the experimental set. Relatively to this, the user can monitor the ambient temperature of the experimental set’s current place on the web page and can make his/her own message write on LCD of the experimental set and can enlighten it if he/she wants.

  8. Set-up of light nuclei multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study mechanisms of reactions produced by heavy ions in the GANIL energy range (15-100 MeV/A), a multidetector capable to detect large multiplicities for particles and light nuclei is necessary. The multidetector set up covers the 3-30 0 angular range and consists of 96 counters (NE102 plastic scintillator sheet, 2mm thick). The apparatus must identify the nuclear charge of the detected particles. Using the apparatus at GANIL leaded to carry out data processing tools in conversationnal mode and to write on experimental area programs performing and monitoring data acquisition. A test carried out with a 44 MeV/A argon beam showed that the apparatus was working properly: the identification in nuclear charge between Z=1 (proton) and Z=7 (nitrogen) is good. Results of the test allow to draw light production curves in the NE102 plastic scintillator for the following ions: 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 14 N, in the 13 to 44 MeV/A energy range [fr

  9. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  10. An inverse problem solution for undetermined electrostatic force microscopy setups using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacha, G M; Rodriguez, F B; Varona, P [Grupo de Neurocomputacion Biologica, Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain)

    2009-02-25

    A technique that combines a theoretical description of the electrostatic interaction and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is used to solve an inverse problem in scanning probe microscopy setups. Electrostatic interaction curves calculated by the generalized image charge method are used to train and validate the ANN in order to estimate unknown magnitudes in highly undetermined setups. To illustrate this technique, we simultaneously estimate the tip-sample distance and the dielectric constant for a system composed of a tip scanning over a metallic nanowire. In a second example, we use this method to quantitatively estimate the dielectric constant for an even more undetermined system where the tip shape (characterized by three free parameters) is not known. Finally, the proposed method is validated with experimental data.

  11. A simple and reliable setup for monitoring corrosion rate of steel rebars in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation.

  12. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  13. Calibration of digital optical phase conjugation setups based on orthonormal rectangular polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2016-04-10

    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has proven to be a promising technique in deep tissue fluorescence imaging. Nonetheless, DOPC optical setups require precise alignment of all optical components to accurately read the wavefront of scattered light in a turbid medium and playback the conjugated beam toward the sample. Minor misalignments and possible imperfections in the arrangement or the structure of the optical components significantly reduce the performance of the method. In this paper, a calibration procedure based on orthogonal rectangular polynomials is introduced to compensate major imperfections including the optical aberration in the wavefront of the reference beam and the substrate curvature of the spatial light modulator without adding extra optical components to the original setup. The proposed algorithm also provides a systematic calibration procedure for mechanical fine tuning of DOPC systems. It is shown experimentally that the proposed calibration process improves the peak-to-background ratio when focusing light after passing through a highly scattering medium.

  14. Experimental scheme for unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Sanchez-Lozano, X.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup for discriminating four linearly independent nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. The setup is based on linear optics only and can be configured to implement both optimal unambiguous state discrimination [Chefles and Barnett, Phys. Lett. A 250, 223 (1998)] and minimum error discrimination. In both cases, the setup is characterized by an optimal success probability. The experimental setup can be generalized to the case of discrimination among N linearly nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. We also study the discrimination between two incoherent superpositions of symmetric states. In this case, the setup also achieves an optimal success probability in the case of unambiguous discrimination as well as minimum error discrimination

  15. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    of a superconducting cable includes the thermal insulation of the cable, the current- and coolant feed-throughs and possibly dynamic vacuum control. Since feed-throughs represent major sources of heat in-leak to the cryogenic system it is important to optimise the design and the number of these in a superconducting...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  16. A setup for resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Schreck, Simon; Foehlisch, Alexander [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Rajkovic, Ivan; Quevedo, Wilson; Gruebel, Sebastian; Scholz, Mirko [IFG Structural Dynamics of (Bio)chemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37070 Goettingen (Germany); Eckert, Sebastian; Beye, Martin; Suljoti, Edlira; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kalus, Christian [Abteilung Betrieb Beschleuniger BESSYII, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Zhang, Wenkai; Hartsock, Robert W.; Gaffney, Kelly J. [PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kennedy, Brian [MAX-lab, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); and others

    2012-12-15

    We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak fluences which currently sets a limit to maximum attainable count rate at FELs. The setup presented here opens up new possibilities to study the structure and dynamics in liquids.

  17. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  18. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-07-13

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Walter, M; Leonhardt, S; Jungbecker, N; Gries, T

    2010-01-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared

  20. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Jungbecker, N; Walter, M; Gries, T; Leonhardt, S

    2010-02-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared.

  1. Measurement Uncertainty Investigation in the Multi-probe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Szini, Istvan Janos; Foegelle, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway to standardize over the air (OTA) testing of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals in COST IC1004, 3GPP RAN4 and CTIA. Due to the ability to reproduce realistic radio propagation environments inside the anechoic chamber and evaluate end user me...... chamber setup. This contribution presents the results of uncertainty measurements carried out in three practical multi-probe setups. Some sources of measurement errors, i.e. cable effect, cable termination, etc. are identified based on the measurement results....... metrics in real world scenarios, the multi-probe based method has attracted huge interest from both industry and academia. This contribution attempts to identify some of the measurement uncertainties of the practical multi-probe setups and provide some guidance to establish the multi-probe anechoic...

  2. JANUS - A setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation at ReA3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunderberg, E.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Bucher, B.; Cline, D.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Liddick, S. N.; Longfellow, B.; Prokop, C.; Weisshaar, D.; Wu, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    A new experimental setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was constructed in a collaboration between the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of Rochester and was commissioned at the general purpose beam line of NSCL's ReA3 reaccelerator facility. The so-called JANUS setup combines γ-ray detection with the Segmented Ge Array (SeGA) and scattered particle detection using a pair of segmented double-sided Si detectors (Bambino 2). The low-energy Coulomb excitation program that JANUS enables will complement intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation studies that have long been performed at NSCL by providing access to observables that quantify collectivity beyond the first excited state, including the sign and magnitude of excited-state quadrupole moments. In this work, the setup and its performance will be described based on the commissioning run that used stable 78Kr impinging onto a 1.09 mg/cm2208Pb target at a beam energy of 3.9 MeV/u.

  3. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  4. Study of hydrogen isotopes super permeation through vanadium membrane on 'Prometheus' setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyaev, R. K.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Lebedev, B. S.; Busnyuk, A. O.; Notkin, M. E.; Samartsev, A. A.; Livshits, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    To develop the membrane pumping technology by means of superpermeable membranes at RFNC-VNIIEF in the 'Prometheus' setup, the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membranes were carried out. The experimental results on superpermeation of thermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes including tritium through a cylindrical vanadium membrane are presented. The possibility of effective pumping, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. The evaluation of membrane pumping rates and asymmetry degree of pure vanadium membrane was given. The work was performed under the ISTC-2854 project. (authors)

  5. 'energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron production and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The set-up 'energy plus transmutation', consisting of a thick lead target and a natural uranium blanket, was irradiated by relativistic proton beams with the energy from 0.7 GeV up to 2 GeV. Neutron field was measured in different places of this set- up using different activation detectors. The possibilities of using the ...

  6. Comparison of Channel Emulation Techniques in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two different techniques for channel emulation in multiprobe anechoic chamber based setups, which is a candidate solution for the standardization of MIMO OTA performance testing of mobile devices. The comparison is performed via simulations of the field distribution, temporal ...

  7. IBM PC based automatic drive system for Bulat setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchaninov, A.A.; Tolok, V.T.

    1999-01-01

    Non-expensive computer drive system for Bulat setup is described. System's hardware consists of IBM PC and conjunction block, providing 12 output channels, Software includes the main program, utilities and technology processes database. System may be used at surface modification processes, especially multilayer multicomponent coatings deposition

  8. View of the WA10 set-up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The WA10 experiment by the Geneva-Lausanne Collaboration was set-up in the H5 beam (unseparated, up to 50 GeV/c) to study K+-p --> K0pi+-p and other reactions of similar topology, and the energy dependence of resonance production.

  9. The setup of a mobile mobility panel for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Veenstra, Sander; Thomas, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the setup of the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel project, in which GPS-enabled mobile phones (smartphones) are used as a passive multiple-week and multiple-year travel behaviour data collection tool. The data collection methodology used in the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel comprised

  10. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component, with an arb...

  11. 3D Channel Model Emulation in a MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Sun, Fan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new channel reconstruction technique for 3D geometry-based channels in a multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup. The proposed method provides a general channel reconstruction framework for any spherical power spectrum. The channel reconstruction is formed as convex optimization...

  12. Practical considerations for coil-wrapped Distributed Temperature Sensing setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcerova, Anna; van Emmerik, Tim; Hilgersom, Koen; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) has been applied widely in hydrological and meteorological systems. For example, DTS has been used to measure streamflow, groundwater, soil moisture and temperature, air temperature, and lake energy fluxes. Many of these applications require a spatial monitoring resolution smaller than the minimum resolution of the DTS device. Therefore, measuring with these resolutions requires a custom made setup. To obtain both high temporal and high spatial resolution temperature measurements, fiber-optic cable is often wrapped around, and glued to, a coil, for example a PVC conduit. For these setups, it is often assumed that the construction characteristics (e.g., the coil material, shape, diameter) do not influence the DTS temperature measurements significantly. This study compares DTS datasets obtained during four measurement campaigns. The datasets were acquired using different setups, allowing to investigate the influence of the construction characteristics on the monitoring results. This comparative study suggests that the construction material, shape, diameter, and way of attachment can have a significant influence on the results. We present a qualitative and quantitative approximation of errors introduced through the selection of the construction, e.g., choice of coil material, influence of solar radiation, coil diameter, and cable attachment method. Our aim is to provide insight in factors that influence DTS measurements, which designers of future DTS measurements setups can take into account. Moreover, we present a number of solutions to minimize these errors for improved temperature retrieval using DTS.

  13. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    conditions for all tests. For verifications purposes six static tension tests conducted at three different vertical effective stress levels of 0, 35 and 70 kPa. The load-displacement curves showed that the test setup provides repeatable test results. A preliminary comparison between the unit shaft friction...

  14. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  15. Development and implementation of a nanotomography setup at the PETRA III beamline P05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogurreck, Malte

    2014-01-01

    X-ray nanotomography is used to analyze materials on the sub-micrometer scale. Many soft biological materials, i.e. most organic tissues, can be imaged with soft X-rays. For materials with a higher electron density, such as bone or teeth, metals, and ceramics, X-ray energies of more than 10 keV need to be used. All these setups require X-ray optics for either direct imaging of the object in question or for preparing a magnified projection. The P05 Imaging Beamline for X-ray micro- and nanotomography is situated at the newly refurbished PETRA III 3 rd generation storage ring at DESY. A dedicated experiment for X-ray nanotomography at higher energies was built in one of the two experimental hutches. An X-ray optics concept tailored for this experiment was specified and an accompanying mechanics concept was devised. Based on these concepts, the experiment was designed and installed. In addition to testing the nanotomography experimental components, the beamline front end was commissioned and the influence of these components on the nanotomography experiment was investigated. Higher harmonics from the undulator and monochromator as well as beam position drifts caused by mechanical drifting the monochromator were investigated to analyze their influence on the nanotomography. The X-ray optics were tested in detail and an operational setup was achieved for both the X-ray microscopy and the cone-beam setup. The achieved resolution of the hard X-ray microscope is better than 100 nm line and space. Nanotomographies were performed on a nanoporous gold sample and a photonic glass sample. Image correlation and correction allowed to perform a reconstruction of the photonic glass sample using a filtered backprojection algorithm. The packing fraction η of the photonic glass could be successfully extracted from the 3D-dataset.

  16. Seminar | Development of a PET Cyclotron Based Irradiation Setup for Proton Radiobiology | 25 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Sharif Hasan Mahmoud Ghithan, a Palestinian postdoctoral researcher at the Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particle Physics (Portugal), will discuss the development of an out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinarily produces radioisotopes for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The speaker will also discuss possible future use of the results of this research for CERN’s new LEIR biomedical facility. The seminar will be proposed in the framework of a meeting of the CERN Medical Applications Study Group.   25 June, 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. Room 13-2-005 ABSTRACT: In this new irradiation setup, the current from a 20 mm thick aluminum transmission foil is read out by homemade transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setu...

  17. ASSIST: the test setup for the VLT AO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Conzelmann, Ralf; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hallibert, Pascal; Jolissaint, Laurent; Hubin, Norbert; Kendrew, Sarah; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Molster, Frank; Paufique, Jerome; Pauwels, Evert; Stroebele, Stefan; Wiegers, Emiel

    2008-07-01

    ASSIST: The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test setup for the verification and calibration of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility.; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) the AO system for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). In the DSM testing mode the DSM will be tested using both interferometry and fast wave front sensing. In full AO mode, ASSIST will allow testing of the AO systems under realistic atmospheric conditions and optically equivalent to the conditions on the telescope. ASSIST is nearing its final design review and in this paper we present the current optical and mechanical design of ASSIST. In this paper we highlight some of the specific aspects of ASSIST that we are developing for ASSIST.

  18. Electric field stimulation setup for photoemission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, M; Vaz, C A F; Raabe, J; Nolting, F

    2015-08-01

    Manipulating magnetisation by the application of an electric field in magnetoelectric multiferroics represents a timely issue due to the potential applications in low power electronics and the novel physics involved. Thanks to its element sensitivity and high spatial resolution, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy is a uniquely suited technique for the investigation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials. In this work, we present a setup that allows for the application of in situ electric and magnetic fields while the sample is analysed in the microscope. As an example of the performances of the setup, we present measurements on Ni/Pb(Mg(0.66)Nb(0.33))O3-PbTiO3 and La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO3/PMN-PT artificial multiferroic nanostructures.

  19. Study of CRFP Shell Structures under Dynamic Loading in Shock Tube Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Khawaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the study of the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CRFP quasi-isotropic shell structures under the influence of dynamic loading. The quasi-isotropic CRFP shell specimens are fabricated using Multipreg E720 laminates. These laminates are laid in such a way that shell structure has equal strength and mechanical properties in the two-dimensional (2D plane and hence can be regarded as quasi-isotropic. In this study, the dynamic loading is generated using shock waves in a shock tube experimental setup. The strain and pressure data is collected from the experiments. Additional tests are carried out using Material Test System (MTS for both tensile and flexural response of CRFP. Results obtained from experiments are compared with numerical simulations using ANSYS Multiphysics 14.0 finite element method (FEM package. The numerical simulation and experimental results are found to be in good agreement.

  20. The SAHR Setup-Controlling Hopping Speed and Height Using a Single Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cherouvim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.

  1. Tunable optical setup with high flexibility for spectrally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, G; Akimov, D; Bartelt, H; Dietzek, B; Popp, J; Schlücker, S

    2011-01-01

    A simplified setup for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is introduced, which allows for recording CARS images with 30 cm -1 excitation bandwidth for probing Raman bands between 500 and 900 cm -1 with minimal requirements for alignment. The experimental arrangement is based on electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances by combining a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as broadband light source and an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) as tunable wavelength filter. Such spatial light modulator enables selection of a narrow-band spectrum to yield high vibrational contrast and hence chemical contrast in the resultant CARS images. Furthermore, an experimental approach to reconstruct spectral information from CARS image contrast is introduced

  2. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  3. Construction of orthodontic setup models on a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Takuya; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Michida, Masahiko; Yoshimi, Yuki; Nagasaki, Toshikazu; Murayama, Takeshi; Tanne, Kazuo; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Orthodontic setup models are usually limited to the display of teeth, with no information about the roots. The purpose of this article is to present a method for visualizing the tooth roots in setup models by integrating information from cone-beam computed tomography and a laser scanner. The reproducibility of the integration was evaluated. The records of 5 patients were used in this study. Three-dimensional digital models were generated from the dental casts. Tooth models were generated from the cone-beam computed tomography slices. The 3-dimensional models were superimposed on the crowns of the teeth in the tooth models and integrated. The integrated 3-dimensional tooth model and 3-dimensional setup model were registered. The reproducibility of the integration was evaluated for each tooth. Unpaired Student t tests were performed on the data between the anterior and posterior teeth, and between the right and left teeth. The discrepancy among the integrated 3-dimensional models at the final positions after we used this technique was 0.025 ± 0.007 mm. There was a significant difference in the distance between the anterior and posterior teeth (P <0.05). However, the average distances between the anterior and posterior teeth were small: 0.023 ± 0.007 and 0.028 ± 0.007 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the right and left teeth (P = 0.831). The methods presented in this study provide a reproducible visualization of tooth roots in virtual setup models by registering accurate crown models to cone-beam computed tomography scans. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv; Gulyban, Akos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [de

  5. Quick setup of test unit for accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.; D'Ottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Nemesure, S.; Morris, J.

    2011-01-01

    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.

  6. Development of a PET cyclotron based irradiation setup for proton radiobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghithan, Sharif; Crespo, Paulo; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, Rui; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, Hugo; Alves, Francisco; Rachinhas, P. J. B. M.

    2015-02-01

    An out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinary produces radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) has been developed, characterized, calibrated and validated. The current from a 20 μm thick aluminum transmission foil is readout by home-made transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setup can be computer-controlled with a shutter. In this work, we report on experimental results and Geant4 simulations of a setup which exploits for the first time the 18 MeV proton beam from a PET cyclotron to irradiate a selected region of a target using the developed irradiation system. By using this system, we are able to deliver a homogeneous beam on targets with 18 mm diameter, allowing to achieve the controlled irradiation of cell cultures located in biological multi-well dishes of 16 mm diameter. We found that the magnetic field applied inside the cyclotron plays a major role for achieving the referred to homogeneity. The quasi-Gaussian curve obtained by scanning the magnet current and measuring the corresponding dose rate must be measured before any irradiation procedure, with the shutter closed. At the optimum magnet current, which corresponds to the center of the Gaussian, a homogenous dose is observed over the whole target area. Making use of a rotating disk with a slit of 0.5 mm at a radius of 150 mm, we could measure dose rates on target ranging from 500 mGy/s down to 5 mGy/s. For validating the developed irradiation setup, several Gafchromic® EBT2 films were exposed to different values of dose. The absolute dose in the irradiated films were assessed in the 2D film dosimetry system of the Department of Radiotherapy of Coimbra University Hospital Center with a precision better than 2%. In the future, we plan

  7. A setup for resonant inelastic soft x ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources

    OpenAIRE

    Kunnus, K.; Rajkovic, I.; Schreck, S.; Quevedo, W.; Eckert, S.; Beye, M.; Suljoti, E.; Weniger, C.; Kalus, C.; Grübel, S.; Scholz, M.; Nordlund, D.; Zhang, W.; Hartsock, R.W.; Gaffney, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak f...

  8. Infrared-Guided Patient Setup for Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyatskaya, Yulia; James, Steven; Killoran, Joseph H.; Soto, Ricardo; Mamon, Harvey J.; Chin, Lee; Allen, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of an infrared-guided patient setup (iGPS) system to reduce the uncertainties in the setup of lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 patients were setup for lung irradiation using skin tattoos and lateral leveling marks. Daily electronic portal device images and iGPS marker locations were acquired and retrospectively reviewed. The iGPS-based shifts were compared with the daily electronic portal device image shifts using both the central axis iGPS marker and all five iGPS markers. For shift calculation using the five markers, rotational misalignment was included. The level of agreement between the iGPS and portal imaging to evaluate the setup was evaluated as the frequency of the shift difference in the range of 0-5 mm, 5-10 mm, and >10 mm. Results: Data were obtained for 450 treatment sessions for 15 patients. The difference in the isocenter shifts between the weekly vs. daily images was 0-5 mm in 42%, 5-10 mm in 30%, and >10 mm in 10% of the images. The shifts seen using the iGPS data were 0-5 mm in 81%, 5-10 mm in 14%, and >10 mm in 5%. Using only the central axis iGPS marker, the difference between the iGPS and portal images was 10 mm in 7% in the left-right direction and 73%, 18%, and 9% in the superoinferior direction, respectively. When all five iGPS markers were used, the disagreements between the iGPS and portal image shifts >10 mm were reduced from 7% to 2% in the left-right direction and 9% to 3% in the superoinferior direction. Larger reductions were also seen (e.g., a reduction from 50% to 0% in 1 patient). Conclusion: The daily iGPS-based shifts correlated well with the daily electronic portal device-based shifts. When patient movement has nonlinear rotational components, a combination of surface markers and portal images might be particularly beneficial to improve the setup for lung cancer patients

  9. Ion mass and energy selective hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-06-01

    For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam ion source. Such ion sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of ions with different ion masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic energy. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of ion mass and ion kinetic energy in the region of hyperthermal energies (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This ion energy region is of increasing interest not only for ion-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit ion optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen ions (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both ion species, the kinetic energy is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal energies. At the sample position, ion current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the ion beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal ions on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.

  10. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  11. Automated quality control system for LC-SRM setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2013-12-16

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is emerging as a standard tool for high-throughput protein quantification. For reliable and reproducible SRM protein quantification it is essential that system performance is stable. We present here a quality control workflow that is based on repeated analysis of a standard sample to allow insight into the stability of the key properties of a SRM setup. This is supported by automated software to monitor system performance and display information like signal intensities and retention time stability over time, and alert upon deviations from expected metrics. Utilising the software to evaluate 407 repeated injections of a standard sample during half a year, outliers in relative peptide signal intensities and relative peptide fragment ratios are identified, indicating the need for instrument maintenance. We therefore believe that the software could be a vital and powerful tool for any lab regularly performing SRM, increasing the reliability and quality of the SRM platform. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is becoming established as a standard technique for accurate protein quantification. However, to achieve the required quantification reproducibility of the liquid chromatography (LC)-SRM setup, system performance needs to be monitored over time. Here we introduce a workflow with associated software to enable automated monitoring of LC-SRM setups. We believe that usage of the presented concepts will further strengthen the role of SRM as a reliable tool for protein quantification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)

  13. High current table-top setup for femtosecond gas electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the Coulomb broadening and deliver femtosecond electron pulses on a gas target. The velocity mismatch can be compensated using laser pulses with a tilted intensity front to excite the sample. The temporal resolution of the setup was determined with a streak camera to be better than 400 fs for pulses with up to half a million electrons and a kinetic energy of 90 keV. The high charge per pulse, combined with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, results in an average beam current that is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than previously demonstrated.

  14. A flexible setup for angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, M., E-mail: mspanier@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, C.; Grötzsch, D.; Kramer, F.; Mantouvalou, I.; Malzer, W.; Kanngießer, B. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lubeck, J.; Weser, J.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is one of the standard tools for the analysis of stratified materials and is widely applied for the investigation of electronics and coatings. The composition and thickness of the layers can be determined quantitatively and non-destructively. Recent work showed that these capabilities can be extended towards retrieving stratigraphic information like concentration depth profiles using angle-resolved XRF (ARXRF). This paper introduces an experimental sample chamber which was developed as a multi-purpose tool enabling different measurement geometries suited for transmission measurements, conventional XRF, ARXRF, etc. The chamber was specifically designed for attaching all kinds of laboratory X-ray sources for the soft and hard X-ray ranges as well as various detection systems. In detail, a setup for ARXRF using an X-ray tube with a polycapillary X-ray lens as source is presented. For such a type of setup, both the spectral and lateral characterizations of the radiation field are crucial for quantitative ARXRF measurements. The characterization is validated with the help of a stratified validation sample.

  15. Programming for controlling of pulse radiolysis setup. Program RADIO96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkowski, J.; Grodkowski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Program RADIO96 was written in Pascal using DELPHI 1.0 (Borland) programming platform. It can operate on IBM PC compatible computers in WINDOWS 3x or WINDOWS'95 environment. The program is dedicated to the pulse radiolysis setup based on the linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9 of the Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology of the INCT. This work was based on apparatus and results described before and also on programming manuals of used equipment and technical data of programming platform. (author)

  16. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroli, S.; Cazzorla, A.; Checcucci, B.; Mazza, G.; Moschitta, A.; Servoli, L.

    2011-06-01

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  17. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroli, S., E-mail: Stefano.Meroli@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Cazzorla, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Checcucci, B. [Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Mazza, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Torino (Italy); Moschitta, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Perugia (Italy); Servoli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  18. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  19. Interfacing of high temperature Z-meter setup using python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashutosh; Sisodia, Shashank; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we interface high temperature Z-meter setup to automize the whole measurement process. A program is built on open source programming language `Python' which convert the manual measurement process into fully automated process without any cost addition. Using this program, simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient (α), thermal conductivity (κ) and electrical resistivity (ρ), are performed and using all three, figure-of-merit (ZT) is calculated. Developed program is verified by performing measurement over p-type Bi0.36Sb1.45Te3 sample and the data obtained are found to be in good agreement with the reported data.

  20. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...... been used to determine the test area size for a limited number of probes. However, it is desirable that the test area size is defined in terms of data rate deviation of the simulated channel in the laboratory from that of the target channel model. This paper reports MIMO capacity analysis results...

  1. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    characterization. As a proof of concept, we show measurements of the piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type silicon at three different doping concentrations in the temperature range from T=30 °C to T=80 °C. The extracted piezocoefficients are determined with an uncertainty of 1.8%. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  2. Automated assembly of micro mechanical parts in a Microfactory setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2006-01-01

    Many micro products in use today are manufactured using semi-automatic assembly. Handling, assembly and transport of the parts are especially labour intense processes. Automation of these processes holds a large potential, especially if flexible, modular microfactories can be developed. This paper...... focuses on the issues that have to be taken into consideration in order to go from a semi-automatic production into an automated microfactory. The application in this study is a switch consisting of 7 parts. The development of a microfactory setup to take care of the automated assembly of the switch...

  3. Development of a Laser Driver test setup for SLHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroli, S.; Cazzorla, A.; Checcucci, B.; Mazza, G.; Moschitta, A.; Servoli, L.

    2011-01-01

    Future experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) will increase the demand for high-bandwidth optical links due to the growing amounts of data to be treated by the data-transmission and acquisition systems. The development of the Giga Bit Laser Driver (GBLD) chip-set addresses this issue providing a means to increase the bandwidth available to transmit data to and from the counting room. This paper describes some aspect of test setup implementation and the protocol test used to evaluate and qualify the GBLD.

  4. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, C.; Ercoli, C.; Jaaskelainen, S.; Lecoeur, G.; Leutz, H.; Loos, R.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a hybrid photomultiplier tube specially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the lead tungstate crystals that will be applied in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS-detector at the LHC at CERN. (author)

  5. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, C.; Ercoli, C.; Jaaskelainen, S.; Lecoeur, G.; Leutz, H.; Loos, R.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R

    1999-09-21

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a hybrid photomultiplier tube specially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the lead tungstate crystals that will be applied in the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS-detector at the LHC at CERN. (author)

  6. Improvements of the optical detection setup of COLLAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of rare isotopes it is crucial to keep the background of the measurements low. Using photomultiplier tubes for those measurements, the dark count rate should be as low as possible and the signal gain high. Therefore, it is important to use the right type of photomultiplier tubes for the purpose of single photon detection with a low signal rate. Thus, I tested several different types of photomultiplier tubes for their dark count rates and noise to signal separation. The results have identified the most suitable type of photomultiplier tubes, but further measuring for verification might be necessary. Therefore, it is very important to keep the photomultiplier tubes shut from light. Exposing the photocathode to light implies life-long damage and increased background for several days. So far, when dismounting one of these photomultiplier tubes from the setup, a big cage around the optical detection setup was covered into black sheets to keep it as dark as possible inside. Still, th...

  7. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Jääskeläinen, S; Lecoeur, Gérard; Leutz, H; Loos, R; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a Hybrid Photomultiplier Tube especially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the Lead Tungstate crystals that will be a...

  8. Investigation of the γ-decay behavior of 52Cr with the γ 3 setup at HIγS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmy, J.; Erbacher, P.; Gayer, U.; Isaak, J.; Löher, B.; Müscher, M.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietralla, N.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Spieker, M.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.; Zweidinger, M.

    2018-02-01

    The γ-ray strength function is an important input parameter for the calculation of nucleosynthesis processes. To study the dipole response in more detail, the γ-decay behavior of the fp shell nucleus 52Cr was investigated with the high-efficiency γ 3 setup at the High Intensity γ-ray Source facility at TUNL in Durham, USA. The highly intense quasi mono-energetic γ-ray beam allows for excitations selective in multipolarity (J=1 and J=2) and energy. The γ 3 setup is a multi-detector array consisting of HPGe and LaBr3 detectors with high efficiency and enables the measurement of γ-γ coincidences. Experimental results of 52Cr will be presented and discussed in this contribution.

  9. Laser performance operations model (LPOM): a computational system that automates the setup and performance analysis of the national ignition facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M; House, R; Williams, W; Haynam, C; White, R; Orth, C; Sacks, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)], E-mail: shaw7@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 MJ, 500-TW, 351-nm laser system together with a 10-m diameter target chamber with room for many target diagnostics. NIF will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. A computational system, the Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM) has been developed and deployed that automates the laser setup process, and accurately predict laser energetics. LPOM determines the settings of the injection laser system required to achieve the desired main laser output, provides equipment protection, determines the diagnostic setup, and supplies post shot data analysis and reporting.

  10. Design of Acquisition Schemes and Setup Geometry for Anisotropic X-ray Dark-Field Tomography (AXDT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y; Schaff, F; Wieczorek, M; Pfeiffer, F; Lasser, T

    2017-06-09

    Anisotropic X-ray Dark-field Tomography (AXDT) is a new imaging technique for reconstructing the three-dimensional scattering profile within a sample using the dark-field signal measured in an X-ray grating interferometry setup. As in any tomographic measurement, the acquisition geometry plays a key role in the accurate reconstruction of the scattering information. More- over, the anisotropic nature of the dark-field signal poses additional challenges for designing the acquisition protocols. In this work, we present an efficient approach to measure scattering orientations spread over the unit sphere and prove its efficacy using the knowledge from conventional tomography. In addition, we conclude (using analytical and experimental results) that placing the gratings such that the grating bars make an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the vertical direction is the optimal setup configuration for AXDT.

  11. Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, enzymes usually exhibit a remarkable specificity for the reactants and reactions, including the ability to distinguish between optical isomers 1. The Principle of Catalysis. An enzyme, like a catalyst, only increases the rate of a reaction without altering itself at the end of the reaction. Consider the interconversion of ...

  12. How to Setup a Continuous Experimental Teaching System: Case Study on the Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Mu; Huang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese higher tourism education witnesses 32-year continuous innovation and exploration since the reform and opening policies. And it has gained many successful experiences in the aspects of talents cultivation mentality, nurture target, subject construction, curriculum arrangement and training module. However, it suffers the shortage of tourism…

  13. Building an Experimental Setup to Characterize an H4RG-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Mickie; Hodapp, K.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Goebel, Sean B.; Jacobson, Shane M.

    2018-01-01

    The Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG-15 infrared detector is designed for the next era of extremely large telescopes. Characterization of individual H4RG-15 detectors are critical for future astronomical use. ULBcam, a former UH88 IR camera and remnant test dewar for H2RG characterization, was previously modified for H4RG-15 characterization. During the summer, this system was further upgraded with a baffle tube to a blackbody illumination source to allow controlled field illumination. This baffle tube, designed in OpenSCAD, was constructed in the IfA machine shop. Specific placements of the 50-micron aperture and scatter restrictive baffling was designed in Zemax. Four separate data sets were acquired to look into detector persistence, dark current, read noise, and charge gain. With the illumination source set at 450 K, ten ramps of 90/90 read frames were taken to pass saturation values. These tests were repeated at 500K to show results at over saturated conditions. Five ramps of 136/136 read frames were taken with a blank shutter applied. The persistence results showed expected results with signals settling from the third ramp. Dark current results showed higher than Teledyne stated values at 0.06 electrons/second, a factor of 6 higher than expected, which exposes systematic ULBcam dark testing capabilities. The read noise resulted with an expected value of 0.014 electrons. The charge gain showed 0.02 electrons/ADU where the expected value is 2 electrons/ADU. Data analysis using reference frame subtraction will be done for future work.

  14. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The external reproducibility for the measurement of the CO2 mixing ratio and carbon isotopic ratios are ±7 (n = 169) μmol·mol ... The isotopic ratio in CO2 and the carbon dioxide mixing ratio in the air samples collected during the event are ..... enhanced emission of anthropogenic CO2, varia- tion in source compositions, etc.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR THE STUDY OF INFRARED SIGNALS OF DIFFERENT SOIL MOISTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Popov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents: structural scheme of the installation for measuring the infrared radiation of the soil in the range of 6-14 um; technical characteristics device ИКВП-01. The opportunities of use of pyroelectric sensors type MLX90614ESF were researched. Dependence of the temperature of soil from its humidity and dependence of the signal IR instrument of soil temperature and humidity are presented.

  16. Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2005-01-01

    For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research...

  17. Experimental setup for precise measurement of losses in high-temperature superconducting transformer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janů, Zdeněk; Wild, J.; Řepa, P.; Jelínek, Z.; Žížek, F.; Peksa, L.; Soukup, František; Tichý, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2006), s. 759-761 ISSN 0011-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconducting transformer * AC losses * calorimeters Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2006

  18. Experimental setup for deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) experiment in hall A at Jefferson Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camsonne, A.

    2005-11-01

    The Hall A Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment used the 5.757 GeV polarized electron beam available at Jefferson Laboratory and ran from september until december 2004. Using the standard Hall A left high resolution spectrometer three kinematical points were taken at a fixed x b (jorken) = 0.32 value for three Q 2 values: 1.5 GeV 2 , 1.91 GeV 2 , 2.32 GeV 2 . An electromagnetic Lead Fluoride calorimeter and a proton detector scintillator array designed to work at a luminosity of 10 37 cm -2 s -1 were added to ensure the exclusivity of the DVCS reaction. In addition to the new detectors new custom electronics was used: a calorimeter trigger module which determines if an electron photon coincidence has occurred and a sampling system allowing to deal with pile-up events during the offline analysis. Finally the data from the kinematic at Q 2 = 2.32 GeV 2 and s = 5.6 GeV 2 allowed to get a preliminary result for the exclusive π 0 electroproduction on the proton. (author)

  19. An arctic low-energy house as experimental setup for studies of heat dynamics of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Rode, Carsten; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    throughout long winters, strong winds, and very different circumstances regarding solar radiation compared to areas where low-energy houses are usually built, make the location very interesting for modeling and testing purposes. In 2011 new measurement equipment was installed in the house, which will be used......This paper addresses the difficulties in pinpointing reasons for unexpectedly high energy consumption in construction, and in low-energy houses especially. Statistical methods are applied to improve the insight into the energy performance and heat dynamics of a building based on consumption records...... and weather data. Dynamical methods separate influences from outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and wind on the energy consumption in the building. The studied building is a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Weather conditions like large temperature differences between indoors and outdoors...

  20. Impact of material thicknesses on fission observables obtained with the FALSTAFF experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulliez L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, the fission studies have been mainly focused on thermal fission because most of the current nuclear reactors work in this energy domain. With the development of GEN-IV reactor concepts, mainly working in the fast energy domain, new nuclear data are needed. The FALSTAFF spectrometer under development at CEA-Saclay, France, is a two-arm spectrometer which will provide mass yields before (2V method and after (EV method neutron evaporation and consequently will have access to the neutron multiplicity as a function of mass. The axial ionization chamber, in addition to the kinetic energy value, will measure the energy loss profile of the fragment along its track. This energy loss profile will give information about the fragment nuclear charge. This paper will focus on recent developments on the FALSTAFF design. A special attention will be paid to the impact of the detector material thickness on the uncertainty of different observables.

  1. Wall heat transfer coefficient in a molten salt bubble column: testing the experimental setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available with molten salt due to leakages on the welds and aggressive corrosion on the column. All the experiments were run at superficial gas velocities of 0.01–0.05 m/s. Three heating tapes, each connected to a corresponding variable AC voltage controller, were used...

  2. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  3. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  4. Experimental set-up and results of the process of co-extruded perforated gun propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebregs, M.; Driel, C.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Enhancement of gun performance can be obtained by increasing the propellant loading density or the energy content of the propellant. Serious consequences of these options are difficulties with regard to ignition and to gun barrel wear. Application of co-layered propellants is a good alternative,

  5. Homogeneous Nucleation of Sulfuric Acid and Water Mixture: Experimental Setup and First Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brus, David; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Viisanen, Y.; Kulmala, M.; Lihavainen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2010), s. 2631-2641 ISSN 1680-7316 Grant - others:KONE(XE) 2-1253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : homogeneous nucleation * sulfuric acid * water mixture Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.309, year: 2010 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/2631/2010/

  6. Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Ji, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    , an extensive measurement campaign was carried out in the paper. Two realistic LTE mockups were designed and their performance were evaluated under standard spatial channel models with and without the presence of user phantom. The measurement results have shown that the nearby user phantom can significantly...

  7. Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications – experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Orlowski de Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes details of the several steps of the technology involved for the orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process of pure commercially titanium tubes. These pieces will be used to connect the several components of the propulsion system of the China-Brazilian Satellite CBERS, and is part of the Brazilian aerospace industry development. The implantation involved the steps of environment control; cut and facing of the base metal; cleaning procedures; piece alignment; choice of the type, geometry and installation of the tungsten electrode; system for the pressure of the purge gas; manual tack welding; choice of the welding parameters; and, finally, the qualification of welding procedures. Three distinct welding programs were studied, using pulsed current with increasing speed, continuous current and pulsed current with decreasing amperage levels. The results showed that the high quality criteria required to the aerospace segment is such that usual welding operations must be carefully designed and executed. The three welding developed programs generated welds free of defects and with adequate morphology, allowing to select the condition that better fits the Brazilian aerospace segment, and to be implanted in the welding of the CBERS Satellite Propulsion System.

  8. Integrated experimental setup for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy of transuranic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kevin S; Joyce, John J; Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    We have developed the Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) system for transuranic materials. The ARPES transuranic system is an endstation upgrade to the Laser Plasma Light Source (LPLS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The LPLS is a tunable light source for photoemission with a photon energy range covering the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft x-ray regions (27-140 eV). The LPLS was designed and developed for transuranic materials. Transuranic photoemission is currently not permitted at the public synchrotrons worldwide in the VUV energy range due to sample encapsulation requirements. With the addition of the ARPES capability to the LPLS system there is an excellent opportunity to explore new details centered on the electronic structure of actinide and transuranic materials.

  9. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  10. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Papanastasiou, Dimitris [Fasmatech Science + Technology, Athens, GR (Greece); Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel, E-mail: christine.joblin@irap.omp.eu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 10{sup 8} molecules in the case of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  11. First measurement with a new setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation studies at INFN LNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, M.; Hadyńska-Klȩk, K.; Nannini, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Goasduff, A.; Testov, D.; John, P. R.; Mengoni, D.; Zielińska, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Benzoni, G.; Boso, A.; Cocconi, P.; Chiari, M.; Doherty, D. T.; Galtarossa, F.; Jaworski, G.; Komorowska, M.; Matejska-Minda, M.; Melon, B.; Menegazzo, R.; Napiorkowski, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Ottanelli, M.; Perego, A.; Ramina, L.; Rampazzo, M.; Recchia, F.; Riccetto, S.; Rosso, D.; Siciliano, M.; Sona, P.

    2017-07-01

    A new segmented particle detector, SPIDER, has been designed to be used as an ancillary device with the GALILEO γ-ray spectrometer, as well as with other multi-detector γ-ray arrays that will be available at LNL in the future (e.g. AGATA). To commission the SPIDER-GALILEO experimental setup, a multi-step Coulomb excitation experiment was carried out with a 240 MeV beam of 66Zn produced by the Tandem-XTU accelerator at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The measured particle and γ-ray spectra are compared with the results of detailed GEANT4 simulations which used the Coulomb excitation cross sections, estimated with the computer code GOSIA, as an input. The preliminary results indicate that precise transition probabilities will be obtained which are essential for solving discrepancies reported in the literature for this nucleus.

  12. Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heffner, Robert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adelmann, Andreas [PAUL SCHERRER INSTITUT; Stocki, Trevor [HEALTH CANADA; Mitchell, Lee [NAVAL RESEARCH LAB

    2009-01-01

    In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

  13. FTIR free-jet set-up for the high resolution spectroscopic investigation of condensable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, R.; Bonnamy, A.; Benidar, A.; Decroi, M.; Boissoles, J.

    2002-05-01

    An existing experimental set-up combining Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and free-jet cooling has been modified significantly to allow high resolution studies of the spectrum of monomer species which are liquid under standard conditions. Evaporation of the liquid samples is controlled by a condenser apparatus which is described. A supersonic planar expansion issuing from a narrow aperture is preferred for its very high cooling rate. Such an expansion, probed with a pitot tube, has a zone of limited temperature gradient close to the nozzle exit. The continuum isentropic model appears well suited to describing the thermodynamic properties of the flow up to a high number of nozzle diameters downstream. High resolution spectra of benzene and methanol have been recorded in the 3 µm wavelength range, and their analysis demonstrates a well defined rotational temperature in the 20-25 K range.

  14. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  15. Digital holographic setups for phase object measurements in micro and macro scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédl Vít

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of properties of so called phase objects is being solved for more than one Century starting probably with schlieren technique 1. Classical interferometry served as a great measurement tool for several decades and was replaced by holographic interferometry, which disposes with many benefits when compared to classical interferometry. Holographic interferometry undergone an enormous development in last decade when digital holography has been established as a standard technique and most of the drawbacks were solved. The paper deals with scope of the huge applicability of digital holographic interferometry in heat and mass transfer measurement from micro to macro scale and from simple 2D measurement up to complex tomographic techniques. Recently the very complex experimental setups are under development in our labs combining many techniques leading to digital holographic micro tomography methods.

  16. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids in batch and continuous set-ups using a bimetallic Ni-Cu catalyst with a high metal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Venderbosch, Robertus H.; Bykova, Maria V.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids is reported in both batch and continuous set-ups using a novel bimetallic Ni-Cu based catalyst with high Ni loading (up to 50%) prepared by a sol-gel method. The experiments were carried out in a wide temperature

  17. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  18. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  19. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  20. Analysis of Daily Setup Variation With Tomotherapy Megavoltage Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jining; Uhl, Barry; Dewit, Kelly; Young, Mark; Taylor, Brian; Fei Dingyu; Lo, Y-C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate different setup uncertainties for various anatomic sites with TomoTherapy (registered) pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) and to provide optimal margin guidelines for these anatomic sites. Ninety-two patients with tumors in head and neck (HN), brain, lung, abdominal, or prostate regions were included in the study. MVCT was used to verify patient position and tumor target localization before each treatment. With the anatomy registration tool, MVCT provided real-time tumor shift coordinates relative to the positions where the simulation CT was performed. Thermoplastic facemasks were used for HN and brain treatments. Vac-Lok TM cushions were used to immobilize the lower extremities up to the thighs for prostate patients. No respiration suppression was administered for lung and abdomen patients. The interfractional setup variations were recorded and corrected before treatment. The mean interfractional setup error was the smallest for HN among the 5 sites analyzed. The average 3D displacement in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for the 5 sites ranged from 2.2-7.7 mm for HN and lung, respectively. The largest movement in the lung was 2.0 cm in the longitudinal direction, with a mean error of 6.0 mm and standard deviation of 4.8 mm. The mean interfractional rotation variation was small and ranged from 0.2-0.5 deg., with the standard deviation ranging from 0.7-0.9 deg. Internal organ displacement was also investigated with a posttreatment MVCT scan for HN, lung, abdomen, and prostate patients. The maximum 3D intrafractional displacement across all sites was less than 4.5 mm. The interfractional systematic errors and random errors were analyzed and the suggested margins for HN, brain, prostate, abdomen, and lung in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were between 4.2 and 8.2 mm, 5.0 mm and 12.0 mm, and 1.5 mm and 6.8 mm, respectively. We suggest that TomoTherapy (registered) pretreatment

  1. Analysis of daily setup variation with tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jining; Uhl, Barry; Dewit, Kelly; Young, Mark; Taylor, Brian; Fei, Ding-Yu; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate different setup uncertainties for various anatomic sites with TomoTherapy pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) and to provide optimal margin guidelines for these anatomic sites. Ninety-two patients with tumors in head and neck (HN), brain, lung, abdominal, or prostate regions were included in the study. MVCT was used to verify patient position and tumor target localization before each treatment. With the anatomy registration tool, MVCT provided real-time tumor shift coordinates relative to the positions where the simulation CT was performed. Thermoplastic facemasks were used for HN and brain treatments. Vac-Lok cushions were used to immobilize the lower extremities up to the thighs for prostate patients. No respiration suppression was administered for lung and abdomen patients. The interfractional setup variations were recorded and corrected before treatment. The mean interfractional setup error was the smallest for HN among the 5 sites analyzed. The average 3D displacement in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for the 5 sites ranged from 2.2-7.7 mm for HN and lung, respectively. The largest movement in the lung was 2.0 cm in the longitudinal direction, with a mean error of 6.0 mm and standard deviation of 4.8 mm. The mean interfractional rotation variation was small and ranged from 0.2-0.5 degrees, with the standard deviation ranging from 0.7-0.9 degrees. Internal organ displacement was also investigated with a posttreatment MVCT scan for HN, lung, abdomen, and prostate patients. The maximum 3D intrafractional displacement across all sites was less than 4.5 mm. The interfractional systematic errors and random errors were analyzed and the suggested margins for HN, brain, prostate, abdomen, and lung in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were between 4.2 and 8.2 mm, 5.0 mm and 12.0 mm, and 1.5 mm and 6.8 mm, respectively. We suggest that TomoTherapy pretreatment MVCT can be used to

  2. An unconventional set-up for fluxless brazing of aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to successfully braze aluminium alloy assemblies without the use of oxide-removing fluxes, an evironment with very low contaminant level is mandatory. This is mostly achieved by using a vacuum furnace. Brazing under inert gas of sufficient purity is also possible. The method reported upon here makes use of a stainless steel bag which can enter a traditional air furnace. The bag is evacuated, giving a well distributed mechanical pressure on the parts to join. The intrinsic handicap of poor vacuum is compensated by regular inert gas flushing, even at high temperatures. The set-up works rather well, and the idea is believed to yield a valuable strategic and economic option, for the realization of special equipment as well as for prototyping work. We intend to use the principle for the CMS Preshower cooling screens.

  3. Report on the set-up of a holographic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.

    1977-10-01

    Holographic interferometry is well suited for visualizing temperature, density, pressure and concentration fields in transparent fluids. The holographic real-time interferometer allows a continuous observation of stationary and instationary flow processes. After the explanation of the measuring technique, the problems arising during the interferometer set-up as well as the necessary adjusting operations are described. For heat transfer problems new possibilities for the application of holographic interferometry are revealed. Convection in boxes, temperature fields around heated or cooled bodies, concentration and diffusion processes in two phase-flows, mixtures and solutions as well as melting and freezing processes may be investigated. On the basis of particular examples some applications are presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Mechanical design and fabrication of power feed cavity test setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodke, S.R.; Dhavle, A.S.; Sharma, Vijay; Sarkar, Shreya; Kumar, Mahendra; Nayak, Susanta; Barnwal, Rajesh; Jayaprakash, D.; Mondal, J.; Nimje, V.T.; Mittal, K.C.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Power feed cavity set up consists of nine number of accelerating cavity and eight numbers of coupling cavity for testing of power feed cavity with coupling flange for 2856 MHz S band standing wave coupled cavity linac. When we are assembling the cavity and applying the pressure, its resonance frequency changes with applied pressure/load. After some critical pressure/load frequency change becomes negligible or zero. This set up will be used to find out assembly performance of power feed cavity and its coupler. Top four cavity or eight half cells as well as bottom four cavity or eight half cells will be brazed separately. Power feed cavity will be sandwiched between this two brazed cavity assemblies. This paper discuss about linear motion bush, linear motion rod, load cell, hydraulic actuator, power pack, stepper motor PLC control, jig boring, alignment, tolerances and assembly procedure for this test setup. (author)

  5. The new cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baechler, S; Cauwels, P; Dierick, M; Jolie, J; Materna, T; Mondelaers, W

    2002-01-01

    A new cold neutron tomography set-up is operational at the neutron spallation source SINQ of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The detection system is based on a sup 6 LiF/ZnS:Ag conversion screen and a CCD camera. Several tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the tomography system, such as homogeneity, reproducibility, L/D-ratio and spatial resolution. The high flux and the good efficiency of the detector lead to very short exposure times. Thus, a typical set of tomography scans can be performed in only 20 min. Then, 3D computed tomography objects were calculated using the filtered back-projection reconstruction method. Initial results of various samples show that cold neutron tomography can be a useful tool for industry, geology and dentistry. Furthermore, suitable applications can be found in the field of archaeology.

  6. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, A.; Taieb, J.; Martin, J.F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.L.; Vargas, J.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Yan, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Farget, F.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Heinz, A.; Lindberg, S.; Jurado, B.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Loeher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Toernqvist, H.

    2016-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238 U(γ,f) reactions. (authors)

  7. Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers at RCPTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechoušek, J.; Jančík, D.; Frydrych, J.; Navařík, J.; Novák, P.

    2012-10-01

    Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers (MS) for structural, phase, and magnetic characterization of iron-or tin-containing samples is presented. This comprehensive line of 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer spectrometers covers transmission spectrometers (TMS) for roomtemperature (RT) measurements, temperature dependent measurements and measurements in an external magnetic field. An RT Conversion Electron/Conversion X-ray Mössbauer technique (CEMS/CXMS) is also available. The main concept of the RT MS is a table-top spectrometric bench with a control unit based on special-purpose hardware or standard PC platform. The first way offers a compact design and PC independent spectra collection system. The second setup, a PC-based system, which uses commercial devices and LabVIEW software, offers easy customization and enables advancement in spectrometer construction. The both types of control systems are able to operate special parts (velocity transducers, gamma-ray detectors) of unusual spectrometric benches. The standard velocity axis range is up to ±20 mm/s with a maximum nonlinearity of 0.1%. Applicable measuring conditions of presented TMSs cover a cryogenic temperature range from 1.5 up to 300 K and high temperature range from RT up to 1000 °C. With in-field low-temperature MS, we are able to analyze samples normally in the external magnetic fields up to 8 T (in temperature interval from 1.5 up to 300 K). In addition, special modes of measurements can be applied including backscattering gamma-ray geometry or measurement in an inert or controlled-humidity atmosphere. Technical details and construction aspects of spectrometers are presented.

  8. Competencies Setup for Nuclear Regulatory Staff in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingish, Panupong; Siripirom, Lopchai; Nakkaew, Pongpan; Manuwong, Theerapatt; Wongsamarn, Vichian

    2010-01-01

    Competencies setup for regulatory bodies oversee a research reactor and nuclear power reactors in Thailand, concentrating on staff development in areas of review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, authorization, and development of regulations and guides. The regulatory body in Thailand is the Bureau of Nuclear Safety Regulation (BNSR) which belongs to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). The BNSR is divided into 4 groups according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These groups are the nuclear safety administration group, nuclear safety technical support group, nuclear safety assessment and licensing group, and the nuclear installations inspection group. Each group is divided into senior and junior positions. The competencies model was used for implementation of staff qualification, career planning and professional progression by BNSR. Competencies are related to knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform their job. A key issue is obtaining competencies for the regulatory bodies. The systematic approach to training (SAT) has been used in several countries for improvement regulator performance. The SAT contains 5 steps, including analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation, to achieve competencies. The SAT provides a logical progression from the identification of competencies required to perform a job to the design, development and implementation of training using the competencies model. In the first step, BNSR performs an operating analysis of training needs assessment (TNA) by using gap analysis technique, as suggested by IAEA. Individual regulatory bodies address the gap using appropriate training program, after comparing the actual and desired competency profiles to determine the gap. This paper examines competencies setup for regulatory staff of BNSR as a result of gaps analysis to establish a scheme for design characteristics of regulatory staff and training courses, thereby enhancing the regulatory

  9. A mesocosm approach to study the response of Sphagnum peatlands to hydrological changes: setup, optimisation and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are major carbon pools and sinks, but these functions are threatened by climate change. There is, therefore, a need to better understand how microclimatic changes (soil temperature, soil moisture and water table depth are affecting their functioning. Experimental studies on Sphagnum peatlands conducted under precisely controlled (e.g. mesocosm conditions are relatively rare, especially those aiming to understand the system as a whole. Furthermore, mesocosm designs are generally described only briefly in the literature. In this article we provide a comprehensive account of a mesocosm experiment designed to study the response of Sphagnum peatlands to water table manipulation. We describe our experimental setup (3 water levels × 3 amplitudes of water table fluctuation × 5 replicates; and explain how we built the mesocosms, the issues we faced and the solutions we chose to solve them. We provide a detailed description of the devices we conceived to manipulate the water level, including software codes and electronic diagrams (as supplementary material, and explain how to address data loss in such an experimental design. We show that it is possible to build a reliable and powerful experimental setup at moderate cost using standard technology. The aim of this article is to provide a useful resource for researchers wishing to design similar experiments in the future.

  10. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallon, G. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Vittoria, F. A.; Basta, D.; Endrizzi, M.; Olivo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF.

  11. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallon, G K; Diemoz, P C; Vittoria, F A; Basta, D; Endrizzi, M; Olivo, A

    2017-01-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF. (paper)

  12. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.

    2011-11-07

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  13. Combination of thermal and electric properties' measurement techniques in a single setup suitable for radioactive materials in controlled environments and based on the 3ω approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Gofryk, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have designed and developed a new experimental setup, based on the 3ω method, to measure thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of a variety of samples in a broad temperature range (2-550 K) and under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The validity of this method is tested by measuring various types of metallic (copper, platinum, and constantan) and insulating (SiO2) materials, which have a wide range of thermal conductivity values (1-400 W m-1 K-1). We have successfully employed this technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of two actinide single crystals: uranium dioxide and uranium nitride. This new experimental approach for studying nuclear materials will help us to advance reactor fuel development and understanding. We have also shown that this experimental setup can be adapted to the Physical Property Measurement System (Quantum Design) environment and/or other cryocooler systems.

  14. Interactions of secondary particles with thorium samples in the setup QUINTA irradiated with 6 GeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khushvaktov, J., E-mail: khushvaktov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics ASRU, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR PRI (Czech Republic); Baldin, A.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Advanced Studies “OMEGA”, Dubna (Russian Federation); Chilap, V.V. [Center of Physical and Technical Projects “Atomenergomash”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Furman, V.I.; Sagimbaeva, F.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Vespalec, R. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Vrzalova, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR PRI (Czech Republic); Yuldashev, B.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics ASRU, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Wagner, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR PRI (Czech Republic); Zavorka, L.; Zeman, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The natural uranium assembly, QUINTA, was irradiated with 6 GeV deuterons. The {sup 232}Th samples were placed at the central axis of the setup QUINTA. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated {sup 232}Th samples have been analysed and more than one hundred nuclei produced have been identified. For each of those products, reaction rates have been determined. The ratio of the weight of produced {sup 233}U to {sup 232}Th is presented. Experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations by FLUKA code.

  15. Interactions of secondary particles with thorium samples in the setup QUINTA irradiated with 6-GeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushvaktov, J.H.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Adam, J.; Vrzalova, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Chilap, V.V.; Furman, V.I.; Sagimbaeva, F.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Vespalec, R.; Zavorka, L.; Wagner, V.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    The natural uranium assembly, QUINTA, was irradiated with 6-GeV deuterons. The 232 Th samples were placed at the central axis of the setup QUINTA. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated 232 Th samples have been analysed, and more than one hundred nuclei produced have been identified. For each of those products, reaction rates have been determined. The ratio of the weight of produced 233 U to that of 232 Th is presented. Experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA code. [ru

  16. Simulation of the $\\beta$ setup of the SSD group

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Jared

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to first implement a simulation in GEANT4 of the setup used by the SSD group to conduct measurements of the response of silicon detectors to ionizing radiation. This simulation was then compared to theoretical results on energy deposition in silicon sensors of varying thickness by ionizing radiation, as well as measurements of the energy deposition distribution taken using the apparatus being simulated. Simulation was also used to calibrate the trigger, estimating that a peak trigger signal of 1V corresponds to an energy deposited of 0.744 MeV. It was found that for the most probable value (MPV) of the energy deposition distribution, simulation coincides with theory within 5%, but the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) is underestimated by 15%. Measurements were conducted on a 280$\\mu$m sensor and compared to simulation. The MPV was 10% lower in observation than simulation, and the FWHM was 10-15% higher.

  17. A Low Cost Approach to Large Smart Shelf Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGA, D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years showed a growing interest in the use of RFID technology in applications like distribution and storage of goods, supply chain and inventory. This paper analyses the current smart shelf solutions and presents the experience of developing an automatic reading system for smart shelves. The proposed system addresses the problem of reading RFID tags from items placed on multiple shelves. It allows the use of standard low cost readers and tags and uses a single antenna that can be positioned in specific locations at repeatable positions. The system proposes an alternative to the approaches with multiple antennas placed in fixed position inside the shelf or around the shelves, offering a lower cost solution by means of dedicated electromechanical devices able to carry the antenna and the reader to the locations of interest along a rail system. Moreover, antenna position can be controlled for three axis of movement allowing for extra flexibility and complete coverage of the shelves. The proposed setup is a fully wireless one. It contains a standard reader, electromechanical positioning actuators and wireless communication and control hardware offering power from integrated batteries.

  18. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  19. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  20. Solid Effect DNP in a Rapid-melt setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bentum, P. J. M.; Sharma, M.; van Meerten, S. G. J.; Kentgens, A. P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has become a key element in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we developed a novel approach to DNP enhanced liquid-state NMR based on rapid melting of a solid hyperpolarized sample followed by 'in situ' liquid-state NMR detection. This method allows 1 H detection with fast cycling options for signal averaging. In nonpolar solvents, doped with BDPA radicals, proton enhancement factors were achieved of up to 400. A short recycling delay of about 5 s allows for a fast determination of the hyper-polarization dynamics as function of the microwave frequency and power. Here, we use the rapid melt dnp method to study the mechanisms for DNP in the solid phase in more detail. Solid Effect, Cross Effect, Solid Overhauser and Liquid-state (supercritical) Overhauser DNP enhancement can be observed in the same setup. In this paper, we concentrate on Solid Effect DNP observed with both homogeneous narrow line radicals such as BDPA and with wide line anisotropic nitroxide radicals such as TEMPOL. We find indications that BDPA protons play an important role in Solid Effect DNP with this radical. A simplified spin diffusion model for BDPA can give a semi-quantitative description of the enhancements as function of the microwave power and as function of the proton concentration in the solid solution. For aqueous frozen samples we observe a similar Solid Effect DNP enhancement, which is analyzed within the simplified spin diffusion model.

  1. Engineering Electrochemical Setups for Electron Microscopy of Liquid Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Burrows, Andrew

    This work focuses on creating tools for imaging liquid samples at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two different electron microscopes; the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The main focus of the project was the fabrication of the two sy......-SEM cell. In TEM, holography of graphene multi-layer sheets has been performed and the phase change per sheet has been determined as a step towards in-situ holography of liquid through graphene.......-transparent window and built-in electrodes was placed above a reservoir, sealing off the liquid from the vacuum, but allowing imaging through the window in the chip. In-situ electrochemical experiments have been performed with this setup: imaging the electron beam (e-beam) deposition of nickel on the window......This work focuses on creating tools for imaging liquid samples at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in two different electron microscopes; the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The main focus of the project was the fabrication of the two...

  2. Developing a beta source based setup for pixel sensor characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Schouwenberg, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to provide mono-energetic minimum ionizing electrons from a $^{90}$Sr source using a magnetic monochromator, and thus provide a useful tool for in-lab sensor characterization. The monochromator is calibrated using a setup, with a heavy inorganic scintillator and a PMT, which has been calibrated with a $^{22}$Na gamma source. The average energy of the electrons as a function of the current in the monochromator coil is found to be $1.38\\pm0.01$ keV/mA, taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the signal of the PMT. For integration into the pixel sensor test bench, scintillator-counters (a plastic scintillator connected to a PMT) are used. Their response to the electron energies is observed to follow a saturation curve, which leads to a more identical response for high energetic electrons. A preliminary pixel sensor test bench has been set up and properties such as voltage and discriminator settings have been studied as well as count rates for coincidence cou...

  3. Integrating Organ Motion and Setup Uncertainty into Optimization of Modulated Electron Beam Treatment of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pawlicki, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the research accomplishments of the Department of Defense funded research to develop, implement, and evaluate models of organ motion and setup uncertainty for dose calculation...

  4. Setup Time Reduction On Solder Paste Printing Machine – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Dhake

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing envisages the reduction of the seven deadly wastes referred to as MUDA. Setup time forms a major component of the equipment downtime. It leads to lower machine utilization and restricts the output and product variety. This necessitates the requirement for quick setups. Single Minute Exchange of Die philosophy (a lean manufacturing tool here after referred as “SMED” is one of the important tool which aims at quick setups driving smaller lot sizes, lower production costs, improve productivity in terms of increased output, increased utilization of machine and labor hours, make additional capacity available (often at bottleneck resources, reduce scrap and rework, and increase flexibility[3]. This paper focuses on the application of Single Minute Exchange of Die[1] and Quick Changeover Philosophy[2] for reducing setup time on Solder Past Printing Machine (bottleneck machine in a electronic speedo-cluster manufacturing company. The four step SMED philosophy was adopted to effect reduction in setup time. The initial step was gathering information about the present setup times and its proportion to the total productive time. A detailed video based time study of setup activities was done to classify them into external and internal setup activities in terms of their need (i.e. preparation, replacement or adjustment, time taken and the way these could be reduced, simplified or eliminated. The improvements effected were of three categories viz., mechanical, procedural and organizational. The paper concludes by comparing the present and proposed (implemented methods of setup procedures.

  5. Setups for in vitro assessment of RFID interference on pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, E; Censi, F; Delogu, A; Ferrara, A; Calcagnini, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to propose setups for in vitro assessment of RFID (radiofrequency identification) interference on pacemakers (PM). The voltage induced at the input stage of the PM by low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) RFID transmitters has been used to quantify the amount of the interference. A commercial PM was modified in order to measure the voltage at its input stage when exposed to a sinusoidal signal at 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz. At both frequencies, two antennas with different dimensions (diameter = 10 cm and 30 cm, respectively) were used to generate the interfering field, and the induced voltage was measured between the lead tip and the PM case (unipolar voltage), and between the tip and ring electrodes (bipolar voltage). The typical lead configurations adopted in similar studies or proposed by international standards, as well as lead paths closer to actual physiological implants were tested. At 125 kHz, the worst-case condition differs for the two antennas: the 10 cm antenna induced the highest voltage in the two-loop spiral configuration, whereas the 30 cm antenna in the 225 cm 2 loop configuration. At 13.56 MHz, the highest voltage was observed for both the antennas in the 225 cm 2 loop configuration. Bipolar voltages were found to be lower than the unipolar voltages induced in the same configurations, this difference being not as high as one could expect from theoretical considerations. The worst-case scenario, in terms of the induced voltage at the PM input stage, has been identified both for LF and HF readers, and for two sizes of transmitting antennas. These findings may provide the basis for the definition of a standard implant configuration and a lead path to test the EMI effects of LF and HF RFID transmitters on active implantable devices. (paper)

  6. Design of excitation signals for active system monitoring in a performance assessment setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how the excitation signal should be chosen for a active performance setup. The signal is used in a setup where the main purpose is to detect whether a parameter change of the controller has changed the global performance significantly. The signal has to be able to excite t...

  7. Development of group setup strategies for makespan minimization in PCB assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, I.O.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Balancing setup effort and actual production time is an important issue in medium-variety, medium-volume printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. By grouping batches of similar PCB types to be processed with a common machine setup, the total time required for setting up the component feeders...

  8. On SIP Session setup delay for VoIP services over correlated fading channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam S.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the session setup delay of the session initiation protocol (SIP) is studied. The transmissions on both the forward and reverse channel are assumed to experience Markovian errors. The session setup delay is evaluated for different transport protocols, and with the use of the radio l...

  9. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona; Petrucci, Alessia; Geinitz, Hans; Schuster, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [de

  10. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Tulijoki, Tapio; Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ≤ 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ≤ 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients

  11. HVI-Test Setup for Debris Detector Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Romberg, Oliver; Wiedemann, Carsten; Putzar, Robin; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    concerning space debris and micrometeoroids. In this way, the SOLID method will allow the generation of a large amount of impact data for environmental model validation. The ground verification of the SOLID method was performed at Fraunhofer EMI. For this purpose, a test model was developed. This paper focuses on the test methodology and development of the Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) test setup, including pretesting at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Bremen. Foreseen hardware and software for the automatic damage assessment of the detector after the impact are also presented.

  12. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  13. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  14. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Soo Man

    2008-01-01

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  15. Evaluation of Setup Error Correction for Patients Using On Board Imager in Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soo Man [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To reduce side effects in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and to improve the quality of life of patients, also to meet accurate SETUP condition for patients, the various SETUP correction conditions were compared and evaluated by using on board imager (OBI) during the SETUP. Each 30 cases of the head, the neck, the chest, the belly, and the pelvis in 150 cases of IGRT patients was corrected after confirmation by using OBI at every 2-3 day. Also, the difference of the SETUP through the skin-marker and the anatomic SETUP through the OBI was evaluated. General SETUP errors (Transverse, Coronal, Sagittal) through the OBI at original SETUP position were Head and Neck: 1.3 mm, Brain: 2 mm, Chest: 3 mm, Abdoman: 3.7 mm, Pelvis: 4 mm. The patients with more that 3 mm in the error range were observed in the correction devices and the patient motions by confirming in treatment room. Moreover, in the case of female patients, the result came from the position of hairs during the Head and Neck, Brain tumor. Therefore, after another SETUP in each cases of over 3 mm in the error range, the treatment was carried out. Mean error values of each parts estimated after the correction were 1 mm for the head, 1.2 mm for the neck, 2.5 mm for the chest, 2.5 mm for the belly, and 2.6 mm for the pelvis. The result showed the correction of SETUP for each treatment through OBI is extremely difficult because of the importance of SETUP in radiation treatment. However, by establishing the average standard of the patients from this research result, the better patient satisfaction and treatment results could be obtained.

  16. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  17. A set-up for a biased electrode experiment in ADITYA Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhyani, Pravesh; Ghosh, Joydeep; Sathyanarayana, K; Praveenlal, V E; Gautam, Pramila; Shah, Minsha; Tanna, R L; Kumar, Pintu; Chavda, C; Patel, N C; Panchal, V; Gupta, C N; Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B; Kumar, S; Raju, D; Atrey, P K; Joisa, S; Chattopadhyay, P K; Saxena, Y C

    2014-01-01

    An experimental set-up to investigate the effect of a biased electrode introduced in the edge region on ADITYA tokamak discharges is presented. A specially designed double-bellow mechanical assembly is fabricated for controlling the electrode location as well as its exposed length inside the plasma. The cylindrical molybdenum electrode is powered by a capacitor-bank based pulsed power supply (PPS) using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a switch with forced commutation. A Langmuir probe array for radial profile measurements of plasma potential and density is fabricated and installed. Standard results of improvement of global confinement have been obtained using a biased electrode. In addition to that, in this paper we show for the first time that the same biasing system can be used to avoid disruptions through stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Real time disruption control experiments have also been carried out by triggering the bias-voltage on the electrode automatically when the Mirnov probe signal exceeds a preset threshold value using a uniquely designed electronic comparator circuit. Most of the results related to the improved confinement and disruption mitigation are obtained in case of the electrode tip being kept at ∼3 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with an exposed length of ∼20 mm in typical discharges of ADITYA tokamak. (paper)

  18. An Analysis of Multiple Criteria and Setups for Bluetooth Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castillo-Cara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE 4.0 beacons will play a major role in the deployment of energy-efficient indoor localization mechanisms. Since BLE4.0 is highly sensitive to fast fading impairments, numerous ongoing studies are currently exploring the use of supervised learning algorithm as an alternative approach to exploit the information provided by the indoor radio maps. Despite the large number of results reported in the literature, there are still many open issues on the performance evaluation of such approach. In this paper, we start by identifying, in a simple setup, the main system parameters to be taken into account on the design of BLE4.0 beacons-based indoor localization mechanisms. In order to shed some light on the evaluation process using supervised learning algorithm, we carry out an in-depth experimental evaluation in terms of the mean localization error, local prediction accuracy, and global prediction accuracy. Based on our results, we argue that, in order to fully assess the capabilities of supervised learning algorithms, it is necessary to include all the three metrics.

  19. A highly versatile automatized setup for quantitative measurements of PHIP enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryutin, Alexey S.; Sauer, Grit; Hadjiali, Sara; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Breitzke, Hergen; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2017-12-01

    The design and application of a versatile and inexpensive experimental extension to NMR spectrometers is described that allows to carry out highly reproducible PHIP experiments directly in the NMR sample tube, i.e. under PASADENA condition, followed by the detection of the NMR spectra of hyperpolarized products with high spectral resolution. Employing this high resolution it is feasible to study kinetic processes in the solution with high accuracy. As a practical example the dissolution of hydrogen gas in the liquid and the PHIP kinetics during the hydrogenation reaction of Fmoc-O-propargyl-L-tyrosine in acetone-d6 are monitored. The timing of the setup is fully controlled by the pulse-programmer of the NMR spectrometer. By flushing with an inert gas it is possible to efficiently quench the hydrogenation reaction in a controlled fashion and to detect the relaxation of hyperpolarization without a background reaction. The proposed design makes it possible to carry out PHIP experiments in an automatic mode and reliably determine the enhancement of polarized signals.

  20. A set-up for a biased electrode experiment in ADITYA Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Pravesh; Ghosh, Joydeep; Sathyanarayana, K.; Praveenlal, V. E.; Gautam, Pramila; Shah, Minsha; Tanna, R. L.; Kumar, Pintu; Chavda, C.; Patel, N. C.; Panchal, V.; Gupta, C. N.; Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.; Kumar, S.; Raju, D.; Atrey, P. K.; Joisa, S.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental set-up to investigate the effect of a biased electrode introduced in the edge region on ADITYA tokamak discharges is presented. A specially designed double-bellow mechanical assembly is fabricated for controlling the electrode location as well as its exposed length inside the plasma. The cylindrical molybdenum electrode is powered by a capacitor-bank based pulsed power supply (PPS) using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a switch with forced commutation. A Langmuir probe array for radial profile measurements of plasma potential and density is fabricated and installed. Standard results of improvement of global confinement have been obtained using a biased electrode. In addition to that, in this paper we show for the first time that the same biasing system can be used to avoid disruptions through stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Real time disruption control experiments have also been carried out by triggering the bias-voltage on the electrode automatically when the Mirnov probe signal exceeds a preset threshold value using a uniquely designed electronic comparator circuit. Most of the results related to the improved confinement and disruption mitigation are obtained in case of the electrode tip being kept at ~3 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with an exposed length of ~20 mm in typical discharges of ADITYA tokamak.

  1. Challenges in the Setup of Large-scale Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS can now be considered an established analysis technology for research applications across the life sciences, the analysis workflows still require substantial bioinformatics expertise. Typical challenges include the appropriate selection of analytical software tools, the speedup of the overall procedure using HPC parallelization and acceleration technology, the development of automation strategies, data storage solutions and finally the development of methods for full exploitation of the analysis results across multiple experimental conditions. Recently, NGS has begun to expand into clinical environments, where it facilitates diagnostics enabling personalized therapeutic approaches, but is also accompanied by new technological, legal and ethical challenges. There are probably as many overall concepts for the analysis of the data as there are academic research institutions. Among these concepts are, for instance, complex IT architectures developed in-house, ready-to-use technologies installed on-site as well as comprehensive Everything as a Service (XaaS solutions. In this mini-review, we summarize the key points to consider in the setup of the analysis architectures, mostly for scientific rather than diagnostic purposes, and provide an overview of the current state of the art and challenges of the field.

  2. Experimental Test Plan DOE Tidal and River Reference Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Hill, Craig [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Chamorro, Leonardo [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Our aim is to provide details of the experimental test plan for scaled model studies in St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) Main Channel at the University of Minnesota, including a review of study objectives, descriptions of the turbine models, the experimental set-up, instrumentation details, instrument measurement uncertainty, anticipated experimental test cases, post-processing methods, and data archiving for model developers.

  3. Electronic portal image assisted reduction of systematic set-up errors in head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Hans C.J. de; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Visser, Andries G.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify systematic and random patient set-up errors in head and neck irradiation and to investigate the impact of an off-line correction protocol on the systematic errors. Material and methods: Electronic portal images were obtained for 31 patients treated for primary supra-glottic larynx carcinoma who were immobilised using a polyvinyl chloride cast. The observed patient set-up errors were input to the shrinking action level (SAL) off-line decision protocol and appropriate set-up corrections were applied. To assess the impact of the protocol, the positioning accuracy without application of set-up corrections was reconstructed. Results: The set-up errors obtained without set-up corrections (1 standard deviation (SD)=1.5-2 mm for random and systematic errors) were comparable to those reported in other studies on similar fixation devices. On an average, six fractions per patient were imaged and the set-up of half the patients was changed due to the decision protocol. Most changes were detected during weekly check measurements, not during the first days of treatment. The application of the SAL protocol reduced the width of the distribution of systematic errors to 1 mm (1 SD), as expected from simulations. A retrospective analysis showed that this accuracy should be attainable with only two measurements per patient using a different off-line correction protocol, which does not apply action levels. Conclusions: Off-line verification protocols can be particularly effective in head and neck patients due to the smallness of the random set-up errors. The excellent set-up reproducibility that can be achieved with such protocols enables accurate dose delivery in conformal treatments

  4. Poster - 33: Dosimetry Comparison of Prone Breast Forward and Inverse Treatment planning considering daily setup variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Runqing; Zhan, Lixin; Osei, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of daily setup variations on prone breast forward field-in-field (FinF) and inverse IMRT treatment planning. Methods: Rando Phantom (Left breast) and Pixy phantom (Right breast) were built and CT scanned in prone position. The treatment planning (TP) is performed in Eclipse TP system. Forward FinF plan and inverse IMRT plan were created to satisfy the CTV coverage and OARs criteria. The daily setup variations were assumed to be 5 mm at left-right, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions. The DVHs of CTV coverage and OARs were compared for both forward FinF plan and inverse IMRT plans due to 5mm setup variation. Results and Discussions: DVHs of CTV coverage had fewer variations for 5m setup variation for forward FinF and inverse IMRT plan for both phantoms. However, for the setup variations in the left-right direction, the DVH of CTV coverage of IMRT plan showed the worst variation due to lateral setup variation for both phantoms. For anterior-posterior variation, the CTV could not get full coverage when the breast chest wall is shallow; however, with the guidance of MV imaging, breast chest wall will be checked during the MV imaging setup. So the setup variations have more effects on inverse IMRT plan, compared to forward FinF plan, especially in the left-right direction. Conclusions: The Forward FinF plan was recommended clinically considering daily setup variation.

  5. Benchmark test cases for evaluation of computer-based methods for detection of setup errors: realistic digitally reconstructed electronic portal images with known setup errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Daniel S.; Raghavan, Suraj; Boxwala, Aziz; Earnhart, Jon; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Timothy; Chaney, Edward L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop methods and software for computing realistic digitally reconstructed electronic portal images with known setup errors for use as benchmark test cases for evaluation and intercomparison of computer-based methods for image matching and detecting setup errors in electronic portal images. Methods and Materials: An existing software tool for computing digitally reconstructed radiographs was modified to compute simulated megavoltage images. An interface was added to allow the user to specify which setup parameter(s) will contain computer-induced random and systematic errors in a reference beam created during virtual simulation. Other software features include options for adding random and structured noise, Gaussian blurring to simulate geometric unsharpness, histogram matching with a 'typical' electronic portal image, specifying individual preferences for the appearance of the 'gold standard' image, and specifying the number of images generated. The visible male computed tomography data set from the National Library of Medicine was used as the planning image. Results: Digitally reconstructed electronic portal images with known setup errors have been generated and used to evaluate our methods for automatic image matching and error detection. Any number of different sets of test cases can be generated to investigate setup errors involving selected setup parameters and anatomic volumes. This approach has proved to be invaluable for determination of error detection sensitivity under ideal (rigid body) conditions and for guiding further development of image matching and error detection methods. Example images have been successfully exported for similar use at other sites. Conclusions: Because absolute truth is known, digitally reconstructed electronic portal images with known setup errors are well suited for evaluation of computer-aided image matching and error detection methods. High-quality planning images, such as

  6. An economic production model for time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model for time dependent demand with multiple productions and rework setups. Production is demand dependent and greater than the demand rate. Production facility produces items in m production setups and one rework setup (m, 1 policy. The major reason of reverse logistic and green supply chain is rework, so it reduces the cost of production and other ecological problems. Most of the researchers developed a rework model without deteriorating items. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is shown to describe the model.

  7. Building and commissioning of a setup to study ageing phenomena in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: aabuhoza@kacst.edu.sa [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    In high-rate heavy-ion experiments, gaseous detectors encounter big challenges in terms of degradation of their performance due to a phenomenon called ageing. A setup for high precision ageing studies has been constructed and commissioned at the GSI detector laboratory. The setup as well as the gas system have been carefully optimized to reach a high sensitivity for ageing effects. Two different materials have been examined for their influence on gaseous detectors: RTV-3145 and Gerband 705. The details of the construction of the ageing test setup and the test results will be presented.

  8. Polarization experiments with the SPIN setup at the ITEP synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, I G; Kanavets, V P; Koroleva, L I; Morozov, B V; Nesterov, V M; Ryltzov, V V; Svirida, D N; Sulimov, A D; Zhurkin, V V; Beloglasov, Yu A; Kovalev, A I; Kruglov, S P; Novinsky, D V; Shchedrov, V A; Sumachev, Yu V; Trautman, V Yu; Bazhanov, N A; Bunyatova, E I

    2002-01-01

    New experimental data on the spin-rotation parameters A and R measured for elastic pi /sup +or-/p scattering in the resonance region and on the asymmetry in pC scattering at primary momenta in the range 1.35-2.02 GeV/c, as well as in quasielastic proton scattering on nuclei in the same momentum range, are summarized., All these data were recently obtained by using the proton synchrotron installed at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow). The spectrum and features of seven isospin-3/2 baryon resonances that form a peak in the total cross section at a c.m. energy of 1.9 GeV are analyzed on the basis of new data on the parameters A and R, and the results of this analysis are presented. The experiments surveyed in this article were performed by a collaboration of researchers from ITEP and the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI, Gatchina), the ITEP-PNPI collaboration. (29 refs).

  9. Single-image phase retrieval using an edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoz, Paul C.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Endrizzi, Marco; Coan, Paola; Brun, Emmanuel; Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph; Robinson, Ian K.; Bravin, Alberto; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A method enabling the retrieval of thickness or projected electron density of a sample from a single input image is derived theoretically and successfully demonstrated on experimental data. A method is proposed which enables the retrieval of the thickness or of the projected electron density of a sample from a single input image acquired with an edge illumination phase-contrast imaging setup. The method assumes the case of a quasi-homogeneous sample, i.e. a sample with a constant ratio between the real and imaginary parts of its complex refractive index. Compared with current methods based on combining two edge illumination images acquired in different configurations of the setup, this new approach presents advantages in terms of simplicity of acquisition procedure and shorter data collection time, which are very important especially for applications such as computed tomography and dynamical imaging. Furthermore, the fact that phase information is directly extracted, instead of its derivative, can enable a simpler image interpretation and be beneficial for subsequent processing such as segmentation. The method is first theoretically derived and its conditions of applicability defined. Quantitative accuracy in the case of homogeneous objects as well as enhanced image quality for the imaging of complex biological samples are demonstrated through experiments at two synchrotron radiation facilities. The large range of applicability, the robustness against noise and the need for only one input image suggest a high potential for investigations in various research subjects

  10. Single-image phase retrieval using an edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemoz, Paul C., E-mail: p.diemoz@ucl.ac.uk; Vittoria, Fabio A. [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Hagen, Charlotte K.; Endrizzi, Marco [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Coan, Paola [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich 81377 (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Brun, Emmanuel [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching 85748 (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Wagner, Ulrich H.; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Robinson, Ian K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, London WC1 H0AH (United Kingdom); Bravin, Alberto [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Olivo, Alessandro [University College London, London WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Research Complex at Harwell, Oxford Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-25

    A method enabling the retrieval of thickness or projected electron density of a sample from a single input image is derived theoretically and successfully demonstrated on experimental data. A method is proposed which enables the retrieval of the thickness or of the projected electron density of a sample from a single input image acquired with an edge illumination phase-contrast imaging setup. The method assumes the case of a quasi-homogeneous sample, i.e. a sample with a constant ratio between the real and imaginary parts of its complex refractive index. Compared with current methods based on combining two edge illumination images acquired in different configurations of the setup, this new approach presents advantages in terms of simplicity of acquisition procedure and shorter data collection time, which are very important especially for applications such as computed tomography and dynamical imaging. Furthermore, the fact that phase information is directly extracted, instead of its derivative, can enable a simpler image interpretation and be beneficial for subsequent processing such as segmentation. The method is first theoretically derived and its conditions of applicability defined. Quantitative accuracy in the case of homogeneous objects as well as enhanced image quality for the imaging of complex biological samples are demonstrated through experiments at two synchrotron radiation facilities. The large range of applicability, the robustness against noise and the need for only one input image suggest a high potential for investigations in various research subjects.

  11. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, J. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)], E-mail: ketela@uni-mainz.de; Kraemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Beck, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, K. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Eitel, G.; Ferrer, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Geppert, C. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); George, S. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Neugart, R. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-09-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beamline for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as {sup 235}U or {sup 252}Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. TRIGA-SPEC also serves as a test facility for mass and laser spectroscopic experiments at SHIPTRAP and the low-energy branch of the future GSI facility FAIR. This publication describes the experimental setup as well as its present status.

  12. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  13. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-05-01

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  14. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Methods: Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Results: Analysis-of-variance (ANOVA)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The ANOVA-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Conclusions: Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  15. Experiment Setup for Focused Learning of Advanced Servo Control of DC-motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag A. H. Samuelsen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote laboratories are normally developed for giving students and others remote access to physical laboratory facilities. In contradiction to this, the main objective of the setup presented in this paper is to create a controlled environment where unwanted side activities like hardware setup, driver problems, troubleshooting faulty components, and struggles with special software for configuring DSP systems, are removed as much as possible, in order for the students to have their full focus on the tasks that is considered relevant for the module: modeling of non-linear systems, synthetisation of controllers, and stability and performance analysis. A secondary objective is to significantly reduce the setup and maintenance cost associated with complex laboratory setups involving DSPs and expensive hardware.

  16. A setup for measurement of beam stability and position using position sensitive detector for Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, R.K.; Joshi, D.K.; Tyagi, Y.; Soni, R.S.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    The 450 MeV electron synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 is operational at RRCAT. A set-up has been developed to measure the relative transverse positional stability of the electron beam and its position with microns resolution using position sensitive photodiodes. The set-up has been installed at the diagnostics beam line of Indus-1. Synchrotron light from photo physics beamline was reflected out by inserting a Ni coated mirror and was focused onto a duo-lateral position sensitive photodiode by using two mirrors of 1.25 meter focal length to obtain unity magnification. The set-up consists of a duo-lateral position sensitive detector (PSD), precision processing electronics and a PC based data acquisition system. A computer program captures the processed signals on to a PC using GPIB interface and displays vertical position of the beam in real time. The paper describes the salient features of the setup developed for measurement of beam stability. (author)

  17. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Analysis-of-variance (anova)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The anova-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  18. Pragmatic setup for bioparticle responses by dielectrophoresis for resource limited environment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Anuar Md; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Kayani, Aminuddin Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Various dielectrophoretic responses of bioparticles, including cell-chain, spinning, rotation and clustering, are of high interest in the field due to their benefit into application for biomedical and clinical implementation potential. Numerous attempts using sophisticated equipment setup have been studied to perform those dielectrophoretic responses, however, for development into resource limited environment application, such as portable, sustainable and environmental friendly diagnostic tools, establishment of pragmatic setup using standard, non-sophisticated and low-cost equipment is of important task. Here we show the advantages in the judicious design optimization of tip microelectrode, also with selection of suspending medium and optimization of electric signal configuration in establishing setup that can promote the aforementioned dielectrophoretic responses within standard equipments, i.e. pragmatic setup.

  19. The use of adaptive radiation therapy to reduce setup error: a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Robertson, John; Horwitz, Eric; Brabbins, Donald; Cook, Carla; Gustafson, Gary; Stromberg, Jannifer; Martinez, Alvaro

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) is a closed-loop feedback process where each patients treatment is adaptively optimized according to the individual variation information measured during the course of treatment. The process aims to maximize the benefits of treatment for the individual patient. A prospective study is currently being conducted to test the feasibility and effectiveness of ART for clinical use. The present study is limited to compensating the effects of systematic setup error. Methods and Materials: The study includes 20 patients treated on a linear accelerator equipped with a computer controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) and a electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Alpha cradles are used to immobilize those patients treated for disease in the thoracic and abdominal regions, and thermal plastic masks for the head and neck. Portal images are acquired daily. Setup error of each treatment field is quantified off-line every day. As determined from an earlier retrospective study of different clinical sites, the measured setup variation from the first 4 to 9 days, are used to estimate systematic setup error and the standard deviation of random setup error for each field. Setup adjustment is made if estimated systematic setup error of the treatment field was larger than or equal to 2 mm. Instead of the conventional approach of repositioning the patient, setup correction is implemented by reshaping MLC to compensate for the estimated systematic error. The entire process from analysis of portal images to the implementation of the modified MLC field is performed via computer network. Systematic and random setup errors of the treatment after adjustment are compared with those prior to adjustment. Finally, the frequency distributions of block overlap cumulated throughout the treatment course are evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven percent of all treatment fields were reshaped to compensate for the estimated systematic errors. At the time of this writing

  20. Application of video imaging for improvement of patient set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploeger, Lennert S.; Frenay, Michel; Betgen, Anja; Bois, Josien A. de; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Herk, Marcel van

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: For radiotherapy of prostate cancer, the patient is usually positioned in the left-right (LR) direction by aligning a single marker on the skin with the projection of a room laser. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a room-mounted video camera in combination with previously acquired CT data to improve patient set-up along the LR axis. Material and methods: The camera was mounted in the treatment room at the caudal side of the patient. For 22 patients with prostate cancer 127 video and portal images were acquired. The set-up error determined by video imaging was found by matching video images with rendered CT images using various techniques. This set-up error was retrospectively compared with the set-up error derived from portal images. It was investigated whether the number of corrections based on portal imaging would decrease if the information obtained from the video images had been used prior to irradiation. Movement of the skin with respect to bone was quantified using an analysis of variance method. Results: The measurement of the set-up error was most accurate for a technique where outlines and groins on the left and right side of the patient were delineated and aligned individually to the corresponding features extracted from the rendered CT image. The standard deviations (SD) of the systematic and random components of the set-up errors derived from the portal images in the LR direction were 1.5 and 2.1 mm, respectively. When the set-up of the patients was retrospectively adjusted based on the video images, the SD of the systematic and random errors decreased to 1.1 and 1.3 mm, respectively. From retrospective analysis, a reduction of the number of set-up corrections (from nine to six corrections) is expected when the set-up would have been adjusted using the video images. The SD of the magnitude of motion of the skin of the patient with respect to the bony anatomy was estimated to be 1.1 mm. Conclusion: Video

  1. Setup Variations in Radiotherapy of Esophageal Cancer: Evaluation by Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomographic Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Han Chunhui; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Kernstine, Kemp H.; Shibata, Stephen; Vora, Nayana L.; Pezner, Richard D.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To use pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scans to evaluate setup variations in anterior-posterior (AP), lateral, and superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotational variations, including pitch, roll, and yaw, for esophageal cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated by combined chemoradiation using helical tomotherapy were selected. After patients were positioned using their skin tattoos/marks, MVCT scans were performed before every treatment and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT scans according to bony landmarks. Image registration data were used to adjust patient setups before treatment. A total of 250 MVCT scans were analyzed. Correlations between setup variations and body habitus, including height, weight, relative weight change, body surface area, and patient age, were evaluated. Results: The standard deviations for systematic setup corrections in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 1.5, 3.7, and 4.8 mm and 0.5 deg., 1.2 deg., and 0.8 deg., respectively. The appropriate averages of random setup variations in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 2.9, 5.2, and 4.4 mm, and 1.0 deg., 1.2 deg., and 1.1 deg., respectively. Setup variations were stable throughout the entire course of radiotherapy in all three translational and three rotational displacements, with little change in magnitude. No significant correlations were found between setup variations and body habitus variables. Conclusions: Daily MVCT scans before each treatment can effectively detect setup errors and thereby reduce planning target volume (PTV) margins. This will reduce radiation dose to critical organs and may translate into lower treatment-related toxicities

  2. Intrafractional Target Motions and Uncertainties of Treatment Setup Reference Systems in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ning J.; Goyal, Sharad; Zhou Jinghao; Khan, Atif J.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the magnitude of intrafractional motion and level of accuracy of various setup strategies in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: At lumpectomy, gold fiducial markers were strategically sutured to the surrounding walls of the cavity. Weekly fluoroscopy imaging was conducted at treatment to investigate the respiration-induced target motions. Daily pre- and post-RT kV imaging was performed, and images were matched to digitally reconstructed radiographs based on bony anatomy and fiducial markers, respectively, to determine the intrafractional motion magnitudes over the course of treatment. The positioning differences of the laser tattoo- and the bony anatomy-based setups compared with those of the marker-based setup (benchmark) were also determined. The study included 21 patients. Results: Although lung exhibited significant motion, the average marker motion amplitude on the fluoroscopic image was about 1 mm. Over a typical treatment time period, average intrafractional motion magnitude was 4.2 mm and 2.6 mm based on the marker and bony anatomy matching, respectively. The bony anatomy- and laser tattoo-based interfractional setup errors, with respect to the fiducial marker-based setup, were 7.1 and 9.0 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Respiration has limited effects on the target motion during APBI. Bony anatomy-based treatment setup improves the accuracy relative to that of the laser tattoo-based setup approach. Since fiducial markers are sutured directly to the surgical cavity, the marker-based approach can further improve the interfractional setup accuracy. On average, a seroma cavity exhibits intrafractional motion of more than 4 mm, a magnitude that is larger than that which is otherwise derived based on bony anatomy matching. A seroma-specific marker-based approach has the potential to improve treatment accuracy by taking the true inter

  3. Implementation of a combined SAXS/WAXS/QEXAFS set-up for time-resolved in situ experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitenko, S.; Beale, A.M.; van der Eerden, A.M.J.; Jacques, S.D.M.; Leynaud, O.; O'Brien, M.; Detollenaere, D.; Kaptein, Reinier; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Bras, W.

    2008-01-01

    It has previously been shown that there are many benefits to be obtained in combining several techniques in one in situ set-up to study chemical processes in action. Many of these combined set-ups make use of two techniques, but in some cases it is possible and useful to combine even more. A set-up

  4. The Fudan nuclear microprobe set-up and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Zhuang, W.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Wu, Y.; Liu, B.; Yang, M.; Cheng, H.

    2007-01-01

    A new scanning nuclear microprobe has been constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics in Fudan University, to replace the old microbeam system which had been running for more than ten years. The key parts were purchased from Oxford Microbeams Ltd., including triplet quadrupole lens (model OM-150), collimator slits, scanning system, target chamber, and data acquisition system. Ion beams are provided from a NEC 9SDH-2 Tandem accelerator. Three CCD cameras and multiple monitors were installed to assist beam adjust. The design of beam line and beam monitors is described. Beam optics calculations were carried out based on the specific Fudan microprobe system geometry, and the results regarding beam line performance and limitations of the spacial resolution are presented and discussed here. A comparison with experimental results is given as well. About 1.5 μm beam spot size could be achieved with a 3 MeV proton beam at a current of around 10 pA. Recently, the new microprobe is applied to obtain information of fly ash particle, algae cell and otoliths

  5. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  6. Production and characterization of protonated molecular clusters containing a given number of water molecules with the DIAM set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruny, G.

    2010-01-01

    nano-scale characterization of irradiation in bio-molecular systems requires observation of novel features which are now achievable with the recent technical progress. This work is a central part in the development of DIAM which is a new experimental set-up devoted to irradiation of bio-molecular clusters at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. The development of the cluster source and of a double focusing mass spectrometer leads to the production of intense beams of mass selected protonated molecular clusters. Combined with this mass selected cluster beams an innovative detection technique is demonstrated in collision induced dissociation experiments. The results contribute to the knowledge of the stability and the structure of the small protonated water clusters and mixed clusters of water and pyridine. (author)

  7. Experimental determination of contraction coefficient and velocity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jailakshmi Menon

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... conditions are obtained from the measured jet velocity and the discharge. .... hence the measurement of jet thickness will not be accurate. In this study .... Sump. Suction pipe. Venturimeter. Valve. Return channel. Figure 4. Schematic sketch of the experimental setup. 61 Page 4 of 9. SЕdhanЕ (2018) 43:61 ...

  8. Adaptive modification of treatment planning to minimize the deleterious effects of treatment setup errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Michalski, Jeff; Pan Cheng; Frazier, Arthur; Horwitz, Eric; Martinez, Alvaro

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Using daily setup variation measured from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), radiation treatment of the individual patient can be adaptively reoptimized during the course of therapy. In this study, daily portal images were retrospectively examined to: (a) determine the number of initial days of portal imaging required to give adequate prediction of the systematic and random setup errors; and (b) explore the potential of using the prediction as feedback to reoptimize the individual treatment part-way through the treatment course. Methods and Materials: Daily portal images of 64 cancer patients, whose treatment position was not adjusted during the course of treatment, were obtained from two independent clinics with similar setup procedures. Systematic and random setup errors for each patient were predicted using different numbers of initial portal measurements. The statistical confidence of the predictions was tested to determine the number of daily portal measurements needed to give reasonable predictions. Two treatment processes were simulated to examine the potential opportunity for setup margin reduction and dose escalation. The first process mimicked a conventional treatment. A constant margin was assigned to each treatment field to compensate for the average setup error of the patient population. A treatment dose was then prescribed with reference to a fixed normal tissue tolerance, and then fixed in the entire course of treatment. In the second process, the same treatment fields and prescribed dose were used only for the initial plan and treatment. After several initial days of treatments, the treatment field shape and position were assumed to be adaptively modified using a computer-controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) in light of the predicted systematic and random setup errors. The prescribed dose was then escalated until the same normal tissue tolerance, as determined in the first treatment process, was reached. Results: The systematic

  9. Prediction and Compensation of Geometrical Errors in Milling Process of Thin Components Using a Flexible Configuration Setup =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Quy

    In this study, a prediction model based on finite element analysis is developed to predict cutting errors during the machining process of thin plates using a flexible setup configuration. The model is based on analysis of the material deformation of thin plates under the action of axial cutting forces using a specifically designed test bed to reproduce commonly used flexible setup in industry. The cutting process is simplified as a static analysis of the material deformation under the effect of the applied cutting forces. In the analysis, different positions of the cutting tool during the machining process are studied to determine the workpiece's geometrical profiles during milling. Several analyses are carried out for different positions of the cutting tool. The cutting force is also modeled to predict the cutting force for specific cutting conditions. This cutting force model is utilized as input to the finite element analysis of the material deformation of the workpiece during the machining process. The experimental system is also designed to conduct tests with different cutting conditions on the three-axis Huron K2X10 CNC milling machine to verify the predicted results obtained from the analysis model. The geometrical errors of the machined plates after machining are determined by using the Mitutoyo Bright Strato Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) to measure their geometrical profiles before and after machining processes. Finally, the mirror technique is utilized to compensate cutting deviations based on the predicted results of the workpiece's displacements. Adding the value from the prediction model to the designed cutting depth creates the updated tool path. The results show good agreement in the prediction of the thin plate deformation during the machining as compared to the experimental tests.

  10. Effect of patient setup errors on simultaneously integrated boost head and neck IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Keall, Paul J.; Wu Qiuwen; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine dose delivery errors that could result from random and systematic setup errors for head-and-neck patients treated using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients who participated in an intramural Phase I/II parotid-sparing IMRT dose-escalation protocol using the SIB treatment technique had their dose distributions reevaluated to assess the impact of random and systematic setup errors. The dosimetric effect of random setup error was simulated by convolving the two-dimensional fluence distribution of each beam with the random setup error probability density distribution. Random setup errors of σ = 1, 3, and 5 mm were simulated. Systematic setup errors were simulated by randomly shifting the patient isocenter along each of the three Cartesian axes, with each shift selected from a normal distribution. Systematic setup error distributions with Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis were simulated. Combined systematic and random setup errors were simulated for σ = Σ = 1.5 and 3.0 mm along each axis. For each dose calculation, the gross tumor volume (GTV) received by 98% of the volume (D 98 ), clinical target volume (CTV) D 90 , nodes D 90 , cord D 2 , and parotid D 50 and parotid mean dose were evaluated with respect to the plan used for treatment for the structure dose and for an effective planning target volume (PTV) with a 3-mm margin. Results: Simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT head-and-neck treatment plans were found to be less sensitive to random setup errors than to systematic setup errors. For random-only errors, errors exceeded 3% only when the random setup error σ exceeded 3 mm. Simulated systematic setup errors with Σ = 1.5 mm resulted in approximately 10% of plan having more than a 3% dose error, whereas a Σ = 3.0 mm resulted in half of the plans having more than a 3% dose error and 28% with a 5% dose error

  11. Installation and Setup of Whole School Food Waste Composting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Forder, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Hong Kong, one of the busiest trading harbors in the world, is also a city of 8 million of people. The biggest problem that the government faces is the lack of solid waste landfill space. Hong Kong produces around 13,500 tons of waste per day. There are three landfills in Hong Kong in operation. These three landfills will soon be exhausted in around 2020, and the solid waste in Hong Kong is still increasing. Out of the 13,500 tons of solid waste, 9,000 tons are organic solid waste or food waste. Food waste, especially domestic waste, is recyclable. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy has a project to collect domestic food waste (from the school cafeteria) for decomposition. Our school produces around 15 tons of food waste per year. The project includes a sub-project in the Primary school, which uses the organic soil produced by an aerobic food waste machine, the Rocket A900, to plant vegetables in school. This not only helps our school to process the waste, but also helps the Primary students to study agriculture and have greater opportunities for experimental learning. For this project, two types of machines will be used for food waste processing. Firstly, the Dehydra made by Tiny Planet reduces the volume and the mass of the food waste, by dehydrating the food waste and separating the ground food waste and the excessive water inside machine for further decomposition. Secondly, the A900 Rocket, also made by Tidy Planet; this is used to process the dehydrated ground food waste for around 14 days thereby producing usable organic soil. It grinds the food waste into tiny pieces so that it is easier to decompose. It also separates the wood chips inside the ground food waste. This machine runs an aerobic process, which includes O2 and will produce CO2 during the process and is less harmful to the environment. On the other hand, if it is an anaerobic process occurs during the operation, it will produce a greenhouse gas- CH4 -and smells bad.

  12. Interfractional Variations in Patient Setup and Anatomic Change Assessed by Daily Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Allen; Qi, X. Sharon; Pitterle, Marissa; Kalakota, Kapila; Mueller, Kevin; Erickson, Beth A.; Wang Dian; Schultz, Christopher J.; Firat, Selim Y.; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the interfractional variations in patient setup and anatomic changes at seven anatomic sites observed in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 152 patients treated at seven anatomic sites using a Hi-Art helical tomotherapy system were analyzed. Daily tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography images acquired before each treatment were fused to the planning kilovoltage computed tomography images to determine the daily setup errors and organ motions and deformations. The setup errors were corrected before treatment and were used, along with the organ motions, to determine the clinical target volume/planning target volume margins. The organ motions and deformations for 3 representative patient cases (pancreas, uterus, and soft-tissue sarcoma) and for 14 kidneys of 7 patients are presented. Results: Interfractional setup errors in the skull, brain, and head and neck are significantly smaller than those in the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. These site-specific relationships are statistically significant. The margins required to account for these setup errors range from 3 to 8 mm for the seven sites. The margin to account for both setup errors and organ motions for kidney is 16 mm. Substantial interfractional anatomic changes were observed. For example, the pancreas moved up to ±20 mm and volumes of the uterus and sarcoma varied ≤30% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The interfractional variations in patient setup and in shapes, sizes, and positions of both targets and normal structures are site specific and may be used to determine the site-specific margins. The data presented in this work dealing with seven anatomic sites may be useful in developing adaptive radiotherapy

  13. SU-F-T-519: Is Geometry Based Setup Sufficient for All of the Head and Neck Treatment Cases?: A Feasibility Study Towards the Dose Based Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Xu, H; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compares the geometric-based setup (GBS) which is currently used in the clinic to a novel concept of dose-based setup (DBS) of head and neck (H&N) patients using cone beam CT (CBCT) of the day; and evaluates the clinical advantages. Methods: Ten H&N patients who underwent re-simulation and re-plan due to noticeable anatomic changes during the course of the treatments were retrospectively reviewed on dosimetric changes in the assumption of no plan modification was performed. RayStation planning system (RaySearch Laboratories AB, Sweden) was used to match (ROI fusion module) between prescribed isodoseline (IDL) in the CBCT imported along with ROIs from re-planned CT and the IDL of original plan (Dose-based setup: DBS). Then, the CBCT plan based on daily setup using the GBS (previously used for a patient) and the DBS CBCT plan recalculated in RayStation compared against the original CT-sim plan. Results: Most of patients’ tumor coverage and OAR doses got generally worsen when the CBCT plans were compared with original CT-sim plan with GBS. However, when DBS intervened, the OAR dose and tumor coverage was better than the GBS. For example, one of patients’ daily average doses of right parotid and oral cavity increased to 26% and 36%, respectively from the original plan to the GBS planning. However, it only increased by 13% and 24%, respectively with DBS. GTV D95 coverage also decreased by 16% with GBS, but only 2% decreased with DBS. Conclusion: DBS method is superior to GBS to prevent any abrupt dose changes to OARs as well as PTV/CTV or GTV at least for some H&N cases. Since it is not known when the DBS is beneficial to the GBS, a system which enables the on-line DBS may be helpful for better treatment of H&N.

  14. Three-dimensional patient setup errors at different treatment sites measured by the Tomotherapy megavoltage CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, S.K.; Lusczek, E.; Dusenbery, K. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; DeFor, T. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Biostatistics and Informatics Core; Levitt, S. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology - Radiation Oncology; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Onkol-Patol

    2012-04-15

    Reduction of interfraction setup uncertainty is vital for assuring the accuracy of conformal radiotherapy. We report a systematic study of setup error to assess patients' three-dimensional (3D) localization at various treatment sites. Tomotherapy megavoltage CT (MVCT) images were scanned daily in 259 patients from 2005-2008. We analyzed 6,465 MVCT images to measure setup error for head and neck (H and N), chest/thorax, abdomen, prostate, legs, and total marrow irradiation (TMI). Statistical comparisons of the absolute displacements across sites and time were performed in rotation (R), lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and vertical (z) directions. The global systematic errors were measured to be less than 3 mm in each direction with increasing order of errors for different sites: H and N, prostate, chest, pelvis, spine, legs, and TMI. The differences in displacements in the x, y, and z directions, and 3D average displacement between treatment sites were significant (p < 0.01). Overall improvement in patient localization with time (after 3-4 treatment fractions) was observed. Large displacement (> 5 mm) was observed in the 75{sup th} percentile of the patient groups for chest, pelvis, legs, and spine in the x and y direction in the second week of the treatment. MVCT imaging is essential for determining 3D setup error and to reduce uncertainty in localization at all anatomical locations. Setup error evaluation should be performed daily for all treatment regions, preferably for all treatment fractions. (orig.)

  15. Implementing of the offline setup correction protocol in pelvic radiotherapy. Safety margins and number of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasabasic, M.; Faj, D.; Belaj, N.; Tomas, I.; Faj, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Patient positioning errors in pelvic radiotherapy at Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy in Osijek are explored in order to establish the offline setup correction protocol and determine the safety margins. Film portal imaging is used during the whole treatment in order to find patient positioning errors. Eleven patients are included in the study and 420 images are analyzed. Setup errors are found by measuring distances between the center of the field and bony landmarks. Systematic and random errors are analyzed. Safety margins that should be employed at our department are 11 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm in mediolateral, craniocaudal and anteroposterior direction, respectively. Time trend is found only in an aged, obese patient with a hip problem. No action level offline setup protocol was employed by taking and averaging first four images in mediolateral and craniocaudal and 5 images in anteroposterior direction. Since time trend is found only in a patient who was hard to position because of his age, obesity and the hip problem, we decided that such patients are to be positioned without a bellyboard and in supine position. Time trends are not found in all of the other patients so we employed the offline setup error protocol by averaging setup errors from the first few consecutive images. Safety margins that will ensure 90 % probability of depositing at least 95 % of the prescribed dose in the target are calculated. Safety margins and number of images that should be taken showed that the most inaccurate positioning was in the anteroposterior direction. (author)

  16. An optimised set-up for total reflection particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Vis, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    MeV proton beams at small angles of incidence (0-35 mrad) are used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers or quartz substrates. In these experiments, the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) signal is used in a new optimized set-up. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Use of these large detector solid angles, combined with the reduction of bremsstrahlung background, affords limits of detection (LOD) of the order of 10 10 at cm -2 using total reflection particle induced X-ray emission (TPIXE). The LODs from earlier TPIXE measurements in a non-optimized set-up are used to estimate LODs in the new TPIXE set-up. Si wafers with low surface concentrations of V, Ni, Cu and Ag are used as standards to calibrate the LODs found with this set-up. The metal concentrations are determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The TPIXE measurements are compared with TXRF measurements on the same wafers. (Author)

  17. A compact multi-chamber setup for degradation and lifetime studies of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A controlled atmosphere setup designed for long-term degradation studies of organic solar cells under illumination is presented. The setup was designed with ease-of-use and compactness in mind and allows for multiple solar cells distributed on four glass substrates to be studied in four different...... chambers with temperature and atmosphere control. The four chambers are situated at close proximity in the setup thereby allowing the solar cells to be subjected to as uniform an illumination distribution as possible for the given solar simulator employed. The cell substrates serve as the front window...... and present a tight seal. Hence no illumination correction needs to be performed due to transmission and reflection losses as otherwise seen with test chambers employing a window as a seal. The solar cells in each chamber are continuously and individually electrically monitored under biased conditions...

  18. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-15

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced {sup 11}C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  19. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced 11 C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  20. A pdpa laser-based measuring set-up for the characterisation of spray nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Sonck, B; de Schampheleire, M; Steurbaut, W; Baetens, K; Verboven, P; Nicolaï, B; Ramon, H

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of agricultural sprays belong to the most critical factors affecting spray drift, deposition on plants, spray coverage and biological efficacy. Hence, within the framework of a research project about agricultural spray drift, a measuring set-up for the characterisation of spray nozzles using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA) was developed. This set-up is able to measure droplet sizes and velocities based on light-scattering principles. It is composed of different parts i.e.: a climate room, a spray unit, a three-dimensional automated positioning system and an Aerometrics PDPA 1D system. This paper presents a detailed description of this measuring set-up along with some first measuring results. These measurements will be used as an input for a Computational Fluid Dynamics drift-prediction model and to classify nozzles based on their driftability.

  1. Mathematical Model of the Electronuclear Set-Up on the Beam of the JINR Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Kumawat, H; Lobanova, V A

    2004-01-01

    On the base of the Monte Carlo code CASCADE, developed at JINR, a mathematical model of the deep-subcritical set-up with uranium blanket used in experiments underway at JINR using a 0.6-4 GeV proton beam, is created. The neutron spectra, yields and energies of generated particles are calculated and compared for several modifications of the set-up. The influence of paraffin and graphite moderators on the characteristics of particles escaping lead target is studied. The modelled set-up can be considered as a first step to experiments with the designed at JINR U-Pu ADS SAD with heat power of several tens of kW.

  2. A dedicated AMS setup for medium mass isotopes at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, M.; Altenkirch, R.; Feuerstein, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Hackenberg, G.; Herb, S.; Bhandari, P.; Heinze, S.; Stolz, A.; Dewald, A.

    2017-09-01

    AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, e.g. of 53Mn and 60Fe, are gaining interest in various fields of operation, especially geoscience. Therefore a dedicated AMS setup has been built at the Cologne 10 MV FN tandem accelerator. This setup is designed to obtain a sufficient suppression of the stable isobars at energies around 100 MeV. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the new setup and the first in-beam tests of its individual components. The isobar suppression is done with (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils with an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) and a time of flight (ToF) system, as well as a (dE/dx),E gas ionization detector. Furthermore, the upgraded ion source and its negative ion yield measurement for MnO- are presented.

  3. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  4. Inter-treatment compensation of treatment setup variation to enhance the radiotherapeutic ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Yan; John, Wong; Michalski, Jeff; Pan, Cheng; Frazier, Arthur; Bosch, Walter; Martinez, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, treatment setup error has been one of the major causes of dose variation in the treated volume. With the data acquired from on-line electronic portal imaging, it is now possible not only to adjust the patient setup, but also to modify the treatment plan during the course of clinical treatment based on the setup error measured for each individual patient. In this work, daily clinical portal images were retrospectively analyzed to study (1) the number of initial daily portal images required to give adequate prediction of the systematic and random deviations of treatment setup, and (2) the potential therapeutic gain when the inter-treatment planning modification was established using the setup error of each individual patient. Methods and Materials: Only those patients whose treatment positions had not been adjusted during the course of treatment were selected for the retrospective study. Daily portal images of 27 lung, 25 pelvis, and 12 head and neck (h and n) cancer patients were obtained from two independent clinics with similar setup procedures. The anterior-to-posterior field was analyzed for the pelvis and lung treatments, and the right lateral field for the h and n treatments. Between 13 to 30 daily portal images were acquired for each patient and were analyzed using a 2D alignment tool. Systematic and random deviations of the treatment setup were calculated for each individual patient. The statistical confidence on the convergence of both systematic and random deviations with time were tested to determine the number of initial daily portal images needed to predict these deviations. In addition, a mean deviation for each site was also calculated using the setup errors from all patients. Two treatment planning schemes were simulated to evaluate margin design and prescription dose adjustment. Therapeutic scores were quantified in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). In the first

  5. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Petrucci, Alessia [University of Florence, Department of Radiation Oncology, Florence (Italy); Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Tibor [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie bestand darin, den Einfluss verschiedener Herangehensweisen bei der Einstellung einer

  6. New set-up for high-quality soft-X-ray absorption spectroscopy of large organic molecules in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holch, Florian; Huebner, Dominique [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Fink, Rainer [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, ICMM and CENEM, Egerlandstrasse 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schoell, Achim, E-mail: achim.schoell@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am and Roentgen Reasearch Center for Complex Materials (RCCM) Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Umbach, Eberhard [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We present a new set-up for x-ray absorption (NEXAFS) on large molecules in the gas-phase. {yields} The cell has a confined volume and can be heated. {yields} The spectra can be acquired fast, are of very high quality with respect tosignal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution. {yields} This allowsthe analysis of spectroscopic details (e.g. solid state effects by comparing gas- and condensed phase data). - Abstract: We present a new experimental set-up for the investigation of large (>128 amu) organic molecules in the gas-phase by means of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the soft X-ray range. Our approach uses a gas cell, which is sealed off against the surrounding vacuum and which can be heated above the sublimation temperature of the respective molecular compound. Using a confined volume rather than a molecular beam yields short acquisition times and intense signals due to the high molecular density, which can be tuned by the container temperature. In turn, the resulting spectra are of very high quality with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and energy resolution, which are the essential aspects for the analysis of fine spectroscopic details. Using the examples of ANQ, NTCDA, and PTCDA, specific challenges of gas phase measurements on large organic molecules with high sublimation temperatures are addressed in detail with respect to the presented set-up and possible ways to tackle them are outlined.

  7. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Guidance for Setup of Patients Receiving Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Elizabeth A.; Cho, John; Vallis, Katherine A.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Lee, Grace B.Sc.; Blackburn, Helen; Nageeti, Tahani; McGibney, Carol; Jaffray, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance for setup error reduction and soft tissue visualization in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients were recruited for the delivery of radiotherapy to the postoperative cavity (3850 cGy in 10 fractions over 5 days) using an APBI technique. Cone-beam CT data sets were acquired after an initial skin-mark setup and before treatment delivery. These were registered online using the ipsilateral lung and external contours. Corrections were executed for translations exceeding 3 mm. The random and systematic errors associated with setup using skin-marks and setup using CBCT guidance were calculated and compared. Results: A total of 315 CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic errors for the skin-mark setup were 2.7, 1.7, and 2.4 mm in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. These were reduced to 0.8, 0.7, and 0.8 mm when CBCT guidance was used. The random errors were reduced from 2.4, 2.2, and 2.9 mm for skin-marks to 1.5, 1.5, and 1.6 mm for CBCT guidance in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Conclusion: A skin-mark setup for APBI patients is sufficient for current planning target volume margins for the population of patients studied here. Online CBCT guidance minimizes the occurrence of large random deviations, which may have a greater impact for the accelerated fractionation schedule used in APBI. It is also likely to permit a reduction in planning target volume margins and provide skin-line visualization and dosimetric evaluation of cardiac and lung volumes

  8. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapleton, S; Zavgorodni, S; Popescu, I A; Beckham, W A

    2005-01-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot

  9. Implementation of random set-up errors in Monte Carlo calculated dynamic IMRT treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, S.; Zavgorodni, S.; Popescu, I. A.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-02-01

    The fluence-convolution method for incorporating random set-up errors (RSE) into the Monte Carlo treatment planning dose calculations was previously proposed by Beckham et al, and it was validated for open field radiotherapy treatments. This study confirms the applicability of the fluence-convolution method for dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose calculations and evaluates the impact of set-up uncertainties on a clinical IMRT dose distribution. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes were used for Monte Carlo calculations. A sliding window IMRT delivery was simulated using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) transport model developed by Keall et al. The dose distributions were benchmarked for dynamic IMRT fields using extended dose range (EDR) film, accumulating the dose from 16 subsequent fractions shifted randomly. Agreement of calculated and measured relative dose values was well within statistical uncertainty. A clinical seven field sliding window IMRT head and neck treatment was then simulated and the effects of random set-up errors (standard deviation of 2 mm) were evaluated. The dose-volume histograms calculated in the PTV with and without corrections for RSE showed only small differences indicating a reduction of the volume of high dose region due to set-up errors. As well, it showed that adequate coverage of the PTV was maintained when RSE was incorporated. Slice-by-slice comparison of the dose distributions revealed differences of up to 5.6%. The incorporation of set-up errors altered the position of the hot spot in the plan. This work demonstrated validity of implementation of the fluence-convolution method to dynamic IMRT Monte Carlo dose calculations. It also showed that accounting for the set-up errors could be essential for correct identification of the value and position of the hot spot.

  10. Performance of velocity vector estimation using an improved dynamic beamforming setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    control of the acoustic field, based on the Pulsed Plane Wave Decomposition (PPWD), is presented. The PPWD gives an unambigious relation between a given acoustic field and the time functions needed on an array transducer for transmission. Applying this method for the receive beamformation results in a set......-up of the beamformer with different filters for each channel for each estimation depth. The method of the PPWD is illustrated by analytical expressions of the decomposed acoustic field and these results are used for simulation. Results of velocity estimates using the new setup are given on the basis of simulated...

  11. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...... investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small...

  12. Design of a setup for {sup 252}Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hei, Daqian [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Zhuang, Haocheng [Xi’an Middle School of Shanxi Province, Xi’an 710000 (China); Jia, Wenbao, E-mail: jiawenbao@163.com [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China); Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 252}Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg {sup 252}Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  13. Phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy by using a multi-camera setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    In this Letter, the use of two-coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometers for four π/2-phase shifting interferometry is introduced. A multi-camera arrangement using no more than beam splitters and mirrors is utilized to obtain in a single shot the needed phase-shifted interferograms in the different output channels of the setup. The simplicity of the setup makes it ideal for high-speed interferometry applications. This proposal is validated in digital holographic microscopy to visualize a biological sample of epidermal onion cells.

  14. A new study of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Ferraro, F.; Prati, P.; Depalo, R.; Menzel, M.L.; Anders, M.; Aliotta, M.; Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T.; Scott, D.A.; Bemmerer, D.; Szuecs, T.; Broggini, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Caciolli, A.; Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E.; Formicola, A.; Junker, M.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Trezzi, D.; Gustavino, C.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.

    2014-01-01

    The 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion-beam-induced γ-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the E p =186 keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12 x 10 -6 eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study, a dedicated experimental setup for the 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na experiment has been developed. The new setup has been characterized by a study of the temperature and pressure profiles. The beam heating effect that reduces the effective neon gas density due to the heating by the incident proton beam has been studied using the resonance scan technique, and the size of this effect has been determined for a neon gas target. (orig.)

  15. Experimental Galileo System Time (E-GST): One Year of Real-Time Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordara, Franco; Costa, Roberto; Lorini, Luca; Orgiazzi, Diego; Pettiti, Valerio; Sesia, Ilaria; Tavella, Patrizia; Elia, Paola; Mascarello, Marco; Falcone, Marco; Hahn, Joerg

    2004-01-01

    ...). The aim is testing the Galileo algorithms in a mixed configuration where the space segment is given by the existing GPS constellation, while the ground segment is an experimental setup as close...

  16. Classifying and modeling setups and cleanings in lot sizing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, Bryndis; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Much attention in the lot sizing and scheduling literature has been focused on reducing the number and size of setups. Cleanings, in contrast, remain a key cost driver in large parts of the process industries such as the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Here, quality and safety considerations lead

  17. A method for patient set-up guidance in radiotherapy using augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.; Meyer, J.; Watts, R.; Grasset, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A system for patient set-up in external beam radiotherapy was developed using Augmented Reality (AR). Live images of the linac treatment couch and patient were obtained with video cameras and displayed on a nearby monitor. A 3D model of the patient's external contour was obtained from planning CT data, and AR tracking software was used to superimpose the model onto the video images in the correct position for treatment. Throughout set-up and treatment, the user can view the monitor and visually confirm that the patient is positioned correctly. To ensure that the virtual contour was displayed in the correct position, a process was devised to register the coordinates of the linac with the camera images. A cube with AR tracking markers attached to its faces was constructed for alignment with the isocentre using room lasers or cone-beam CT. The performance of the system was investigated in a clinical environment by using it to position an anthropomorphic phantom without the aid of additional set-up methods. The positioning errors were determined by means of CBCT and image registration. The translational set-up errors were found to be less than 2.4 mm and the rotational errors less than 0.3 0 . This proof-of-principle study has demonstrated the feasibility of using AR for patient position and pose guidance.

  18. Statistical evaluation of set-up errors in the ARC/SPAR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, D.D.; McKenzie, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation coefficient, r, between the acoustic return signal and the reference signature of an underwater nuclear safeguard seal, is used to discriminate between intact and broken seals. Ideally, correlation coefficients for intact seals are distributed close to 1.0, while those for broken seals are distributed about 0, with no overlapping of the two distributions. One source of variation that affects these distributions and, therefore, the probabilities of making correct decisions with respect to tampering, is the use of different fixtures. Data consisting of 640 digitized amplitudes obtained with each one of ten fixture set-ups were used to investigate the effect of set-up error on correlations for intact seals. These measurements are slow and difficult to make, so ''bootstrap'' sampling was used to simulate the process. Compared to previous simulations of a single set-up, the standard deviation of the correlation coefficients for intact seals increased almost three-fold, due to variation among set-ups, while the minimum r decreased from .96 to .91. These changes do not significantly increase the probabilities of incorrect decisions. Bootstrapping has proved to be useful where measurements are difficult to obtain. 1 fig

  19. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, Elsemiek; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Marshall, Ian P.G.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  20. Tools and Setups for Experiments with AC and Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several…

  1. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for lot-sizing with setup times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup times, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature and a newly generated extension of these. On average the presented heuristic outperforms the best heuristics from the literature...

  2. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  3. Controlling Mechatronic Set-up Using Real-time Linux and CTC ++

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.; Stramigioli, S.

    2002-01-01

    The development of control software for mechatronic systems is presented by means of a case study: a 2 DOF mechanical rotational set-up usable as a camera-positioning device. The control software is generated using the code generation facility of 20-SIM, thus guaranteeing the generated code being

  4. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results demonst...

  5. An automated full-chip micro-piv setup for measuring microchannel acoustophoresis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, P.; Laurell, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel μm-resolution particle-image velocimetry setup capable of automated full-chip measurements of microchannel acoustophoresis. Our system allows for fast collection of a sufficient amount of data enabling reliable determination of the influence from the forces from acoustic...... that it scales with the expected microbead radius to the power two....

  6. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    -brain barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  7. Modeling the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, A.A.; McCall, RT; van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; van Dongeren, AR; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Roelvink, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation in the coastal zone attenuates wave energy and reduces the risk of coastal hazards, e.g., flooding. Besides the attenuation of sea-swell waves, vegetation may also affect infragravity-band (IG) waves and wave setup. To date, knowledge on the effect of vegetation on IG waves and

  8. Biosensor based on the measurements of clustering dynamics of magnetic particles using a double pass setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample. The setup may be implemented in a disc...

  9. Lower limb immobilization device induced small setup errors in the radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuting; Ni, Xinye; Yu, Jingping; Ni, Xinchu; Sun, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianlin; Sun, Suping; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a lower limb immobilization device and investigate its clinical application in the radiotherapy of the lower limbs.Around 38 patients who underwent lower limb radiotherapy using the designed immobilization device were included in this study. The setup errors were calculated by comparison of the portal images and the simulator films or digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).From all 38 patients accomplished the radiotherapy using this device, 178 anteroposterior portal images and 178 lateral portal images were used for the analysis of the positional accuracy. Significant differences were observed in the setup error of the head-foot direction compared with the left-right direction (t = 3.404, P = .002) and the anterior-posterior directions (t = 3.188, P = .003). No statistical differences were identified in the setup error in the left-right direction and anterior-posterior direction (t = 0.497, P = .622).The use of the in-house designed lower limb immobilization device allowed for relatively small setup errors. Furthermore, it showed satisfactory accuracy and repeatability.

  10. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow...

  11. FIXES, a system for automatic selection of set-ups and design of fixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, J.R.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a computer aided planning system for the selection of set-ups and the design of fixtures in part manufacturing. First, the bottlenecks in the present planning methods are indicated. A brief description is given of the CAPP environment PART, in which FIXES is

  12. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...

  13. Automated extraction of DNA and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Stangegaard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler mounted with the TeMagS magnetic separation device. The methods were validated for accredited, forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen Mag...

  14. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croesea, E.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Marshall, I.P.G.; Spormann, A.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Geelhoed, J.S.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2 synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  15. Automated setup for characterization of intact histone tails in Suz12-/- stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable changes that occur without modifying the DNA sequence. Histone proteins are crucial components of epigenetic mechanisms and regulation, since they are fundamental for chromatin structure. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is already an integrated...... developed a high-resolving and automated LC-MS/MS setup to characterize intact histone tails (middle-down strategy)...

  16. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where t...

  17. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe technologies facilitating the set-up of automated assembly solutions which have been developed in the context of the IntellAct project (2011–2014). Tedious procedures are currently still required to establish such robot solutions. This hinders especially the automation...

  18. A Demonstration Setup to Simulate Detection of Planets outside the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan, W.; Ketpichainarong, W.; Laosinchai, P.; Panijpan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a simple demonstration setup to simulate an extrasolar planet and its star revolving around the system's centre of mass. Periodic dimming of light from the star by the transiting planet and the star's orbital revolution simulate the two major ways of deducing the presence of an exoplanet near a distant star. Apart from being a…

  19. Time trend of patient setup deviations during pelvic irradiation using electronic portal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el-Gayed, A. A.; Bel, A.; Vijlbrief, R.; Bartelink, H.; Lebesque, J. V.

    1993-01-01

    An electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used to detect patient setup displacement during the course of a 3-field pelvic irradiation of two groups of patients: 10 rectal and 10 prostate carcinomas. These patients were irradiated with conventional treatment techniques in routine clinical

  20. HW/SW Design Space Exploration on the Production Cell Setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Welch, P.H.; Roebbers, H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Barnes, F.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and compares five CSP based and two CSP related process-oriented motion control system implementations that are made for our Production Cell demonstration setup. Five implementations are software-based and two are FPGA hardware-based. All implementations were originally made

  1. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  2. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  3. Exposure setups for laboratory animals and volunteer studies using body-mounted antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, A.; Adami, C.; Bolz, T.; Rennings, A.; Dorn, H.; Ruettiger, L.

    2007-01-01

    For two different in vivo exposure setups body-mounted antenna systems have been designed. The first setup is designed for investigation of volunteers during simulated mobile phone usage. The setup consists of a dual-band antenna for GSM/WCDMA with enhanced carrying properties, which enables exposure for at least 8 h a day. The 10 g averaged localised SAR - normalised to an antenna input power of 1 W - measured in the flat phantom area of the SAM phantom amounts to 7.82 mW g -1 (900 MHz) and 10.98 mW g -1 (1966 MHz). The second exposure setup is used for a laboratory behavioural study on rats. The design goal was a localised, well-defined SAR distribution inside the animals' heads at 900 MHz. To fulfil the biological requirements, a loop antenna was developed. For tissues around the ears, a localised SAR value of 50.12 W kg -1 averaged over a mass of 2.2 g for an antenna input power of 1 W is obtained. (authors)

  4. Delft Dashboard: a quick setup tool for coastal and estuarine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhoff, C., III; Van Dongeren, A.; Van Ormondt, M.; Veeramony, J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed easy-to-use Delft DashBoard (DDB) software for the rapid set-up of coastal and estuarine hydrodynamic and basic morphological numerical models. In the "Model Maker" toolbox, users have the capability to set-up Delft3D models, in a minimal amount of time (in the order of a hour), for any location in the world. DDB draws upon public internet data sources of bathymetry and tidesto construct the model. With additional toolboxes, these models can be forced with parameterized hurricane wind fields, uplift of the sea surface due to tsunamis nested in publically available ocean models and forced with meteo data (wind speed, pressure, temperature) In this presentation we will show the skill of a model which is setup with Delft Dashboard and compare it to well-calibrated benchmark models. These latter models have been set-up using detailed input data and boundary conditions. We have tested the functionality of Delft DashBoard and evaluate the performance and robustness of the DDB model system on a variety of cases, ranging from a coastal to basin models. Furthermore, we have performed a sensitivity study to investigate the most critical physical and numerical processes. The software can benefit operational modellers, as well as scientists and consultants.

  5. A Full-Size High-Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    of the full generator. This paper deals with the HTS coil employed in the setup. The coil utilizing YBCO tapes is double-layered with 152 turns per layer and is wound on an FeNi9 iron core. Several sensors are installed to monitor the operating status of the coil, e.g., temperature, field, and voltage...

  6. A new method for x-ray scatter correction: first assessment on a cone-beam CT experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkel, J [CEA-LETI MINATEC, Division of Micro Technologies for Biology and Healthcare, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Gerfault, L [CEA-LETI MINATEC, Division of Micro Technologies for Biology and Healthcare, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Esteve, F [INSERM U647-RSRM, ESRF, BP200, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dinten, J-M [CEA-LETI MINATEC, Division of Micro Technologies for Biology and Healthcare, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2007-08-07

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables three-dimensional imaging with isotropic resolution and a shorter acquisition time compared to a helical CT scanner. Because a larger object volume is exposed for each projection, scatter levels are much higher than in collimated fan-beam systems, resulting in cupping artifacts, streaks and quantification inaccuracies. In this paper, a general method to correct for scatter in CBCT, without supplementary on-line acquisition, is presented. This method is based on scatter calibration through off-line acquisition combined with on-line analytical transformation based on physical equations, to adapt calibration to the object observed. The method was tested on a PMMA phantom and on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The results were validated by comparison to simulation for the PMMA phantom and by comparison to scans obtained on a commercial multi-slice CT scanner for the thorax phantom. Finally, the improvements achieved with the new method were compared to those obtained using a standard beam-stop method. The new method provided results that closely agreed with the simulation and with the conventional CT scanner, eliminating cupping artifacts and significantly improving quantification. Compared to the beam-stop method, lower x-ray doses and shorter acquisition times were needed, both divided by a factor of 9 for the same scatter estimation accuracy.

  7. Computer-monitored radionuclide tracking of three-dimensional mandibular movements. Part II: experimental setup and preliminary results - Posselt diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, J.A.; Waysenson, B.D.; Warshaw, B.D.

    1979-04-01

    This article described a new method to track mandibular movements using a computer-assisted radionuclide kinematics technique. The usefulness of various image-enhancement techniques is discussed, and the reproduction of physiologic displacements is shown. Vertical, lateral, and protrusive envelopes of motion of a point on a tooth of a complete denture mounted on a semiadjustable articulator were measured. A demonstrative example of the validity of this approach is reproducing the motion of the dental point, which clearly evidences the Posselt diagram.

  8. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  9. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with all sub-system specifications for creating plasma leading to manufacturing of coated tiles will be presented in details in this paper. (author)

  10. Minimizing measurement uncertainties of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties, part II: experimental set-up and error analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanez Rausell, L.; Malenovsky, Z.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present uncertainties associated with the measurement of coniferous needle-leaf optical properties (OPs) with an integrating sphere using an optimized gap-fraction (GF) correction method, where GF refers to the air gaps appearing between the needles of a measured sample. We used an optically

  11. Viscosity of ashes from energy production and municipal solid waste handling: A comparative study between two different experimental setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Folkedahl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high-temperature rot...

  12. The influence of cracks on chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete structures - development of the experimental set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blagojevic, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Walraven, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the major threats to durability of reinforced concrete structures in aggressive environmental conditions. When the steel reinforcement starts to corrode, structures gradually lose integrity and service life is shortened. Cracks are

  13. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B.; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible

  14. Design and Analysis of an Experimental Setup for Determining the Burst Strength and Material Properties of Hollow Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    were found. Finally, carbon fiber composite tensile specimens of the dog-bone shape were tested to failure to compare material properties with those...64 Carbon Fiber Composite Tensile Test Results.................................................65 Tensile Specimens after Testing ... testing should be comparable to steel . In practice, the CFC test cases need to be as strong as possible and have well understood properties. CFC is

  15. The Oxford space environment goniometer: A new experimental setup for making directional emissivity measurements under a simulated space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, T. J.; Bowles, N. E.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Thomas, I. R.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the light scattering behaviour of the regoliths of airless bodies via remote sensing techniques in the Solar System, across wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared, are essential in understanding their surface properties. A key parameter is knowledge of the angular behaviour of scattered light, usually represented mathematically by a phase function. The phase function is believed to be dependent on many factors including the following: surface composition, surface roughness across all length scales, and the wavelength of radiation. Although there have been many phase function measurements of regolith analog materials across visible wavelengths, there have been no equivalent measurements made in the thermal infrared (TIR). This may have been due to a lack of TIR instruments as part of planetary remote sensing payloads. However, since the launch of Diviner to the Moon in 2009, OSIRIS-Rex to the asteroid Bennu in 2016, and the planned launch of BepiColombo to Mercury in 2018, there is now a large quantity of TIR remote sensing data that need to be interpreted. It is therefore important to extend laboratory phase function measurements to the TIR. This paper describes the design, build, calibration, and initial measurements from a new laboratory instrument that is able to make phase function measurements of analog planetary regoliths across wavelengths from the visible to the TIR.

  16. Development of a sensitive experimental set-up for LIF fuel wall film measurements in a pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Beyrau, Frank

    2015-05-01

    This paper focusses on fundamental investigations of fuel wall films, which are formed when the spray impinges on the piston or cylinder walls. To reproduce the wide range of operating conditions within homogeneously charged gasoline direct-injection engines, it is necessary to use a film thickness measurement method, which can be applied inside a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Hence, we developed a method based on laser-induced fluorescence that reaches: a precision better than 1 µm, a geometric resolution of 31 µm and a practical applicability for wall film thicknesses smaller 80 µm. To obtain accurate film thickness results, we provide a detailed description of the selection of the surrogate fuel isooctane with 3-pentanone as fluorescence tracer and the resulting assembly of the excitation source, beam expander, filters, camera and the essential image processing. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of other possible solutions are discussed. Earlier publications provide only little information about the accuracy of their calibration and measurement procedures. Therefore, we tested and compared three basic calibration methods to each other and provide an analysis of possible errors, such as the influence of the preferential evaporation of 3-pentanone. Finally, images of resulting wall films are presented, and practical considerations for the execution of the measurements like recording timings are discussed.

  17. Aberration-free moiré profilometry—Analysis, simulation and implementation of the optimal setup geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Ribbens, Bart; Vanlanduit, Steve; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2012-08-01

    The accuracy of fringe projection profilometry strongly depends on the setup. In this article different setups are discussed, and compared using custom-made freeware simulation software. The best suited geometry for aberration-free measurements on small objects is implemented in a practical setup. By using specific telecentric lenses and different grid periods, both for projection and observation, we obtain a close to aberration-free phase-shifting projection moiré profilometer. In combination with liquid crystal display panels, the setup becomes practical, versatile and user-friendly.

  18. Impacts of wave-induced circulation in the surf zone on wave setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bertin, Xavier; Coulombier, Thibault; de Bakker, Anouk

    2018-03-01

    Wave setup corresponds to the increase in mean water level along the coast associated with the breaking of short-waves and is of key importance for coastal dynamics, as it contributes to storm surges and the generation of undertows. Although overall well explained by the divergence of the momentum flux associated with short waves in the surf zone, several studies reported substantial underestimations along the coastline. This paper investigates the impacts of the wave-induced circulation that takes place in the surf zone on wave setup, based on the analysis of 3D modelling results. A 3D phase-averaged modelling system using a vortex force formalism is applied to hindcast an unpublished field experiment, carried out at a dissipative beach under moderate to very energetic wave conditions (Hm 0 = 6m at breaking and Tp = 22s). When using an adaptive wave breaking parameterisation based on the beach slope, model predictions for water levels, short waves and undertows improved by about 30%, with errors reducing to 0.10 m, 0.10 m and 0.09 m/s, respectively. The analysis of model results suggests a very limited impact of the vertical circulation on wave setup at this dissipative beach. When extending this analysis to idealized simulations for different beach slopes ranging from 0.01 to 0.05, it shows that the contribution of the vertical circulation (horizontal and vertical advection and vertical viscosity terms) becomes more and more relevant as the beach slope increases. In contrast, for a given beach slope, the wave height at the breaking point has a limited impact on the relative contribution of the vertical circulation on the wave setup. For a slope of 0.05, the contribution of the terms associated with the vertical circulation accounts for up to 17% (i.e. a 20% increase) of the total setup at the shoreline, which provides a new explanation for the underestimations reported in previously published studies.

  19. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  20. Evaluation of initial setup errors of two immobilization devices for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Cárdenes, Higinia; Das, Indra J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and efficacy of two commonly used commercial immobilization systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and setup accuracy of two immobilization systems: the Elekta Body Frame (EBF) and the Civco Body Pro-Lok (CBP) in 80 patients evenly divided for each system. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was used before each treatment fraction for setup correction in both devices. Analyzed shifts were applied for setup correction and CBCT was repeated. If a large shift (>5 mm) occurred in any direction, an additional CBCT was employed for verification after localization. The efficacy of patient setup was analyzed for 105 sessions (48 with the EBF, 57 with the CBP). Result indicates that the CBCT was repeated at the 1 st treatment session in 22.5% and 47.5% of the EBF and CBP cases, respectively. The systematic errors {left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), cranio-caudal (CC), and 3D vector shift: (LR 2 + AP 2 + CC 2 ) 1/2 (mm)}, were {0.5 ± 3.7, 2.3 ± 2.5, 0.7 ± 3.5, 7.1 ± 3.1} mm and {0.4 ± 3.6, 0.7 ± 4.0, 0.0 ± 5.5, 9.2 ± 4.2} mm, and the random setup errors were {5.1, 3.0, 3.5, 3.9} mm and {4.6, 4.8, 5.4, 5.3} mm for the EBF and the CBP, respectively. The 3D vector shift was significantly larger for the CBP (P patient comfort could dictate the use of CBP system with slightly reduced accuracy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia; Poulsen, Per; Parikh, Parag

    2016-03-01

    In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often implanted near tumors and used for patient positioning and respiratory gating purposes. These markers are then used to manually align the patients by matching the markers in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction to those in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is 1.3+/- 1.0 mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution A (8 patients, 40 fractions), the DP algorithm increased the delivery accuracy (96+/- 6% versus 91+/- 11% , p  manual setup using kV fluoroscopy. For non-gated patients from Institution B (6 patients, 16 fractions), the DP algorithm performed similarly (1.5+/- 0.8 mm versus 1.6+/- 0.9 mm, p  =  0.48) compared to the manual setup matching the fiducial markers in the CBCT to the mean position. Our proposed automated patient setup algorithm only takes 1-2 s to run, requires no user intervention, and performs as well as or better than the current clinical setup.

  2. Setup of Design Concept for the Secondary System of the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor and Development of Computational Code for the heat balance setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. K.; Seong, S. H.; Kim, S. O.; Eoh, J. H.; Han, J. W.; Cha, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    KAERI developed KALIMER-600 on it own way and now is designing the 600MWe actual sized plant for SFR. Nowadays, it is emphasizing the necessity of the evaluation for NSSS design as a part of the verification for SFR design validity. In other words, it means that should be precede the setup of the heat balance and preliminary design for SFR BOP. Turbine composition was configurated to refer SAMCHEON-PO fossil plant which have similar steam condition. The heat balance of SFR BOP was deduced to based on the NSSS boundary condition of the 600MWe actual sized plant. The algorithm of the heat balance calculation program was developed to refer preliminary heat balance data. and then, the setup of the heat balance for SFR BOP was evaluated. In the performance analysis for the preliminary heat balance of the SFR BOP, it was demonstrated that turbine characteristics are similar to reference plant, such as the SAMCHEON-PO fossil plant and the PFBR of the India

  3. Quantifying Appropriate PTV Setup Margins: Analysis of Patient Setup Fidelity and Intrafraction Motion Using Post-Treatment Megavoltage Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabik, Donata M.; MacKenzie, Marc A.; Fallone, Gino B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present a technique that can be implemented in-house to evaluate the efficacy of immobilization and image-guided setup of patients with different treatment sites on helical tomotherapy. This technique uses an analysis of alignment shifts between kilovoltage computed tomography and post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography images. The determination of the shifts calculated by the helical tomotherapy software for a given site can then be used to define appropriate planning target volume internal margins. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients underwent post-treatment megavoltage computed tomography scans on a helical tomotherapy machine to assess patient setup fidelity and net intrafraction motion. Shifts were studied for the prostate, head and neck, and glioblastoma multiforme. Analysis of these data was performed using automatic and manual registration of the kilovoltage computed tomography and post-megavoltage computed tomography images. Results: The shifts were largest for the prostate, followed by the head and neck, with glioblastoma multiforme having the smallest shifts in general. It appears that it might be more appropriate to use asymmetric planning target volume margins. Each margin value reported is equal to two standard deviations of the average shift in the given direction. Conclusion: This method could be applied using individual patient post-image scanning and combined with adaptive planning to reduce or increase the margins as appropriate

  4. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    , there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions.......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms...

  5. Calculation errors of Set-up in patients with tumor location of prostate. Exploratory study; Calculo de errores de Set-up en pacientes con localizacion tumoral de prostata. Estudio exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis Gil, S.; Robayna Duque, B. E.; Jimenez Sosa, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Gonzalez Martin, A. E.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    The calculation of SM is done from errors in positioning (set-up). These errors are calculated from movements in 3D of the patient. This paper is an exploratory study of 20 patients with tumor location of prostate in which errors of set-up for two protocols of work are evaluated. (Author)

  6. Setup of a Parameterized FE Model for the Die Roll Prediction in Fine Blanking using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, J.; Trauth, D.; Feuerhack, A.; Klocke, F.

    2017-09-01

    Die roll is a morphological feature of fine blanked sheared edges. The die roll reduces the functional part of the sheared edge. To compensate for the die roll thicker sheet metal strips and secondary machining must be used. However, in order to avoid this, the influence of various fine blanking process parameters on the die roll has been experimentally and numerically studied, but there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of some factors and especially factor interactions on the die roll. Recent changes in the field of artificial intelligence motivate the hybrid use of the finite element method and artificial neural networks to account for these non-considered parameters. Therefore, a set of simulations using a validated finite element model of fine blanking is firstly used to train an artificial neural network. Then the artificial neural network is trained with thousands of experimental trials. Thus, the objective of this contribution is to develop an artificial neural network that reliably predicts the die roll. Therefore, in this contribution, the setup of a fully parameterized 2D FE model is presented that will be used for batch training of an artificial neural network. The FE model enables an automatic variation of the edge radii of blank punch and die plate, the counter and blank holder force, the sheet metal thickness and part diameter, V-ring height and position, cutting velocity as well as material parameters covered by the Hensel-Spittel model for 16MnCr5 (1.7131, AISI/SAE 5115). The FE model is validated using experimental trails. The results of this contribution is a FE model suitable to perform 9.623 simulations and to pass the simulated die roll width and height automatically to an artificial neural network.

  7. SU-E-T-463: Quantification of Rotational Variation in Mouse Setup for IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarroll, R; Rubinstein, A; Kingsley, C; Yang, J; Yang, P; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New small-animal irradiators include extremely precise IGRT capabilities. However, mouse immobilization and localization remains a challenge. In particular, unlike week-to-week translational displacements, rotational changes in positioning are not easily corrected for in subject setup. Using two methods of setup, we aim to quantify week-to-week rotational variation in mice for the purpose of IGRT planning in small animal studies. Methods: Ten mice were imaged weekly using breath-hold CBCT (X-RAD 225 Cx), with the mouse positioned in a half-pipe support, providing 40 scans. A second group of two mice were positioned in a 3D printed immobilization device, which was created using a CT from a similarly shaped mouse, providing 10 scans. For each mouse, the first image was taken to be the reference image. Subsequent CT images were then rigidly registered, based on bony anatomy. Rotations in the axial (roll), sagittal (pitch), and coronal (yaw) planes were recorded and used to quantify variation in angular setup. Results: For the mice imaged in the half pipe, average magnitude of roll was found to be 5.4±4.6° (range: −12.9:18.86°), of pitch 1.6±1.3° (range: −1.4:4.7°), and of yaw 1.9±1.5° (range −5.4:1.1°). For the mice imaged in the printed setup; average magnitude of roll was found to be 0.64±0.6° (range: −2.1:1.0°), of pitch 0.6±0.4° (range: 0.0:1.3°), and of yaw 0.2±0.1° (range: 0.0:0.4°). The printed setup provided reduction in roll, pitch, and yaw by 88, 62, and 90 percent, respectively. Conclusion: For the typical setup routine, roll in mouse position is the dominant source of rotational variation. However, when a printed device was used, drastic improvements in mouse immobilization were seen. This work provides a promising foundation for mouse immobilization, required for full scale small animal IGRT. Currently, we are making improvements to allo±w the use of a similar system for MR, PET, and bioluminescence.

  8. An evaluation of setup uncertainties for patients treated to pelvic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Desobry, Gregory E.; Hakki, Morgan; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Successful delivery of conformal fields requires stringent immobilization and treatment verification, as well as knowledge of the setup reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional distribution of setup variations for patients treated to pelvic sites with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) and portal film. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with genitourinary and gynecological cancers immobilized with custom casts and treated with a four-field whole-pelvis technique were imaged daily using an EPID and filmed once every five to seven treatments. The three-dimensional translational and rotational setup errors were determined using a technique that relies on anatomical landmarks identified on simulation and treatment images. The distributions of the translational and rotational variations in each dimension as well as the total displacement of the treatment isocenter from the simulation isocenter were determined. Results: Grouped analysis of all patients revealed average unidirectional translational deviations of less than 2 mm and a standard deviation of 5.3 mm. The average total undirected distance between the treatment and simulated isocenters was 8.3 mm with a standard deviation of 5 mm. Individual patient analysis revealed eight of nine patients had statistically significant nonzero mean translational variations (p < 0.05). Translational variations measured with film were an average of 1.4 mm less than those measured with EPID, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Translational variations measured in this study are in general agreement with previous studies. The use of the EPID in this study was less intrusive and may have resulted in less additional attention being given each imaging setup. This may explain the slightly larger average translational variations observed with EPID vs. film, and suggests that the use of EPIDs is a superior method for assessing the true extent of setup

  9. Detection of patient setup errors with a portal image - DRR registration software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kenneth; Ishikawa, Masayori; Bengua, Gerard; Ito, Yoichi M; Miyamoto, Yoshiko; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-02-18

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a custom portal image - digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) registration software application. The software works by transforming the portal image into the coordinate space of the DRR image using three control points placed on each image by the user, and displaying the fused image. In order to test statistically that the software actually improves setup error estimation, an intra- and interobserver phantom study was performed. Portal images of anthropomorphic thoracic and pelvis phantoms with virtually placed irradiation fields at known setup errors were prepared. A group of five doctors was first asked to estimate the setup errors by examining the portal and DRR image side-by-side, not using the software. A second group of four technicians then estimated the same set of images using the registration software. These two groups of human subjects were then compared with an auto-registration feature of the software, which is based on the mutual information between the portal and DRR images. For the thoracic case, the average distance between the actual setup error and the estimated error was 4.3 ± 3.0 mm for doctors using the side-by-side method, 2.1 ± 2.4 mm for technicians using the registration method, and 0.8 ± 0.4mm for the automatic algorithm. For the pelvis case, the average distance between the actual setup error and estimated error was 2.0 ± 0.5 mm for the doctors using the side-by-side method, 2.5 ± 0.4 mm for technicians using the registration method, and 2.0 ± 1.0 mm for the automatic algorithm. The ability of humans to estimate offset values improved statistically using our software for the chest phantom that we tested. Setup error estimation was further improved using our automatic error estimation algorithm. Estimations were not statistically different for the pelvis case. Consistency improved using the software for both the chest and pelvis phantoms. We also tested the automatic algorithm with a

  10. Development of an experimental apparatus for nucleate boiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.J.A. de.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental apparatus is developed for the study of the parameters that affect nucleate boiling. The experimental set up is tested for nucleate boiling in an annular test section with subcooled water flow. The following parameters are analysed: pressure, fluid velocity and the fluid temperature at the test section entrance. The performance of the experimental apparatus is analysed by the results and by the problems raised by the operation of the setup. (Author) [pt

  11. A fast converging adaptive control scheme for suppression of broadband disturbances on a multi-variable vibration isolation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, G.; van Dijk, J.; Jonker, J.B.; Sas, P.; De Munck, M.

    2006-01-01

    For research and development, a single reference input multiple actuator input multiple error sensor output vibration isolation setup is realized. The objective of the setup is to investigate if the flexible receiver structure can be isolated from the rigid source structure by six piezo-electric

  12. The gas-silicon telescopes setup for the FAZA detector; Zestaw teleskopow gazowo-krzemowych do detektora FAZA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, B.; Bialkowski, E.; Cwikilewicz, M.; Karcz, W.; Skwirczynska, I. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    Description and technical drawing of new detector setup for intermediate mass fragment registration from nuclear multifragmentation is presented. The detector consist of 25 telescopes of silicon semiconductor detectors ({Delta}E) and appropriate ionization chambers (E). It is planned to use 12 pieces of such detector in FAZA detector setup in Laboratory of High Energy Physics at JINR, Dubna 2 refs, 5 figs

  13. Breast patient setup error assessment: comparison of electronic portal image devices and cone-beam computed tomography matching results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolnjak, Rajko; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Nijkamp, Jasper; Rasch, Coen; Minkema, Danny; Remeijer, Peter; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine

    2010-01-01

    To quantify the differences in setup errors measured with the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and electronic portal image devices (EPID) in breast cancer patients. Repeat CBCT scan were acquired for routine offline setup verification in 20 breast cancer patients. During the CBCT imaging

  14. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C. G.; Larsen, B. H.; Andresen, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding...... demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding...... and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding...

  15. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F.

    2013-12-01

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an "unknown" solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  16. Development of a TOF SIMS setup at the Zagreb heavy ion microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadić, Tonči [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bogdanović Radović, Iva, E-mail: iva@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Siketić, Zdravko; Cosic, Donny Domagoj; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) setup for MeV SIMS application, which is constructed and installed at the heavy ion microbeam facility at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The TOF-SIMS setup is developed for high sensitivity molecular imaging using a heavy ion microbeam that focuses ion beams (from C to I) with sub-micron resolution. Dedicated pulse processing electronics for MeV SIMS application have been developed, enabling microbeam-scanning control, incoming ion microbeam pulsing and molecular mapping. The first results showing measured MeV SIMS spectra as well as molecular maps for samples of interest are presented and discussed.

  17. Distributed Episodic and Analogical Reasoning (DEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    with Uncertain Dynamic Outside Options. Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Electronic Contracting ( WEC 󈧈), p.54-61, July 06-06...2004 [doi>10.1109/ WEC .2004.5] Shintani, T., Ito, T., and Sycara, K. (2000). Multiple Negotiations among Agents for a Distributed Meeting Scheduler

  18. Dear CERN and ESO Colleagues and Retirees

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2010-01-01

    Following approval by the CERN Pension Fund Governing Board, the CERN Pension Fund team is pleased to announce the new website address of your Pension Fund: http://pensionfund.cern.ch I take this opportunity to thank all the technical teams at CERN for the quality and rapidity of their support. Kind regards, Théodore Economou CEO, CERN Pension Fund

  19. Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear 3 -8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relationship between the actual steady-state concentrations rather than the equilibrium concentrations. Table 1 shows theKm values of some enzymes. Km depends on the particular substrate used,. pH, temperature and ionic strength. Observed values of Km for differen t substrates and different enzymes vary widel y; the ...

  20. Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear 3 -8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reactions proceed at useful rates under physiological conditions. We had earlier discussed in Part 11 the basic principles of enzyme catalysis and derived the Michaelis-. Menten equation. In this article, the significance of kinetic parameters and analysis of kinetic data will be discussed. Why should one determine K and V ?