Sample records for dead de-epidermized human

  1. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe. (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen V; Parish, Tanya


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules. M. tuberculosis currently causes over 1.8 million deaths a year, making it the world's most deadly human pathogen.

  2. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schütz


    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  3. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases. (United States)

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig


    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  4. The Humanities Are Dead! Long Live the Humanities! (United States)

    Andrews, Larry


    The academic disciplines and values of the humanities in western cultures run from the Greek trivium--grammar, logic, rhetoric--to modern-day studies in history, philosophy, religious studies, literature, languages, art history, and some interdisciplinary studies. What is their future, and what is their relationship to honors education? Are the…

  5. Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar. (United States)

    Miller, Rose T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T


    The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. We surveyed 2.16 ha within five fragments (range 5-228 ha) surrounding human settlements to quantify the density of dead trees and traces of both human and aye-aye activity. Neither aye-aye nor human traces were distributed according to the availability of particular trees species, and aye-ayes and Malagasy apparently preferred several different species. Although overlap was recorded in tree species used, human use tended to be positively correlated with a species' desirability as firewood, while a negative relationship was seen for aye-ayes. Both consumers used trees of similar diameter at breast height, but those used by aye-ayes tended to be older, suggesting that human use might precede usefulness for aye-ayes. Finally, the density of dead trees and aye-aye traces were highest in smaller fragments, but human traces did not vary across fragment size. Although further study is needed to better quantify the aye-aye diet in this region, these data suggest that aye-ayes and local people compete for dead trees, and this competition could constitute a pressure on aye-aye populations.

  6. The Artificial World of Plastination: A Challenge to Religious Perspectives on the Dead Human Body. (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth


    The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed. In searching for theological directives the debate over burial and cremation is used as a means of exploring the respect we give the dead body, and the significance of the resurrection of the body for our views of the dead body. In particular, attention is paid to devaluation of the dead body in situations ranging from dissection of the body through to commercial public exhibitions. The centrality of notions of altruism and 'gift' is discussed. It is concluded that there are many disquieting features to these exhibitions, necessitating caution in approaching them. Nevertheless, in reminding visitors of their mortality and the wonders of the human body, they are not to be dismissed entirely.

  7. The life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a Digital Humanities resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Henny


    Full Text Available This contribution tracks and analyzes the life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a digital project and a rather complex research resource. It gives an account of how the digital archive “Das altägyptische Totenbuch – Ein digitales Textzeugenarchiv” was constructed in the context of the digitization efforts of the Academy for Science of North Rhine-Westphalia. From the beginning, the design of the archive has factored in a life of the digital archive beyond its funding period and has sighted to create a sustainable information resource. The main issues to be discussed here are what experiences have been made with sustainability, use and reuse of the Book of the Dead archive since the official end of the project in December 2012, with a focus on conceptual, technical and organizational aspects. The lessons learned can be of interest for future undertakings in the creation of XML and web-based digital platforms in Digital Classics and beyond. In a nutshell, they are: (a the importance of wary technological choices in an initial phase cannot be underestimated, (b the application and presentation layers of a digital resource, if present, are an essential part of it, (c a certain degree of commitment from the research community and funding bodies alike is indispensable for maintaining a web-based complex Digital Humanities resource.

  8. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)


    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  9. Levels of Cs-137 and pathological shifts in the organs and tissues of dead humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikov, E.F.; Koleganov, Yu.F.; Lantsov, S.I.; Mozhaev, V.K.; Solov'eva, L.P.; Fomin, S.D.


    Measurements of the levels of Cs-137, alpha- and beta-radionuclides in the organs and tissues of 30 subjects dead 6 years after the accident, assessment of the pathological shifts and relationships between these shifts and exposure was carried out at territories contaminated with radionuclides in the Bryansk and Kaluga districts, in the town of Obninsk, and in region of Russia free of radionuclides. Study of radioautographs did not show alpha- or beta-radionuclides in any of the dead subjects. Cs-137 was detected in small quantities in the organs of all cadavers (3 to 424 Bq/kg) irrespective of their residence. The extent of radioactivity varied for different organs and was unrelated to organ pathology. Moreover, Cs-137 was detected in the organs of dead newborns and two-month-old infants, whose patients lived at territories contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  10. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K. R.; Wilby, Robert L.; Murphy, Conor


    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  11. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress. (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K R; Wilby, Robert L; Murphy, Conor


    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  12. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  13. Live/Dead Comparisons of Ostracodes in Temperate Lakes Reveal Evidence of Human Impact and Provides a Tool to Measure the Progress of Remediation Efforts (United States)

    Spergel, J.; Kimball, K. C.; Fitzpatrick, S. A.; Michelson, A. V.; Leonard-Pingel, J.


    Lake ecosystems face a multitude of environmental threats including: eutrophication, overfishing, and heavy metal pollution. Tools to identify lakes impacted by human activity and quantify that impact are needed to combat their environmental degradation. One such promising tool has been the comparison between living communities and associated time-averaged death assemblages of mollusks in marine environments. Here we extend the reach of such live/dead comparisons using ostracodes in temperate lakes. We sampled six lakes in Wisconsin for living communities and associated death assemblages of ostracodes: two lakes impacted by human activity, two relatively "pristine" lakes, and two remediated lakes. We took sixteen grab samples of the upper centimeter of sediment in each lake, capturing simultaneously living benthic ostracodes and discarded valves of dead ostracodes. We found that impacted lakes had lower live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-order abundance distributions and greater within-lake variation in death assemblages than "pristine" lakes. Additionally, the living communities in the impacted lakes tended to be lower in species richness and have lower evenness than "pristine" lakes. Remediated lakes displayed similar live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-abundance distributions to "pristine" lakes and had lower within-lake variation in death assemblages than impacted lakes. Remediated lakes also contained living communities that tended to be richer and more even than impacted lakes. The lower live/dead fidelity of ostracodes in impacted lakes indicate live/dead ostracode comparisons can provide a tool to identify lake ecosystems impacted by humans. The similar results of remediated and "pristine" lakes indicate remediation efforts in these lakes have been successful in alleviating environmental impact detrimental to ostracode communities. This result indicates live/dead comparisons of ostracodes can be a useful tool to monitor

  14. Human Capital and Rates of Return: Brilliant Ideas or Ideological Dead Ends? (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.


    Human capital theory and rate of return methodology have long been a dominant framework in comparative and international education and other fields. While there have been criticisms since its inception, it has been ubiquitous and widely accepted as an important mechanism for educational planning, evaluation, and policy making. In this article, I…

  15. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer


    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  16. The Seven Deadly Tensions of Health-Related Human Information Behavior

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    J. David Johnson


    Full Text Available Tensions are a ubiquitous feature of social life and are manifested in a number of particular forms: contradictory logics, competing demands, clashes of ideas, contradictions, dialectics, irony, paradoxes, and/or dilemmas. This essay aims to explore in detail tensions surrounding seven common findings of the information seeking literature relating to: interpersonal communication, accessibility, level of skill, individual preferences, psychological limits, inertia, and costs. Our incomplete understanding of these tensions can lead us to suggest resolutions that do not recognize their underlying dualities. Human information behavior stands at the intersection of many important theoretical and policy issues (e.g., personalized medicine. Policy makers need to be more attuned to these basic tensions of information seeking recognizing the real human limits they represent to informing the public. So, even if you build a great information system, people will not necessarily use it because of the force of these underlying tensions. While rationality rules systems, irrationality rules people. The proliferation of navigator roles over the last several years is actually a hopeful sign: recognition that people need a human interface to inform them about our ever more complex health care systems.

  17. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone. (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D


    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deadly progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, R.; Abbotts, J.


    Nuclear power plants are safe, they help to get through the future bottle-neck in the field of energy, nuclear power plants provide for cheap electrical power and support economic growth - these are the sedative formulae which have been used for years to close the populations eyes towards the real problems. In this book, the American lawyer Ralph Nader and the nuclear chemist John Abbots not only oppose this myth of atomic safety, but they also defeat this theory with numerous technical, economic, and political details. Having realized the fact that the development of atomic energy can no longer be prevented by warnings of independent experts, but only by massive protests by the population - i.e. the protest by informed persons-, they give an understandable introduction to the techniques of atomic energy, construction of nuclear power plants, radioactive radiation, safety, etc. Furthermore, they inform about the social, political, and economic background of the nuclear power forcing. Nader and Abbots show the uncertainty of science, they bring secret documents about failures already occured and point out the catastrophic consequences of possible defects. The result of the thorough study: A 'technologic Vietnam' impends both USA and all other nuclear power countries, if the population won't struggle against this dead-end programme of the governments. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge


    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...

  20. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?


    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.


    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  1. Deadly Simulacra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo Leone


    Taking the lead from a tale by French writer Prosper Mérimée,narrating the terrifying story of a statue of Venus that suddenly—and tragically—becomes alive,the paper will dwell on the several versions of this narrative topos(William of Malmesbury in the 12th Century,Gautier de Coincy in the 13th,Hermann Kroner in the 15th,up to Richard Burton in the 17th,Joseph von Eichendorff in the 19th,Gabriele D’Annunzio in the 20th)in order to semiotically refl ect on two streams of the human imaginary:on the one hand,the statue that becomes alive;on the other hand,the human being that becomes a statue.Following such historical,anthropological,and semiotic excursus,the paper will conclude with an in-depth analysis of a very common present-day urban performance:living statues.Also with reference to contemporary British novel Observatory Mansions,by Edward Carey,the paper will seek to answer the following questions:why is the spectacle of the human body that becomes like stone so fascinating?Why are spectators attracted by immobility and yet offer their coins in order to see it turn into movement and life again?

  2. Late Quaternary environmental and human events at En Gedi, reflected by the geology and archaeology of the Moringa Cave (Dead Sea area, Israel) (United States)

    Lisker, Sorin; Porat, Roi; Davidovich, Uri; Eshel, Hanan; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Frumkin, Amos


    The Moringa Cave within Pleistocene sediments in the En Gedi area of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment contains a sequence of various Pleistocene lacustrine deposits associated with higher-than-today lake levels at the Dead Sea basin. In addition it contains Chalcolithic remains and 5th century BC burials attributed to the Persian period, cemented and covered by Late Holocene travertine flowstone. These deposits represent a chain of Late Pleistocene and Holocene interconnected environmental and human events, echoing broader scale regional and global climate events. A major shift between depositional environments is associated with the rapid fall of Lake Lisan level during the latest Pleistocene. This exposed the sediments, providing for cave formation processes sometime between the latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka) and the Middle Holocene (ca. 4500 BC), eventually leading to human use of the cave. The Chalcolithic use of the cave can be related to a relatively moist desert environment, probably related to a shift in the location of the northern boundary of the Saharo-Arabian desert belt. The travertine layer was U-Th dated 2.46 ± 0.10 to 2.10 ± 0.04 ka, in agreement with the archaeological finds from the Persian period. Together with the inner consistency of the dating results, this strongly supports the reliability of the radiometric ages. The 2.46-2.10 ka travertine deposition within the presently dry cave suggests a higher recharge of the Judean Desert aquifer, correlative to a rising Dead Sea towards the end of the 1st millennium BC. This suggests a relatively moist local and regional climate facilitating human habitation of the desert.

  3. Structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1, a putative interaction platform within a DEAD-box protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Julian N.; Meinhart, Anton, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1 was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The SPRY domain provides a putative protein–protein interaction platform within DDX1 that differs from other SPRY domains in its structure and conserved regions. The human RNA helicase DDX1 in the DEAD-box family plays an important role in RNA processing and has been associated with HIV-1 replication and tumour progression. Whereas previously described DEAD-box proteins have a structurally conserved core, DDX1 shows a unique structural feature: a large SPRY-domain insertion in its RecA-like consensus fold. SPRY domains are known to function as protein–protein interaction platforms. Here, the crystal structure of the SPRY domain of human DDX1 (hDSPRY) is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure reveals two layers of concave, antiparallel β-sheets that stack onto each other and a third β-sheet beneath the β-sandwich. A comparison with SPRY-domain structures from other eukaryotic proteins showed that the general β-sandwich fold is conserved; however, differences were detected in the loop regions, which were identified in other SPRY domains to be essential for interaction with cognate partners. In contrast, in hDSPRY these loop regions are not strictly conserved across species. Interestingly, though, a conserved patch of positive surface charge is found that may replace the connecting loops as a protein–protein interaction surface. The data presented here comprise the first structural information on DDX1 and provide insights into the unique domain architecture of this DEAD-box protein. By providing the structure of a putative interaction domain of DDX1, this work will serve as a basis for further studies of the interaction network within the hetero-oligomeric complexes of DDX1 and of its recruitment to the HIV-1 Rev protein as a viral replication factor.

  4. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips


    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  5. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim


    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  6. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.


    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  7. Youth in Dead End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  8. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D.


    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  9. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt. (United States)

    Brugger, E Christian


    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham


    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  11. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  12. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof


    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...

  13. The Dead Sea (United States)


    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  14. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams


    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  15. Are We the Walking Dead? Burnout as Zombie Apocalypse. (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R


    The Walking Dead , one of the most popular television shows in recent history, uses the plot of a zombie apocalypse as a lens into exploring the human condition. Amidst a particularly dangerous moment, the show's hero references the human struggle to survive by remarking, " We are the walking dead." This offhand comment sheds light upon physicians' struggles in medicine, in particular the high prevalence of burnout and the challenge to cultivate compassion and meaning. This is an important question for our age and for our profession. Are we the walking dead? © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  16. Dressing the dead body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Nordström


    Full Text Available My current research focuses on textiles and rites, especially woven textiles for funerals and moments of loss. What active role can a textile such as an infant-wrapping cloth or a funeral pall play in the mourning process? This article will describe the development and current questions that address 1 the infant-wrapping cloth – the textile that is used to dress, clothe, or cover the dead body with particular attention to the question of infant mortality and the material practices of care. 2 The funeral pall that is used at funerals, draped over the coffin or as a body cover at hospital viewing rooms. One example to be presented is Kortedalakrönika (‘The Chronicle of Kortedala’, a collaborative project, woven for a church in Gothenburg. My work is based in artistic practice but opens up several scientific and existential questions.

  17. Dead of night. (United States)

    Balter, Leon


    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  18. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.


    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  19. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read


    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  20. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  1. The deadly progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewermann, E.


    The extent to which man of modern times destroys nature has reached a breathtaking speed nowadays. The language of facts is clear. The author of the present study considers a radical change of the present conception of the world and the human being as the only salvation from a total catastrophe. 'Crisis of the environment' is, however, no technical but a religious and an intellectual problem. This open-minded and explosive book does just as little stop at false moving forces of Christianity with regard to its anthorpocentric philosophy as it stops at the modern type of man being atheistic in his basic nature. (orig.) [de

  2. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting (United States)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  3. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.


    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  4. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must be...

  5. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead. (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E


    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  6. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard


    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  7. Case report: Detection of the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV in nasal secretions of a dead human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed H. Mahallawi, PhD


    Full Text Available الملخص: يُعرف فيروس ”كورونا“ المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية على أنه فيروس شديد العدوى يصيب الجهاز التنفسي مع معدلات مرتفعة في المضاعفات والوفيات. يُحمِّل فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية عبئا كبيرا على مرافق الرعاية الصحية في المملكة العربية السعودية بنسبة وفيات تقارب الـ ٤٠٪. ولا يزال انتقال الفيروس غير مفهوم بشكل جيد. ولذلك، فإن منع أي طريق للانتقال هو أفضل وسيلة لمنع انتشار هذا المرض. تم باستخدام تفاعل البوليميرايز المتسلسل الآني، الكشف عن فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية في الافرازات الأنفية لجثة. لذا ينبغي تطبيق الاحتياطات الكاملة ومتابعتها لمنع انتقال الفيروس، خاصة بين العاملين في مجال الرعاية الصحية. Abstract: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus that infects the human respiratory tract and has high morbidity and mortality. The MERS-CoV is a huge burden on Saudi Arabian health-care facilities, causing approximately 40% mortality. The transmission mechanism of the virus is still not well understood. Therefore, the prevention of any route of transmission is the best measure to arrest the spread of this disease. Using the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, MERS-CoV was detected in the nasal secretions of a human cadaver. Full precautions should be applied and carefully followed to prevent the transmission of the virus, especially among health care workers. الكلمات

  8. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor


    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  9. Dead time of dual detector tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.


    A theory of the dead time for the dual detector nuclear tool with the analogue signal transmission is given in the paper. At least two different times exist in such tools: the dead time of detectors (for final computation they assumed identical to each other) and the dead time of the signal transmission set-up. A method of two radioactive sources is proposed to measure these two different dead times. When the times used for measuring every countrate needed in the dead time determination algorithm are taken into account, the statistical accuracy of the dead time determination can be obtained. These estimations are performed by the computer simulation method. Two codes have been designed: DEADT2D (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors) and DEADT2DS (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors with Statistics). The first code calculates the dead time based on the recorded countrates only, the second is doing a 'simulation job' and provides information on the statistical distribution of the observed dead times. The theory and the numerical solutions were checked both by the simulation calculations and by the experiments performed with the ODSN-102 tool (the experiments were performed by T. Zorski). (Author)

  10. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.


    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  11. Ecology, environmental requirements and conservation of corticioid fungi occupying small diameter dead wood


    Juutilainen, Katja


    The increasing human impact upon the biosphere of earth is causing profound changes across all spatial scales. The ability to cope with human-induced disturbance varies among organisms; specialist species are more negatively affected than generalist species. Forests are among the most heavily affected ecosystems; especially the dead wood associated organisms are in peril. The earlier research has strongly focused on large diameter dead wood and associated species. The ...

  12. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.


    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  13. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  14. Determination of detection equipment dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, J.


    A method is described of determining dead time by short-lived source measurement. It is based on measuring the sample count rates in different time intervals when only dead time correction is changed with the changing count of recorded pulses. The dead time may be determined from the measured values by a numerical-graphical method. The method is described. The advantage of the method is the minimization of errors and inaccuracies; the disadvantage is that the half-life of the source used should very accurately be known. (J.P.)

  15. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.


    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  16. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters. (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P


    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  17. Another method of dead time correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.


    A new method of the correction of counting losses caused by a non-extended dead time of pulse detection systems is presented. The approach is based on the distribution of time intervals between pulses at the output of the system. The method was verified both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the suggested technique is more reliable and accurate than other methods based on a separate measurement of the dead time. (author) 5 refs

  18. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and are received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass...

  19. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa


    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  20. The Right to be Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Troyer, John Eric


    Cemetery explicitly embraces death as the singular human experience that is paradoxically both universal and radically individualised. Such an approach creates opportunities for addressing how the human mortality ‘experience’ was transformed during the twentieth-century by specific kinds of First World......We all know death is in the future. We just want to make the future more visible. That is the central design ethos for the Future Cemetery project in Bristol, England. Based at Arnos Vale Cemetery, the Future Cemetery is a partnership between the Centre for Death and Society at the University....../3 the population of Bristol city), either through burial or cremation. It remains a working cemetery that covers 45 acres near the city centre and in June 2012 the Arnos Vale Cemetery Trust signed a new 125-year lease with the city of Bristol. Since its founding, the Future Cemetery has explicitly explored...

  1. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force. (United States)


    ..., is substantially important to national security. (See paragraph (b) of this section.) (iii) Escape of... security or an essential national defense mission. (2) Substantially important to national security based... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a...

  2. Bibliography on dead-time effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) Working Party has assembled a bibliography of the publications dealing with the measurement of dead times, the evaluation of the corresponding corrections and of other closely related subjects. It contains some 350 references, each of which is given with its full title; an author index is added. The search has been stopped in August 1975

  3. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  4. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.


    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  5. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.


    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  6. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, D.J.


    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  7. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M


    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  8. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane


    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  9. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  10. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  11. Perturbative search for dead-end CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yu


    To explore the possibility of self-organized criticality, we look for CFTs without any relevant scalar deformations (a.k.a. dead-end CFTs) within power-counting renormalizable quantum field theories with a weakly coupled Lagrangian description. In three dimensions, the only candidates are pure (Abelian) gauge theories, which may be further deformed by Chern-Simons terms. In four dimensions, we show that there are infinitely many non-trivial candidates based on chiral gauge theories. Using the three-loop beta functions, we compute the gap of scaling dimensions above the marginal value, and it can be as small as O(10"−"5) and robust against the perturbative corrections. These classes of candidates are very weakly coupled and our perturbative conclusion seems difficult to refute. Thus, the hypothesis that non-trivial dead-end CFTs do not exist is likely to be false in four dimensions.

  12. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea (United States)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.


    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  13. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao


    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  14. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota


    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.


    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.


    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  17. Organismal death, the dead-donor rule and the ethics of vital organ procurement. (United States)

    Symons, Xavier; Chua, Reginald Mary


    Several bioethicists have recently discussed the complexity of defining human death, and considered in particular how our definition of death affects our understanding of the ethics of vital organ procurement. In this brief paper, we challenge the mainstream medical definition of human death-namely, that death is equivalent to total brain failure-and argue with Nair-Collins and Miller that integrated biological functions can continue even after total brain failure has occurred. We discuss the implications of Nair-Collins and Miller's argument and suggest that it may be necessary to look for alternative biological markers that reliably indicate the death of a human being. We reject the suggestion that we should abandon the dead-donor criteria for organ donation. Rather than weaken the ethical standards for vital organ procurement, it may be necessary to make them more demanding. The aim of this paper is not to justify the dead donor rule. Rather, we aim to explore the perspective of those who agree with critiques of the whole brain and cardiopulmonary definitions of death but yet disagree with the proposal that we should abandon the dead-donor rule. We will consider what those who want to retain the dead-donor rule must argue in light of Nair-Collins and Miller's critique. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmeier, Christoph, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Agnon, Amotz [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Al-Halbouni, Djamil [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Alpert, Pinhas [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Corsmeier, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dahm, Torsten [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Eshel, Adam [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Geyer, Stefan [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kalthoff, Norbert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kishcha, Pavel [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Krawczyk, Charlotte [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Lati, Joseph [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Laronne, Jonathan B. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva (Israel); Lott, Friederike [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Metzger, Jutta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mohsen, Ayman [An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); and others


    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~ 1 m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  19. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Agnon, Amotz; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Alpert, Pinhas; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Dahm, Torsten; Eshel, Adam; Geyer, Stefan; Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kishcha, Pavel; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Lati, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Lott, Friederike; Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf; Metzger, Jutta; Mohsen, Ayman


    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~ 1 m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  20. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed (United States)

    Grue, John


    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  1. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma. (United States)

    Meoded Danon, Limor


    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Spiritual bonds to the dead in cross-cultural and historical perspective: comparative religion and modern grief. (United States)

    Klass, D; Goss, R


    Contemporary spirituality within continuing bonds with the dead is placed into the comparative context of Western Christianity and Japanese Buddhism. Throughout history, humans have maintained interaction with two kinds of dead: ancestors and sacred dead, the first characterized by symmetrical relationships and the second by asymmetrical. Continuing bonds are deeply connected with, and are often in conflict with, bonds to the nation and (in the West) to God. In this framework, the authors find that continuing bonds in the present function within the private sphere and have very limited functions within the larger society, resemble traditional bonds with the sacred dead, and, at this time, offer a mild critique of the values and lifestyles on which consumer capitalism is based.

  3. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star (United States)


    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  4. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik


    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  5. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver


    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  6. A new G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.


    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  7. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.


    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  8. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef (United States)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.


    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  9. Dead Sea deep cores: A window into past climate and seismicity (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Goldstein, Steven L.


    The area surrounding the Dead Sea was the locus of humankind's migration out of Africa and thus has been the home of peoples since the Stone Age. For this reason, understanding the climate and tectonic history of the region provides valuable insight into archaeology and studies of human history and helps to gain a better picture of future climate and tectonic scenarios. The deposits at the bottom of the Dead Sea are a geological archive of the environmental conditions (e.g., rains, floods, dust storms, droughts) during ice ages and warm ages, as well as of seismic activity in this key region. An International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) deep drilling project was performed in the Dead Sea between November 2010 and March 2011. The project was funded by the ICDP and agencies in Israel, Germany, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States. Drilling was conducted using the new Large Lake Drilling Facility (Figure 1), a barge with a drilling rig run by DOSECC, Inc. (Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust), a nonprofit corporation dedicated to advancing scientific drilling worldwide. The main purpose of the project was to recover a long, continuous core to provide a high resolution record of the paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, paleoseismicity, and paleomagnetism of the Dead Sea Basin. With this, scientists are beginning to piece together a record of the climate and seismic history of the Middle East during the past several hundred thousand years in millennial to decadal to annual time resolution.

  10. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parents/caregivers' attitudes toward dead neonates. Hospital-based postbereavement programs should be organized to ... Dead neonates at the Neonatal Intensive Care Units,. Pediatric Emergency Department, Pediatric Surgical .... interventions and newborn survival. Niger J Med 2006; 15:108–114. 3 Kalkofen RW. After a ...

  11. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son


    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  12. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey


    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  13. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)


    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  14. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time. (United States)

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others


    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  16. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.


    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  17. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area. (United States)


    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including any... poultry at the destination listed on the permit required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (b) Dressed... quarantined area only if: (1) The dressed carcasses are from birds or poultry that were slaughtered in a...

  18. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël


    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  19. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas


    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  20. Spectral classifying base on color of live corals and dead corals covered with algae (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Barille, Laurent; Akbar, A. S. M.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Fitrah, Muh. Nur; Prasyad, Hermansyah


    Pigments in the host tissues of corals can make a significant contribution to their spectral signature and can affect their apparent color as perceived by a human observer. The aim of this study is classifying the spectral reflectance of corals base on different color. It is expected that they can be used as references in discriminating between live corals, dead coral covered with algae Spectral reflectance data was collected in three small islands, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia by using a hyperspectral radiometer underwater. First and second derivative analysis resolved the wavelength locations of dominant features contributing to reflectance in corals and support the distinct differences in spectra among colour existed. Spectral derivative analysis was used to determine the specific wavelength regions ideal for remote identification of substrate type. The analysis results shown that yellow, green, brown and violet live corals are spectrally separable from each other, but they are similar with dead coral covered with algae spectral.

  1. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida


    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  2. Optimal linear filtering of Poisson process with dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhova, E.V.


    The paper presents a derivation of an integral equation defining the impulsed transient of optimum linear filtering for evaluation of the intensity of the fluctuating Poisson process with allowance for dead time of transducers

  3. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania


    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  4. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment. (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah


    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  5. Dead wood for biodiversity - foresters torn between mistrust and commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuffic, Philippe


    Dead wood is a key element in forest biodiversity, which is used as one of the indicators for sustainable development of forests. A survey was conducted among foresters and users in the Landes de Gascogne and ile-de-France areas so as to assess practises and social representations associated with dead wood. From the results of the survey, it appears that there is a diversity of practices and divergences about the implications connected with dead wood. The 64 respondents can be divided into roughly six groups (G1: 'industrial foresters', G2: the 'silvicultural foresters', G3: the 'remote foresters', G4: the 'environmentalist foresters', G5: the 'naturalists' and G6: the 'users'). Among other things, they can be differentiated by their management practises, their degree of knowledge about and concern with ecology, their social networks, their aesthetic judgment, their perception of risks and their economic requirements. While underscoring the scarce popularity on average of the biodiversity-related issues, this sociological survey also highlights: the need for a minimal regulatory framework to achieve integrated retention of dead wood, the serious concern of forest managers in the Landes with plant health risks associated with dead wood, and the need for a functional justification for keeping dead wood in the ecosystem. (authors)

  6. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest. (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel


    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  7. Re Edwards (2011) 4 ASTLR 392: who owns a dead man's sperm? (United States)

    Patel, Jatine; Faunce, Thomas


    Re Edwards (2011) 4 ASTLR 392; [2011] NSWSC 478 adds to the small line of cases to have considered whether a woman can not only require medical staff to remove sperm from her dead male partner, but whether she is justified in terms of law and international human rights to use it to create children. In this case a Justice of the New South Wales Supreme Court framed the issue as "what right does a woman have to take sperm from the body of her deceased partner so that she may conceive a child?" He did so, despite the manifest ambiguity and difficulty in characterising the legislative rights in this case, without referring to substantive human rights obligations under international Conventions to which Australia is a ratifying party (particularly Art 10 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Art 23 of the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Technological advances such as those creating the possibility of capturing a dead person's sperm by electro-ejaculation and creating children by subjecting it to intracytoplasmic sperm injection in connection with in vitro fertilisation have altered the balance of individual and social interests in deciding who should be regarded as owning a dead man's sperm and how that relates to basic common law rights of bodily inviolability without free consent. It is to be regretted that in jurisdictions lacking relevant constitutional human rights, or legislation requiring coherence with international human rights, judges do not avail themselves in cases of statutory ambiguity of interpretative insights to be gained from legally binding human rights treaties to which Australia is a party.

  8. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.


    - FR (NPP Gravelines) was conducted (22-23th of May 2001). The main objectives of the INEX series of exercises were focused on: decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions; the use of real time communications with actual equipment and procedures; public information and interaction with media; the use of real weather for real time forecasts. For real further improvement of (nuclear) emergency management and response, not only national and international exercises such as INEX, CONVEX, JINEX etc. are needed, but the efforts to improve personal performance of key-persons involved is crucial. Structural plans to train and exercise individuals and teams should therefore be developed as well. To move the dead horse and create a racehorse need a lot of personal skills and attention. It is also recognized that often the carrot is better than the whip. (author)

  9. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project. (United States)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Agnon, Amotz; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Alpert, Pinhas; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Dahm, Torsten; Eshel, Adam; Geyer, Stefan; Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kishcha, Pavel; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Lati, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Lott, Friederike; Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf; Metzger, Jutta; Mohsen, Ayman; Morin, Efrat; Nied, Manuela; Rödiger, Tino; Salameh, Elias; Sawarieh, Ali; Shannak, Benbella; Siebert, Christian; Weber, Michael


    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~1m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  10. 3D Imaging of Dead Sea Area Using Weighted Multipath Summation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemer Keydar


    Full Text Available The formation of sinkholes along the Dead Sea is caused by the rapid decline of the Dead Sea level, as a possible result of human extensive activity. According to one of the geological models, the sinkholes in several sites are clustered along a narrow coastal strip developing along lineaments representing faults in NNW direction. In order to understand the relationship between a developing sinkhole and its tectonic environment, a high-resolution (HR three-dimensional (3D seismic reflection survey was carried out at the western shoreline of the Dead Sea. A recently developed 3D imaging approach was applied to this 3D dataset. Imaging of subsurface is performed by a spatial summation of seismic waves along time surfaces using recently proposed multipath summation with proper weights. The multipath summation is performed by stacking the target waves along all possible time surfaces having a common apex at the given point. This approach does not require any explicit information on parameters since the involved multipath summation is performed for all possible parameters values within a wide specified range. The results from processed 3D time volume show subhorizontal coherent reflectors at approximate depth of 50–80 m which incline on closer location to the exposed sinkhole and suggest a possible linkage between revealed fault and the sinkholes.

  11. Bioremediation of oxytetracycline in seawater by living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. (United States)

    Santaeufemia, Sergio; Torres, Enrique; Mera, Roi; Abalde, Julio


    Due to its use, a large amount of Oxytetracycline (OTC) is released into water, which has a detrimental impact on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Although there are different physicochemical methods (mainly photodegradation) to remove OTC, there is increasing interest in the use of bioremediation. The sorption characteristics of OTC using living and dead biomass of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum have been investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherms and maximum elimination capacity were tested and discussed. Kinetic studies showed that the OTC removal by living biomass followed a sigmoidal model. However, the dead biomass followed a pseudo-first order model. The living biomass showed higher efficiency than the dead biomass with maximum sorption capacities of 29.18mgg -1 and 4.54mgg -1 , respectively. Combination of living biomass and photodegradation under the culture conditions eliminated 13.2mgL -1 of OTC during 11h of culture and with an initial OTC concentration of 15mgL -1 . With an initial OTC concentration of 2.5mgL -1 , 97% of OTC was removed. This removal was mainly caused by bioremediation than by photodegradation. The results proved the potential practical application of the living P. tricornutum biomass for a low-cost and efficient removal of OTC from seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes. (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C


    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  13. A method for the measurement of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.


    Equations are derived for (a) the determination of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system in the components preceding the paralysis unit which imposes the set dead time, and (b) a more accurate correction of count rates in a single-channel system, taking into account the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. (author)

  14. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat (United States)

    Hagar, Joan


    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  15. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.


    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  16. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.


    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)


    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  18. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  19. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art. (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  20. [Bioethics is dead. Long live medical ethics!]. (United States)

    Barrio Maestre, José María


    The purpose of this paper is to show a paradigmatic crisis in academic bioethics. Since an important part of bioethicists began to relativize the ethical prohibition of killing an innocent human being, one way or another they began to ally with the death industry: the business of abortion, and then that of euthanasia. The thesis of this paper is that by crossing that Rubicon bioethics has been corrupted and has lost its connection to the ethical, political and legal discourse. One can only hope that it will revive from its ashes if it retakes the ″taboo″ of the sacredness of human life, something for which medical ethics could provide invaluable help, because it still keeps the notion that ″a doctor should not kill″, although in an excessively ″discreet″ and somehow ″ashamed″ way. However, conscientious doctors know more about ethics than most bioethicists.

  1. De Plein Fouet: Is Strategy Dead? (United States)


    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Air Force Research Institute,Air & Space Power Journal,155 N. Twining St., Bldg. 693,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...strategies for every lofty and mundane human endeavor. Hundreds of millions of dollars—maybe billions—are spent annually on crafting visions and

  2. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites. (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn


    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  3. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  4. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Jan A.


    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  5. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi


    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  6. Detection of sinkhole precursors along the Dead Sea, Israel by SAR interferometry (United States)

    Nof, Ran; Baer, Gidon; Ziv, Alon; Eyal, Yehuda; Raz, Eli; Atzori, Simone; Salvi, Stefano


    The water level of the Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) has been dropping at an increasing rate since the 1960s, exceeding a meter per year during the last decade. This water-level drop has triggered the formation of sinkholes and widespread land subsidence along the Dead Sea shorelines, resulting in severe economic loss and infrastructural damage. In this study, sinkhole-related precursory subsidence and the effects of human activities on sinkhole development are examined through Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements and field surveys conducted in Israel during the year 2012. Interferograms were generated using the COSMO-SkyMed satellite images and a high-resolution (0.5 m/pixel) elevation model that was obtained from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Thanks to this unique integration of high-resolution datasets, mm-scale subsidence may be resolved in both undisturbed and human-disturbed environments. A few months long precursory subsidence occurred in all three sinkhole sites reported in this study. The centers of the subsiding areas and successive sinkholes in a specific site show lateral migration, possibly due to progressive dissolution and widening of the underlying cavities. Certain human activities, such as filling of newly formed sinkholes by gravel, or mud injections into nearby drill holes, seem to enhance land subsidence, widen existing sinkholes or even generate new sinkholes.

  7. Dead Souls”: Gogol’s Interpretation of the State of Insanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Chervinska


    Full Text Available Actual outline of creating the concept of literary insanity (in the aspect of poetics of dialogue, narrative, motif of duality, etc. is overviewed. The article states that in the fiction by Nicolai Gogol a graduated sequence of various states and degrees of madness is fully represented in “The Collected Petersburg Tales”. Here, this paradigm is considered to be the principle of graduation in all levels of manner as a key suggestive genre construct of “Dead Souls”. The mental isomorphism of the paradigm meaning content, associated with the peculiarities of the religious, as well as the verbal, consciousness is emphasized in the article. The author stresses that the anthropological vector of Gogol's attention is directed towards the ordinary “despicable and stupid in the life”. The ironic example of the discursive metaphor of a pendulum of history (the philosophical background of the text is the slip-in parable of Kif Mokievich and his son Mokii Kifovich. Both characters are at opposite sides of the proper. The world of human relations in “Dead Souls” is reflected in the most straightforward analogies with constant teeming world of different microscopic creatures. To give prominence to the human image Gogol refers to the colourful ontological metaphor, ultimately identifying and equating the person with ordinary fly, which in this text is a significant element of the whole hyper-realistic person-sphere. Conversion of large to small or small to large is the dimensioned game of the author’s strategy in the literal sense. In “Dead Souls” the denoted topic decisively grounds for the genre of the poem.

  8. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog. (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa


    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Coincidence counting corrections for dead time losses and accidental coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.


    An equation is derived for the calculation of the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting taking into account the dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The derivation is an extension of the method of J. Bryant [Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 14:143, 1963]. The improvement on Bryant's formula has been verified by experiment

  10. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P


    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  11. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial biomethanization. This study was investigated with the aim of evaluating the biofuel potentials of dead neem leaves in Maroua town. The number of neem trees, as well as biomass produced by ...

  12. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005


    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis: A deadly disease | Cree | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the diagnosis, cause, course and required treatment of this deadly disease among physicians and surgeons around the world is limited. Methods: A study was undertaken at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka Zambia to review the incidence, associated pathology, management given, ...

  14. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas


    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  15. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise


    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  16. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  17. Theory of precipitation effects on dead cylindrical fuels (United States)

    Michael A. Fosberg


    Numerical and analytical solutions of the Fickian diffusion equation were used to determine the effects of precipitation on dead cylindrical forest fuels. The analytical solution provided a physical framework. The numerical solutions were then used to refine the analytical solution through a similarity argument. The theoretical solutions predicted realistic rates of...

  18. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis


    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  19. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers. (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T


    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.

  20. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns ...

  1. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj


    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  2. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.


    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  3. Stylistic Variation In Three English Translations Of The Dead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 different English translations were published. In this article the stylistic variation of three of these translations are analysed. It is suggested that the issue of stylistic variation boils down to linguistically inscribed preference in the choice and construction of discourses in the ...

  4. Down dead wood statistics for Maine timberlands, 1995 (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; David C. Chojnacky; David C. Chojnacky


    Down dead wood (DDW) is important for its role in carbon and nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, wildfire behavior, plant reproduction, and wildlife habitat. DDW was measured for the first time during a forest inventory of Maine by the USDA Forest Service in 1994-1996. Pieces greater than 3 feet long and greater than 3 inches in diameter at point of intersection...

  5. Literary Genres in Poetic Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls (United States)

    Pickut, William Douglas


    Among the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are four literary compositions that bear the superscriptional designations shir and mizmor. These designations correspond directly to superscriptional designations provided many times in both the now-canonical Psalter and the various witnesses to those texts unearthed at Qumran. On its face, this fact…

  6. Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead Mosquito at a Time By Alex Perry (2011). Melissa Raemaekers. Abstract. Pp xiv + 219. R210. Picador Africa, Pan Macmillan, South Africa. 2011. ISBN 978-1-77010-146-3. February 2012, Vol. 102, No. 2 SAMJ. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  7. Cowboys and zombies: destabilizing patriarchal discourse in The Walking Dead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.


    The serialized comic book The Walking Dead, written by Robert Kirkman and drawn by Charlie Adlard, has been published by Image Comics from October 2003, and is still being released in monthly instalments as of this writing. It has won numerous awards, including the prestigious Eisner Award for Best

  8. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe


    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  9. The active structure of the Dead Sea depression (United States)

    Shamir, G.


    The ~220km long gravitational and structural Dead Sea Depression (DSD), situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), is centered by the Dead Sea basin sensu strictu (DSB), which has been described since the 1960?s as a pull-apart basin over a presumed left-hand fault step. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, question this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v); It is apparently inconsistent with the symmetrical structure of the DSD; (vi) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. Integration of newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution and petroleum seismic reflection data, earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments) now shows that the active upper crustal manifestation of the DSD is a broad shear zone dominated by internal fault systems oriented NNE and NNW. These fault systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. Motion on the NNE system is normal-dextral, suggesting that counterclockwise rotation may have taken place within the shear zone. The overall sinistral motion between the Arabian and Israel-Sinai plates along the DSD is thus accommodated by distributed shear across the N-S extending DSD. The three-dimensionality of this motion at the DSD may be related to the rate of convergence

  10. Infant circumcision: the last stand for the dead dogma of parental (sovereignal) rights. (United States)

    Van Howe, Robert S


    J S Mill used the term 'dead dogma' to describe a belief that has gone unquestioned for so long and to such a degree that people have little idea why they accept it or why they continue to believe it. When wives and children were considered chattel, it made sense for the head of a household to have a 'sovereignal right' to do as he wished with his property. Now that women and children are considered to have the full complement of human rights and slavery has been abolished, it is no longer acceptable for someone to have a 'right' to completely control the life of another human being. Revealingly, parental rights tend to be invoked only when parents want to do something that is arguably not in their child's best interest. Infant male circumcision is a case in point. Instead of parental rights, I claim that parents have an obligation to protect their children's rights as well as to preserve the future options of those children so far as possible. In this essay, it is argued that the notion that parents have a right to make decisions concerning their children's bodies and minds-irrespective of the child's best interests-is a dead dogma. The ramifications of this argument for the circumcision debate are then spelled out and discussed.

  11. Cling film plastic wrap: An innovation for dead body packaging, preservation and transportation by first responders as a replacement for cadaver body bag in large scale disasters. (United States)

    Khoo, Lay See; Lai, Poh Soon; Saidin, Mohd Hilmi; Noor, Zahari; Mahmood, Mohd Shah


    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  13. Occurrence of organohalogens at the Dead Sea Basin (United States)

    Tubbesing, Christoph; Kotte, Karsten; Keppler, Frank; Krause, Torsten; Bahlmann, Enno; Schöler, Heinfried


    Most arid and semi-arid regions are characterized by evaporites, which are assured sources for volatile organohalogens (VOX) [1]. These compounds play an important role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. The Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan is the world's most famous and biggest all-season water covered salt lake. In both countries chemical plants like the Dead Sea Works and the Arab Potash Company are located at the southern part of the Dead Sea and mine various elements such as bromine and magnesium. Conveying sea water through constructed evaporation pans multifarious salts are enriched and precipitated. In contrast, the Northern basin and main part of the Dead Sea has remained almost untouched by industrial salt production. Its fresh water supply from the Jordan River is constantly decreasing, leading to further increased salinity. During a HALOPROC campaign (Natural Halogenation Processes in the Environment) we collected various samples including air, soils, sediments, halophytic plants, ground- and seawater from the Northern and Southern basin of the Israeli side of the Dead Sea. These samples were investigated for the occurrence of halocarbons using different analytical techniques. Most samples were analyzed for volatile organohalogens such as haloalkanes using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Interestingly, there is a strong enrichment of trihalomethanes (THM), especially all chlorinated and brominated ones and also the iodinated compound dichloroiodomethane were found in the Southern basin. In addition, volatile organic carbons (VOC) such as ethene and some other alkenes were analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) to obtain further information about potential precursors of halogenated compounds. Halophytic plants were investigated for their potential to release chloromethane and bromomethane but also for their stable carbon and hydrogen isotope composition. For this purpose, a plant chamber was

  14. Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity as the major drivers of beetle diversity in dead wood (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bassler; Roland Brandl; Boris Buche; Alexander Szallies; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jorg Muller; Christopher Baraloto


    1. Resource availability and habitat heterogeneity are principle drivers of biodiversity, but their individual roles often remain unclear since both factors are usually correlated. The biodiversity of species dependent on dead wood could be driven by either resource availability represented by dead-wood amount or habitat heterogeneity characterized by dead-wood...

  15. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio


    Full Text Available A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  16. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A.


    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead)

  17. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Kars (Alice); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J. de Vries; A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); C. Hilvering


    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate

  18. Awakening the "Walking Dead": Zombie Pedagogy for Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dawn Wadsworth


    Full Text Available This article lays out the pedagogical benefits of using popular zombie productions, particularly AMC's The Walking Dead, to teach a critical introduction to modern political theory. Based on my undergraduate course: "Political Theory, Climate Change, and the Zombie Apocalypse," the article outlines how The Walking Dead can be used to critique the mythic assumptions built into modern social contract theory; to introduce other political ideologies, including conservatism, anarchism, fascism, and communism; and to consider the political challenges raised by a global problem such as climate change in an increasingly neoliberal environment. Zombie productions are offered as a particularly salient pedagogical tool that can help awaken critical political analysis for the Millennial Generation.

  19. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  20. The Dead Mother, the Uncanny, and the Holy Ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ventura


    Full Text Available Recurrent portrayals of dead mothers frequently appeared in French art from 1800 to 1850. This essay focuses on one of the latest manifestations of this image, namely, the French Realist Jules Breton's (1827-1906 painting The Hunger of 1850, in order to examine the psycho-historical elements associated with the mother's death. Through an analysis of the "Uncanny" as formulated by both Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud, we will address the undissolvable link between the structuralization of "homeliness" in the late eighteenth century and the dread it evoked in the early nineteenth century, as two sides of the same coin. We will simultaneously consider the inherent conflictuality embodied by the dead mother according to the French psychoanalyst André Green, who dealt with the experience of "nothingness" that characterizes children of mothers-who-refuse-to-die.

  1. Solution of the Markov chain for the dead time problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degweker, S.B.


    A method for solving the equation for the Markov chain, describing the effect of a non-extendible dead time on the statistics of time correlated pulses, is discussed. The equation, which was derived in an earlier paper, describes a non-linear process and is not amenable to exact solution. The present method consists of representing the probability generating function as a factorial cumulant expansion and neglecting factorial cumulants beyond the second. This results in a closed set of non-linear equations for the factorial moments. Stationary solutions of these equations, which are of interest for calculating the count rate, are obtained iteratively. The method is applied to the variable dead time counter technique for estimation of system parameters in passive neutron assay of Pu and reactor noise analysis. Comparisons of results by this method with Monte Carlo calculations are presented. (author)

  2. Is it practical to use the gamma camera dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, P.P.; Morin, J.F.; Caroff, J.; Lahellec, M.; Savina, A.


    The linearity of gamma camera counting is an essential feature for users engaged in quantitative dynamic studies. Instead of defining this quality by the usual dead time, the disadvantages of which are reported, it is proposed to use the experimental count rate giving 10% loss. It is shown that by proceeding in this way all ambiguity would be abolished, where both the counting linearity itself and its relation to sensitivity are concerned [fr

  3. Thermodynamics of the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Julien


    The dead zone, a quiescent region enclosed in the turbulent flow of a protoplanetary disk, seems to be a promising site for planet formation. Indeed, the development of a density maximum at the dead zone inner edge, that has the property to trap the infalling dust, is a natural outcome of the accretion mismatch at this interface. Moreover, the flow here may be unstable and organize itself into vortical structures that efficiently collect dust grains. The inner edge location is however loosely constrained. In particular, it depends on the thermodynamical prescriptions of the disk model that is considered. It has been recently proposed that the inner edge is not static and that the variations of young stars accretion luminosity are the signature of this interface displacements. This thesis address the question of the impact of the gas thermodynamics onto its dynamics around the dead zone inner edge. MHD simulations including the complex interplay between thermodynamical processes and the dynamics confirmed the dynamical behaviour of the inner edge. A first measure of the interface velocity has been realised. This result has been compared to the predictions of a mean field model. It revealed the crucial role of the energy transport by density waves excited at the interface. These simulations also exhibit a new intriguing phenomenon: vortices forming at the interface follow a cycle of formation-migration-destruction. This vortex cycle may compromise the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge. This thesis claims that thermodynamical processes are at the heart of how the region around the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks works. (author) [fr

  4. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie


    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  5. Understanding Flash Flood Generation in the Arid Region of the Dead Sea (United States)

    Merz, R.; Hennig, H.; Rödiger, T.; Laronne, J. B.


    The arid region of the Dead Sea is prone by flash floods. Such flash floods in (semi-) arid regions are impressive. Generated within minutes, the peak unit discharge can be as high as 25 m³/s km². Floods are the main mechanism supplying water to alluvial aquifers, forming fluvial landscapes including canyons and often causing damage to humans, infrastructure, industry and tourism. Existing hydrological models in this region focus on peak discharges. However, these models are often based on simplified concepts and/or on concepts which were developed for humid regions. To more closely relate such models to local conditions, processes within catchments where floods occur require consideration. Therefore, a measurement network of rain gauges and level loggers to monitor runoff was installed in the beginning of the 2015/16 hydrological season in the tributaries of Wadi Arugot. The Arugot catchment is one of the largest ephemeral Wadis draining to the western shoreline of the Dead Sea at 450 m bsl. Due to the high gradient in elevation, the climate within the basin ranges from semiarid in the Judean Mountains, to hyper-arid near the Dead Sea with respective mean annual rainfall of 650 and 50 mm. The installed rain gauge network in the mountains is more dense compared to the Dead Sea area. Arid to semiarid catchments have different runoff generation processes compared to humid regions due local storm rainfall, low density of vegetation cover as well as patchy and shallow soil. These characteristics limit the contribution of groundwater flow, saturated overland flow and shallow subsurface flow, and therefore Hortonian overland flow is the most important contributor to overland flow. First analyses of the runoff data have shown that the storage capacity in the mountain area is lower compared to the more arid region. This is an evidence of high transmission losses in the coarse gravel wadi bed, therefore having a high permeability. The rain event duration and the amount of

  6. Can homemade alcohol (Raksi) be useful for preserving dead bodies? An experiment on wistar albino rats. (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Maskey, D; Jha, C B; Bhattacharya, S; Paudel, B H; Shrestha, R N


    Embalming is the through disinfection and art of preserving bodies after death using chemical substances. It keeps a body life like in appearance during the time it lies in a state prior to funeral. This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of Raksi in sacrificed rats in arresting postmortem changes and establishing scientific fact whether Raksi can be an alternative to standard embalming constituent if it is not available. 50 albino rats were systematically randomized into control and experiment groups. Raksi and distilled water were injected for embalming purpose intraventricularly in experiment and control groups of rats respectively and kept for 48 to 96 hours for observation for postmortem changes. Observations made at 48 and 72 hours of embalming revealed that Raksi can arrest postmortem changes in the rats up to 72 hours (3rd day) successfully in the experimental group whereas moderate to severe postmortem changes were seen in the control group. The experimental group showed mild degree of putrefactive changes, liberation of gases and liquefaction of tissues only at 96 hours (4th day) of embalming. The Raksi used in this experiment contained 34% of alcohol, which was determined by an alcohol hydrometer. Experiment clearly demonstrated from its result that raksi can be utilised temporarily for embalming since it contains alcohol and has preservative, bactericidal and disinfectant properties. It is concluded from the study that this knowledge if applied to dead human subjects, may preserve dead bodies temporarily allowing delayed funeral.

  7. Correction for intrinsic and set dead-time losses in radioactivity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.


    Equations are derived for the determination of the intrinsic dead time of the components which precede the paralysis unit in a counting system for measuring radioactivity. The determination depends on the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. Improved formulae are given for the dead-time correction of the count rate of a radioactive source in a single-channel system. A variable in the formulae is the intrinsic dead time which is determined concurrently with the counting of the source. The only extra equipment required in a conventional system is a scaler. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  8. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin (United States)

    Shamir, G.


    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  9. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  10. Comparative growth and development of spiders reared on live and dead prey. (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C


    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific.

  11. Malaria immunity in man and mosquito: insights into unsolved mysteries of a deadly infectious disease (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D.; Moebius, Jacqueline; Portugal, Silvia; Waisberg, Michael; Hart, Geoffrey; Garver, Lindsey S.; Miller, Louis H.; Barillas, Carolina; Pierce, Susan K.


    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the obligate intracellular Apicomplexa family, the most deadly of which, Plasmodium falciparum, prevails in Africa. Malaria imposes a huge health burden on the world’s most vulnerable populations, claiming the lives of nearly a million children and pregnant women each year in Africa alone. Although there is keen interest in eradicating malaria, we do not yet have the necessary tools to meet this challenge, including an effective malaria vaccine and adequate vector control strategies. Here we review what is known about the mechanisms at play in immune resistance to malaria in both the human and mosquito hosts at each step in the parasite’s complex life cycle with a view towards developing the tools that will contribute to the prevention of disease and death and ultimately the goal of malaria eradication. In so doing we hope to inspire immunologists to participate in defeating this devastating disease. PMID:24655294

  12. The formation of graben morphology in the Dead Sea Fault, and its implications (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Katsman, Regina


    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF) is a 1000 km long continental transform. It forms a narrow and elongated valley with uplifted shoulders showing an east-west asymmetry, which is not common in other continental transforms. This topography may have strongly affected the course of human history. Several papers addressed the geomorphology of the DSF, but there is still no consensus with respect to the dominant mechanism of its formation. Our thermomechanical modeling demonstrates that existence of a transform prior to the rifting predefined high strain softening on the faults in the strong upper crust and created a precursor weak zone localizing deformations in the subsequent transtensional period. Together with a slow rate of extension over the Arabian plate, they controlled a narrow asymmetric morphology of the fault. This rift pattern was enhanced by a fast deposition of evaporites from the Sedom Lagoon, which occupied the rift depression for a short time period.

  13. Organ retrieval and banking in brain dead trauma patients: Our experience at level-1 trauma centre and current views (United States)

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Kaur, Manpreet; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Gupta, Babita; Balakrishnan, Ira; Vij, Aarti


    Background: Organ retrieval from brain dead patients is getting an increased attention as the waiting list for organ recipients far exceeds the organ donor pool. In our country, despite a large population the number of brain dead donors undergoing organ donation is very less (2% in our study). Aims: The present study was undertaken to address issues related to organ donation and share our experience for the same. Methods: A retrospective case record analysis of over 5 years from September 2007 to August 2012 was performed and the patients fulfilling brain death criterion as per Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue (Amendment) Act were included. Patient demographics (age, sex), mode of injury, time from injury to the diagnosis of brain death, time from diagnosis of brain death to organ retrieval and complications were analysed. Statistics Analysis: Student's t test was used for parametric data and Chi square was used for categorical data. Results: Out of 205 patients who were identified as brain dead, only 10 patients became potential organ donors. Conclusion: Aggressive donor management, increasing public awareness about the concept of organ donation, good communication between clinician and the family members and a well-trained team of transplant coordinators can help in improving the number of organ donations. PMID:23983281

  14. Variable dead time counters: 2. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, B.W.; Lees, E.W.


    A computer model has been developed to give a pulse train which simulates that generated by a variable dead time counter (VDC) used in safeguards determination of Pu mass. The model is applied to two algorithms generally used for VDC analysis. It is used to determine their limitations at high counting rates and to investigate the effects of random neutrons from (α,n) reactions. Both algorithms are found to be deficient for use with masses of 240 Pu greater than 100g and one commonly used algorithm is shown, by use of the model and also by theory, to yield a result which is dependent on the random neutron intensity. (author)

  15. Is the Doha Round Dead? What is the Way Forward?


    Faizel Ismail


    The WTO Doha Round of negotiations has been at an impasse since December 2008. Several academics and opinion makers have argued recently that the Doha Round is ‘dead’. This paper discusses the US narrative on the reasons for the impasse in the Doha Round and the way forward. It contrasts this narrative with that of the major developing country alliances in the WTO and considers some underlying causes for the current impasse in the Doha Round. The paper concludes that the US narrative that...

  16. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    & Sandvik 2014a: 1). However, we would like to broaden the scope of Durham Peter’s reflections, suggesting that the ways in which parents communicate to/with the dead child are not just a matter of one-way speaking into the air but also a matter of two-way communication implying that the child has...... when getting a memory tattoo. Based on observation studies and qualitative contents analysis performed since 2008 on children’s graves and on online memorial sites (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a) and furthermore including interviews with bereaved parents (Christensen & Sandvik...

  17. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli


    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  18. Heavy metals distribution in the Dead Sea black mud, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.; El-Hasan, T.; Auaydeh, S.


    The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. Tlis might be due to the effect of the mildly acideic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe,and Pb. This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud. (authors).

  19. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.


    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  20. Dead zones in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: evidence and implications

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.


    In order to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) cells incorporating light-trapping electrodes, flexible foil substrates, or more than one junction, illumination through the top-contact (i.e.: non-substrate) side of a photovoltaic device is desirable. We investigate the relative collection efficiency for illumination through the top vs. bottom of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) PV devices. The external quantum efficiency spectra of FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/ITO PV devices with various PbS layer thicknesses were measured for illumination through either the top (ITO) or bottom (FTO) contacts. By comparing the relative shapes and intensities of these spectra with those calculated from an estimation of the carrier generation profile and the internal quantum efficiency as a function of distance from the TiO2 interface in the devices, a substantial dead zone, where carrier extraction is dramatically reduced, is identified near the ITO top contact. The implications for device design, and possible means of avoiding the formation of such a dead zone, are discussed.

  1. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve


    Kars, Alice; Bogaard, Jan; Stijnen, Theo; Vries, J.; Verbraak, Anton; Hilvering, C.


    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate (PIE), were investigated in 28 healthy control subjects, 12 asthma and 29 emphysema patients (20 severely obstructed and nine moderately obstructed) with the aim to establish diagnostic value. Because breath volume and frequenc...

  2. Do saproxylic beetles respond numerically to rapid changes in dead wood availability following moth outbreaks?


    Schultze, Sabrina


    Outbreaks of defoliating insects periodically cause mass mortality of trees, thereby generating pulses of dead wood resources for saproxylic (i.e. dead-wood dependent) organisms. This study investigated the responses of saproxylic beetles to a dead wood resource pulse caused by recent (2001-2009) outbreaks of geometrid moths in the subarctic mountain birch forest of the Varanger region in northern Norway. A large scale (20 km) transect design, implementing window (flight interception) traps a...

  3. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes


    Svensson, Måns


    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  4. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel


    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  5. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station


    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  6. "Dead in bed": a tragic complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, M


    "Dead in bed" is a tragic description of a particular type of sudden death in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients are typically found dead in the early morning, lying in an undisturbed bed, having been well the previous evening. The incidence of "dead in bed" syndrome is not known but studies suggest figures of between 4.7 and 27.3% of all unexplained deaths in type 1 DM. The pathogenesis is unclear but patients typically have a preceding history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. We describe two cases of "dead in bed" syndrome which occurred at our institution within a 12-month period.

  7. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent


    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  8. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.


    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  9. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte


    BACKGROUND: Many patients have a nasogastric feeding tube inserted during admission; however, misplacement is not uncommon. In this case report we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented fatality from pressure pneumothorax following nasogastric tube withdrawal. CASE PRESENTATION......, but our patient died less than an hour after withdrawal. The autopsy report stated that cause of death was tension pneumothorax, which developed following withdrawal of the misplaced feeding tube. CONCLUSIONS: The indications for insertion of nasogastric feeding tubes are many and the procedure...... is considered harmless; however, if the tube is misplaced there is good reason to be cautious on removal as this can unmask puncture of the pleura eliciting pneumothorax and, as this case report shows, result in an ultimately deadly tension pneumothorax....

  10. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour. (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh


    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate brain infarcts, we made a diagnosis of left atrial cardiac tumour. Association of cardiac tumours with AIDS has only been rarely reported. It is uncertain if these can be opportunistic tumours in AIDS. The patient successfully came out of this deadly combination of diseases, viz AIDS, TB and large brain infarcts due to atrial tumour; with almost complete recovery.

  11. Digital instrumentation and dead-time processing for radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censier, B.; Bobin, Ch.; Bouchard, J.


    Most of the acquisition chains used in radionuclide metrology are based on NIM modules. These analogue setups have been thoroughly tested for decades now, becoming a reference in the field. Nevertheless, the renewal of ageing modules and the need for extra features both call for the development of new acquisition schemes based on digital processing. In this article, several technologies usable for instrumentation are first presented. A review of past and present projects is made in the second part, highlighting the fundamental role of dead-time management. The last part is dedicated to the description of two digital systems developed at LNE-LNHB. The first one has been designed for the instrumentation of a NaI(Tl) well-type crystal set-up, while the second one is used for the management of three photomultipliers in the framework of the TDCR method and as a part of the development of a digital platform for coincidence counting. (authors)

  12. Experimental evaluation of the extended Dytlewski-style dead time correction formalism for neutron multiplicity counting (United States)

    Lockhart, M.; Henzlova, D.; Croft, S.; Cutler, T.; Favalli, A.; McGahee, Ch.; Parker, R.


    Over the past few decades, neutron multiplicity counting has played an integral role in Special Nuclear Material (SNM) characterization pertaining to nuclear safeguards. Current neutron multiplicity analysis techniques use singles, doubles, and triples count rates because a methodology to extract and dead time correct higher order count rates (i.e. quads and pents) was not fully developed. This limitation is overcome by the recent extension of a popular dead time correction method developed by Dytlewski. This extended dead time correction algorithm, named Dytlewski-Croft-Favalli(DCF), is detailed in reference Croft and Favalli (2017), which gives an extensive explanation of the theory and implications of this new development. Dead time corrected results can then be used to assay SNM by inverting a set of extended point model equations which as well have only recently been formulated. The current paper discusses and presents the experimental evaluation of practical feasibility of the DCF dead time correction algorithm to demonstrate its performance and applicability in nuclear safeguards applications. In order to test the validity and effectiveness of the dead time correction for quads and pents, 252Cf and SNM sources were measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the count rates were extracted up to the fifth order and corrected for dead time. In order to assess the DCF dead time correction, the corrected data is compared to traditional dead time correction treatment within INCC. The DCF dead time correction is found to provide adequate dead time treatment for broad range of count rates available in practical applications.

  13. Arguments against promoting organ transplants from brain-dead donors, and views of contemporary Japanese on life and death. (United States)

    Asai, Atsushi; Kadooka, Yasuhiro; Aizawa, Kuniko


    As of 2009, the number of donors in Japan is the lowest among developed countries. On July 13, 2009, Japan's Organ Transplant Law was revised for the first time in 12 years. The revised and old laws differ greatly on four primary points: the definition of death, age requirements for donors, requirements for brain-death determination and organ extraction, and the appropriateness of priority transplants for relatives. In the four months of deliberations in the National Diet before the new law was established, various arguments regarding brain death and organ transplantation were offered. An amazing variety of opinions continue to be offered, even after more than 40 years have elapsed since the first heart organ transplant in Japan. Some are of the opinion that with the passage of the revised law, Japan will finally become capable of performing transplants according to global standards. Contrarily, there are assertions that organ transplants from brain-dead donors are unacceptable because they result in organs being taken from living human beings. Considering the current conditions, we will organize and introduce the arguments for and against organ transplants from brain-dead donors in contemporary Japan. Subsequently, we will discuss the primary arguments against organ transplants from brain-dead donors from the perspective of contemporary Japanese views on life and death. After introducing the recent view that brain death should not be regarded as equivalent to the death of a human being, we would like to probe the deeply-rooted views on life and death upon which it is based. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.


    The Dead Sea's coastal areas have been dramatically hit by sinkholes occurrences since around 1990 and there is an obvious potential for further collapse beneath main highways, agricultural lands and other populated places. The sinkhole hazard in this area threatens human lives and compromise future economic developments. The understanding of such phenomenon is consequently of great importance in the development of protective solutions. Several geological and geophysical studies tend to show that evaporite karsts, caused by slow salt dissolution, are linked to the mechanism of sinkhole formation along both Israel and Jordan shorelines. The continuous drop of the Dead Sea level, at a rate of 1m/yr during the past decade, is generally proposed as the main triggering factor. The water table lowering induces the desaturation of shallow sediments overlying buried cavities in 10 to 30 meters thick salt layers, at depths from 25 to 50 meters. Both the timing and location of sinkholes suggest that: (1) the salt weakens as result of increasing fresh water circulation, thus enhancing the karstification process; (2) sinkholes appear to be related to the decompaction of the sediments above karstified zones. The location, depth, thickness and weakening of salt layers along the Dead Sea shorelines, as well as the thickness and mechanical properties of the upper sedimentary deposits, are thus considered as controlling factors of this ongoing process. Pressure-wave seismic methods are typically used to study sinkhole developments in this area. P-wave refraction and reflection methods are very useful to delineate the salt layers and to determine the thickness of overlying sediments. But the knowledge of shear-wave velocities (Vs) should add valuable insights on their mechanical properties, more particularly when the groundwater level plays an important role in the process. However, from a practical point of view, the measurement of Vs remains delicate because of well-known shear

  15. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock... (United States)


    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  16. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.


    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  17. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena


    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  18. 75 FR 7536 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls... (United States)


    ... Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words That Changed the World'' Summary: Notice is hereby given of the... included in the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words That Changed the World,'' imported from abroad for... pursuant to a loan agreement with the foreign owner or custodian. I also determine that the exhibition or...

  19. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud. (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera


    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. (United States)


    ... Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right to... believes to be the use or threat of imminent use of non-deadly physical force by the offender. Verbal abuse...

  1. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker


    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  2. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic nonlinear gyros coupled with dead-zone input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.


    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic gyros coupled with dead-zone nonlinear input. Using the sliding mode control technique, a novel control law is established which guarantees generalized projective synchronization even when the dead-zone nonlinearity is present. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that the synchronization can be achieved by using the proposed synchronization scheme

  3. Load structure seismites in the Dead Sea Area, Israel : Chronological benchmarking with C-14 dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, D; Bruins, HJ; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Bruins, Hendrik J.; Carmi, I.


    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake located in the seismically active zone of the Syro-African Rift Valley. The water level of the Dead Sea has been receding dramatically during the last decades, resulting in significant entrenchment of wadis towards its shores. Exposed sections in fan deltas reveal

  4. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.


    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  5. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest. (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc


    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Effect of dead space on breathing stability at exercise in hypoxia. (United States)

    Hermand, Eric; Lhuissier, François J; Richalet, Jean-Paul


    Recent studies have shown that normal subjects exhibit periodic breathing when submitted to concomitant environmental (hypoxia) and physiological (exercise) stresses. A mathematical model including mass balance equations confirmed the short period of ventilatory oscillations and pointed out an important role of dead space in the genesis of these phenomena. Ten healthy subjects performed mild exercise on a cycloergometer in different conditions: rest/exercise, normoxia/hypoxia and no added dead space/added dead space (aDS). Ventilatory oscillations (V˙E peak power) were augmented by exercise, hypoxia and aDS (Pspace. This underlines opposite effects observed in heart failure patients and normal subjects, in which added dead space drastically reduced periodic breathing and sleep apneas. It also points out that alveolar ventilation remains very close to metabolic needs and is not affected by an added dead space. Clinical Trial reg. n°: NCT02201875. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Poisson counting statistics of a hybrid G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jae, Moosung; Gardner, Robin P.


    The counting statistics of a G-M counter with a considerable dead time event rate deviates from Poisson statistics. Important characteristics such as observed counting rates as a function true counting rates, variances and interval distributions were analyzed for three dead time models, non-paralyzable, paralyzable and hybrid, with the help of GMSIM, a Monte Carlo dead time effect simulator. The simulation results showed good agreements with the models in observed counting rates and variances. It was found through GMSIM simulations that the interval distribution for the hybrid model showed three distinctive regions, a complete cutoff region for the duration of the total dead time, a degraded exponential and an enhanced exponential regions. By measuring the cutoff and the duration of degraded exponential from the pulse interval distribution, it is possible to evaluate the two dead times in the hybrid model

  8. Instrumental dead-time and its relationship with matrix corrections in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.L.; Haukka, M.T.; Anderson, D.H.


    The relationship between instrumental dead-time and the self-absorption coefficients, αsub(ii) in x.r.f. matrix correction by means of influence coefficients, is not generally recognized but has important analytical consequences. Systematic errors of the order of 1% (relative) for any analyte result from experimental uncertainties in instrumental dead-time. Such errors are applied unevenly across a given range of concentration because the error depends on the calibration standards and on the instrumental conditions used. Refinement of the instrumental dead-time value and other calibration parameters to conform with influence coefficients determined elsewhere assumes exact knowledge of dead-time of the instrument used originally, and quite similar excitation conditions and spectrometer geometry for the two instruments. Though these qualifications may not be met, adjustment of any of the parameters (dead-time, reference concentration, background concentration, self-absorption and other influence coefficients) can be easily achieved. (Auth.)

  9. Reprint of: Cling film plastic wrap: An innovation for dead body packaging, preservation and transportation by first responders as a replacement for cadaver body bag in large scale disasters. (United States)

    Khoo, Lay See; Lai, Poh Soon; Saidin, Mohd Hilmi; Noor, Zahari; Mahmood, Mohd Shah


    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian


    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  11. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly. (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S


    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Effects of dead load on ductility of a floor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, E.; Sarkar, B.E.; Ho, H.; Reed, J.W.


    In seismic margin or seismic fragility calculations, the ductility scale factor F μ is often used to quantify the effect of inelastic energy absorption on structural capacity. In concept, the ductility scale factor can be thought of as a response spectrum reduction factor. For a given ductile structural element and input response spectrum, the product of F μ and the factor of safety against yield (F s ) provides a measure of the total factor of safety against failure (F). Testing and analytical studies by others have shown that structures such as shear walls and building frames (mounted vertically) subjected to horizontal input motions are capable of absorbing earthquake energy through inelastic behavior. Kennedy, 1984, Riddell, 1979, and Reed, 1991 studied the ductility scale factor and developed simplified procedures through the use of nonlinear analyses. For floor systems (mounted horizontally), we are mainly interested in the response to vertical input motions. Because of the constant downward pull of gravity, the nonlinear displacement of a floor structure is biased downward. This ratcheting phenomenon reduces the ductility scale factor for a horizontal element compared to the case where the same element is mounted vertically and is subjected to horizontal input motion. Through the use of nonlinear time history analyses, we investigated the effects of dead loads on the ductility scale factor of floor systems. We also developed a simple modification to the Riddell-Newmark procedure (Riddell, 1979), which is used to calculate the ductility scale factor for vertically mounted elements, to determine F μ for horizontally mounted elements

  13. Dead Sea mud packs for chronic low back pain. (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Mayer, Amit; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco


    Low back pain (LBP) is chronic disease without a curative therapy. Alternative and complementary therapies are widely used in the management of this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of home application of Dead Sea mud compresses to the back of patients with chronic LBP. Forty-six consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP were recruited. All patients were followed at the Soroka University Rheumatic Diseases Unit. The patients were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with mineral-rich mud compresses, and the other with mineral-depleted compresses. Mud compresses were applied five times a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was the patient's assessment of the overall back pain severity. The score of the Ronald & Morris questionnaire served as a secondary outcome. Forty-four patients completed the therapy and the follow-up assessments: 32 were treated with real mud packs and 12 used the mineral-depleted packs. A significant decrease in intensity of pain, as described by the patients, was observed only in the treatment group. In this group, clinical improvement was clearly seen at completion of therapy and was sustained a month later. Significant improvement in the scores of the Roland & Morris questionnaire was observed in both groups. The data suggest that pain severity was reduced in patients treated with mineral-rich mud compresses compared with those treated with mineral-depleted compresses. Whether this modest effect is the result of a "true" mud effect or other causes can not be determined in this study.

  14. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Coluccia


    Full Text Available DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one’s self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury.

  15. Exotic primitivism of death in classical Hollywood living dead films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Hakola


    Full Text Available The classical Hollywood horror exhibited the undead monsters, such as mummies, zombies and vampires, at the time when cultural practices of death and dying were changing in the United States. Consequently, the way death is handled in these films is connected to the ongoing marginalization of death. In the classical films, heroes represent modern, medicalized, scientific and marginalized death. In contrast, the undead represent traditional, or irrational and magical, death. When the heroes hunt down and kill the monsters, they also claim the superiority of modern death. Furthermore, the exclusion of traditional death is highlighted by using (postcolonial tensions. The non-western monsters and realm of the world stand for traditional death and the past whereas western heroes represent modern death and the future. This article concentrates on how the classical living dead films narrate the cultural tension between the waning (traditional and emerging (modern practices of death.

  16. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls. (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut


    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  17. The improvement of precision for estimating the abundance of standing dead trees using auxiliary information under the FIA pot design (United States)

    Hong Su An; David W. MacFarlane; Christopher W. Woodall


    Standing dead trees are an important component of forest ecosystems. However, reliable estimates of standing dead tree population parameters can be difficult to obtain due to their low abundance and spatial and temporal variation. After 1999, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program began collecting data for standing dead trees at the Phase 2 stage of sampling....

  18. Synthesis of regional wildlife and vegetation field studies to guide management of standing and down dead trees (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Janet L. Ohmann; Kim L. Mellen-McLean; Karen L. Waddell


    We used novel methods for combining information from wildlife and vegetation field studies to develop guidelines for managing dead wood for wildlife and biodiversity. The DecAID Decayed Wood Adviser presents data on wildlife use of standing and down dead trees (snags and down wood) and summaries of regional vegetation plot data depicting dead wood conditions, for...


    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  20. Pulmonary Dead Space Fraction and Extubation Success in Children After Cardiac Surgery. (United States)

    Devor, Renee L; Kang, Paul; Wellnitz, Chasity; Nigro, John J; Velez, Daniel A; Willis, Brigham C


    1) Determine the correlation between pulmonary dead space fraction and extubation success in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients; and 2) document the natural history of pulmonary dead space fractions, dynamic compliance, and airway resistance during the first 72 hours postoperatively in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. A retrospective chart review. Cardiac ICU in a quaternary care free-standing children's hospital. Twenty-nine with balanced single ventricle physiology, 61 with two ventricle physiology. None. We collected data for all pediatric patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery over a 14-month period during the first 72 hours postoperatively as well as prior to extubation. Overall, patients with successful extubations had lower preextubation dead space fractions and shorter lengths of stay. Single ventricle patients had higher initial postoperative and preextubation dead space fractions. Two-ventricle physiology patients had higher extubation failure rates if the preextubation dead space fraction was greater than 0.5, whereas single ventricle patients had similar extubation failure rates whether preextubation dead space fractions were less than or equal to 0.5 or greater than 0.5. Additionally, increasing initial dead space fraction values predicted prolonged mechanical ventilation times. Airway resistance and dynamic compliance were similar between those with successful extubations and those who failed. Initial postoperative dead space fraction correlates with the length of mechanical ventilation in two ventricle patients but not in single ventricle patients. Lower preextubation dead space fractions are a strong predictor of successful extubation in two ventricle patients after cardiac surgery, but may not be as useful in single ventricle patients.

  1. Functions of DEAD-box proteins in bacteria: current knowledge and pending questions. (United States)

    Iost, Isabelle; Bizebard, Thierry; Dreyfus, Marc


    DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPases that are widespread in all three kingdoms of life. They are thought to rearrange the structures of RNA or ribonucleoprotein complexes but their exact mechanism of action is rarely known. Whereas in yeast most DEAD-box proteins are essential, no example of an essential bacterial DEAD-box protein has been reported so far; at most, their absence results in cold-sensitive growth. Moreover, whereas yeast DEAD-box proteins are implicated in virtually all reactions involving RNA, in E. coli (the bacterium where DEAD-box proteins have been mostly studied) their role is limited to ribosome biogenesis, mRNA degradation, and possibly translation initiation. Plausible reasons for these differences are discussed here. In spite of their dispensability, E. coli DEAD-box proteins are valuable models for the mechanism of action of DEAD-box proteins in general because the reactions in which they participate can be reproduced in vitro. Here we review our present understanding of this mechanism of action. Using selected examples for which information is available: (i) we describe how, by interacting directly with a particular RNA motif or by binding to proteins that themselves recognize such a motif, DEAD-box proteins are brought to their specific RNA substrate(s); (ii) we discuss the nature of the structural transitions that DEAD-box proteins induce on their substrates; and (iii) we analyze the reasons why these proteins are mostly important at low temperatures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases-Modulation for life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental dead time corrections for a linear position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Tompson, C.W.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Berliner, R.; Missouri Univ., Columbia


    Two simple counters included in the charge-digitization circuitry of a position-sensitive proportional counter using the charge division method for position encoding have enabled us to determine the dead time losses for the system. An interesting positional dependence of the dead time tau is observed, which agrees with a simple model. The system enables us to correct the experimental data for dead time and to be indifferent to the relatively slow analog-to-digital converters used in the system. (orig.)

  3. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.


    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  4. Dynamic optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    to charge and discharge the input capacitance of piezoelectric transformers in order to achieve zero-voltage switching. This paper proposes a method for detecting the optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies. The provision of sufficient dead time in every cycle......Soft switching is required to attain high efficiency in high-frequency power converters. Piezoelectric transformerbased converters can benefit from soft switching in terms of significantly diminished switching losses and stresses. Adequate dead time is needed in order to deliver sufficient energy...

  5. Smith predictor-based multiple periodic disturbance compensation for long dead-time processes (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Li, Han-Xiong; Shen, Ping


    Many disturbance rejection methods have been proposed for processes with dead-time, while these existing methods may not work well under multiple periodic disturbances. In this paper, a multiple periodic disturbance rejection is proposed under the Smith predictor configuration for processes with long dead-time. One feedback loop is added to compensate periodic disturbance while retaining the advantage of the Smith predictor. With information of the disturbance spectrum, the added feedback loop can remove multiple periodic disturbances effectively. The robust stability can be easily maintained through the rigorous analysis. Finally, simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for processes with long dead-time.

  6. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Ajia, Idris A.; Marsland, John S.


    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  7. The living dead? Perception of persons in the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome in Germany compared to the USA. (United States)

    Steppacher, Inga; Kissler, Johanna


    The extent to which people ascribe mind to others has been shown to predict the extent to which human rights are conferred. Therefore, in the context of disorders of consciousness (DOC), mind ascription can influence end of life decisions. A previous US-American study indicated that participants ascribed even less mind to patients with unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome (UWS) than to the dead. Results were explained in terms of implicit dualism and religious beliefs, as highly religious people ascribed least mind to UWS. Here, we addresses mind ascription to UWS patients in Germany. We investigate the perception of UWS patients in a large German sample (N = 910) and compare the results to the previous US data, addressing possible cultural differences. We further assess effects of medical expertise, age, gender, socio-economic status and subjective knowledge about UWS in the German sample. Unlike the US sample, German participants did not perceive UWS patients as "more dead than dead", ascribing either equal (on 3 of 5 items) or more (on 2 items) mental abilities to UWS patients than to the dead. Likewise, an effect of implicit dualism was not replicated and German medically trained participants ascribed more capabilities to UWS patients than did a non-medical sample. Within the German sample, age, gender, religiosity and socio-economic status explained about 15% of the variability of mind ascription. Age and religiosity were individually significant predictors, younger and more religious people ascribing more mind. Gender had no effect. Results are consistent with cross-cultural differences in the perception of UWS between Germany and the USA, Germans ascribing more mind to UWS patients. The German sample ascribed as much or more but not less mind to a UWS patient than to a deceased, although within group variance was large, calling for further research. Mind ascription is vital, because, in times of declining resources for healthcare systems, and an increasing

  8. Dead Sea pollen provides new insights into the paleoenvironment of the southern Levant during MIS 6-5 (United States)

    Chen, Chunzhu; Litt, Thomas


    The paleoclimate of the southern Levant, especially during the last interglacial (LIG), is still under debate. Reliable paleovegetation information for this period, as independent evidence to the paleoenvironment, was still missing. In this study, we present a high-resolution pollen record encompassing 147-89 ka from the Dead Sea deep drilling core 5017-1A. The sediment profile is marked by alternations of laminated marl deposits and thick massive halite, indicating lake-level fluctuations. The pollen record suggests that steppe and desert components predominated in the Dead Sea surroundings during the whole investigated interval. The late penultimate glacial (147.3-130.9 ka) and early last glacial (115.5-89.1 ka) were cool and relatively dry, with sub-humid conditions confined to the mountains that sustained moderate amounts of deciduous oaks. Prior to the LIG optimum, a prevalence of desert components and a concomitant increase in frost-sensitive pistachio trees demonstrate the occurrence of an arid initial warming phase (130.9-124.2 ka). The LIG optimum (124.2 ka-115.5 ka) was initiated by an abrupt grass expansion that was followed by a rapid spread of woodlands in the mountains due to increased moisture availability. The remarkable sclerophyllous expansion points to a strong seasonal moisture deficit. These results contradict previous Dead Sea lake-level investigations that suggested pluvial glacials and a warm, dry LIG in the southern Levant. Prominent discrepancies between vegetation and Dead Sea lake stands are also registered at 128-115 ka, and the potential causes are discussed. In particular, while the pollen spectra mirror increased effective moisture during the LIG optimum, the massive halite deposition is indicative of an extremely low lake level. Given that the climate amelioration triggered the migration of early modern humans to the southern Levant, we speculate that the diverse ecosystems in the region provided great potential for their residence

  9. An autopsy of dead planetary systems with COS (United States)

    Debes, John


    We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.

  10. Bats and zoonotic viruses: can we confidently link bats with emerging deadly viruses? (United States)

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H


    An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment. PMID:25742261

  11. The Dance of the Dead Rhino: William Kentridge’s Magic Flute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Guarracino


    Full Text Available The article offers a reading of the staging of The Magic Flute by visual artist William Kentridge, focusing on his introduction of the rhino in the visual landscape of the opera as symbol for the silenced subject of violence. Operatic tradition has always been concerned with the staging of death, in particular with the death of its female protagonists, and recent scholarship has highlighted the complicity of the genre with the ideology of Western patriarchy and colonial violence. In this light, Kentridge's appropriation stages Mozart's opera as both voice of colonial Europe and place of resistance for the postcolonial artist. Kentridge moves the setting of the opera to colonial Africa, and the Flute becomes haunted with the massacre of the Herero people in South West Africa by the German army led by general von Trotha (1904-1907. The African white rhino, a species under the threat of extinction, works in this work as proxy for the missing corpses of the Herero people; in its being subject to humiliation and ruthless murder, it recalls Judith Butler's recent attempt at a different categorization of human life as both a continuous exposure to violence and what can be mourned after death. With its silence among the powerful sounds of Mozart's opera, the body of the dead, dancing rhino stands at the centre of Kentridge's work, which becomes a ceremony of mourning where the Western canon can be made to "resonate differently" (Trinh T. Minh-ha.

  12. Mourning the dead, mourning the disappeared: the enigma of the absent-presence. (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia


    Freud's interest in the impact of death on the living goes back further than Mourning and Melancholia (1917e, [1915]). In Totem and Taboo (1912-13) Freud noted the ambivalence of the emotions we experience in relation to the dead. In this paper, I focus on Mourning and Melancholia as a landmark in the understanding of both the normal and psychopathological aspects of mourning and depressive processes in human beings. Mourning and Melancholia bridges Freud's first and second topographic theories of the psychic apparatus and constitutes for many authors the foundation of his theory of internal object relations. With this psychoanalytic understanding of mourning as a framework, I discuss 'special mourning processes,' such as the those confronted by psychoanalysts in Argentina when treating the relatives of thousands of people who were 'disappeared' by the military dictatorship in the 1970s; they are 'special' in the sense that the external reality [which] constitutes the starting point of the psychic mourning process, as described by Freud, is absent. I argue that the 'absent-presence' of the body as an enigmatic message initiates a special mourning process that bears certain characteristics of, and is isomorphic to, Laplanche's seduction theory. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Impact of earthquakes on agriculture during the Roman-Byzantine period from pollen records of the Dead Sea laminated sediment (United States)

    Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Marco, Shmuel; Bookman, Revital; Miller, Charlotte S.


    The Dead Sea region holds the archives of a complex relationship between an ever-changing nature and ancient civilisations. Regional pollen diagrams show a Roman-Byzantine period standing out in the recent millennia by its wetter climate that allowed intensive arboriculture. During that period, the Dead Sea formed laminites that display mostly a seasonal character. A multidisciplinary study focused on two earthquakes, 31 BC and AD 363, recorded as seismites in the Ze'elim gully A unit III which has been well dated by radiocarbon in a previous study. The sampling of the sediment was done at an annual resolution starting from a few years before and finishing a decade after each earthquake. A clear drop in agricultural indicators (especially Olea and cereals) is shown. These pollen indicators mostly reflect human activities in the Judean Hills and coastal oases. Agriculture was disturbed in large part of the rift valley where earthquake damage affected irrigation and access to the fields. It took 4 to 5 yr to resume agriculture to previous conditions. Earthquakes must be seen as contributors to factors damaging societies. If combined with other factors such as climatic aridification, disease epidemics and political upheaval, they may lead to civilisation collapse.

  14. Children, death, and the dead: the Mebengokré-Xikrin case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Cohn

    Full Text Available This article approaches the relations children entertain with the dead, as well as with their own death risk, among the Mebenkogré-Xikrin, an indigenous Jê-speaking Indigenous group living in the North of Brazil. These themes are developed by analyzing the fabrication of the body, the formation of the self and the person, and the relations with the dead, with a special focus on children. Mebengokré-Xikrin notions of childhood are therefore discussed in an innovative manner through the formation of the self and the child's relations with the cosmos and the dead, by looking at the eventuality of caputre by the spirits of the dead, their adoption in the after-life, the mourning of children, their bodily adornments and painting, how they should be taken care of in life in order to prevent death, and their bodies and social interactions.

  15. MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.


    Paper Presentation at the 25th EDEN Annual Conference 2016, Budapest, Hungary, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 June): "MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF"

  16. The Brain Dead Patient Is Still Sentient: A Further Reply to Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez. (United States)

    Austriaco, Nicanor Pier Giorgio


    Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez have argued that the total brain dead patient is still dead because the integrated entity that remains is not even an animal, not only because he is not sentient but also, and more importantly, because he has lost the radical capacity for sentience. In this essay, written from within and as a contribution to the Catholic philosophical tradition, I respond to Lee and Grisez's argument by proposing that the brain dead patient is still sentient because an animal with an intact but severed spinal cord can still perceive and respond to external stimuli. The brain dead patient is an unconscious sentient organism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  18. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, D.; dos Santos, C. Oliveira; Wagelaar, M.; de Kleuver, M.; Koene, M. G. J.; Roest, H. I. J.; Sinha, B.; Tomaso, H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Stienstra, Y.


    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  19. Graveyards on the Move: The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dead Ophiocordyceps-Infected Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Himaman, Winanda; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.


    rainforest. We established that high density aggregations exist (up to 26 dead ants/m2), which we coined graveyards. We further established that graveyards are patchily distributed in a landscape with no or very few O. unilateralis-killed ants. At some, but not all, spatial scales of analysis the density...... unilateralis, which is pan-tropical in distribution, causes infected worker ants to leave their nest and die under leaves in the understory of tropical rainforests. Working in a forest dynamic plot in Southern Thailand we mapped the occurrence of these dead ants by examining every leaf in 1,360 m2 of primary...... of dead ants correlated with temperature, humidity and vegetation cover. Remarkably, having found 2243 dead ants inside graveyards we only found 2 live ants of the principal host, ant Camponotus leonardi, suggesting that foraging host ants actively avoid graveyards. We discovered that the principal host...

  20. Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome: Genetic Testing Identifies a Potentially Deadly Hereditary Disease (United States)

    ... of Lynch Syndrome Follow us A Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome Genetic testing identifies a potentially deadly hereditary disease ... helped Jack learn what was wrong. Jack had Lynch Syndrome—an inherited disorder. Lynch Syndrome increases the risk ...

  1. Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Daniel J; Bienfang, Joshua C; Nakassis, Anastase; Xu Hai; Clark, Charles W


    Recent advances in quantum key distribution (QKD) have given rise to systems that operate at transmission periods significantly shorter than the dead times of their component single-photon detectors. As systems continue to increase in transmission rate, security concerns associated with detector dead times can limit the production rate of sifted bits. We present a model of high-speed QKD in this limit that identifies an optimum transmission rate for a system with given link loss and detector response characteristics

  2. Dead time effects from linear amplifiers and discriminators in single detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, E.


    The dead-time losses originating from a linear amplifier combined with a discriminator for pulse-height selection are investigated. Measurements are carried out to determine the type of dead time represented by the amplifier-discriminator combination. The corrections involved by feeding the discriminator output pulses into an electronic module producing a blocking time are discussed and practical hints are given to reduce them. (orig.)

  3. Dead-time corrections on long-interval measurements of short-lived activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.


    A method has been proposed to make correction for counting losses due to dead time where the counting interval is comparable to or larger than the half-life of the activity under investigation. Counts due to background and any long-lived activity present in the source have been taken into consideration. The method is, under certain circumstances, capable of providing a valuable check on the accuracy of the dead time of the counting system. (Auth.)

  4. Giant, Voltage-Actuated Deformation of a Dielectric Elastomer under Dead Load


    Huang, Jiangshui; Li, Tiefeng; Foo, Choon Chiang; Clarke, David R.; Zhu, Jian; Suo, Zhigang


    Far greater voltage-actuated deformation is achievable for a dielectric elastomer under equal-biaxial dead load than under rigid constraint usually employed. Areal strains of 488% are demonstrated. The dead load suppresses electric breakdown, enabling the elastomer to survive the snap-through electromechanical instability. The breakdown voltage is found to increase with the voltage ramp rate. A nonlinear model for viscoelastic dielectric elastomers is developed and shown to be consistent with...

  5. Correction of the counting up number by dead time in detector systems for radiograph images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdeira E, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.; Luca, A. de


    The effect of the dead time in a detection system by counting up of particles and the contribution of this error in the final image resolution is analysed. It is given a statistical criteria for the optimization of electronic parameters such as dead time and counting up memory which help in the implementation of these systems with the minimum necessary characteristics which satisfy the resolution requirements. (Author)

  6. MTR2: a discriminator and dead-time module used in counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.


    In the field of radioactivity measurement, there is a constant need for highly specialized electronic modules such as ADCs, amplifiers, discriminators, dead-time modules, etc. But sometimes it is almost impossible to find on the market the modules having the performances corresponding to our needs. The purpose of the module presented here, called MTR2 (Module de Temps-mort Reconductible), is to process, in terms of pulse height discrimination and dead-time corrections, the pulses delivered by the detectors used in counting systems. This dead-time, of the extendible type, is triggered by both the positive and negative parts of the incoming pulse and the dead-time corrections are made according to the live-time method. This module, which has been developed and tested at LPRI, can be used alone in simple counting channels or in more complex systems such as coincidence systems. The philosophy governing the choice and the implementation of this type of dead-time as well as the system used for the dead-time corrections is presented. The electronic scheme and the performances are also presented. This module is available in the NIM standard

  7. DEF: an automated dead-end filling approach based on quasi-endosymbiosis. (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zijun; Sheng, Taotao; Chen, Ming


    Gap filling for the reconstruction of metabolic networks is to restore the connectivity of metabolites via finding high-confidence reactions that could be missed in target organism. Current methods for gap filling either fall into the network topology or have limited capability in finding missing reactions that are indirectly related to dead-end metabolites but of biological importance to the target model. We present an automated dead-end filling (DEF) approach, which is derived from the wisdom of endosymbiosis theory, to fill gaps by finding the most efficient dead-end utilization paths in a constructed quasi-endosymbiosis model. The recalls of reactions and dead ends of DEF reach around 73% and 86%, respectively. This method is capable of finding indirectly dead-end-related reactions with biological importance for the target organism and is applicable to any given metabolic model. In the E. coli iJR904 model, for instance, about 42% of the dead-end metabolites were fixed by our proposed method. DEF is publicly available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Access to medical-assisted reproduction and pgd in Italian law: a deadly blow to an illiberal statute? commentary to the European Court on Human Rights's decision Costa and Pavan v Italy (ECtHR, 28 August 2012, App. 54270/2010). (United States)

    Biondi, Stefano


    This article provides an account of the European Court on Human Rights' Second Section decision in the case Costa and Pavan v Italy. The judgment found that the Italian Statute on Assisted Reproduction (Law 40/2004), and particularly its prohibition to use in vitro fertilisation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the birth of children affected by genetically transmissible conditions, breached Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). In fact, the statute in question permits only infertile people to access medically assisted reproduction techniques and forbids PGD and embryo selection. The Court regarded that the rationale of these prohibitions-identified by the Italian Government with the need to prevent eugenic practices as well as to protect the health of the unborn and of the woman-was at odds with the fact that Italian law allows pre-natal screening and therapeutic abortions in case foetal abnormalities are diagnosed. In order to clarify the decision's significance, the paper goes on to analyse the rationale of Law 40/2004 in the Italian legal and political context. Emphasis is placed on the fact that this statute is extremely controversial at domestic level, because many of its provisions-including those considered by the Strasbourg Court-are inherently contradictory and contrast with the settled constitutional principles on abortion, as many domestic authorities highlighted. In this context, should the commented decision be confirmed by the Grand Chamber, it may provide a basis to bring consistency back to the Italian regulation of assisted reproduction. Finally, the paper considers the appeal lodged by the Italian Government to the Grand Chamber, and in particular the contention that the European Court had failed to respect Italy's margin of appreciation. In this regard, it is argued that, under Law 40/2004, individuals face illogical and discriminatory restrictions to their right to private and family life and that

  9. Killing the dead: chemotherapeutic strategies against free-living cyst-forming protists (Acanthamoeba sp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris). (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Aqeel, Yousuf; Khan, Naveed Ahmed


    The opportunist free-living protists such as Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris have become a serious threat to human life. As most available drugs target functional aspects of pathogens, the ability of free-living protists to transform into metabolically inactive cyst forms presents a challenge in treatment. It is hoped, that the development of broad spectrum antiprotist agents acting against multiple cyst-forming protists to provide target-directed inhibition will offer a viable drug strategy in the treatment of these rare infections. Here, we present a comprehensive report on upcoming drug targets, with emphasis on cyst wall biosynthesis along with the related biochemistry of encystment pathways, as we strive to bring ourselves a step closer to being able to combat these deadly diseases. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  11. Investigating a method of producing "red and dead" galaxies (United States)

    Skory, Stephen


    In optical wavelengths, galaxies are observed to be either red or blue. The overall color of a galaxy is due to the distribution of the ages of its stellar population. Galaxies with currently active star formation appear blue, while those with no recent star formation at all (greater than about a Gyr) have only old, red stars. This strong bimodality has lead to the idea of star formation quenching, and various proposed physical mechanisms. In this dissertation, I attempt to reproduce with Enzo the results of Naab et al. (2007), in which red and dead galaxies are formed using gravitational quenching, rather than with one of the more typical methods of quenching. My initial attempts are unsuccessful, and I explore the reasons why I think they failed. Then using simpler methods better suited to Enzo + AMR, I am successful in producing a galaxy that appears to be similar in color and formation history to those in Naab et al. However, quenching is achieved using unphysically high star formation efficiencies, which is a different mechanism than Naab et al. suggests. Preliminary results of a much higher resolution, follow-on simulation of the above show some possible contradiction with the results of Naab et al. Cold gas is streaming into the galaxy to fuel starbursts, while at a similar epoch the galaxies in Naab et al. have largely already ceased forming stars in the galaxy. On the other hand, the results of the high resolution simulation are qualitatively similar to other works in the literature that show a somewhat different gravitational quenching mechanism than Naab et al. I also discuss my work using halo finders to analyze simulated cosmological data, and my work improving the Enzo/AMR analysis tool "yt". This includes two parallelizations of the halo finder HOP (Eisenstein and Hut, 1998) which allows analysis of very large cosmological datasets on parallel machines. The first version is "yt-HOP," which works well for datasets between about 2563 and 5123 particles

  12. Dielectrophoretic Separation of Live and Dead Monocytes Using 3D Carbon-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yildizhan


    Full Text Available Blood has been the most reliable body fluid commonly used for the diagnosis of diseases. Although there have been promising investigations for the development of novel lab-on-a-chip devices to utilize other body fluids such as urine and sweat samples in diagnosis, their stability remains a problem that limits the reliability and accuracy of readouts. Hence, accurate and quantitative separation and characterization of blood cells are still crucial. The first step in achieving high-resolution characteristics for specific cell subpopulations from the whole blood is the isolation of pure cell populations from a mixture of cell suspensions. Second, live cells need to be purified from dead cells; otherwise, dead cells might introduce biases in the measurements. In addition, the separation and characterization methods being used must preserve the genetic and phenotypic properties of the cells. Among the characterization and separation approaches, dielectrophoresis (DEP is one of the oldest and most efficient label-free quantification methods, which directly purifies and characterizes cells using their intrinsic, physical properties. In this study, we present the dielectrophoretic separation and characterization of live and dead monocytes using 3D carbon-electrodes. Our approach successfully removed the dead monocytes while preserving the viability of the live monocytes. Therefore, when blood analyses and disease diagnosis are performed with enriched, live monocyte populations, this approach will reduce the dead-cell contamination risk and achieve more reliable and accurate test results.

  13. The Dead Sea: A model of a desiccating terminal salt lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.


    The continuing decline in the water level of the Dead Sea and the commensurate increase in salinity and precipitation of evaporates results in an irreversible evolution of the structure of the sea. The Dead Sea has been switching from its holomictic regime to short meromictic phases of up to 4-year duration, following the particular rainy winters of 1980 and 1992. The massive precipitation of halite in recent years, as well as the re-introduction of the end-brines of the potash plant, is changing the ion composition of the Dead Sea waters. This necessitates the adjustment of the equation-of-state of the brine and the solubility curve of halite. One consequence is that the onset of halite precipitation during the summer occurs earlier and earlier in the annual cycle. New isotopic measurement of δ 37 Cl of the brine and evaporate deposits and of δ 18 O in dissolved oxygen in the water column have yielded new information on geochemical processes in the Dead Sea system. A systematic monitoring of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the Dead Sea waters has, unfortunately, not been continued in recent years and should be encouraged for the future. (author)

  14. Dead end metabolites--defining the known unknowns of the E. coli metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mackie

    Full Text Available The EcoCyc database is an online scientific database which provides an integrated view of the metabolic and regulatory network of the bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 and facilitates computational exploration of this important model organism. We have analysed the occurrence of dead end metabolites within the database--these are metabolites which lack the requisite reactions (either metabolic or transport that would account for their production or consumption within the metabolic network. 127 dead end metabolites were identified from the 995 compounds that are contained within the EcoCyc metabolic network. Their presence reflects either a deficit in our representation of the network or in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism. Extensive literature searches resulted in the addition of 38 transport reactions and 3 metabolic reactions to the database and led to an improved representation of the pathway for Vitamin B12 salvage. 39 dead end metabolites were identified as components of reactions that are not physiologically relevant to E. coli K-12--these reactions are properties of purified enzymes in vitro that would not be expected to occur in vivo. Our analysis led to improvements in the software that underpins the database and to the program that finds dead end metabolites within EcoCyc. The remaining dead end metabolites in the EcoCyc database likely represent deficiencies in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism.

  15. Design and analysis of a dead volume control for a solar Stirling engine with induction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Chacon, Ricardo; Leal-Chavez, Daniel; Sauceda, D.; Pellegrini-Cervantes, Manuel; Borunda, Mónica


    In this work, a power generation system dish/Stirling with cavity receiver and an electrical induction generator was simulated. We propose a control system using a variable-dead-volume and analyze its influence on the mechanical performance. A system with a dead volume of 160 cm"3 was designed to control the power and speed of the engine considering annual insolation, mechanical properties of the heater and the limits of frequency and voltage for the systems interconnected to the electricity network. The designed system achieves net efficient solar conversion to electric of 23.38% at an irradiance of 975 W/m"2 and allows an annual increase of 18% of the useful electrical energy compared to a system without control. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation of a nitrogen charged solar Stirling engine for electric power generation. • Design and analysis of a dead volume control for performance increase and power modulation. • Effect of dead space on average working pressure and mass flow rate. • Comparison between dead volume and average pressure control methods. • Impact of Stirling engine control settings on annual generated electric power.

  16. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient. (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John


    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  17. The Influence Of Dead Layer Effect On The Characteristics Of The High Purity Germanium P-Type Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy


    The present work aims at reviewing the studies of the influence of dead layer effect on the characteristics of a high purity germanium (HPGe) p-type detector, obtained by the author and his colleagues in the recent years. The object for study was the HPGe GC1518 detector-based gamma spectrometer of the Center for Nuclear Techniques, Ho Chi Minh City. The studying problems were: The modeling of an HPGe detector-based gamma spectrometer with using the MCNP code; the method of determining the thickness of dead layer by experimental measurements of gamma spectra and the calculations using MCNP code; the influence of material parameters and dead layer on detector efficiency; the increase of dead layer thickness over the operating time of the GC1518 detector; the influence of dead layer thickness increase on the decrease of detector efficiency; the dead layer effect for the gamma spectra measured in the GC1518 detector. (author)

  18. Genome-wide transcriptional response of Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis to infection with the deadly chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bree Rosenblum

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd infects hundreds of species of frogs in the wild. It is found worldwide and is a significant contributor to the current global amphibian decline. However, the mechanism by which Bd causes death in amphibians, and the response of the host to Bd infection, remain largely unknown. Here we use whole-genome microarrays to monitor the transcriptional responses to Bd infection in the model frog species, Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis, which is susceptible to chytridiomycosis. To elucidate the immune response to Bd and evaluate the physiological effects of chytridiomycosis, we measured gene expression changes in several tissues (liver, skin, spleen following exposure to Bd. We detected a strong transcriptional response for genes involved in physiological processes that can help explain some clinical symptoms of chytridiomycosis at the organismal level. However, we detected surprisingly little evidence of an immune response to Bd exposure, suggesting that this susceptible species may not be mounting efficient innate and adaptive immune responses against Bd. The weak immune response may be partially explained by the thermal conditions of the experiment, which were optimal for Bd growth. However, many immune genes exhibited decreased expression in Bd-exposed frogs compared to control frogs, suggesting a more complex effect of Bd on the immune system than simple temperature-mediated immune suppression. This study generates important baseline data for ongoing

  19. Simple circuit for precise measurement of live dead or clock time in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, W.; Sterlinski, S.


    The basic design features and characteristics of circuit are described in the paper. The circuit coupled to a multichannel analyser (MCA) enables one of times: live(Tsub(iota)), dead (Tsub(d)) or clock(Tsub(c)) to be measured precisely. Second one is measured by a built-in timer of MCA. Having the Tsub(c)/Tsub(iota) ratio and utilizing suitable mathematical formulas one can make the corrections for both main effects (dead-time and pile-up) which yield counting losses in gamma-ray spectrometry at high and/or variable activities. Two examples of the dead-time and pile-up corrections by using the new circuit are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Dead Reckoning in the Desert Ant: A Defence of Connectionist Models. (United States)

    Mole, Christopher


    Dead reckoning is a feature of the navigation behaviour shown by several creatures, including the desert ant. Recent work by C. Randy Gallistel shows that some connectionist models of dead reckoning face important challenges. These challenges are thought to arise from essential features of the connectionist approach, and have therefore been taken to show that connectionist models are unable to explain even the most primitive of psychological phenomena. I show that Gallistel's challenges are successfully met by one recent connectionist model, proposed by Ulysses Bernardet, Sergi Bermúdez i Badia, and Paul F.M.J. Verschure. The success of this model suggests that there are ways to implement dead reckoning with neural circuits that fall within the bounds of what many people regard as neurobiologically plausible, and so that the wholesale dismissal of the connectionist modelling project remains premature.

  1. Communication media and the dead: from the Stone Age to Facebook. (United States)

    Walter, Tony


    This article argues as follows: (i) The presence of the dead within a society depends in part on available communication technologies, specifically speech, stone, sculpture, writing, printing, photography and phonography (including the mass media), and most recently the internet. (ii) Each communication technology affords possibilities for the dead to construct and legitimate particular social groups and institutions - from the oral construction of kinship, to the megalithic legitimation of the territorial rights of chiefdoms, to the written word's construction of world religions and nations, to the photographic and phonographic construction of celebrity-based neo-tribalism, and to the digital reconstruction of family and friendship. (iii) Historically, concerns about the dead have on a number of occasions aided the development of new communication technologies - the causal connection between the two can go both ways. The argument is based primarily on critical synthesis of existing research literature.

  2. Temperature dependence of magnetically dead layers in ferromagnetic thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tokaç


    Full Text Available Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to study interface magnetism and magnetic dead layers in model amorphous CoFeB:Ta alloy thin-film multilayers with Curie temperatures tuned to be below room-temperature. This allows temperature dependent variations in the effective magnetic thickness of the film to be determined at temperatures that are a significant fraction of the Curie temperature, which cannot be achieved in the material systems used for spintronic devices. In addition to variation in the effective magnetic thickness due to compositional grading at the interface with the tantalum capping layer, the key finding is that at the interface between ferromagnetic film and GaAs(001 substrate local interfacial alloying creates an additional magnetic dead-layer. The thickness of this magnetic dead-layer is temperature dependent, which may have significant implications for elevated-temperature operation of hybrid ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  3. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia]. (United States)

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G


    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  4. Integrated 3D density modelling and segmentation of the Dead Sea


    H.-J. Götze; R. El-Kelani; Sebastian Schmidt; M. Rybakov; M. Hassouneh; Hans-Jürgen Förster; J. Ebbing; DESERT Group;  ;  ;  


    A 3D interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly in the area of the '‘Dead Sea Rift’’ is presented. A high-resolution 3D model constrained with the seismic results reveals the crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the Arava/Araba Valley (AV), the region between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat. The Bouguer anomalies along the axial portion of the AV, as deduced from the modelling results, are mainly caused by deep-seated sedimentary basins (D > 10 km). An inferred...

  5. Challenges to estimate surface- and groundwater flow in arid regions: the Dead Sea catchment. (United States)

    Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Mallast, Ulf; Gräbe, Agnes; Guttman, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Storz-Peretz, Yael; Greenman, Anat; Salameh, Elias; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Vachtman, Dina; Zvi, Arie Ben; Ionescu, Danny; Brenner, Asher; Merz, Ralf; Geyer, Stefan


    The overall aim of the this study, which was conducted within the framework of the multilateral IWRM project SUMAR, was to expand the scientific basement to quantify surface- and groundwater fluxes towards the hypersaline Dead Sea. The flux significance for the arid vicinity around the Dead Sea is decisive not only for a sustainable management in terms of water availability for future generations but also for the resilience of the unique ecosystems along its coast. Coping with different challenges interdisciplinary methods like (i) hydrogeochemical fingerprinting, (ii) satellite and airborne-based thermal remote sensing, (iii) direct measurement with gauging station in ephemeral wadis and a first multilateral gauging station at the river Jordan, (iv) hydro-bio-geochemical approach at submarine and shore springs along the Dead Sea and (v) hydro(geo)logical modelling contributed to the overall aim. As primary results, we deduce that the following: (i) Within the drainage basins of the Dead Sea, the total mean annual precipitation amounts to 300 mm a(−1) west and to 179 mm a(−1) east of the lake, respectively. (ii) The total mean annual runoff volumes from side wadis (except the Jordan River) entering the Dead Sea is approximately 58–66 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1) (western wadis: 7–15 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1); eastern wadis: 51 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1)). (iii) The modelled groundwater discharge from the upper Cretaceous aquifers in both flanks of the Dead Sea towards the lake amounts to 177 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1). (iv) An unexpected abundance of life in submarine springs exists, which in turn explains microbial moderated geo-bio-chemical processes in the Dead Sea sediments, affecting the highly variable chemical composition of on- and offshore spring waters.The results of this work show a promising enhancement of describing and modelling the Dead Sea basin as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Dead Sea Rift Basins of Israel and Jordan (United States)

    Coleman, James; ten Brink, Uri S.


    Following its middle Miocene inception, numerous basins of varying lengths and depths developed along the Dead Sea fault zone, a large continental transform plate boundary. The modern day left-lateral fault zone has an accumulated left-lateral offset of 105 to 110 km (65 to 68 mi). The deepest basin along the fault zone, the Lake Lisan or Dead Sea basin, reaches depths of 7.5 to 8.5 km (24,500 ft to 28,000 ft), and shows evidence of hydrocarbons. The basins are compartmentalized by normal faulting associated with rapid basin subsidence and, where present, domal uplift accompanying synrift salt withdrawal.

  7. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M. E-mail:; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R.P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A


    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 {mu}m bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips. (author)

  8. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich


    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  9. Relationship between γ detection dead-time and count correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Zhang Jianhua; Chu Chengsheng; Hu Guangchun; Zhang Changfan; Hu Gen; Gong Jian; Tian Dongfeng


    The relationship between dead-time and count correction factor was investigated by using interference source for purpose of high γ activity measurement. The count rates maintain several 10 s"-"l with γ energy of 0.3-1.3 MeV for 10"4-10"5 Bq radioactive source. It is proved that the relationship between count loss and dead-time is unconcerned at various energy and various count intensities. The same correction formula can be used for any nuclide measurement. (authors)

  10. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth


    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  11. Fear, the other, the end. Legal violences, deadly violences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi Lanceros


    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an account of the difficulties that western democracies are going through in this globalization’s time, undergoing the stress that causes the double pressure of two factors: a growing fear which causes lie on the confluence of financial capitalism and liberal hegemony (with the output of insecurity they both cause, and the confrontation, that increasingly adopts more worrying forms, with diverse kind and grades or otherness: human masses of displaced persons or expulsed of their residences and hounded by economic, cultural or political motivations, that do not find refuge nowhere and becoming hostility and disdain.

  12. The illegal and the dead: are Mexicans renewable energy? (United States)

    Smith-Nonini, Sandy


    This article reflects on the production of injury and death among Latino workers in the agro-industrial food complex, with attention to systemic relationships between the United States and Mexico in the post-North American Free Trade Agreement period, which has been characterized by waves of new labor migration that directly enhanced US agricultural profitability. The article draws parallels between literatures on labor productivity and new writings on energy and sustainable agriculture. It examines the usefulness of embodiment as a dialectical approach to eco-social theory, and the concept of "body politic," or a politics of moral ecology, as a means of reasserting the human shape of production systems that have become deformed by the impersonal calculus of neoliberal capitalism.

  13. Red not dead: signaling in and from erythrocytes. (United States)

    Sprague, Randy S; Stephenson, Alan H; Ellsworth, Mary L


    The oxygen required to meet metabolic needs of all tissues is delivered by the erythrocyte, a small, flexible cell which, in mammals, is devoid of a nucleus and mitochondria. Despite its simple appearance, this 'bag of hemoglobin' has an important role in its own distribution, enabling the delivery of oxygen to precisely meet localized metabolic need. When an erythrocyte enters an area in which tissue oxygen demand exceeds supply, a signaling pathway is activated resulting in the release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). This ATP acts in a paracrine fashion to increase vascular caliber resulting in increased oxygen delivery. Defects in this pathway are found in erythrocytes of humans with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and could contribute to the perfusion abnormalities in skeletal muscle associated with this disease.

  14. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock. (United States)


    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  15. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross. (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others


    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  16. Terminating the pregnancy of a brain-dead mother: Does a fetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent Texas case of Munoz v. John Peter Smith Hospital, the court granted a husband an order for the removal of life support from his brain-dead pregnant wife whose body was decaying, after a hospital had tried to keep her on 'life support' until the fetus was born. In South Africa the court would have issued a similar ...

  17. Taxonomic analysis of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from 56-years-old dead sea brine samples. (United States)

    Arahal, D R; Gutiérrez, M C; Volcani, B E; Ventosa, A


    A taxonomic study comprising both phenotypic and genotypic characterization, has been carried out on a total of 158 extremely halophilic aerobic archaeal strains. These strains were isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples dating from 1936 that were collected by B. E. Volcani for the demonstration of microbial life in the Dead Sea. The isolates were examined for 126 morphological, physiological, biochemical and nutritional tests. Numerical analysis of the data, by using the S(J) coefficient and UPGMA clustering method, showed that the isolates clustered into six phenons. Twenty-two out of the 158 strains used in this study were characterized previously (ARAHAL et al., 1996) and were placed into five phenotypic groups. The genotypic study included both the determination of the guanineplus-cytosine content of the DNA and DNA-DNA hybridization studies. For this purpose, representative strains from the six phenons were chosen. These groups were found to represent some members of three different genera - Haloarcula (phenons A, B, and C), Haloferax (phenons D and E) and Halobacterium (phenon F) - of the family Halobacteriaceae, some of them never reported to occur in the Dead Sea, such as Haloarcula hispanica, while Haloferax volcanii (phenons D and E) was described in the Dead Sea by studies carried out several decades later than Volcani's work.

  18. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar. (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan


    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  19. Contacting the Spirits of the Dead: Paranormal Belief and the Teenage Worldview (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr


    A number of previous studies have examined both the overall level of belief expressed by young people in the paranormal and the major demographic predictors of such belief. Building on this research tradition, the present study examines how one specific paranormal belief concerning contact with the spirits of the dead integrates with the wider…

  20. Si(Li) detectors with thin dead layers for low energy x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.; Walton, J.T.; Jaklevic, J.M.


    Regions of incomplete charge collection, or ''dead layers'', are compared for Si(Li) detectors fabricated with Au and Pd entrance window electrodes. The dead layers were measured by characterizing the detector spectral response to x-ray energies above and below the Si Kα absorption edge. It was found that Si(Li) detectors with Pd electrodes exhibit consistently thinner effective Si dead layers than those with Au electrodes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the minimum thickness required for low resistivity Pd electrodes is thinner than that required for low resistivity Au electrodes, which further reduces the signal attenuation in Pd/Si(Li) detectors. A model, based on Pd compensation of oxygen vacancies in the SiO 2 at the entrance window Si(Li) surface, is proposed to explain the observed differences in detector dead layer thickness. Electrode structures for optimum Si(Li) detector performance at low x-ray energies are discussed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. A high-resolution and intelligent dead pixel detection scheme for an electrowetting display screen (United States)

    Luo, ZhiJie; Luo, JianKun; Zhao, WenWen; Cao, Yang; Lin, WeiJie; Zhou, GuoFu


    Electrowetting display technology is realized by tuning the surface energy of a hydrophobic surface by applying a voltage based on electrowetting mechanism. With the rapid development of the electrowetting industry, how to analyze efficiently the quality of an electrowetting display screen has a very important significance. There are two kinds of dead pixels on the electrowetting display screen. One is that the oil of pixel cannot completely cover the display area. The other is that indium tin oxide semiconductor wire connecting pixel and foil was burned. In this paper, we propose a high-resolution and intelligent dead pixel detection scheme for an electrowetting display screen. First, we built an aperture ratio-capacitance model based on the electrical characteristics of electrowetting display. A field-programmable gate array is used as the integrated logic hub of the system for a highly reliable and efficient control of the circuit. Dead pixels can be detected and displayed on a PC-based 2D graphical interface in real time. The proposed dead pixel detection scheme reported in this work has promise in automating electrowetting display experiments.

  2. Dead regions in the cochlea: Implications for speech recognition and applicability of articulation index theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David


    Dead regions in the cochlea have been suggested to be responsible for failure by hearing aid users to benefit front apparently increased audibility in terms of speech intelligibility. As an alternative to the more cumbersome psychoacoustic tuning curve measurement, threshold-equalizing noise (TEN...

  3. «Dead Men Attack» (Osovets, 1915: Archive Sources Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Menjkovsky


    Full Text Available The article, basing on archive materials, attempts to examine one of the chapters of World War I history, namely, so-called “dead men attack” during Osovets Tower (westward of Bialystok, within the territory of modern Poland defense by Russian troops in 1915, reconstructs the battle, specifies attack, rather counterattack conditions, introduces new archive sources for scientific use.

  4. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest. (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr


    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.


    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  6. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.


    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  7. Estimating dead wood during national forest inventories: a review of inventory methodologies and suggestions for harmonization (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Jacques Rondeux; Pieter J. Verkerk; G& #246; ran St& #229; hl


    Efforts to assess forest ecosystem carbon stocks, biodiversity, and fire hazards have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem dead wood (DW) components around the world. Currently, information regarding the prevalence, status, and methods of DW inventories occurring in the world's forested landscapes is scattered. The goal of this study...

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie


    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  9. System Identification for Nonlinear FOPDT Model with Input-Dependent Dead-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhen; Yang, Zhenyu


    An on-line iterative method of system identification for a kind of nonlinear FOPDT system is proposed in the paper. The considered nonlinear FOPDT model is an extension of the standard FOPDT model by means that its dead time depends on the input signal and the other parameters are time dependent....

  10. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Zrůstová, Petra; Vrška, T.; Baldrian, Petr


    Roč. 93, č. 12 (2017), č. článku fix157. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27454S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * dead wood * decomposition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  11. Existence and uniqueness results for Liénard́s equation having a dead band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandqvist, Allan; Andersen, Kurt Munk


    a uniqueness theorem by de Figueiredo concerning periodic solutions to Liénard's equationddot{x} +f(x)dot{x} + g(x) = 0. By our method we are able to avoid the hitherto usual conditionxg(x) > 0, x {neq} 0, which excludes the possibility for the equation to have a dead band. Finally, we prove an existence...

  12. Anticholinergic Toxic Syndrome Caused by Atropa Belladonna Fruit (Deadly Nightshade): A Case Report (United States)

    Demirhan, Abdullah; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Yıldız, İsa; Korkmaz, Tanzer; Bilgi, Murat; Akkaya, Akcan; Koçoğlu, Hasan


    Atropa Belladonna poisoning may lead to anticholinergic syndrome. Ingestion of high amounts of the plant may cause lethargy, coma, and even a serious clinical picture leading to death. In this case report, we aimed to present a case with anticholinergic syndrome that developed after ingestion of the fruit called “Deadly Nightshade” in our country. PMID:27366377

  13. Artemisinin and sesquiterpene precursors in dead and green leaves of Artemisia annua L. crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Elzinga, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.


    This paper analyses the accumulation and concentrations of the antimalarial artemisinin in green and dead leaves of Artemisia annua crops in two field experiments. Concentration differences were analysed as being determined by (a) the total production of artemisinin plus its upstream precursors

  14. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de D.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Wagelaar, M.; Kleuver, de M.; Koene, M.G.J.; Roest, H.I.J.; Sinha, B.; Tomaso, H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Stienstra, Y.


    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  15. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study (United States)

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew


    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  16. Game-Review: Red Dead Redemption - von Rockstar San Diego/Take 2 Interactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder


    Full Text Available Das Wilde im Westen befindet sich bereits in den letzten Atemzügen, am Vorabend zur industriellen Revolution. Red Dead Redemption lässt die Spieler in eine von Gewalt erfüllte Welt des ausklingenden Wilden Westens eintauchen.

  17. Decision making on organ donation: the dilemmas of relatives of potential brain dead donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Hoek, M.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Leeuwen, E. van


    BACKGROUND: This article is part of a study to gain insight into the decision-making process by looking at the views of the relatives of potential brain dead donors. Alongside a literature review, focus interviews were held with healthcare professionals about their role in the request and

  18. Influence of fire on dead woody material in forests of California and southwestern Oregon (United States)

    Carl N. Skinner


    The frequent occurrence of fire in most forested areas of California and southwestern Oregon before this century has been well established. Likewise, the importance of dead woody material to various wildlife species as snags and downed logs has been well documented. It is unlikely that much large woody material survived fire long enough to decompose fully in fire...

  19. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping


    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  20. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.


    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  1. Provisional, Primordial and Preexistent Temples in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren


    The Bible itself indicates that there is a prehistory to the Solomonic temple: It existed in a portable version during the wilderness years in the shape of the Tabernacle, and that in turn was built after a model shown to Moses on Mt. Sinai by God himself. It is no wonder that the Dead Sea Scrolls...

  2. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar


    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ≈10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  3. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death. (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk


    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  4. Interconnection blocks with minimal dead volumes permitting planar interconnection to thin microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Martin


    We have previously described 'Interconnection Blocks' which are re-usable, non-integrated PDMS blocks which allowing multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Here, we describe Interconnection Block versions with zero dead volumes that allow fluidic interfacing to flat or thin s...

  5. The (w)hole story : Facilitation of dead wood fauna by bark beetles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Liu, Jin C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Facilitation between species is thought to be a key mechanism in community assembly and diversity, as certain species create microhabitats for others. A profound characteristic of forest ecosystems is a large amount of dead wood which is colofiised by a vast array of invertebrate species. Bark

  6. The (w)hole story: Facilitation of dead wood fauna by bark beetles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Hefting, M.M.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; van Hal, J.R.; Goudzwaard, L.; Liu, J.C.; Berg, M.P.


    Facilitation between species is thought to be a key mechanism in community assembly and diversity, as certain species create microhabitats for others. A profound characteristic of forest ecosystems is a large amount of dead wood which is colonised by a vast array of invertebrate species. Bark

  7. Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jose Negron


    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed large numbers of trees across North America in recent years. Lidar remote sensing can be used to effectively estimate forest biomass, but prediction of both live and dead standing biomass in beetle-affected forests using lidar alone has not been demonstrated. We developed Random Forest (RF) models predicting total, live, dead, and...

  8. Can live tree size-density relationships provide a mechanism for predicting down and dead tree resources? (United States)

    Christopher Woodall; James Westfall


    Live tree size-density relationships in forests have long provided a framework for understanding stand dynamics. There has been little examination of the relationship between the size-density attributes of live and standing/down dead trees (e.g., number and mean tree size per unit area, such information could help in large-scale efforts to estimate dead wood resources...

  9. [Spatial pattern of land surface dead combustible fuel load in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains]. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Guo-Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Meng


    By using geo-statistics and based on time-lag classification standard, a comparative study was made on the land surface dead combustible fuels in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains. The results indicated that the first level land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 1 h time-lag dead fuel, presented stronger spatial auto-correlation, with an average of 762.35 g x m(-2) and contributing to 55.54% of the total load. Its determining factors were species composition and stand age. The second and third levels land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 10 h and 100 h time-lag dead fuels, had a sum of 610.26 g x m(-2), and presented weaker spatial auto-correlation than 1 h time-lag dead fuel. Their determining factor was the disturbance history of forest stand. The complexity and heterogeneity of the factors determining the quality and quantity of forest land surface dead combustible fuels were the main reasons for the relatively inaccurate interpolation. However, the utilization of field survey data coupled with geo-statistics could easily and accurately interpolate the spatial pattern of forest land surface dead combustible fuel loads, and indirectly provide a practical basis for forest management.

  10. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Carlton


    Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

  11. Dead-wood addition promotes non-saproxylic epigeal arthropods but effects are mediated by canopy openness (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bässler; Petr Baldrian; Lena Reinhard; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Ingmar Weiß; Jörg Müller


    Restoring dead-wood amounts in forests is an increasingly and successfully applied conservation measure to counteract negative effects of intensive logging on biodiversity of saproxylic taxa. By contrast, if and how dead-wood addition benefits the vast number of non-saproxylic forest taxa, and how this varies with contextual factors like canopy openness, remains poorly...

  12. Relationships between the stocking levels of live trees and dead tree attributes in forests of the United States (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall


    There has been little examination of the relationship between the stocking of live trees in forests and the associated attributes of dead tree resources which could inform large-scale efforts to estimate and manage deadwood resources. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between the stocking of standing live trees and attributes of standing dead and...

  13. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I : Castor oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.


    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992;

  14. Contribution of dead wood to biomass and carbon stocks in the Caribbean: St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Thomas J. Brandeis


    Dead wood is a substantial carbon stock in terrestrial forest ecosystems and hence a critical component of global carbon cycles. Given the limited amounts of dead wood biomass and carbon stock information for Caribbean forests, our objectives were to: (1) describe the relative contribution of down woody materials (DWM) to carbon stocks on the island of St. John; (2)...

  15. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  16. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Fonck, M.; van Hal, J.R.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Berg, M.P.


    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  17. Stratigraphy, climate and downhole logging data - an example from the ICDP Dead Sea deep drilling project (United States)

    Coianiz, Lisa; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Lazar, Michael


    During the late Quaternary a series of lakes occupied the Dead Sea tectonic basin. The sediments that accumulated within these lakes preserved the environmental history (tectonic and climatic) of the basin and its vicinity. Most of the information on these lakes was deduced from exposures along the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, e.g. the exposures of the last glacial Lake Lisan and Holocene Dead Sea. The International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project conducted in the Dead Sea during 2010-2011 recovered several cores that were drilled in the deep depocenter of the lake (water depth of 300 m) and at the margin (depth of 3 m offshore Ein Gedi spa). New high resolution logging data combined with a detailed lithological description and published age models for the deep 5017-1-A borehole were used to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Lakes Amora, Samra, Lisan and Zeelim strata. This study presents a stratigraphic timescale for reconstructing the last ca 225 ka. It provides a context within which the timing of key sequence surfaces identified in the distal part of the basin can be mapped on a regional and stratigraphic time frame. In addition, it permitted the examination of depositional system tracts and related driving mechanisms controlling their formation. The sequence stratigraphic model developed for the Northern Dead Sea Basin is based on the identification of sequence bounding surfaces including: sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and maximum flooding surface (MFS). They enabled the division of depositional sequences into a Lowstand systems tracts (LST), Transgressive systems tracts (TST) and Highstand systems tracts (HST), which can be interpreted in terms of relative lake level changes. The analysis presented here show that system tract stacking patterns defined for the distal 5017-1-A borehole can be correlated to the proximal part of the basin, and widely support the claim that changes in relative lake

  18. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide. (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z


    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  19. Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Al-Nimr, M.A.


    Solar ponds provide the most convenient and least expensive option for heat storage for daily and seasonal cycles. This is particularly important for a desalination facility, if steady and constant water production is required. If, in addition to high storage capacity, other favorable conditions exist, the salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are expected to be able to carry the entire load of a large-scale flash desalination plants without dependence upon supplementary sources. This paper presents a performance investigation of a SGSP coupled with desalination plant under Jordanian climatic conditions. This is particularly convenient in the Dead Sea region characterized by high solar radiation intensities, high ambient temperature most of the year, and by the availability of high concentration brine. It was found that a 3000 m 2 solar pond installed near the Dead Sea is able to provide an annual average production rate of 4.3 L min -1 distilled water compared with 3.3 L min -1 that would be produced by El Paso solar pond, which has the same surface area. Based on this study, solar ponds appear to be a feasible and an appropriate technology for water desalination near the Dead Sea in Jordan. -- Research highlights: → A performance investigation of a solar pond coupled with desalination plant. → Dead Sea area is characterized by availability of high solar radiation and brine. → The Dead Sea solar pond can provide production rate of 4.3 L min -1 . → El Paso solar pond has production rate of 3.32 L min -1 . The improvement is about 30%. → The solar pond with desalination investigated showed to be a feasible technology.

  20. Priority effects of early successional insects influence late successional fungi in dead wood. (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rannveig Margrete; Birkemoe, Tone; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne


    Community assembly is an integral process in all ecosystems, producing patterns of species distributions, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Environmental filters and colonization history govern the assembly process, but their relative importance varies depending on the study system. Dead wood decomposition is a slow process, allowing decomposer communities to develop within a slowly changing substrate for decades. Despite this, there are few long-term studies of priority effects from colonization history in this ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the importance of insects in early succession of dead wood on the fungal community present one decade later. Sixty aspen trees were killed in two study landscapes, each tree producing one aspen high stump and log. Insects were sampled with flight interception traps during the first 4 years after tree death, and fungal fruiting bodies were registered in year twelve. We found positive priority effects of two fungivorous beetles, the sap beetle Glischrochilus quadripunctatus and the round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne, on the Artist's bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) and a positive priority effect of wood-boring beetles on the ascomycete Yellow fairy cup (Bisporella citrina). The Aspen bracket (Phellinus tremulae) did not respond to insects in early succession of the dead wood. Our results suggest that early successional insects can have significant, long-lasting effects on the late successional fungal community in dead wood. Also, the effect can be specific, with one fungus species depending on one or a few fungivorous beetle species. This has implications for decomposition and biodiversity in dead wood, as loss of early colonizing beetles may also affect the successional pathways they seem to initiate.

  1. Snake Venom: From Deadly Toxins to Life-saving Therapeutics. (United States)

    Waheed, Humera; Moin, Syed F; Choudhary, M I


    Snakes are fascinating creatures and have been residents of this planet well before ancient humans dwelled the earth. Venomous snakes have been a figure of fear, and cause notable mortality throughout the world. The venom constitutes families of proteins and peptides with various isoforms that make it a cocktail of diverse molecules. These biomolecules are responsible for the disturbance in fundamental physiological systems of the envenomed victim, leading to morbidity which can lead to death if left untreated. Researchers have turned these life-threatening toxins into life-saving therapeutics via technological advancements. Since the development of captopril, the first drug that was derived from bradykininpotentiating peptide of Bothrops jararaca, to the disintegrins that have potent activity against certain types of cancers, snake venom components have shown great potential for the development of lead compounds for new drugs. There is a continuous development of new drugs from snake venom for coagulopathy and hemostasis to anti-cancer agents. In this review, we have focused on different snake venom proteins / peptides derived drugs that are in clinical use or in developmental stages till to date. Also, some commonly used snake venom derived diagnostic tools along with the recent updates in this exciting field are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. Pedestrian dead reckoning employing simultaneous activity recognition cues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Kerem; Barshan, Billur


    We consider the human localization problem using body-worn inertial/magnetic sensor units. Inertial sensors are characterized by a drift error caused by the integration of their rate output to obtain position information. Because of this drift, the position and orientation data obtained from inertial sensors are reliable over only short periods of time. Therefore, position updates from externally referenced sensors are essential. However, if the map of the environment is known, the activity context of the user can provide information about his position. In particular, the switches in the activity context correspond to discrete locations on the map. By performing localization simultaneously with activity recognition, we detect the activity context switches and use the corresponding position information as position updates in a localization filter. The localization filter also involves a smoother that combines the two estimates obtained by running the zero-velocity update algorithm both forward and backward in time. We performed experiments with eight subjects in indoor and outdoor environments involving walking, turning and standing activities. Using a spatial error criterion, we show that the position errors can be decreased by about 85% on the average. We also present the results of two 3D experiments performed in realistic indoor environments and demonstrate that it is possible to achieve over 90% error reduction in position by performing localization simultaneously with activity recognition. (paper)

  3. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients. (United States)

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D


    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  4. Intelligent personal navigator supported by knowledge-based systems for estimating dead reckoning navigation parameters (United States)

    Moafipoor, Shahram

    Personal navigators (PN) have been studied for about a decade in different fields and applications, such as safety and rescue operations, security and emergency services, and police and military applications. The common goal of all these applications is to provide precise and reliable position, velocity, and heading information of each individual in various environments. In the PN system developed in this dissertation, the underlying assumption is that the system does not require pre-existing infrastructure to enable pedestrian navigation. To facilitate this capability, a multisensor system concept, based on the Global Positioning System (GPS), inertial navigation, barometer, magnetometer, and a human pedometry model has been developed. An important aspect of this design is to use the human body as navigation sensor to facilitate Dead Reckoning (DR) navigation in GPS-challenged environments. The system is designed predominantly for outdoor environments, where occasional loss of GPS lock may happen; however, testing and performance demonstration have been extended to indoor environments. DR navigation is based on a relative-measurement approach, with the key idea of integrating the incremental motion information in the form of step direction (SD) and step length (SL) over time. The foundation of the intelligent navigation system concept proposed here rests in exploiting the human locomotion pattern, as well as change of locomotion in varying environments. In this context, the term intelligent navigation represents the transition from the conventional point-to-point DR to dynamic navigation using the knowledge about the mechanism of the moving person. This approach increasingly relies on integrating knowledge-based systems (KBS) and artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies, including artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL). In addition, a general framework of the quality control for the real-time validation of the DR processing is proposed, based on a

  5. Integrated 3D density modelling and segmentation of the Dead Sea Transform (United States)

    Götze, H.-J.; El-Kelani, R.; Schmidt, S.; Rybakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Förster, H.-J.; Ebbing, J.


    A 3D interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly in the area of the “Dead Sea Rift” is presented. A high-resolution 3D model constrained with the seismic results reveals the crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the Arava/Araba Valley (AV), the region between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat. The Bouguer anomalies along the axial portion of the AV, as deduced from the modelling results, are mainly caused by deep-seated sedimentary basins ( D > 10 km). An inferred zone of intrusion coincides with the maximum gravity anomaly on the eastern flank of the AV. The intrusion is displaced at different sectors along the NNW-SSE direction. The zone of maximum crustal thinning (depth 30 km) is attained in the western sector at the Mediterranean. The southeastern plateau, on the other hand, shows by far the largest crustal thickness of the region (38-42 km). Linked to the left lateral movement of approx. 105 km at the boundary between the African and Arabian plate, and constrained with recent seismic data, a small asymmetric topography of the Moho beneath the Dead Sea Transform (DST) was modelled. The thickness and density of the crust suggest that the AV is underlain by continental crust. The deep basins, the relatively large intrusion and the asymmetric topography of the Moho lead to the conclusion that a small-scale asthenospheric upwelling could be responsible for the thinning of the crust and subsequent creation of the Dead Sea basin during the left lateral movement. A clear segmentation along the strike of the DST was obtained by curvature analysis: the northern part in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea is characterised by high curvature of the residual gravity field. Flexural rigidity calculations result in very low values of effective elastic lithospheric thickness ( t e < 5 km). This points to decoupling of crust in the Dead Sea area. In the central, AV the curvature is less pronounced and t e increases to approximately 10 km

  6. Observations on the spatio-temporal patterns of radon along the western fault of the Dead Sea Transform, NW Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Malik, U.


    An extensive radon anomaly is developed along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Transform in the NW sector of the Dead Sea, extending 15-20 km north-south. The highest radon values occur in proximity to the fault scarp. Radon is measured, in gravel (depth 1.5-3 m) at sites located at a) on-fault positions, 1-30 meters east of the fault scarp, and b) off-fault positions located 600-800 the east. Prominent signals occur in the annual and daily periodicity bands, as well as non-periodic multi-day variations (2-20 days). Modulations occur among the annual variation and the multi-day and the daily signals, and between the multi-day and the daily signal. Dissimilar variation patterns occur at on-fault versus off-fault sites in the time domain, and in the relative amplitude of the daily periodicities. Variation patterns and their modulations are similar to those encountered in experimental simulations. It is concluded that: 1) above surface atmospheric influences can be excluded; 2) a remote above surface influence probably drives the periodic components in the annual and diurnal bands; 3) diurnal as well as the multi-day signals are modified and inter-modulated by near field geological (static) and geophysical (dynamic) influences. Systematically different influences are operating at on-fault versus off- fault positions, so far the natures of these near field influences are unidentified. (authors)

  7. Foehn-induced effects on local dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Savir, Amit; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael


    Despite the long history of investigation of foehn phenomena, there are few studies of the influence of foehn winds on air pollution and none in the Dead Sea valley. For the first time the foehn phenomenon and its effects on local dust pollution, frontal cloudiness and surface solar radiation were analyzed in the Dead Sea valley, as it occurred on 22 March 2013. This was carried out using both numerical simulations and observations. The foehn winds intensified local dust emissions, while the foehn-induced temperature inversion trapped dust particles beneath this inversion. These two factors caused extreme surface dust concentration in the western Dead Sea valley. The dust pollution was transported by west winds eastward, to the central Dead Sea valley, where the speed of these winds sharply decreased. The transported dust was captured by the ascending airflow contributing to the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the central Dead Sea valley. On the day under study, the maximum surface dust concentration did not coincide with the maximum AOD: this being one of the specific effects of the foehn phenomenon on dust pollution in the Dead Sea valley. Radar data showed a passage of frontal cloudiness through the area of the Dead Sea valley leading to a sharp drop in noon solar radiation. The descending airflow over the downwind side of the Judean Mountains led to the formation of a cloud-free band followed by only the partial recovery of solar radiation because of the extreme dust pollution caused by foehn winds.

  8. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input. (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip


    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.

  9. Biodiversity of Cryptofauna (Decapods) and Their Correlation with Dead Coral Pocillopora sp. Volume at Bunaken Island, North Sulawesi (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Danie Al; Kholilah, Nenik; Kurniasih, Eka Maya; Sembiring, Andrianus; Pertiwi, Ni Putu Dian; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Munasik, Munasik; Meyer, Christopher


    Decapod is known as cryptofauna which is also important component of coral reef biodiversity. Dead corals are one of the area which usually used by decapods to live. This research aims to observe the diversity of cryptofauna (decapods) and the correlation between the number of decapods with the volume of dead corals. Ten dead corals, Pocillopora sp., were collected at 5 m depth at Bunaken Island. These dead corals were measured their volume and all decapods found were counted and identified up to family level. The richness and abundance were analyzed using ACE (Abundance-Based Coverage Estimates) and Chao 1. The results show that there were in total 474 decapods from 13 families found within all ten dead corals. Xanthidae was showed as the most abundance family among all, with 161 individual. Diversity index of decapods was found at medium category with value of 2.01. Rarefaction curve based on richness and abundance showed an estimation of 13 families. The result also indicated that the asymptote stage was reached on the 10th dead coral samples. The correlation between decapod with the volume of dead coral were showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.673, p<0.05). This result provides benefits to basic knowledge about diversity of decapod which one of cryptofauna as component fauna have a habitat on coral reef ecosystem.

  10. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States. (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L


    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Pina L, Y. I.; Marcazzo, J.


    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of "6"0Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  12. A low dead time vernier delay line TDC implemented in an Actel flash-based FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xi; Feng Changqing; Zhang Deliang; Zhao Lei; Liu Shubin; An Qi


    In this paper, a high precision vernier delay line (VDL) TDC (Time-to-Digital Converter) in an Actel flash-based Field-Programmable-Gate-Arrays A3PE1500 is implemented, achieving a resolution of 16.4-ps root mean square value or 42-ps averaged bin size. The TDC has a dead time of about 200 ns while the dynamic range is 655.36 Vs. The double delay lines method is employed to cut the dead time in half to improve its performance. As the bin size of the TDC is dependent on temperature, a compensation algorithm is adopted as temperature drift correction, and the TDC shows satisfying performance in a temperature range from -5℃ to +55℃. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari


    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  14. Simple dead-time corrections for discrete time series of non-Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Michael L; Kostinski, Alexander B


    The problem of dead time (instrumental insensitivity to detectable events due to electronic or mechanical reset time) is considered. Most existing algorithms to correct for event count errors due to dead time implicitly rely on Poisson counting statistics of the underlying phenomena. However, when the events to be measured are clustered in time, the Poisson statistics assumption results in underestimating both the true event count and any statistics associated with count variability; the 'busiest' part of the signal is partially missed. Using the formalism associated with the pair-correlation function, we develop first-order correction expressions for the general case of arbitrary counting statistics. The results are verified through simulation of a realistic clustering scenario

  15. Confusing criminal and civil law: when may a hospital refuse to release a dead body? (United States)

    Gallagher, Steven B


    A United Kingdom bereavement advice group has expressed concern that hospitals in Britain may be acting "illegally" in refusing to release dead bodies to relatives unless they provide evidence that funeral arrangements have been made. In some cases, hospitals may have refused to release a body to anyone other than an undertaker. The charity argues that this behaviour constitutes the common law offence of preventing the lawful burial of a body. This article considers the confusion that may occur between this offence and interference with the right to possession of a body for lawful burial. The conclusion is that it is extremely unlikely a hospital or its employees would fall foul of the criminal law in refusing to release a dead body and may be liable in the civil courts if they release a body to someone who does not have the duty and consequent right to possession of the body for lawful burial.

  16. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)


    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  17. Adaptive variable structure control for uncertain chaotic systems containing dead-zone nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.-J.; Shyu, K.-K.; Lin, J.-S.


    This paper addresses a practical tracking problem for a class of uncertain chaotic systems with dead-zone nonlinearity in the input function. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbalat lemma, an adaptive variable structure controller (AVSC) is proposed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding mode even though the control input contains a dead-zone. Also it is worthy of note that the proposed AVSC involves no information of the upper bound of uncertainty. Thus, the limitation of knowing the bound of uncertainty in advance is certainly released. Furthermore, in the sliding mode, the investigated uncertain chaotic system remains insensitive to the uncertainty, and behaves like a linear system. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed AVSC

  18. Simple formulae for interpretation of the dead time α (first moment) method of reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degweker, S.B.


    The Markov Chain approach for solving problems related to the presence of a non extending dead time in a particle counting circuit with time correlated pulses was developed in an earlier paper. The formalism was applied to, among others, the dead time α (first moment) method of reactor noise. For this problem, however the solution obtained was largely numerical in character and had a tendency to break down for systems close to criticality. In the present paper, simple analytical expressions are derived for the count rate and L ex , the quantities of interest in this method. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations show that these formulae are accurate in the range of system parameters of practical interest

  19. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest. (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine


    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  20. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette


    To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  1. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon


    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  2. Sensorless Control Technology for PMSG base on the Dead-time Compensation voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li-yong


    Full Text Available In order to improve the speed sensorless-control system of PMSG in low speed performance, this paper introduces a novel Dead-time compensation control method .Mathematical model is established according to the Dead-zone of the influence of the voltage source type inverter output voltage. At the same time, the given value of current regulator output voltage has been fixed based on the established model. Then the stator voltage after compensationed is applied to the flux estimation, which improves the performance of flux estimation. Finally, the position and speed of the rotor is estimated based on Back-Electromotive Force, which has Simple algorithm and good robustness. In order to verify the correctness of theoretical analysis, the experiment was done according to the new control method. The results proved the correctness and feasibility of this control method.

  3. On determining dead layer and detector thicknesses for a position-sensitive silicon detector (United States)

    Manfredi, J.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G.; Niu, C. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Brown, K. W.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, K. P.; Chen, G.; Estee, J.; Li, Z.; Pruitt, C.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R.; Tsang, C. Y.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Z.


    In this work, two particular properties of the position-sensitive, thick silicon detectors (known as the "E" detectors) in the High Resolution Array (HiRA) are investigated: the thickness of the dead layer on the front of the detector, and the overall thickness of the detector itself. The dead layer thickness for each E detector in HiRA is extracted using a measurement of alpha particles emitted from a 212Pb pin source placed close to the detector surface. This procedure also allows for energy calibrations of the E detectors, which are otherwise inaccessible for alpha source calibration as each one is sandwiched between two other detectors. The E detector thickness is obtained from a combination of elastically scattered protons and an energy-loss calculation method. Results from these analyses agree with values provided by the manufacturer.

  4. Online Robot Dead Reckoning Localization Using Maximum Relative Entropy Optimization With Model Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urniezius, Renaldas


    The principle of Maximum relative Entropy optimization was analyzed for dead reckoning localization of a rigid body when observation data of two attached accelerometers was collected. Model constraints were derived from the relationships between the sensors. The experiment's results confirmed that accelerometers each axis' noise can be successfully filtered utilizing dependency between channels and the dependency between time series data. Dependency between channels was used for a priori calculation, and a posteriori distribution was derived utilizing dependency between time series data. There was revisited data of autocalibration experiment by removing the initial assumption that instantaneous rotation axis of a rigid body was known. Performance results confirmed that such an approach could be used for online dead reckoning localization.

  5. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  6. Geiger-Mueller haloid counter dead time dependence on counting rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.; Tsvetkov, A.A.


    The experimental dependences of the dead time of Geiger counters (SBM-19, SBM-20, SBM-21 and SGM-19) on the loading, are presented. The method of two sources has been used to determine the dead time counters of increased stability. The counters are switched on according to the usually used circuit of discrete counting with loading resistance of 50 MOhm and the separating capacity of 10 pF. Voltage pulses are given to the counting device with the time of resolution of 100 ns, discrimenation threshold 3 V, input resistance 3.6 Ω and the input capacity-15 pF. The time constant of the counter RC-circuit is 50 μs

  7. Minimization of Dead-Periods in MRI Pulse Sequences for Imaging Oblique Planes (United States)

    Atalar, Ergin; McVeigh, Elliot R.


    With the advent of breath-hold MR cardiac imaging techniques, the minimization of TR and TE for oblique planes has become a critical issue. The slew rates and maximum currents of gradient amplifiers limit the minimum possible TR and TE by adding dead-periods to the pulse sequences. We propose a method of designing gradient waveforms that will be applied to the amplifiers instead of the slice, readout, and phase encoding waveforms. Because this method ensures that the gradient amplifiers will always switch at their maximum slew rate, it results in the minimum possible dead-period for given imaging parameters and scan plane position. A GRASS pulse sequence has been designed and ultra-short TR and TE values have been obtained with standard gradient amplifiers and coils. For some oblique slices, we have achieved shorter TR and TE values than those for nonoblique slices. PMID:7869900

  8. Generalized projective chaos synchronization of gyroscope systems subjected to dead-zone nonlinear inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.


    This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller

  9. Comparing Two Methods of Neural Networks to Evaluate Dead Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Dabiri-Atashbeyk


    Full Text Available Reservoir characterization and asset management require comprehensive information about formation fluids. In fact, it is not possible to find accurate solutions to many petroleum engineering problems without having accurate pressure-volume-temperature (PVT data. Traditionally, fluid information has been obtained by capturing samples and then by measuring the PVT properties in a laboratory. In recent years, neural network has been applied to a large number of petroleum engineering problems. In this paper, a multi-layer perception neural network and radial basis function network (both optimized by a genetic algorithm were used to evaluate the dead oil viscosity of crude oil, and it was found out that the estimated dead oil viscosity by the multi-layer perception neural network was more accurate than the one obtained by radial basis function network.

  10. A new 36Cl hydrological model and 36Cl systematics in the Jordan River/Dead Sea system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, M.; Fink, D.; Meirav, O.; Kaim, R.


    Accelerator mass spectrometry results of 36 Cl for the Jordan River/Dead Sea system show that the amount of chloride leached from rocks ranges from approx. 70% in source springs to >90% in water bodies downstream. Furthermore, the amount of water left after evaporation decreases from approx. 50% in the source springs to 20% in the intermediate Lake Kinneret. In the terminal Dead Sea, 99% of the stable chloride originates from ancient rocks and evaporite formations while approx. 80% of its 36 Cl content is of meteoric origin. Using 36 Cl measurements, the accumulation time of the Dead Sea salt is estimated to be 19,000-25,000 yr. (author)

  11. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick


    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  12. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  13. Validation of current acoustic dead-zone estimation methods in lakes with strongly sloped bottoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tušer, Michal; Balk, H.; Mrkvička, T.; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Čech, Martin; Muška, Milan; Kubečka, Jan


    Roč. 9, - (2011), s. 507-514 ISSN 1541-5856 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392 Grant - others:EEA FM, NFM(CZ) CZ 0091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : acoustic dead zone * bottom slope * lentic freshwater habitats Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.535, year: 2011

  14. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; S. Fraver; G.M. Domke


    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary...

  15. Noninvasive measurement of mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension and Bohr's dead space during tidal breathing. (United States)

    Koulouris, N G; Latsi, P; Dimitroulis, J; Jordanoglou, B; Gaga, M; Jordanoglou, J


    The lack of methodology for measuring the alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA,CO2) has forced investigators to make several assumptions, such as that PA,CO2 is equal to end-tidal (PET,CO2) and arterial CO2 tension (Pa,CO2). The present study measured the mean PA,CO2 and Bohr's dead space ratio (Bohr's dead space/tidal volume (VD,Bohr/VT)) during tidal breathing. The method used is a new, simple and noninvasive technique, based on the analysis of the expired CO2 volume per breath (VCO2) versus the exhaled VT. This curve was analysed in 21 normal, healthy subjects and 35 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients breathing tidally through a mouthpiece apparatus in the sitting position. It is shown that: 1) PA,CO2 is similar to Pa,CO2 in normal subjects, whilst it is significantly lower than Pa,CO2 in COPD patients; 2) PA,CO2 is significantly higher than PET,CO2 in all subjects, especially in COPD patients; 3) VD,Bohr/VT is increased in COPD patients as compared to normal subjects; and 4) VD,Bohr/VT is lower than the "physiological" dead space ratio (VD,phys/VT) in COPD patients. It is concluded that the expired carbon dioxide versus tidal volume curve is a useful tool for research and clinical work, because it permits the noninvasive and accurate measurement of Bohr's dead space and mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension accurately during spontaneous breathing.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Thommes, Edward W.


    The growth of Jovian mass planets during migration in their protoplanetary disks is one of the most important problems that needs to be solved in light of observations of the small orbital radii of exosolar planets. Studies of the migration of planets in standard gas disk models routinely show that the migration speeds are too high to form Jovian planets, and that such migrating planetary cores generally plunge into their central stars in less than a million years. In previous work, we have shown that a poorly ionized, less viscous region in a protoplanetary disk called a dead zone slows down the migration of fixed-mass planets. In this paper, we extend our numerical calculations to include dead zone evolution along with the disk, as well as planet formation via accretion of rocky and gaseous materials. Using our symplectic integrator-gas dynamics code, we find that dead zones, even in evolving disks wherein planets grow by accretion as they migrate, still play a fundamental role in saving planetary systems. We demonstrate that Jovian planets form within 2.5 Myr for disks that are 10 times more massive than a minimum-mass solar nebula (MMSN) with an opacity reduction and without slowing down migration artificially. Our simulations indicate that protoplanetary disks with an initial mass comparable to the MMSN only produce Neptunian mass planets. We also find that planet migration does not help core accretion as much in the oligarchic planetesimal-accretion scenario as was expected in the runaway planetesimal-accretion scenario. Therefore, we expect that an opacity reduction (or some other mechanisms) is needed to solve the formation timescale problem even for migrating protoplanets, as long as we consider the oligarchic growth. We also point out a possible role of a dead zone in explaining long-lived, strongly accreting gas disks.

  17. Accurate live and dead bacterial cell enumeration using flow cytometry (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ou, Fang; McGoverin, Cushla; Swift, Simon; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique


    Flow cytometry (FCM) is based on the detection of scattered light and fluorescence to identify cells with particular characteristics of interest. However most FCM cannot precisely control the flow through its interrogation point and hence the volume and concentration of the sample cannot be immediately obtained. The easiest, most reliable and inexpensive way of obtaining absolute counts with FCM is by using reference beads. We investigated a method of using FCM with reference beads to measure live and dead bacterial concentration over the range of 106 to 108 cells/mL and ratio varying from 0 to 100%. We believe we are the first to use this method for such a large cell concentration range while also establishing the effect of varying the live/dead bacteria ratios. Escherichia coli solutions with differing ratios of live:dead cells were stained with fluorescent dyes SYTO 9 and propidium iodide (PI), which label live and dead cells, respectively. Samples were measured using a LSR II Flow Cytometer (BD Biosciences); using 488 nm excitation with 20 mW power. Both SYTO 9 and PI fluorescence were collected and threshold was set to side scatter. Traditional culture-based plate count was done in parallel to the FCM analysis. The concentration of live bacteria from FCM was compared to that obtained by plate counts. Preliminary results show that the concentration of live bacteria obtained by FCM and plate counts correlate well with each other and indicates this may be extended to a wider concentration range or for studying other cell characteristics.

  18. Satisfaction with the organ donation process of brain dead donors' families in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, H S; Yoo, Y S; Cho, O H


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the satisfaction of the families of brain dead donors with regard to donation processes as well as their emotions after the donation. A cross-sectional survey study was performed that included 45 families of brain-dead donors in 1 hospital-based organ procurement organization (HOPO) in Korea between February 2007 and April 2011. Donor willingness and desire in life was the most frequent reason organs were donated (34.5%), followed by the advice of family members or friends (31.0%). Satisfaction with the organ donation processes was 4.04 of 6 points. In each category, the satisfaction with the decision of donation was the highest (4.96 points) and the satisfaction with the procedure of donation was the lowest (3.07 points); of each question, the satisfaction of "information and help on funeral arrangements was enough" and "the process of preparing the relevant documents was cumbersome" was the lowest. "Missing" the dead person and "pride" were the most common emotions experienced after organ donation (69.0% and 62.1%, respectively), followed by "grief," "family coherence," and "guilt." Religious practices were observed to be most helpful for psychological stress relief after donation, followed by spending time with family and friends. Moreover, 24.1% responded that they had not yet overcome their suffering. Because donors' own willingness is the most common reason that families choose donation, it is necessary to remind the public of the importance of organ donation through education and public relations using mass communication approaches. Additionally, because the families felt grief and guilt as well as missing their loved ones and pride regarding their dead loved ones after organ donation, continuous and systematic supports are needed to promote their psychological stability. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetically dead layers at sp-impurity-decorated grain boundaries and surfaces in nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všianská, Monika; Šob, Mojmír


    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2011), Art.n. 014418 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnetically dead layers * sp-impurity-decorated grain boundaries and surfaces * nickel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  20. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead


    Elham Kazemi; Mohsen Hanif

    2017-01-01 This article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrant...

  1. Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City. (United States)

    Huong, Ngo Thi Thanh; Mundy, Gary; Neukom, Josselyn; Zule, William; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Tam, Nguyen Minh


    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that low dead space syringes may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus infection associated with sharing syringes among people who inject drugs, there is little evidence of effective approaches to motivate people who inject drugs (PWID) to shift from high to low dead space syringes. Using a mix of consumer and trade marketing approaches, informed by rapid assessments of both the syringe market and PWID preferences, practices, and behaviors in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Population Services International (PSI) Vietnam piloted an intervention to increase the use of low dead space syringes (LDSS) in the three provinces of Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Thai Nguyen, where an estimated 31% of PWID are HIV positive and 58% are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This paper provides a summary of the social marketing activities implemented and results achieved by PSI Vietnam during an initial 1-year pilot period from December 2012 to December 2013 in these three provinces to explore their effectiveness in motivating PWID to use low dead space syringes. We found major increases in sales of LDSS accompanied by increases in reported use and consistent use of LDSS among PWID in the three provinces included in the pilot program and a positive and independent association (odds ratio (OR) 21.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-27.3) between LDSS use and exposure to social marketing activities. We also found that LDSS use had a stronger association with perceptions of LDSS product quality than with perceptions regarding LDSS potential to reduce HIV transmission risk and use. We conclude that social marketing interventions have an important role to play in widening access to and the use of LDSS for PWID, as they address the need for PWID to find LDSS when and where they need them and also promote the benefits of LDSS use to PWID. High coverage of these activities among PWID appears to be the key in

  2. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus


    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. - Epiphytic lichen diversity differs increasingly between healthy and dead or dying conifers with increasing atmospheric pollutant load

  3. Clinical evaluation of Kr-81m inhalation study through a dead space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Hiromi; Matsubayashi, Satsuki; Ishii, Yasuko; Ishida, Hirohide; Hirasawa, Yukinori; Mori, Yutaka; Shimada, Takao; Kawakami, Kenji


    A new inhalation technique of 81m Kr gas was applied to evaluate the pathophysiological abnormality of ventilation. 81m Kr gas (370 MBq) was continuously supplied into a mouth piece directly (without dead space), V E , or through a dead space of 500 ml, V L , in 110 subjects with various lung diseases. Subjects were divided in four groups by a combination of distribution patterns of 81m Kr gas obtained by these two inhalation techniques. Group 1: No ventilatory defect in both techniques. Group 2: Defects larger in V E than V L . Group 3: Defects larger in V L than V E . Group 4: no remarkable difference in defects in both techniques. Cases of group 1 were normal in pulmonary function test and chest X-ray. Finding of group 2 reflects early airway closure. This group consisted of cases in remission of bronchial asthma, small air way disease and pulmonary congestion. In group 3, restrictive disease and obstructive disease, especially emphysema, were included. Patients with severe obstructive disease and organized change of pulmonary parenchyma were belonged in group 4. In ventilation study with 81m Kr gas, a combined study of inhalation technique through a dead space and by direct infusion may be useful to evaluate a pathophysiological change of various pulmonary diseases. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards for West Nile Virus Testing in Dead Birds (United States)

    Foss, Leslie; Reisen, William K.; Fang, Ying; Kramer, Vicki; Padgett, Kerry


    The California West Nile virus (WNV) Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP) is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012–2013. In addition, RT-PCR results were compared with results from oral swabs tested by rapid antigen tests (RAMP™ and VecTOR™). While test results from the cards were not as sensitive as kidney tissue testing, they were more likely to provide accurate results than rapid antigen tests, and detected WNV in corvids as well as in other passerines, raptors, and waterfowl. Overall, WNV RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) scores from the cards were higher than those from tissue testing, but both card products displayed high sensitivity and specificity. American Crow samples provided the highest sensitivity. The cards also proved to be easier and more convenient vehicles for collecting and shipping samples, and in 2014 our program launched use of RNASound™ cards in the DBSP. Both FTA™ and RNASound™ products displayed 96% agreement with tissue results and are an adequate alternative sampling method for WNV dead bird testing. PMID:27341492

  5. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Preservation Cards for West Nile Virus Testing in Dead Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Foss

    Full Text Available The California West Nile virus (WNV Dead Bird Surveillance Program (DBSP is an important component of WNV surveillance in the state. We evaluated FTA™ and RNASound™ cards as an alternative method for sampling dead birds for WNV molecular testing as these cards allow for more cost effective, rapid, and safer diagnostic sampling than the shipment of bird carcasses. To evaluate accuracy of results among avian sampling regimes, Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR results from FTA™ and RNASound™ cards were compared with results from kidney tissue, brain tissue, or oral swabs in lysis buffer in 2012-2013. In addition, RT-PCR results were compared with results from oral swabs tested by rapid antigen tests (RAMP™ and VecTOR™. While test results from the cards were not as sensitive as kidney tissue testing, they were more likely to provide accurate results than rapid antigen tests, and detected WNV in corvids as well as in other passerines, raptors, and waterfowl. Overall, WNV RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct scores from the cards were higher than those from tissue testing, but both card products displayed high sensitivity and specificity. American Crow samples provided the highest sensitivity. The cards also proved to be easier and more convenient vehicles for collecting and shipping samples, and in 2014 our program launched use of RNASound™ cards in the DBSP. Both FTA™ and RNASound™ products displayed 96% agreement with tissue results and are an adequate alternative sampling method for WNV dead bird testing.

  6. Extra and intracellular synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles mediated by dead fungal biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Salvadori

    Full Text Available The use of dead biomass of the fungus Hypocrea lixii as a biological system is a new, effective and environmentally friendly bioprocess for the production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NPs, which has become a promising field in nanobiotechnology. Dead biomass of the fungus was successfully used to convert nickel ions into nickel oxide NPs in aqueous solution. These NPs accumulated intracellularly and extracellularly on the cell wall surface through biosorption. The average size, morphology and location of the NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The NPs were mainly spherical and extra and intracellular NPs had an average size of 3.8 nm and 1.25 nm, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nickel oxide NPs. Infrared spectroscopy detected the presence of functional amide groups, which are probable involved in particle binding to the biomass. The production of the NPs by dead biomass was analyzed by determining physicochemical parameters and equilibrium concentrations. The present study opens new perspectives for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials, which could become a potential biosorbent for the removal of toxic metals from polluted sites.

  7. Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Ryan [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jin, Sheng, E-mail: [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)


    A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after 10{sup 4} orbits, or 2.5 Myr when scaled to the parameters of Oph IRS 48 (a significant fraction of its age), the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from one another, appear as a single large feature. A defining characteristic of a disk with a dead zone edge is that an asymmetric feature is accompanied by a ring of dust located about twice as far from the central star.

  8. Detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation for managing biodiversity in native Australian forest (United States)

    Miltiadou, Milto; Campbell, Neil D. F.; Gonzalez Aracil, Susana; Brown, Tony; Grant, Michael G.


    In Australia, many birds and arboreal animals use hollows for shelters, but studies predict shortage of hollows in near future. Aged dead trees are more likely to contain hollows and therefore automated detection of them plays a substantial role in preserving biodiversity and consequently maintaining a resilient ecosystem. For this purpose full-waveform LiDAR data were acquired from a native Eucalypt forest in Southern Australia. The structure of the forest significantly varies in terms of tree density, age and height. Additionally, Eucalyptus camaldulensis have multiple trunk splits making tree delineation very challenging. For that reason, this paper investigates automated detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation. It also presents the new feature of the open source software DASOS, which extracts features for 3D object detection in voxelised FW LiDAR. A random forest classifier, a weighted-distance KNN algorithm and a seed growth algorithm are used to create a 2D probabilistic field and to then predict potential positions of dead trees. It is shown that tree health assessment is possible without tree delineation but since it is a new research directions there are many improvements to be made.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse F-31400 (France); Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tomsick, John; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmid, Christian [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstrasse 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andrew C.; Kara, Erin [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gandhi, Poshak [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Uttley, Phil, E-mail: [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others


    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (∼2.5 msec) and varies event-to-event by a few percent. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be easily modeled with standard techniques due to the variable nature of the dead time. In this paper, we show that it is possible to exploit the presence of two completely independent focal planes and use the cospectrum, the real part of the cross PDS, to obtain a good proxy of the white-noise-subtracted PDS. Thereafter, one can use a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the remaining effects of dead time, namely, a frequency-dependent modulation of the variance and a frequency-independent drop of the sensitivity to variability. In this way, most of the standard timing analysis can be performed, albeit with a sacrifice in signal-to-noise ratio relative to what would be achieved using more standard techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339–4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105.

  10. The World of The Walking Dead – Transmediality and Transmedial Intermediality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beil Benjamin


    Full Text Available As transmedia franchises increasingly populate our cultural environment, many questions arise about the effect of the different media involved in the depiction of storyworlds. Through the analysis of different examples, with special emphasis on the particular case of The Walking Dead, and drawing primarily from Henry Jenkins’s concept of “transmedia storytelling” and Jens Schroter’s concept of intermediality, this paper aims to show how different media aesthetics contribute to the process of storytelling and enrich the experience of the consumer. Usually overlooked in other analyses, we argue that these formal and aesthetical characteristics, such as the interactive nature of video games, call for a broader approach that transcends the accustomed search of common narrative aspects. This will be exemplified by a closer comparative look at the adventure game The Walking Dead: The Ganie (Telltale Games, 2012 and The Walking Dead: Survival Instiiict (Terminal Reality, 2013. The transformations that the different media demand contribute not only to the narrative, but also provide different tools for the construction of storyworlds and different ways to engage with it.

  11. Changes in the organ procurement system in South Korea: effects on brain-dead donor numbers. (United States)

    Lee, S D; Kim, J H


    In Korea, the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000, establishing the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) with centralized authority for organ procurement as well as for approval of donors and recipients to ensure fair organ allocation. However, the number of brain-dead donors decreased sharply, and the organ allocation system proved inefficient. The government revised the Organ Transplantation Act in August 2002, introducing an incentive system. If a transplantation hospital formed a Committee for Brain Death Evaluation and a Hospital Organ Procurement Organization, it could receive a kidney from a brain dead-donor as an incentive to foster organ procurement regardless of the KONOS wait list. The government also launched a pilot brain-dead donor registry program to strengthen Hospital Organ Procurement Organization activity. If local hospitals collaborated with specialized hospitals in organ procurement, local hospitals obtained financial incentives. But because the organ shortage problem has not been resolved, the government has proposed four initiatives: first, broadening the incentive system, which makes it possible to give each specialized hospital a choice of one of eight organs from each donor as an incentive; second, development of an Independent Organ Procurement Organization; third introduction of an opt-out system; and last, improvement of the Committee for Brain Death Evaluation system. It is uncertain which initiatives will be adopted, but changes in organ procurement systems are nonetheless considered a key to solve the organ shortage problem in Korea.

  12. Detection and Classification of Live and Dead Escherichia coli by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (United States)

    Sivakumar, P.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Taleh, L.; Biddle, J.F.


    Abstract A common goal for astrobiology is to detect organic materials that may indicate the presence of life. However, organic materials alone may not be representative of currently living systems. Thus, it would be valuable to have a method with which to determine the health of living materials. Here, we present progress toward this goal by reporting on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to study characteristics of live and dead cells using Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain K12 cells as a model organism since its growth and death in the laboratory are well understood. Our goal is to determine whether LIBS, in its femto- and/or nanosecond forms, could ascertain the state of a living organism. E. coli strain K12 cells were grown, collected, and exposed to one of two types of inactivation treatments: autoclaving and sonication. Cells were also kept alive as a control. We found that LIBS yields key information that allows for the discrimination of live and dead E. coli bacteria based on ionic shifts reflective of cell membrane integrity. Key Words: E. coli—Trace elements—Live and dead cells—Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—Atomic force microscopy. Astrobiology 15, 144–153. PMID:25683088

  13. Living and Dead Aboveground Biomass in Mediterranean Forests: Evidence of Old-Growth Traits in a Quercus pubescens Willd. s.l. Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Badalamenti


    Full Text Available For a long time, human impact has deeply simplified most of the forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin. Here, forests have seldom had the chance to naturally develop a complex and multilayered structure, to host large and old trees and rich biological communities, approaching old-growth conditions. Also for this reason, limited information is currently available about Mediterranean old-growth forests, particularly with regard to deadwood. The main aim of this work is to help fill this critical knowledge gap. In Sicily (Italy, we identified a Quercus pubescens forest that seemed to show some typical old-growth features. Total living volume (360 m3 ha−1 and basal area (34 m2 ha−1 were, respectively, about 6 and 3 times higher than the averages recorded in the regional forest inventory for this forest type. Deadwood was particularly abundant, exceeding the threshold of 30 m3 ha−1, mainly represented by lying dead elements. Dead to live wood ratio reached 9%, a value close to the threshold of 10% considered for Mediterranean old-growth forests. As the investigated forest showed some typical old-growth traits, it deserves to be fully protected and could be a permanent monitoring area for studying deadwood and stand dynamics in mature Mediterranean stands.

  14. Using palynology to re-assess the Dead Sea laminated sediments - Indeed varves? (United States)

    Bookman, Revital; Lopez-Merino, Lourdes; Belmaker, Reuven; Eshel, Amram; Epshtein Epshtein, Valentina; Leroy, Suzanne


    Lacustrine laminated sediments are often varves representing annual rhythmic deposition. The Dead Sea high-stand laminated sections consist of mm-scale alternating detrital and authigenic aragonite laminae. Previous studies assumed these laminae were varves; detritus deposition during the winter and aragonite in the summer. These sequences were used for varve counting and chronology, however this assumption has never been robustly validated. Here, we report an examination of the seasonal deposition of detrital and aragonite couplets from two well-known Late Holocene laminated sections at the Ze'elim fan-delta using palynology and grain-size distribution analyses. These analyses are complemented by the study of contemporary flash-flood samples and multivariate statistical analysis. Because transport affects the pollen preservation state, well-preserved (mostly) air-borne transported pollen was analysed separately from badly-preserved pollen and fungal spores, which are more indicative of water transport and reworking from soils. Our results indicate that (i) both detrital and aragonite laminae were deposited during the rainy season; (ii) aragonite laminae have significantly lower reworked pollen and fungal spore concentrations than detrital and flash-flood samples; and (iii) detrital laminae are composed of recycling of local and distal sources, with coarser particles that were initially deposited in the Dead Sea watershed and later transported via run-off to the lake. The conclusions suggest that detrital and aragonite couplets in the Dead Sea laminated sediments are most likely not varves and that the laminae deposition is related to the occurrence of flash-flood events. Consequently, at least for the Holocene sequences, laminated sediments cannot be considered as varves and Quaternary laminated sequences should be re-evaluated. The Dead Sea Basin laminated sequences (as the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project record) should be used for the reconstruction of

  15. Dead souls

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Venemaa ei lase end gaasijuhtme Nord Stream kavandamisel häirida Euroopa Parlamendi liikme Andres Tarandi ja ajaloolase Mati Õuna väitel gaasijuhtme piirkonda jäävatest laevavrakkidest ja sõjahaudadest

  16. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional and econo...

  17. Dead again

    CERN Multimedia


    The US House failed to allocate funds for the Superconducting Super Collider, the giant particle-accelerator project in Texas, while passing funding for the space station. Particle physicists pondering their future are considering joining the European group CERN.

  18. Dead Men Risen: Estonian defence minister accuses me of 'fiction' and 'does not rule out going to court'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Harnden, Toby


    Raamatu "Dead Men Risen" autor räägib oma blogis Eesti kaitseministri Jaak Aaviksoo ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese reageeringutest teosele, kus on juttu ka Afganistanis teeninud Eesti kaitseväelastest

  19. MoD tried to stop Dead Men Risen book ‘to prevent ally withdrawing from Afghanistan’

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Toby Harndeni raamatust "Dead Men Risen", kus on juttu ka Afganistanis teeninud Eesti kaitseväelastest. Briti kaitseministeeriumi pingutustest takistamaks raamatu väljaandmist. Viidatud on ka Eesti presidendi vestlusele USA suursaadikuga

  20. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and... (United States)



  1. Absolute dose calibration of an X-ray system and dead time investigations of photon-counting techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentieri, C; Ludwig, J; Ashfaq, A; Fiederle, M


    High precision concerning the dose calibration of X-ray sources is required when counting and integrating methods are compared. The dose calibration for a dental X-ray tube was executed with special dose calibration equipment (dosimeter) as function of exposure time and rate. Results were compared with a benchmark spectrum and agree within +-1.5%. Dead time investigations with the Medipix1 photon-counting chip (PCC) have been performed by rate variations. Two different types of dead time, paralysable and non-paralysable will be discussed. The dead time depends on settings of the front-end electronics and is a function of signal height, which might lead to systematic defects of systems. Dead time losses in excess of 30% have been found for the PCC at 200 kHz absorbed photons per pixel.

  2. Analysis of neutron multiplicity measurements with allowance for dead-time losses between time-correlated detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.


    An exact solution is found for dead-time losses between detections occurring within a gate interval, with constant dead time and with allowance for time correlation between detections from the same spontaneous initial event. This is used to obtain a close approximation to the losses with a multi-channel detection system, with allowance for dead times briding the gate opening. This is applied, inversely, to calculate the true detection multiplicity rates from the distribution of the recorded counts within that interval. A suggestion is made for a circuit change to give a major reduction in dead-time effects. The unavoidable statistical errors that would remain are calculated. Their minimization and the limits of such minimization are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Coupling Fe0 nano particles with living and dead Azolla filicoloides to improve removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution (United States)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan


    Fe0 nano particles (FNPs) were connected to the cell wall of the dead and living Azolla filicoloides as an aquatic fern, individually. FNPs mean size was decreased due to the stabilization, especially using the living one. It was compared the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), saturation magnetization (Ms), zeta potential (ZP) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) of the dead and living Azolla connected to FNPs, and also the findings of potentiometric titration (PT) of the cell wall's pectin of the dead and living Azolla. It was confirmed (by XRD and XPS) that Fe0 nano particles when were connected to the living Azolla did not produce Fe3O4 due to oxidation unlike the bare FNPs and the connected form to the dead Azolla, by reason of the more stabilization (more surface protection) of nano iron particles after connecting to the living Azolla. To adsorb methylene blue by these agents at the optimum pre-treatment pH 10 and adsorption pH 8, the parameters of equilibrium sorption, rate constant of second-order sorption and activation energy were obtained as: living Azolla-FNPs > dead Azolla-FNPs > FNPs > dead Azolla, while, their thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) had the reverse arrangement. It was also studied the various factors rule such as photoperiod and the presence of heavy metals on the living Azolla growth coupled with FNPs and its MB removal ability.

  4. Privacy in Digital Age: Dead or Alive?! Regarding the New EU Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Dorraji


    Full Text Available Purpose – To review and critically discuss the current state of privacy in the context of constant technological changes and to emphasize the pace of technological advancements and developments reached over the time when the last EU data protection laws came into effect. These facts inevitably affect the perception of privacy and raise the question of whether privacy is dead or takes the last breath in the digital age? This paper is an attempt to address this question.Design/Methodology/Approach – Based on the comparison and systematic analysis of scientific literature, the authors discuss problematic issues related to privacy and data protection in the technology era – where these issues are too complicated to be clearly regulated by laws and rules since “laws move as a function of years and technology moves as a function of months” (Ron Rivest. Therefore, this analytical approach towards the issue may help to facilitate reaching the best-fit decision in this area.Findings – The authors emphasize the change of perception of privacy, which originated and grew on the idea of “an integral part of our humanity”, the “heart of our liberty” and “the beginning of all freedoms” (Solove, 2008, leading to the recently raised idea that privacy is severely hanging with threat. The authors are of the opinion that legislation and regulation may be one of the best and effective techniques for protecting privacy in the twenty-first century, but it is not currently adequate (Wacks, 2012. One of the solutions lies in technology design.Research limitations/implications – The aspects of privacy and data protection in the European Union have been widely discussed recently because of their broad applicability. Therefore, it is hardly possible to review and cover all the important aspects of the issue. This article focuses on the roles of technology and legislation in securing privacy. The authors examine and provide their own views based on

  5. Foehn-induced effects on dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael


    The significant drying up of the Dead Sea over the past 40 years has led to an increase in an exposed area contributing to local dust pollution. Measurements show that, sometimes, in the Dead Sea valley, dust pollution can reach extreme concentrations up to several thousands of micrograms per cubic meters. Our analysis of a meteorological situation shows that a foehn phenomenon can be a causal factor for the aforementioned extreme local dust concentration. This foehn phenomenon creates strong warm and dry winds, which are accompanied by air turbulence and temperature inversion. In our study, foehn-induced effects on dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation were analyzed over the Judean Mountains ( 1000 m) and over the Dead Sea valley (-420 m), using high-resolution numerical simulations and in-situ observations at meteorological stations located across the mountain ridge. An extreme dust episode occurring on March 22, 2013, was analyzed, which was characterized by measured surface dust concentrations of up to 7000 µg m-3 in the Dead Sea valley. We simulated this foehn phenomenon with the 3-km resolution COSMO-ART model. Our analysis has shown that the foehn phenomenon could be observed even over the relatively low Judean Mountains. This analysis was based on various meteorological, pyranometer, radar, and aerosol measurements together with high-resolution model data. In the Dead Sea valley, the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) did not coincide with the maximum surface dust concentration. This lack of coincidence indicates difficulties in using satellite-based AOD for initializing dust concentration within numerical forecast systems over this region with complex terrain. In the western Dead Sea valley, strong foehn winds of over 20 m/s were accompanied by maximal air turbulence leading to maximal local dust emissions. Thus, the model showed that, by creating significant turbulence, the foehn phenomenon intensified the saltation (bombardment) mechanism

  6. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral. (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J


    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Dehghani


    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  8. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water distribution networks. (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim


    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Water quality models developed so far apply spatial aggregation and temporal averaging techniques for hydraulic parameters by assigning hourly averaged water demands to the main nodes of the network. Although this practice has generally resulted in minimal loss of accuracy for the predicted disinfectant concentrations in main water transmission lines, this is not the case for the peripheries of the distribution network. This study proposes a new approach for simulating disinfectant residuals in dead end pipes while accounting for both spatial and temporal variability in hydraulic and transport parameters. A stochastic demand generator was developed to represent residential water pulses based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Dispersive solute transport was considered using highly dynamic dispersion rates. A genetic algorithm was used to calibrate the axial hydraulic profile of the dead-end pipe based on the different demand shares of the withdrawal nodes. A parametric sensitivity analysis was done to assess the model performance under variation of different simulation parameters. A group of Monte-Carlo ensembles was carried out to investigate the influence of spatial and temporal variations in flow demands on the simulation accuracy. A set of three correction factors were analytically derived to adjust residence time, dispersion rate and wall demand to overcome simulation error caused by spatial aggregation approximation. The current model results show better agreement with field-measured concentrations of conservative fluoride tracer and free chlorine disinfectant than the simulations of recent advection dispersion reaction models published in the literature. Accuracy of the simulated

  9. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US. (United States)

    Woodall, C W; Russell, M B; Walters, B F; D'Amato, A W; Fraver, S; Domke, G M


    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary forest attributes to assess C net flux across forests of the Eastern US. Stocks associated with large fine woody debris (diameter 2.6-7.6 cm) decreased over time (-0.11 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while stocks of larger-sized coarse DDW increased (0.02 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)). Stocks of total DDW C decreased (-0.14 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while standing dead and live tree stocks both increased, 0.01 and 0.44 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The spatial distribution of DDW C stock change was highly heterogeneous with random forests model results indicating that management history, live tree stocking, natural disturbance, and growing degree days only partially explain stock change. Natural disturbances drove substantial C transfers from the live tree pool (≈-4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) to the standing dead tree pool (≈3 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) with only a minimal increase in DDW C stocks (≈1 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) in lower decay classes, suggesting a delayed transfer of C to the DDW pool. The assessment and management of DDW C flux is complicated by the diversity of natural and anthropogenic forces that drive their dynamics with the scale and timing of flux among forest C pools remaining a large knowledge gap.

  10. Dead time of different neutron detectors associated with a pulsed electronics with current collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacconnet, Eugene; Duchene, Jean; Duquesne, Henry; Schmitt, Andre


    After having outlined that the development of fast neutron reactor physics, notably kinetics, requires highly efficient neutron detectors and pulse measurement chains able to cope with high counting rates, the authors report the measurement of dead time of various neutron detectors which are used in the experimental study of fast neutron reactors. They present the SAITB 1 electronic measurement set, its components, its general characteristics, the protected connection between the detector and the electronics. They present and report the experiment: generalities about detector location and measurements, studied detectors (fission chambers, boron counters), and report the exploitation of the obtained results (principle, data, high-threshold counting gain) [fr

  11. Variable dead time counters. 1 - theoretical responses and the effects of neutron multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, E.W.; Hooton, B.W.


    A theoretical expression is derived for calculating the response of any variable dead time counter (VDC) used in the passive assay of plutonium by neutron counting of the natural spontaneous fission activity. The effects of neutron multiplication in the sample arising from interactions of the original spontaneous fission neutrons is shown to modify the linear relationship between VDC signal and Pu mass. Numerical examples are shown for the Euratom VDC and a systematic investigation of the various factors affecting neutron multiplication is reported. Limited comparisons between the calculations and experimental data indicate provisional validity of the calculations. (author)

  12. Offshore investments-cui prodis? Schrodinger's cat in offshore financing: Both alive and dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepuk Anna


    Full Text Available Trends of FDI in offshore tax havens were compared to efforts and efficiency of regulatory authorities to prevent money laundering. Based on available data it was stated that current position in offshore FDI stays alive and officially dead at the same time, keeping the balance of interests for the main stakeholders: corporations, authorities and financial institutes support further offshore investments. Analysis based on volumes of trade and financial transactions between offshore centers, developed and developing countries. As a result withdrawal of financial resources from the developing countries degrades social capital funding and supports corruption growth.

  13. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Composting on-farm of dead poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked for a scientific opinion on two alternative methods for processing Category (Cat) 2 Animal By-Products (ABP). The material to be treated consists of poultry manure, straw and dead-on-farm poultry; this implies that the animals died...... due to a disease, which in most cases was not properly diagnosed. The proposed processes are composting methods to be used on-farm. The first method is a continuous open system where composting is done under roof in piles separated by wooden partition walls. The piles are processed without enforced...

  14. [Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) intoxication in a 2-year-old child]. (United States)

    Laffargue, F; Oudot, C; Constanty, A; Bedu, A; Ketterer-Martinon, S


    Plant intoxications account for 5% of all intoxication cases according to French anti-poison centers. We report an uncommon case of intoxication with deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) in a 2-year-old child. The child presented at the ER with an atropinic syndrome, both central and peripheral, after ingestion of wild berries a few hours before. The fruit and leaves brought in by the mother allowed the anti-poison center to identify belladonna, in agreement with clinical findings. The child was kept in the intensive care unit for 48 h and progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Data Assimilation of Dead Fuel Moisture Observations from Remote automated Weather Stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Kochanski, A.; Mandel, Jan


    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2016), s. 558-568 ISSN 1049-8001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) AGS-0835579 and DMS-1216481; NASA (US) NNX12AQ85G and NNX13AH9G. Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * dead fuel moisture * equilibrium * Kalman filter * remote automated weather stations * time lag model * trend surface model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.748, year: 2016

  16. The Last Interglacial in the Levant: Perspective from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core (United States)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Torfstein, A.; Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.; Enzel, Y.; Haug, G. H.


    Sediments recovered by the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project provide a new perspective on the climate history of the Levant during the last interglacial period MIS5. They record the extreme impacts of an intense interglacial characterized by stronger insolation, warmer mean global temperatures, and higher sea-levels than the Holocene. Results show both extreme hyper-aridity during MIS5e, including an unprecedented drawdown of Dead Sea water levels, and the impacts of a strong precession-driven African monsoon responsible for a major sapropel event (S5) in the eastern Mediterranean. Hyper-arid conditions at the beginning of MIS5e prior to S5 (~132-128 ka) are evidenced by halite deposition, indicating declining Dead Sea lake levels. Surprisingly, the hyper-arid phase is interrupted during the MIS5e peak (~128-120 ka), coinciding with the S5 sapropel, which is characterized by a thick (23 m) section of silty detritus (without any halite) whose provenance indicates southern-sourced wetness in the watershed. Upon weakening of the S5 monsoon (~120-115 ka), the return of extreme aridity resulted in an unprecedented lake level drawdown, reflected by massive salt deposition, and followed by a sediment hiatus (~115-100 ka) indicating prolonged low lake level. The resumption of section follows classic Levant patterns with more wetness during cooler MIS5b and hyper-aridity during warmer MIS5a. The ICDP core provides the first evidence for a direct linkage between an intense precession-driven African monsoon and wetness at the high subtropical latitude (~30N) of the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Negev speleothems and travertines, and calcitification of Red Sea corals, the evidence indicates a wet climatic corridor that could facilitate homo sapiens migration out of Africa during the MIS5e peak. In addition, the MIS 5e hyper-arid intervals may provide an important cautionary analogue for the impact of future warming on regional water resources.

  17. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead


    Kazemi, Elham; Hanif, Mohsen

    2017-01-01 article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrantz an...

  18. The life of a dead ant -the expression of an adaptive extended phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Yusah, Kalsum M.


    to make hosts bite onto vegetation prior to killing them. We show that this represents a fine-tuned fungal adaptation: an extended phenotype. Dead ants were found under leaves, attached by their mandibles, on the northern side of saplings ca. 25 cm above the soil, where temperature and humidity conditions......Specialized parasites are expected to express complex adaptations to their hosts. Manipulation of host behavior is such an adaptation. We studied the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, a locally specialized parasite of arboreal Camponotus leonardi ants. Ant-infecting Ophiocordyceps are known...

  19. A nondispersive X-ray spectrometer with dead time correction of great accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, H.; Friant, A.


    Processing the analog signals from an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer requires a great number of functions to be assembled. Instead of using function modules, it was decided to build a unit intended for working out digital-input data to the mini-computer, from the signals delivered by the Si(Li) detector. The unit contains six cards intended for the following functions: main amplifier, stabilizer of the threshold level and pile-up detector, amplitude encoder, pulse generator and fast amplifier, chronometer with dead time correction and high voltage polarization [fr

  20. The text-critical and exegetical value of the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Cook


    Full Text Available This article will analyse a number of Dead Sea manuscripts and/or fragments in order to determine their linguistic and exegetical value. The article will, firstly, address textual material that is largely in agreement with the Massoretic Text – 1QIsaa is a case in point. Secondly, fragmentsthat are seemingly less relevant will be discussed. The less helpful fragments from the Biblical books Proverbs and Job are taken as examples. Finally, highly significant textual differences, such as a fragment from Genesis 1 and one from the complicated books of Jeremiah, will be evaluated.

  1. Gino Frezza (ed., Endoapocalisse. The Walking Dead, l’immaginario digitale, il postumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Lino


    Full Text Available Il volume curato da Gino Frezza, frutto del lavoro condotto dal Laboratorio di Analisi degli Audiovisivi dell’Università di Salerno, raccoglie i contributi di diversi studiosi nazionali e internazionali con l’obiettivo di analizzare la poliedricità dell’immaginario contemporaneo sullo zombie, e per farlo mette al centro il fenomeno seriale di The Walking Dead (TWD creato da Robert Kirkman, ponendo in una prospettiva transdisciplinare le relazioni tra l’intensa metaforologia postumana e apocalittica incarnata dallo zombie e le nuove morfologie del racconto seriale transmediale.

  2. Some hallways lead to other hallways and some lead to dead ends


    Tam, Nancy Y.S


    Some Hallways Lead To Other Hallways And Some Lead To Dead Ends is a one-hour long synchronized audio tour for ten people. Listening to their assigned tracks played through headphones, the audience is mobilized through the SFU Woodward’s building. The aural content is comprised of choreographic instructions and my personal stories as a third culture kid in finding home. Appendix A is a research paper written for FPA 812, where I examine Henri Lefebvre’s ideas of space and how these ideas are ...

  3. Metabolic Roles of Uncultivated Bacterioplankton Lineages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone". (United States)

    Thrash, J Cameron; Seitz, Kiley W; Baker, Brett J; Temperton, Ben; Gillies, Lauren E; Rabalais, Nancy N; Henrissat, Bernard; Mason, Olivia U


    Marine regions that have seasonal to long-term low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, sometimes called "dead zones," are increasing in number and severity around the globe with deleterious effects on ecology and economics. One of the largest of these coastal dead zones occurs on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which results from eutrophication-enhanced bacterioplankton respiration and strong seasonal stratification. Previous research in this dead zone revealed the presence of multiple cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages that have eluded cultivation, and thus their metabolic roles in this ecosystem remain unknown. We used a coupled shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to determine the metabolic potential of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota , SAR406, and SAR202. We recovered multiple high-quality, nearly complete genomes from all three groups as well as candidate phyla usually associated with anoxic environments- Parcubacteria (OD1) and Peregrinibacteria Two additional groups with putative assignments to ACD39 and PAUC34f supplement the metabolic contributions by uncultivated taxa. Our results indicate active metabolism in all groups, including prevalent aerobic respiration, with concurrent expression of genes for nitrate reduction in SAR406 and SAR202, and dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonia and sulfur reduction by SAR406. We also report a variety of active heterotrophic carbon processing mechanisms, including degradation of complex carbohydrate compounds by SAR406, SAR202, ACD39, and PAUC34f. Together, these data help constrain the metabolic contributions from uncultivated groups in the nGOM during periods of low DO and suggest roles for these organisms in the breakdown of complex organic matter. IMPORTANCE Dead zones receive their name primarily from the reduction of eukaryotic macrobiota (demersal fish, shrimp, etc.) that are also key coastal fisheries. Excess nutrients contributed from anthropogenic activity

  4. Occurrence of termites (Isoptera on living and standing dead trees in a tropical dry forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Calderón-Cortés


    Full Text Available Termites play a key role as ecosystem engineers in numerous ecological processes though their role in the dynamics of wood degradation in tropical dry forests, particularly at the level of the crown canopy, has been little studied. In this study, we analysed the occurrence of termites in the forest canopy by evaluating the density and proportion of living and standing dead trees associated with termites in deciduous and riparian habitats of the tropical dry forest in Chamela, Mexico. The results indicated that 60–98% of standing dead trees and 23–59% of living trees in Chamela were associated with termites. In particular, we found that the density of standing dead trees was higher in deciduous forests (0.057–0.066 trees/m2 than in riparian forests (0.022 and 0.027 trees/m2, even though the proportion of trees was not significantly different among habitats. Additionally, we found a higher density of trees associated with termites in trees of smaller size classes (0.01–0.09 trees/m2 than in larger class sizes (0–0.02 trees/m2. Interestingly, 72% of variation in the density of trees associated with termites is explained by the density of standing dead trees. Overall, these results indicate that standing dead tree availability might be the main factor regulating termite populations in Chamela forest and suggest that termites could play a key role in the decomposition of above-ground dead wood, mediating the incorporation of suspended and standing dead wood into the soil.

  5. Occurrence of termites (Isoptera) on living and standing dead trees in a tropical dry forest in Mexico. (United States)

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Oyama, Ken


    Termites play a key role as ecosystem engineers in numerous ecological processes though their role in the dynamics of wood degradation in tropical dry forests, particularly at the level of the crown canopy, has been little studied. In this study, we analysed the occurrence of termites in the forest canopy by evaluating the density and proportion of living and standing dead trees associated with termites in deciduous and riparian habitats of the tropical dry forest in Chamela, Mexico. The results indicated that 60-98% of standing dead trees and 23-59% of living trees in Chamela were associated with termites. In particular, we found that the density of standing dead trees was higher in deciduous forests (0.057-0.066 trees/m 2 ) than in riparian forests (0.022 and 0.027 trees/m 2 ), even though the proportion of trees was not significantly different among habitats. Additionally, we found a higher density of trees associated with termites in trees of smaller size classes (0.01-0.09 trees/m 2 ) than in larger class sizes (0-0.02 trees/m 2 ). Interestingly, 72% of variation in the density of trees associated with termites is explained by the density of standing dead trees. Overall, these results indicate that standing dead tree availability might be the main factor regulating termite populations in Chamela forest and suggest that termites could play a key role in the decomposition of above-ground dead wood, mediating the incorporation of suspended and standing dead wood into the soil.

  6. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada. (United States)

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael


    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Global Change Biology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada.

  7. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea (United States)

    Tas, E.; Peleg, M.; Pedersen, D. U.; Matveev, V.; Pour Biazar, A.; Luria, M.


    The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS) chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the basic chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. The simulations showed that the high BrO levels measured frequently at the Dead Sea could only partially be attributed to the highly concentrated Br- present in the Dead Sea water. Furthermore, the RBS activity at the Dead Sea cannot solely be explained by a pure gas phase mechanism. This paper presents a chemical mechanism which can account for the observed chemical activity at the Dead Sea, with the addition of only two heterogeneous processes: the "Bromine Explosion" mechanism and the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2. Ozone frequently dropped below a threshold value of ~1 to 2 ppbv at the Dead Sea evaporation ponds, and in such cases, O3 became a limiting factor for the production of BrOx (BrO+Br). The entrainment of O3 fluxes into the evaporation ponds was found to be essential for the continuation of RBS activity, and to be the main reason for the jagged diurnal pattern of BrO observed in the Dead Sea area, and for the positive correlation observed between BrO and O3 at low O3 concentrations. The present study has shown that the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2 has a great potential to affect the RBS activity in areas influenced by anthropogenic emissions, mainly due to the positive correlation between the rate of this process and the levels of NO2. Further investigation of the influence of the decomposition of BrONO2 may be especially important in understanding the RBS activity at mid-latitudes.

  8. Measurement-based modeling of bromine chemistry in the boundary layer: 1. Bromine chemistry at the Dead Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tas


    Full Text Available The Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for the investigation of Reactive Bromine Species (RBS chemistry, due to the high RBS levels observed in this area, combined with anthropogenic air pollutants up to several ppb. The present study investigated the basic chemical mechanism of RBS at the Dead Sea using a numerical one-dimensional chemical model. Simulations were based on data obtained from comprehensive measurements performed at sites along the Dead Sea. The simulations showed that the high BrO levels measured frequently at the Dead Sea could only partially be attributed to the highly concentrated Br− present in the Dead Sea water. Furthermore, the RBS activity at the Dead Sea cannot solely be explained by a pure gas phase mechanism. This paper presents a chemical mechanism which can account for the observed chemical activity at the Dead Sea, with the addition of only two heterogeneous processes: the "Bromine Explosion" mechanism and the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2. Ozone frequently dropped below a threshold value of ~1 to 2 ppbv at the Dead Sea evaporation ponds, and in such cases, O3 became a limiting factor for the production of BrOx (BrO+Br. The entrainment of O3 fluxes into the evaporation ponds was found to be essential for the continuation of RBS activity, and to be the main reason for the jagged diurnal pattern of BrO observed in the Dead Sea area, and for the positive correlation observed between BrO and O3 at low O3 concentrations. The present study has shown that the heterogeneous decomposition of BrONO2 has a great potential to affect the RBS activity in areas influenced by anthropogenic emissions, mainly due to the positive correlation between the rate of this process and the levels of NO2. Further investigation of the influence of the decomposition of BrONO2 may be especially important in understanding the RBS activity at mid-latitudes.

  9. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.


    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  10. Psychometric Properties of Farsi Version of the Wish to be Dead Scale. (United States)

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Lester, David; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M


    The Wish to be Dead Scale (WDS) is a new scale to measure precursors to suicidal ideation, and the aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics of a Farsi version of the WDS. The sample was a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female undergraduates and postgraduates selected from different faculties at Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Using a principal component analysis and a varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization, three factors were identified and labeled: (a) lack of purpose and usefulness in life, (b) lack of interest in living, and (c) fantasizing about being dead. The WDS had good inter-item and test-retest reliability and significant positive correlations with scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and negative correlations with scores on the Adult Hope Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Love of Life Scale, the Life Orientation Test, and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. We conclude that the WDS may prove to be useful in clinical practice and research into suicide.

  11. Active cancellation - A means to zero dead-time pulse EPR. (United States)

    Franck, John M; Barnes, Ryan P; Keller, Timothy J; Kaufmann, Thomas; Han, Songi


    The necessary resonator employed in pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) rings after the excitation pulse and creates a finite detector dead-time that ultimately prevents the detection of signal from fast relaxing spin systems, hindering the application of pulse EPR to room temperature measurements of interesting chemical or biological systems. We employ a recently available high bandwidth arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to produce a cancellation pulse that precisely destructively interferes with the resonant cavity ring-down. We find that we can faithfully detect EPR signal at all times immediately after, as well as during, the excitation pulse. This is a proof of concept study showcasing the capability of AWG pulses to precisely cancel out the resonator ring-down, and allow for the detection of EPR signal during the pulse itself, as well as the dead-time of the resonator. However, the applicability of this approach to conventional EPR experiments is not immediate, as it hinges on either (1) the availability of low-noise microwave sources and amplifiers to produce the necessary power for pulse EPR experiment or (2) the availability of very high conversion factor micro coil resonators that allow for pulse EPR experiments at modest microwave power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intermittent balneotherapy at the Dead Sea area for patients with knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Sherman, Gilad; Zeller, Lior; Avriel, Avital; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco; Sukenik, Shaul


    Balneotherapy, traditionally administered during a continuous stay at the Dead Sea area, has been shown to be effective for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intermittent regimen of balneotherapy at the Dead Sea for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were included in a prospective randomized single-blind controlled study. The patients were divided into two groups: a treatment group (n=24), which were treated twice weekly for 6 consecutive weeks in a sulfur pool heated to 35-36 degrees C, and a control group (n=20) treated in a Jacuzzi filled with tap water heated to 35-36 degrees C. Participants were assessed by the Lequesne index of osteoarthritis severity, the WOMAC index, the SF-36 quality of health questionnaire, VAS scales for pain (completed by patients and physicians), and physical examination. A statistically significant improvement, lasting up to 6 months, was observed in the treatment group for most of the clinical parameters. In the control group the only improvements were in the SF-36 bodily pain scale at 6 months, the Lequesne index at 1 month and the WOMAC pain score at the end of the treatment period. Although the patients in the control group had milder disease, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Intermittent balneotherapy appears to be effective for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  13. The Star Formation History of read and dead galaxies at z=[1.0--1.5 (United States)

    Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Pérez González, P.; Esquej, P.; Eliche Moral, C.; Alcalde Pampliega, B.; SHARDS Team


    We analyse the star formation histories (SFH) of M > 10^{10} M_⊙ read and dead galaxies at intermediate redshift (z=1.0-1.5). Current hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict many less massive high-z systems than observed. By combining SHARDS deep spectro-photometric optical data (25 contiguous OSIRIS/GTC medium band filters with R ˜ 50 at 4500-900 nm) with HST-WFC3 grism in the NIR (G141, 1.1-1.6 μm) and broad-band photometry (from FUV to FIR) we construct well-sampled optical SEDs with up to 150 photometric points and sufficient spectral resolution to obtain reliable stellar population parameters such as ages, star formation timescales, dust extinctions and metallicities. We define a complete and uncontaminated sample of red & dead galaxies by combining the color-color UVJ selection with a cut in sSFR (SFR/Mass). We check the robustness of the results depending on different stellar population models (Bruzual & Charlot 2003, Maraston 2005), SED fitting-codes (synthesizer, FAST) or star formation histories (exp{-t/τ}, t exp{-t/τ}). Finally, the dependence of the SFH with the galaxy stellar mass will be studied, to actually measure if more massive galaxies are formed earlier and more rapidly as downsizing suggests.

  14. Low mass planet migration in magnetically torqued dead zones - I. Static migration torque (United States)

    McNally, Colin P.; Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Gressel, Oliver; Lyra, Wladimir


    Motivated by models suggesting that the inner planet forming regions of protoplanetary discs are predominantly lacking in viscosity-inducing turbulence, and are possibly threaded by Hall-effect generated large-scale horizontal magnetic fields, we examine the dynamics of the corotation region of a low-mass planet in such an environment. The corotation torque in an inviscid, isothermal, dead zone ought to saturate, with the libration region becoming both symmetrical and of a uniform vortensity, leading to fast inward migration driven by the Lindblad torques alone. However, in such a low viscosity situation, the material on librating streamlines essentially preserves its vortensity. If there is relative radial motion between the disc gas and the planet, the librating streamlines will no longer be symmetrical. Hence, if the gas is torqued by a large-scale magnetic field so that it undergoes a net inflow or outflow past the planet, driving evolution of the vortensity and inducing asymmetry of the corotation region, the corotation torque can grow, leading to a positive torque. In this paper, we treat this effect by applying a symmetry argument to the previously studied case of a migrating planet in an inviscid disc. Our results show that the corotation torque due to a laminar Hall-induced magnetic field in a dead zone behaves quite differently from that studied previously for a viscous disc. Furthermore, the magnetic field induced corotation torque and the dynamical corotation torque in a low viscosity disc can be regarded as one unified effect.

  15. Evaluation of self-water-removal in a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhongmin; Liu, Jing; Luo, Zhiping; Tu, Zhengkai; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei


    Highlights: ► Operation characteristics in a dead-ended PEM fuel cell were addressed. ► Modified flow channel was used to realize water removal. ► A novel method by condensing the moisture in the stack end was introduced. - Abstract: In this paper, the operation characteristic of a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) placed with vertical orientation is investigated. The relationship between the channel geometry and the wettability of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) surface is theoretically analyzed. Based on the theoretical analysis, straight flow channels with 2.0 mm width and 1.0 mm depth are used for the experimental investigation and the moisture is condensed at the stack end to improve water removal. The results show that the designed fuel cell can operate for about 1 h at 800 mA cm −2 and the performance of the cell decreases with the increase in the operation temperature. Moreover, the recovered liquid water is corresponded closely to the theoretical values

  16. Generation of viable progeny from dead brooders of endangered catfish Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullip Kumar Majhi


    Full Text Available The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C. magur. Three hours after death, the gonads were excised, macroscopically examined and gamete viability was evaluated. Artificial fertilization was performed by mixing the sperm suspension with the eggs. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. We observed 85%-93% fertilization success from gametes derived from dead donors as opposed to 90%-95% from those derived from live control donors. The embryos showed normal development and resulted in the generation of 88%-92% viable progeny, which was similar to the progeny derived from control donors (92%-93%. The results obtained in this study will have profound implications in enhancing the seed production of endangered C. magur and could potentially be applied to other key commercially or endangered fish species. Keywords: Biological sciences, Developmental biology, Zoology

  17. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics. (United States)

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey


    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A neural network model and an update correlation for estimation of dead crude oil viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, A.; Gharesheikhlou, A.A. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). PVT Dept.; Yousefi, S.H.; Sanaei, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Petroleum Engineering], E-mail:


    Viscosity is one of the most important physical properties in reservoir simulation, formation evaluation, in designing surface facilities and in the calculation of original hydrocarbon in-place. Mostly, oil viscosity is measured in PVT laboratories only at reservoir temperature. Hence, it is of great importance to use an accurate correlation for prediction of oil viscosity at different operating conditions and various temperatures. Although, different correlations have been proposed for various regions, the applicability of the existing correlations for Iranian oil reservoirs is limited due to the nature of the Iranian crude oil. In this study, based on Iranian oil reservoir data, a new correlation for the estimation of dead oil viscosity was provided using non-linear multivariable regression and non-linear optimization methods simultaneously with the optimization of the other existing correlations. This new correlation uses API Gravity and temperature as an input parameter. In addition, a neural-network-based model for prediction of dead oil viscosity is presented. Detailed comparisons show that validity and accuracy of the new correlation and the neural-network model are in good agreement with large data set of Iranian oil reservoir when compared with other correlations. (author)

  19. Choices and Consequences: The Role of Players in The Walking Dead: A Telltale Game Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovesi Matteo


    Full Text Available One of the most important features in a transmedia structure, as Max Giovagnoli argues in his book Transmedia: Storytelling e Comunicazione [Transmedia: Storytelling and Communication], is the development of the user’s decision-making power, defined by the author as “choice excitement.” In this, every choice of the user should have a consequence in the fictional universe of a specific franchise. Consequently, a narrative universe that wants to emphasize choice excitement and the active role of people can focus on video games, where the interactive approach is prominent. This essay will discuss a specific video game, based on the famous franchise of The Walking Dead. This brand, which appears in comic books, novels, TV series, Web episodes and video games, is analysable not only as an exemplary case of transmedia storytelling, where every ramification of the franchise published in different media is both autonomous and synergistic with the others, but also by focusing on the choice excitement of users in the first season of the video game The Walking Dead: A Telltale Game Series.

  20. Diatoms dominate the eukaryotic metatranscriptome during spring in coastal 'dead zone' sediments. (United States)

    Broman, Elias; Sachpazidou, Varvara; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel


    An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) dominated the eukaryotic metatranscriptome in spring and were also abundant during autumn. A large fraction of the diatom RNA reads was associated with the photosystems suggesting a constitutive expression in darkness. Microscope observation showed intact diatom cells and these would, if hatched, represent a significant part of the pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Oxygenation did not significantly change the relative proportion of diatoms nor resulted in any major shifts in metabolic 'signatures'. By contrast, diatoms rapidly responded when exposed to light suggesting that light is limiting diatom development in hypoxic sediments. Hence, it is suggested that diatoms in hypoxic sediments are on 'standby' to exploit the environment if they reach suitable habitats. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Interpreting Brightness Asymmetries in Transition Disks: Vortex at Dead Zone or Planet-carved Gap Edges? (United States)

    Regály, Zs.; Juhász, A.; Nehéz, D.


    Recent submillimeter observations show nonaxisymmetric brightness distributions with a horseshoe-like morphology for more than a dozen transition disks. The most-accepted explanation for the observed asymmetries is the accumulation of dust in large-scale vortices. Protoplanetary disks’ vortices can form by the excitation of Rossby wave instability in the vicinity of a steep pressure gradient, which can develop at the edges of a giant planet–carved gap or at the edges of an accretionally inactive zone. We studied the formation and evolution of vortices formed in these two distinct scenarios by means of two-dimensional locally isothermal hydrodynamic simulations. We found that the vortex formed at the edge of a planetary gap is short-lived, unless the disk is nearly inviscid. In contrast, the vortex formed at the outer edge of a dead zone is long-lived. The vortex morphology can be significantly different in the two scenarios: the vortex radial and azimuthal extensions are ∼1.5 and ∼3.5 times larger for the dead-zone edge compared to gap models. In some particular cases, the vortex aspect ratios can be similar in the two scenarios; however, the vortex azimuthal extensions can be used to distinguish the vortex formation mechanisms. We calculated predictions for vortex observability in the submillimeter continuum with ALMA. We found that the azimuthal and radial extent of the brightness asymmetry correlates with the vortex formation process within the limitations of α-viscosity prescription.

  2. Community Structure of Decapod Inhabit Dead Coral Pocillopora sp. in Pemuteran, Bali (United States)

    Pertiwi, N. P. D.; Malik, M. D. A.; Kholilah, N.; Kurniasih, E. M.; Sembiring, A.; Anggoro, A. W.; Ambariyanto; Meyer, C.


    Decapod is one of the cryptic fauna associated with coral reefs, which play an important role and accounts for a major part of the biodiversity in the reef ecosystem. However, this biodiversity is largely overlooked and assessment regarding this biodiversity has not been conducted thoroughly due to lack of resources and the difficulties of sample collection. This research used semi-quantitative sampling methods to assess the community structure of decapod species inhabit dead Pocillopora sp. in Pemuteran, Bali. Two dead coral head of Pocillopora sp. were used as pilot study and sampled at the 8-12 m depth. All decapod found were collected and identify into family level. The result showed 214 decapods found consisting 12 families, with Xanthidae as the most abundant family. Community Index which consisting diversity, uniformity, and dominancy, indicated medium diversity, stable uniformity, and low dominancy of decapod community. This result also indicated no dominancy between families of decapod. Meanwhile, Species Density Index showed the value of 84.58 ± 2.04 individual per m3, with mean diversity of 7.05 ± 2.04 individual per m3 for each family.

  3. Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan. (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Hani, Rehan Bani; Amr, Zuhair Sami


    Intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections constitute a major health issue in developing countries. The present study investigates and assesses infection rates among food handlers with intestinal parasites and microbial agents in luxurious hotels in the Dead Sea area of Jordan. A total of 901 stool samples were collected from food handlers (35 females and 866 males) employed in four main hotels in the Dead Sea area. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Standard culture and biochemical techniques were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in stool samples. Five species of protozoan (Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana), one helminth (Hymenolepis nana), and one cylindrical worm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered with an overall infection rate of 3.7%. G. intestinalis was the most prevalent parasitic infection with infection rate of 2.44%. All samples were negative for both Salmonella and Shigella. Findings highlight the important role of food handlers in the transmission of intestinal parasites to high-class clients accommodated in luxury hotels, and stress the urgent need for regular health and parasitologic examination of food handlers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Windrow composting as an option for disposal and utilization of dead birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodkumar


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the feasibility of windrow composting as an environmentally safe and bio-secure disposal method of poultry manure and mortalities. Materials and Methods: Poultry dead birds and cage layer manure were collected from the commercial poultry farms and coir pith was obtained from coir fiber extraction unit. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated. Two treatment windrow groups (T1- Dead birds + Cage layer manure + Coir pith, T2- Cage layer manure + Coir pith in replication were fabricated. Physical chemical and biological parameters of compost were analyzed. Results: Temperature profile ensured maximum pathogen and parasite reduction. Reduction in moisture content, weight, volume, total organic carbon, and progressive increase in total ash, calcium, phosphorus and potassium content as the composting proceeded, were indicative of organic matter degradation and mineralization. Favourable C:N ratio and germination index indicated compost maturity and absence of any phytotoxins in finished compost. The finished compost had undetectable level of Salmonella. There was no odour and fly menace throughout the composting experiment. Conclusion: Windrow composting of poultry waste can be considered as a biologically and environmentally safe disposal option with recycling of nutrients in the form of compost.

  5. "Parents a dead end life": The main experiences of parents of children with leukemia. (United States)

    Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh


    The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents' experiences and "parents a dead end life" was the main theme of this study. In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents' experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.

  6. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li


    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  7. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass. (United States)

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J


    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth.

  8. Flow simulation in piping system dead legs using second moment, closure and k-epsilon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, E.; Mechitoua, N.; Mattei, J.D.


    This paper deals with an industrial application of second moment closure turbulence model in in numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flows in piping system dead legs. Calculations performed with the 3D ESTET code are presented which contrast the performance of k-epsilon eddy viscosity model and second moment closure turbulence models. Coarse (100 000), medium (400 000) and fine (1 500 000) meshes were used. The second moment closure performs significantly better than eddy viscosity model and predicts with a good agreement the vortex penetration in dead legs provided to use sufficiently refined meshes. The results point out the necessity to be able to perform calculations using fine mesh before introducing refined physical models such as second moment closure turbulence model in a numerical code. This study illustrates the ability of second moment closure turbulence model to simulate 3D turbulent industrial flows. Reynolds stress model computation does not require special care, the calculation is carried on as simply as the k-ξ one. The CPU time needed is less that twice the CPU time needed using k-ξ model. (authors)

  9. [Bioethical analysis of the use of newly dead patients in medical learning]. (United States)

    Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rego, Sergio; Palácios, Marisa; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo


    The purpose of this article is to carry out, a discussion on the subject of bioethics and cadavers based upon a critic review of literature. A review of literature, was made with a survey of articles between 1977 and 2007 in the sites 'Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde', PubMed and SciElo, utilizing the keywords: newly deceased patients, newly dead patients, simulators,. This was complemented by a critical evaluation of books published in the area of ethics and bioethics. The possibility to develop learning without orientation by a supervisor is doubtful.. The utilization of newly dead for learning invasive procedures is very frequent and seldom admitted. These procedures, are usually, carried out secretly, without the knowledge and consent of the family. The ethical aspects of these practices are not discussed in the practical medical education. It essential that the ethics of use of recent deceased become a necessary content of graduate education. Performance of these procedures by students should always be authorized by family members. The simulators meet the requirements of training. Discussions about the ethical and bioethical aspects cannot be separated from practical considerations during the students learning time.

  10. Imagining the absent dead: rituals of bereavement and the place of the war dead in German women's art during the First World War. (United States)

    Siebrecht, Claudia


    Drawing on women's visual responses to the First World War, this article examines female mourning in wartime Germany. The unprecedented death toll on the battlefronts, military burial practices and the physical distance from the remains of the war dead disrupted traditional rituals of bereavement, hindered closure and compounded women's grief on the home front. In response to these novel circumstances, a number of female artists used their images to reimagine funerary customs, overcome the separation from the fallen and express acute emotional distress. This article analyses three images produced during the conflict by the artists Katharina Heise, Martha Schrag and Sella Hasse, and places their work within the civilian experience of bereavement in war. By depicting the pain of loss, female artists contested the historical tradition of proud female mourning in German society and countered wartime codes of conduct that prohibited the public display of emotional pain in response to soldiers’ deaths. As a largely overlooked body of sources, women's art adds to our understanding of the tensions in wartime cultures of mourning that emerged between 1914 and 1918.

  11. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.


    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example "1"5O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. - Highlights: • Derived combined effects of decay and dead time. • Derived for counting systems with extending or non-extending dead times. • Derived series expansions for both midpoint and decay-to-start-time methods. • Useful for counting experiments with short-lived radionuclides. • Examples given for "1"5O, used in PET scanning.

  12. A method for the determination of detector channel dead time for a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Salama, M.; Abd-Kawi, A.; Sadek, S.; Hamouda, I.


    A new method is developed to measure the dead time of a detector channel for a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer. The method is based on the simultaneous use of two identical BF 3 detectors but with two different efficiencies, due to their different enrichment in B 10 . The measurements were performed using the T.O.F. spectrometer installed at channel No. 6 of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The main contribution to the dead time was found to be due to the time analyser and the neutron detector used. The analyser dead time has been determined using a square wave pulse generator with frequency of 1 MC/S. For channel widths of 24.4 us, 48.8 ud and 97.6 us, the weighted dead times for statistical pulse distribution were found to be 3.25 us, 1.87 us respectively. The dead time of the detector contributes mostly to the counting losses and its value was found to be (33+-3) us

  13. Multi-Rate Acquisition for Dead Time Reduction in Magnetic Resonance Receivers: Application to Imaging With Zero Echo Time. (United States)

    Marjanovic, Josip; Weiger, Markus; Reber, Jonas; Brunner, David O; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Wilm, Bertram J; Froidevaux, Romain; Pruessmann, Klaas P


    For magnetic resonance imaging of tissues with very short transverse relaxation times, radio-frequency excitation must be immediately followed by data acquisition with fast spatial encoding. In zero-echo-time (ZTE) imaging, excitation is performed while the readout gradient is already on, causing data loss due to an initial dead time. One major dead time contribution is the settling time of the filters involved in signal down-conversion. In this paper, a multi-rate acquisition scheme is proposed to minimize dead time due to filtering. Short filters and high output bandwidth are used initially to minimize settling time. With increasing time since the signal onset, longer filters with better frequency selectivity enable stronger signal decimation. In this way, significant dead time reduction is accomplished at only a slight increase in the overall amount of output data. Multi-rate acquisition was implemented with a two-stage filter cascade in a digital receiver based on a field-programmable gate array. In ZTE imaging in a phantom and in vivo, dead time reduction by multi-rate acquisition is shown to improve image quality and expand the feasible bandwidth while increasing the amount of data collected by only a few percent.

  14. Normal grief and complicated bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees: cultural context and the central role of dreams of the dead. (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Peou, Sonith; Joshi, Siddharth; Nickerson, Angela; Simon, Naomi M


    This article profiles bereavement among traumatized Cambodian refugees and explores the validity of a model of how grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interact in this group to form a unique bereavement ontology, a model in which dreams of the dead play a crucial role. Several studies were conducted at a psychiatric clinic treating Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide. Key findings included that Pol Pot deaths were made even more deeply disturbing owing to cultural ideas about "bad death" and the consequences of not performing mortuary rites; that pained recall of the dead in the last month was common (76 % of patients) and usually caused great emotional and somatic distress; that severity of pained recall of the dead was strongly associated with PTSD severity (r = .62); that pained recall was very often triggered by dreaming about the dead, usually of someone who died in the Pol Pot period; and that Cambodians have a complex system of interpretation of dreams of the deceased that frequently causes those dreams to give rise to great distress. Cases are provided that further illustrate the centrality of dreams of the dead in the Cambodian experiencing of grief and PTSD. The article shows that not assessing dreams and concerns about the spiritual status of the deceased in the evaluation of bereavement results in "category truncation," i.e., a lack of content validity, a form of category fallacy.

  15. Drivers of CO2 Emission Rates from Dead Wood Logs of 13 Tree Species in the Initial Decomposition Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemo Kahl


    Full Text Available Large dead wood is an important structural component of forest ecosystems and a main component of forest carbon cycles. CO2 emissions from dead wood can be used as a proxy for actual decomposition rates. The main drivers of CO2 emission rates for dead wood of temperate European tree species are largely unknown. We applied a novel, closed chamber measurement technique to 360 dead wood logs of 13 important tree species in three regions in Germany. We found that tree species identity was with 71% independent contribution to the model (R2 = 0.62 the most important driver of volume-based CO2 emission rates, with angiosperms having on average higher rates than conifers. Wood temperature and fungal species richness had a positive effect on CO2 emission rates, whereas wood density had a negative effect. This is the first time that positive fungal species richness—wood decomposition relationship in temperate forests was shown. Certain fungal species were associated with high or low CO2 emission rates. In addition, as indicated by separate models for each tree species, forest management intensity, study region, and the water content as well as C and N concentration of dead wood influenced CO2 emission rates.

  16. Saprophytic Activity and Sporulation of Cryphonectria parasitica on Dead Chestnut Wood in Forests with Naturally Established Hypovirulence. (United States)

    Prospero, S; Conedera, M; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D


    ABSTRACT Sustainable biological control of the chestnut blight fungus Crypho-nectria parasitica with hypovirulence depends on the production and dissemination of hypovirus-infected propagules of the pathogen. We investigated the ability of C. parasitica to sporulate and produce hypo-virus-infected spores on recently dead chestnut wood in coppice stands in southern Switzerland where hypovirulence has been naturally established. The number and type (active, inactive, or none) of cankers was assessed on experimentally cut and stacked stems, firewood stacks, and natural dead wood. Hypovirus-free and hypovirus-infected strains readily survived for more than 1 year in the chestnut blight cankers of the stacked stems. Sporulation of C. parasitica was observed on the surface of preexisting inactive and active cankers, as well as on newly colonized bark areas and was significantly more abundant than on comparable cankers on living stems. On all types of dead wood, we observed more stromata with perithecia than with pycnidia; however, a large proportion of the stromata was not differentiated. All perithecia examined yielded only hypovirus-free ascospores. The incidence of pycnidia that produced hypovirus-infected conidia ranged from 5% on natural dead wood to 41% on the experimental stacks. The mean virus transmission rate into conidia was 69%. Our study demonstrates a considerable saprophytic activity of C. parasitica on recently dead chestnut wood and supports the hypothesis of a role of this saprophytic phase in the epidemiology of hypovirulence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN


    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  18. Understanding processes that generate flash floods in the arid Judean Desert to the Dead Sea - a measurement network (United States)

    Hennig, Hanna; Rödiger, Tino; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Geyer, Stefan; Merz, Ralf


    Flash floods in (semi-) arid regions are fascinating in their suddenness and can be harmful for humans, infrastructure, industry and tourism. Generated within minutes, an early warning system is essential. A hydrological model is required to quantify flash floods. Current models to predict flash floods are often based on simplified concepts and/or on concepts which were developed for humid regions. To more closely relate such models to local conditions, processes within catchments where flash floods occur require consideration. In this study we present a monitoring approach to decipher different flash flood generating processes in the ephemeral Wadi Arugot on the western side of the Dead Sea. To understand rainfall input a dense rain gauge network was installed. Locations of rain gauges were chosen based on land use, slope and soil cover. The spatiotemporal variation of rain intensity will also be available from radar backscatter. Level pressure sensors located at the outlet of major tributaries have been deployed to analyze in which part of the catchment water is generated. To identify the importance of soil moisture preconditions, two cosmic ray sensors have been deployed. At the outlet of the Arugot water is sampled and level is monitored. To more accurately determine water discharge, water velocity is measured using portable radar velocimetry. A first analysis of flash flood processes will be presented following the FLEX-Topo concept .(Savenije, 2010), where each landscape type is represented using an individual hydrological model according to the processes within the three hydrological response units: plateau, desert and outlet. References: Savenije, H. H. G.: HESS Opinions "Topography driven conceptual modelling (FLEX-Topo)", Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2681-2692, doi:10.5194/hess-14-2681-2010, 2010.

  19. Design and analysis of modified Smith predictors for self-regulating and non-self regulating processes with dead time

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanakumar, G; Nayak, C G


    A modification of Smith predictor for controlling the higher order processes with integral action ad long dead-time is proposed in this paper. The controller used in this Smith predictor is an Integral-Proportional Derivative controller, where the Integrator is in the forward path and the Proportional and Derivative control are in the feedback, acting on the feedback signal. The main objective of this paper is to design a Dead Time Compensator(DTC), which has minimum tuning parameters, simple controller tuning, robust performance of tuning formulae and to obtain a critically damped system which is as fast as possible in its setpoint and load disturbance rejection performance. The controller in this paper is tuned by an adaptive method. This paper also presents a survey of various dead time compensators and their performance analysis.

  20. Investigation of the behaviour of both dead time and observed counting rates of He-3 gas filled neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Eid, Y.; Abdel Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Shuriet, G.M.; Hamouda, I.


    The behaviour of the dead time of He-3 detector, operating at both the proportional and the corona discharge regions, is investigated as a function of the neutron reaction rate inside the detector. The applied experimental method makes use of the fluctuations, due to the detector dead time in the observed counting rates from Poisson's distribution. In order to check the validity of the experimental method used in the present work, the dead time of BF/sub 3/ neutron detectors with different efficiencies (due to different enrichement in B-10) were determined. It is shown that the observed counting rate from the He-3 detector operating at the proportional region for neutron reaction rates ranging from 8 x 10/sup 3/ to 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ reaction/sec decreases with the increase of the neutron reaction rate. Such behaviour was not observed when operating the He-3 detector at the corona discharge region.

  1. Investigation of the behaviour of both dead time and observed counting rates of He-3 gas filled neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Eid, Y.; Abdel Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Shuriet, G.M.; Hamouda, I.


    The behaviour of the dead time of He-3 detector, operating at both the proportional and the corona discharge regions, is investigated as a function of the neutron reaction rate inside the detector. The applied experimental method makes use of the fluctuations, due to the detector dead time in the observed counting rates from Poisson's distribution. In order to check the validity of the experimental method used in the present work, the dead time of BF 3 neutron detectors with different efficiencies (due to different enrichement in B-10) were determined. It is shown that the observed counting rate from the He-3 detector operating at the proportional region for neutron reaction rates ranging from 8 x 10 3 to 2.5 x 10 4 reaction/sec decreases with the increase of the neutron reaction rate. Such behaviour was not observed when operating the He-3 detector at the corona discharge region. (orig.) [de

  2. Discrimination of shot-noise-driven Poisson processes by external dead time - Application of radioluminescence from glass (United States)

    Saleh, B. E. A.; Tavolacci, J. T.; Teich, M. C.


    Ways in which dead time can be used to constructively enhance or diminish the effects of point processes that display bunching in the shot-noise-driven doubly stochastic Poisson point process (SNDP) are discussed. Interrelations between photocount bunching arising in the SNDP and the antibunching character arising from dead-time effects are investigated. It is demonstrated that the dead-time-modified count mean and variance for an arbitrary doubly stochastic Poisson point process can be obtained from the Laplace transform of the single-fold and joint-moment-generating functions for the driving rate process. The theory is in good agreement with experimental values for radioluminescence radiation in fused silica, quartz, and glass, and the process has many applications in pulse, particle, and photon detection.

  3. The House of the Dead. The San Cataldo Cemetery in Modena, by Aldo Rossi and Gianni Braghieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Giancipoli


    Full Text Available One of the projects that absolute addresses the clear relationship between the city of the living and the city of the dead is the project for the competition of the Cemetery in Modena, won by Aldo Rossi and Gianni Braghieri in 1971. Then it was revised for the second degree of the competition and for another step of the project in 1976. Now it remains unfinished, as the administration plans to achieve it programmatically. It has a clear organization of his differentiated and related parts through formal hierarchies, that recognize in the cube and the cone the “facts” of this urban city of the dead, with its rich symbolism linked to the cult of the dead. However, the cemetery isn’t, an isolated moment in Rossi’s work, but it is possible to recognize in it a declination of formal characterizations that returns throughout its design process.

  4. Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries. (United States)

    Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel


    Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The deeper structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from neural network analysis of velocity and attenuation tomography (United States)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael


    The Dead Sea basin is a pull-apart basin at the Dead Sea transform fault, the boundary between the African and the Arabian plates. Though the DSB has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge - based mainly on surface geology, drilling and seismic reflection surveys - gives only a partial picture of its shallow structure. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. In addition to an already published tomography study revealing the distribution of P velocities and the Vp/Vs ratios a 2D P-wave attenuation tomography (parameter Qp) was performed. The neural network technique of Self-organizing maps (SOM) is used for the joint interpretation of these three parameters (Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp). The resulting clusters in the petrophysical parameter space are assigned to the main lithological units below the southern part of the Dead Sea basin: (1) The basin sediments characterized by strong attenuation, high vp/vs ratios and low P velocities. (2) The pre-basin sediments characterized by medium to strong attenuation, low Vp/Vs ratios and medium P velocities. (3) The basement characterized by low to moderate attenuation, medium vp/vs ratios and high P velocities. Thus, the asymmetric southern Dead Sea basin is filled with basin sediments down to depth of 7 to 12 km. Below the basin sediments, the pre-basin sediments are extending to a depth between 13 and 18 km.

  6. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube (United States)

    Leslie, Ian H.


    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  7. Determination of power system component parameters using nonlinear dead beat estimation method (United States)

    Kolluru, Lakshmi

    Power systems are considered the most complex man-made wonders in existence today. In order to effectively supply the ever increasing demands of the consumers, power systems are required to remain stable at all times. Stability and monitoring of these complex systems are achieved by strategically placed computerized control centers. State and parameter estimation is an integral part of these facilities, as they deal with identifying the unknown states and/or parameters of the systems. Advancements in measurement technologies and the introduction of phasor measurement units (PMU) provide detailed and dynamic information of all measurements. Accurate availability of dynamic measurements provides engineers the opportunity to expand and explore various possibilities in power system dynamic analysis/control. This thesis discusses the development of a parameter determination algorithm for nonlinear power systems, using dynamic data obtained from local measurements. The proposed algorithm was developed by observing the dead beat estimator used in state space estimation of linear systems. The dead beat estimator is considered to be very effective as it is capable of obtaining the required results in a fixed number of steps. The number of steps required is related to the order of the system and the number of parameters to be estimated. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of dead beat estimator and nonlinear finite difference methods to create an algorithm which is user friendly and can determine the parameters fairly accurately and effectively. The proposed algorithm is based on a deterministic approach, which uses dynamic data and mathematical models of power system components to determine the unknown parameters. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested by implementing it to identify the unknown parameters of a synchronous machine. MATLAB environment is used to create three test cases for dynamic analysis of the system with assumed known parameters. Faults are

  8. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol. (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel


    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  9. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels in native Patagonia forests of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L.; Defosse, G. E.


    Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC) as an indicator of potential fire ignition. Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and nire) grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn ({approx}500-800 mm per year). Material and methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests. Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and nire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC = 85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC {<=} 85), High (85 < FFMC{<=}89) and Extreme (FFMC > 89). Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented. (Author)

  10. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels of native Patagonian forests or Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas O. Bianchi


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC as an indicator of potential fire ignition.Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and ñire grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn (~500-800 mm per year.Material and Methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests.Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and ñire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC=85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC≤85, High (8589.Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented

  11. Analysis and Mitigation of Dead Time Harmonics in the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PWM Converters with Repetitive Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Wang, Huai


    In order to prevent the power switching devices (e.g., the Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor, IGBT) from shoot-through in voltage source converters during a switching period, the dead time is added either in the hardware driver circuits of the IGBTs or implemented in software in Pulse-Width Modul......In order to prevent the power switching devices (e.g., the Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor, IGBT) from shoot-through in voltage source converters during a switching period, the dead time is added either in the hardware driver circuits of the IGBTs or implemented in software in Pulse...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseevich Voropaev


    Full Text Available The article studies the function of Russian folk speech and its evangelical implication in Nikolai Gogol's poetics. Folk proverbs and parables is the key source of national identity in Gogol’s aesthetics, which should inspire all Russian poets. The paper asserts that the proverbial method of generalization is one of the most significant principles of typification in Gogol's novel Dead Souls. The author expresses the essence of this or that phenomenon, a situation or a human type using imaginative pictures and traits of characters. The more generalized form they take, the more they resemble the traditional folk and poetic formulas. The article also reveals the hidden message of a Russian proverb Russians are good at thinking in hindsight (“Russkiy chelovek zadnim umom krepok”. This characteristic of the Russian mind is the one with which Gogol connects the great destiny of Russia. At the end of his first volume the author resorts to the allegorical form of a parable that plays a key role in the perception of the novel. Transforming into the generalized symbol, its characters accumulate the most significant generic features and qualities of Dead Souls’ characters. The grotesque images of Kifa Mokiyevich and Mokiy Kifovich help to look at the characters of the novel from every possible side, not from one side only that shows them as small-minded and worthles people. Gogol’s characters do not possess definitely disgusting and ugly qualities, which should be eliminated for the sake of people's improvement. Sobakevich's powerful physique and pragmatism, Plushkin's thrift, Manilov's meditativeness and cordiality, as well as Nozdryov's valor and energy are not bad qualities at all and do not deserve condemnation. However, all of them as Gogol used to say are carried to extremes and take perverse and exaggerated forms.

  13. The dead donor rule and the concept of death: severing the ties that bind them. (United States)

    Koppelman, Elysa R


    One goal of the transplant community is to seek ways to increase the number of people who are willing and able to donate organs. People in states between life and death are often medically excellent candidates for donating organs. Yet public policy surrounding organ procurement is a delicate matter. While there is the utilitarian goal of increasing organ supply, there is also the deontologic concern about respect for persons. Public policy must properly mediate between these two concerns. Currently the dead donor (dd) rule is appealed to as an attempt at such mediation. I argue that given the lack of consensus on a definition of death, the dd rule is no longer successful at mediating utilitarian and deontologic concerns. I suggest instead that focusing on a particular person's history can be successful.

  14. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation (United States)


    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  15. [Lean thinking and brain-dead patient assistance in the organ donation process]. (United States)

    Pestana, Aline Lima; dos Santos, José Luís Guedes; Erdmann, Rolf Hermann; da Silva, Elza Lima; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini


    Organ donation is a complex process that challenges health system professionals and managers. This study aimed to introduce a theoretical model to organize brain-dead patient assistance and the organ donation process guided by the main lean thinking ideas, which enable production improvement through planning cycles and the development of a proper environment for successful implementation. Lean thinking may make the process of organ donation more effective and efficient and may contribute to improvements in information systematization and professional qualifications for excellence of assistance. The model is configured as a reference that is available for validation and implementation by health and nursing professionals and managers in the management of potential organ donors after brain death assistance and subsequent transplantation demands.

  16. Hidden impacts of ocean acidification to live and dead coral framework. (United States)

    Hennige, S J; Wicks, L C; Kamenos, N A; Perna, G; Findlay, H S; Roberts, J M


    Cold-water corals, such as Lophelia pertusa, are key habitat-forming organisms found throughout the world's oceans to 3000 m deep. The complex three-dimensional framework made by these vulnerable marine ecosystems support high biodiversity and commercially important species. Given their importance, a key question is how both the living and the dead framework will fare under projected climate change. Here, we demonstrate that over 12 months L. pertusa can physiologically acclimate to increased CO2, showing sustained net calcification. However, their new skeletal structure changes and exhibits decreased crystallographic and molecular-scale bonding organization. Although physiological acclimatization was evident, we also demonstrate that there is a negative correlation between increasing CO2 levels and breaking strength of exposed framework (approx. 20-30% weaker after 12 months), meaning the exposed bases of reefs will be less effective 'load-bearers', and will become more susceptible to bioerosion and mechanical damage by 2100. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Characterization and utilization of the permeate and retentate obtained after “dead-end” ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.


    Full Text Available In the recent years, with the increase in bioethanol production, the increasing amounts of distillery wastewater are generated. Such wastewater (stillage is one of the most polluted waste product of the food and beverage industries. The present study evaluates the treatment of distillery wastewater by ultrafiltration (UF, in order to reduce its pollution and evaluate the composition of the permeate and retentate. Polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO 30000 Da, was used for the experiments. The UF was carried out in dead-end mode. The results of the analyses of the permeate and retentate obtained after ultrafiltration were considered as well as different ways for their further utilization. The pollutant level in the permeate was decreased significantly in comparison to the raw stillage, and suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  18. Upload of Dead Reckoning Measurements for Improved Navigational Efficiency on Embedded Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickle, Andrew J; Harvey, Paul K, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)


    The process behind Dead Reckoning (DR) is simple in that a robot can know its current location via a record of its starting position, direction and speed without the need to look for landmarks or follow lines. This process allows a robot to drive around a known environment such as indoors and heavy urban areas where traditional GPS navigation would not be an option. Discussed in this paper is an improvement of a previously designed DR mechanism in DSP Builder where now the user enters the DR measurements and commands as a sequence via a keypad. This replaces the need for user to programme the details into the system by altering numerous value tags within the design one-by-one, thus making it more user-independent and easier to alter for different environments. The paper shows updated simulations for repeatability, how the keypad links to the system and where this work will lead.

  19. Attempts to retreat from a dead-ended long capillary by backward swimming in Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki eKunita


    Full Text Available We have observed how the ciliate Paramecium attempts to retreat from the dead-end of a long capillary that is too narrow for turning. After many trial-and-error episodes of short-term backward swimming (SBS, which is the conventional avoidance behavior exhibited in free swimming when an obstacle is faced, long-term backward swimming (LBS that lasted five to ten times longer was developed. LBS may have a beneficial effect for complete withdrawal from the capillary space, although in our experiment it was impossible for the organism to do so due to the capillary length. In order to identify a physically possible mechanism for LBS, we propose model equations for the membrane potential of Hodgkin-Huxley type, which describe the control of ciliary movement. The physiological implications and physical mechanism of the development of LBS are discussed.

  20. When the third is dead: memory, mourning, and witnessing in the aftermath of the holocaust. (United States)

    Gerson, Samuel


    The origins of psychoanalysis, as well as the concerns of our daily endeavors, center on engagement with the fate of the unbearable - be it wish, affect, or experience. In this paper, I explore psychological states and dynamics faced by survivors of genocide and their children in their struggle to sustain life in the midst of unremitting deadliness. Toward this continuous effort, I re-examine Freud's theoretical formulations concerning memory and mourning, elaborate André Green's concept of the 'Dead Mother', and introduce more recent work on the concepts of the 'third' and 'thirdness'. Throughout, my thoughts are informed by our clinical experience with the essential role of witnessing in sustaining life after massive trauma. I bring aspects of all these forms of knowing to reflections about a poem by Primo Levi entitled Unfinished business and to our own never finished business of avoiding denial while living in an age of genocide and under the aura of uncontained destructiveness.

  1. Friction Theory Prediction of Crude Oil Viscosity at Reservoir Conditions Based on Dead Oil Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    The general one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) models have been further extended to the prediction of the viscosity of real "live" reservoir fluids based on viscosity measurements of the "dead" oil and the compositional information of the live fluid. This work representation of the viscosity...... of real fluids is obtained by a simple one-parameter tuning of a linear equation derived from a general one-parameter f-theory model. Further, this is achieved using simple cubic equations of state (EOS), such as the Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS or the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS, which are commonly used...... within the oil industry. In sake of completeness, this work also presents a simple characterization procedure which is based on compositional information of an oil sample. This procedure provides a method for characterizing an oil into a number of compound groups along with the critical constants...

  2. Pathological study on treated and untreated dogs dead after γ-irradiation with 6 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dewen; Guan Mingchen; Liu Xuetong


    Forty dogs γ-irradiated with 6 Gy were divided into three groups: control (8 cases), treated with antibiotics alone (8 cases) and with combined measures (24 cases). The death of dogs in these groups occurred between 8th-12th, 11th-14th and 12th-169th days after irradiation respectively. In the third group, regeneration of hematopoietic cells in sternal bone marrow was first observed in dog dead on 17.5th day after irradiation, and regeneration of lymphoid tissues in spleen on 14th day. The degree of recovery in both of these organs was worse than in dogs irradiated with 3.25 Gy. The complications were varied; for instance, in addition to infection and hemorrhage, there were intussusception, gastric dilation, necrosis and hemorrhage of pancrease, jaundice, cerebral edema, hemorrhage and hernia, cachexia during recovery and so on. The causes of death in these experimental animals were also varied

  3. Pathological study on treated and untreated dogs dead after. gamma. -irradiation with 6 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewen, Wang; Mingchen, Guan; Xuetong, Liu


    Forty dogs ..gamma..-irradiated with 6 Gy were divided into three groups: control (8 cases), treated with antibiotics alone (8 cases) and with combined measures (24 cases). The death of dogs in these groups occurred between 8th-12th, 11th-14th and 12th-169th days after irradiation respectively. In the third group, regeneration of hematopoietic cells in sternal bone marrow was first observed in dog dead on 17.5th day after irradiation, and regeneration of lymphoid tissues in spleen on 14th day. The degree of recovery in both of these organs was worse than in dogs irradiated with 3.25 Gy. The complications were varied; for instance, in addition to infection and hemorrhage, there were intussusception, gastric dilation, necrosis and hemorrhage of pancrease, jaundice, cerebral edema, hemorrhage and hernia, cachexia during recovery and so on. The causes of death in these experimental animals were also varied.

  4. Growth behaviors of bacteria in biofouling cake layer in a dead-end microfiltration system. (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong


    The growth behaviors of three bacterial species, i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Aquabaculum hongkongensis, in biofouling cake layer (attached form) were investigated using an unstirred dead-end continuous microfiltration system, and were compared with those in suspended form. Results showed that all the three bacteria had larger average growth rates in suspended form than in attached form under high substrates levels. Under oligotrophic conditions, the average growth rates in the attached form were faster than those in the suspended form, especially for A. hongkongensis. The growth behaviors analysis presented the same results due to all the tested bacteria had higher maximum growth rate and saturation constant in suspended form than attached form, indicating the dominant growth mode would be shifted from attached form to suspended form with substrate concentration increase. Finally, total filtration resistance determined in the experiments increased significantly with the bacterial growth in filtration system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inventing Caribbean climates: how science, medicine, and tourism changed tropical weather from deadly to healthy. (United States)

    Carey, Mark


    This article examines how four major historical factors--geographical features, social conditions, medicine, and tourism--affected European and North American views of the tropical Caribbean climate from approximately 1750 to 1950. It focuses on the British West Indies, a region barely examined in the historiography of climate, and examines the views of physicians, residents, government officials, travelers, and missionaries. International perceptions of the tropical Caribbean climate shifted markedly over time, from the deadly, disease-ridden environment of colonial depictions in the eighteenth century to one of the world's most iconic climatic paradises, where tourists sought sun-drenched beaches and healing breezes, in the twentieth. This analysis of how environmental conditions, knowledge systems, social relations, politics, and economics shaped scientific and popular understandings of climate contributes to recent studies on the cultural construction of climate. The approach also offers important lessons for present-day discussions of climate change, which often depict climate too narrowly as simply temperature.

  6. Spatial Politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kazemi


    Full Text Available This article examines the notion of spatial politics in Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. The two courtiers enter the politically convulsive world of Hamlet, where no legitimate power structure takes hold of the state. Their regularized political rationality ceases to apply to the world; reality violates the empirical knowledge — emplacements, geographical and spiritual directions, and generally identity — of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. The previously defined functions of places, or heterotopias (in Foucauldian terms, are in a state of abeyance. Therefore, they are lost in the midst of the unknown sets of spatial relations; any sorts of intentional act evade them; and they die and vanish absurdly in a placeless place.

  7. The life of a dead ant: the expression of an adaptive extended phenotype. (United States)

    Andersen, Sandra B; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Yusah, Kalsum M; Mayntz, David; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Billen, Johan; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Hughes, David P


    Specialized parasites are expected to express complex adaptations to their hosts. Manipulation of host behavior is such an adaptation. We studied the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, a locally specialized parasite of arboreal Camponotus leonardi ants. Ant-infecting Ophiocordyceps are known to make hosts bite onto vegetation before killing them. We show that this represents a fine-tuned fungal adaptation: an extended phenotype. Dead ants were found under leaves, attached by their mandibles, on the northern side of saplings approximately 25 cm above the soil, where temperature and humidity conditions were optimal for fungal growth. Experimental relocation confirmed that parasite fitness was lower outside this manipulative zone. Host resources were rapidly colonized and further secured by extensive internal structuring. Nutritional composition analysis indicated that such structuring allows the parasite to produce a large fruiting body for spore production. Our findings suggest that the osmotrophic lifestyle of fungi may have facilitated novel exploitation strategies.

  8. Theoretical study of magnetic layers of nickel on copper; dead or alive? (United States)

    Ernst, A.; Lueders, M.; Temmerman, W. M.; Szotek, Z.; van der Laan, G.


    We studied the persistence of magnetism in ultrathin nickel films on copper. Layer-dependent magnetic moments in Ni films on the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of Cu have been calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. The results show that, at temperature T = 0, a single nickel monolayer is ferromagnetic on Cu(001) and Cu(110) but magnetically `dead' on the more closely packed Cu(111) surface. Films of two and more layers of Ni are always ferromagnetic, with the magnetic moment enhanced in the surface layer but strongly reduced in the interface layer. Due to the short screening length, both the effect of the interface and that of the surface are confined to only a few atomic layers.

  9. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum. (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar


    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  10. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L


    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  11. Non-omnia moriantur-toxicity of mancozeb on dead wood microarthropod fauna. (United States)

    Adamski, Zbigniew; Bloszyk, Jerzy; Bruin, Jan; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz


    The effect of Dithane M-45 (dithiocarbamate fungicide; active substance: mancozeb) was studied on microarthropod fauna inhabiting dead wood. Although the exposure was almost never 100% lethal for the majority of observed taxa, almost all (Mesostigmata, Oribatida, some Uropodina, Actinedida, Collembola and Diplopoda) showed very high correlation between concentration of the fungicide and mortality (r > 0.86). Only Stigmaeidae showed low correlation (r = 0.293). For the majority of taxa LC(50 )values were close to the concentrations used during agrochemical activities in woods. Only Trachytes aegrota showed full susceptibility to the fungicide within the range of recommended field concentrations used in forestry (characterised by the low LC(95 )value). Tolerance of mesostigmatid and oribatid mites was found to differ between juveniles and adults, but not consistently. Related Uropodina species varied in susceptibility to the fungicide.

  12. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X


    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  13. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z


    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  14. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Werb, Dan; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older and injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]: 1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95% CI: 1.01-3.15). Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico.

  15. Emulsification kinetics during quasi-miscible flow in dead-end pores (United States)

    Broens, M.; Unsal, E.


    Microemulsions have found applications as carriers for the transport of solutes through various porous media. They are commonly pre-prepared in bulk form, and then injected into the medium. The preparation is done by actively mixing the surfactant, water and oil, and then allowing the mixture to stagnate until equilibrium is reached. The resulting microemulsion characteristics of the surfactant/oil/water system are studied at equilibrium conditions, and perfect mixing is assumed. But in applications like subsurface remediation and enhanced oil recovery, microemulsion formation may occur in the pore space. Surfactant solutions are injected into the ground to solubilize and/or mobilize the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) by in-situ emulsification. Flow dynamics and emulsification kinetics are coupled, which also contributes to in-situ mixing. In this study, we investigated the nature of such coupling for a quasi-miscible fluid system in a conductive channel with dead-end extensions. A microfluidic setup was used, where an aqueous solution of an anionic, internal olefin sulfonate 20-24 (IOS) surfactant was injected into n-decane saturated glass micromodel. The oil phase was coloured using a solvatochromatic dye allowing for direct visualization of the aqueous and oil phases as well as their microemulsions under fluorescent light. Presence of both conductive and stagnant dead-end channels in a single pore system made it possible to isolate different transport mechanisms from each other but also allowed to study the transitions from one to the other. In the conductive channel, the surfactant was carried with flow, and emulsification was controlled by the localized flow dynamics. In the stagnant zones, the driving force of the mass transfer was driven by the chemical concentration gradient. Some of the equilibrium phase behaviour characteristics of the surfactant/oil/water system were recognisable during the quasi-miscible displacement. However, the equilibrium tests

  16. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.


    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  17. The Occurrence of the Recent Deadly Mexico Earthquakes was not that Unexpected (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.


    Most big Mexican earthquakes occur right along the interface between the colliding Cocos and North American plates, but the two recent deadly Mexico earthquakes, i.e., the magnitude 8.2 earthquake that struck the Mexico's Chiapas state on 7 September 2017 and the magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck central Mexico, almost 12 days later, killing more than 400 people and reducing buildings to rubble in several States happened at two different spots in the flat-slab in the middle of the Cocos tectonic plate which is considered a geologically surprising area [1]. Here, upon considering a new type of analysis termed natural time, we show that their occurrence should not in principle puzzle scientists. Earthquakes may be considered as critical phenomena, see Ref. [2] and references therein and natural time analysis [3] uncovers an order parameter for seismicity. It has been shown [2] that the fluctuations of this order parameter exhibit a universal behavior with a probability density function (pdf), which is non-Gaussian having a left exponential tail [3]. Natural time analysis of seismicity in various tectonic regions of the Mexican Pacific Coast has been made in Ref.[4]. The study of the order parameter pdf for the Chiapas area as well as for the Guerrero area shows that the occurrence of large earthquakes in these two areas was not unexpected. References A. Witze, Deadly Mexico quakes not linked, Nature 549, 442 (2017). Varotsos PA, Sarlis NV, Skordas ES, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2011) P. Varotsos et al., Similarity of fluctuations in correlated systems: the case of seismicity. Phys. Rev. E 72, 041103 (2005) A. Ramírez-Rojas and E.L. Flores-Márquez, Order parameter analysis of seismicity of the Mexican Pacific coast. Physica A, 392 2507 (2013)

  18. Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity. (United States)

    Janisch, J E; Harmon, M E


    If forests are to be used in CO2 mitigation projects, it is essential to understand and quantify the impacts of disturbance on net ecosystem productivity (NEP; i.e., the change in ecosystem carbon (C) storage with time). We examined the influence of live tree and coarse woody debris (CWD) on NEP during secondary succession based on data collected along a 500-year chronosequence on the Wind River Ranger District, Washington. We developed a simple statistical model of live and dead wood accumulation and decomposition to predict changes in the woody component of NEP, which we call NEP(w). The transition from negative to positive NEP(w), for a series of scenarios in which none to all wood was left after disturbance, occurred between 0 and 57 years after disturbance. The timing of this transition decreased as live-tree growth rates increased, and increased as CWD left after disturbance increased. Maximum and minimum NEP(w) for all scenarios were 3.9 and -14.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, respectively. Maximum live and total wood C stores of 319 and 393 Mg C ha(-1), respectively, were reached approximately 200 years after disturbance. Decomposition rates (k) of CWD ranged between 0.013 and 0.043 year-1 for individual stands. Regenerating stands took 41 years to attain a mean live wood mass equivalent to the mean mass of CWD left behind after logging, 40 years to equal the mean CWD mass in 500-year-old forest, and more than 150 years to equal the mean total live and dead wood in an old-growth stand. At a rotation age of 80 years, regenerating stands stored approximately half the wood C of the remaining nearby old-growth forests (predominant age 500 years), indicating that conversion of old-growth forests to younger managed forests results in a significant net release of C to the atmosphere.

  19. Effect of Insulin Therapy using Hyper-insulinemic Normoglycemic Clamp on Inflammatory Response in Brain Dead Organ Donors. (United States)

    Aljiffry, M; Hassanain, M; Schricker, T; Shaheen, M; Nouh, T; Lattermann, R; Salman, A; Wykes, L; Metrakos, P


    Brain death is a major stress that is associated with a massive inflammatory response and systemic hyperglycemia. Severe inflammation leads to increased graft immunogenicity and risk of graft dysfunction; while acute hyperglycemia aggravates the inflammatory response and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Insulin therapy not only controls hyperglycemia but also suppresses inflammation. The present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties and the normoglycemia maintenance of high dose insulin on brain dead organ donors. 15 brain dead organ donors were divided into 2 groups, insulin treated (n=6) and controls (n=9). Insulin was provided for a minimum of 6 h using the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp technique. The changes of serum cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, TGFα and MCP-1, were measured by suspension bead array immunoassay and glucose by a glucose monitor. Compared to controls, insulin treated donors had a significant lower blood glucose 4.8 (4-6.9) vs. 9 (5.6-11.7) mmol/L, pinsulin treated donors compared with those in controls. High dose insulin therapy decreases the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in brain dead donors and preserves normoglycemia. High dose of insulin may have anti-inflammatory effects in brain dead organ donors and therefore, improve the quality of donor organs and potentially improve outcomes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Teachers' Use of a Pedagogical Framework for Improvement in Mathematics Teaching: Case Studies from YuMi Deadly Maths (United States)

    Carter, Merilyn; Cooper, Tom; Anderson, Robyn


    This paper describes the pedagogical framework used by YuMi Deadly Maths, a school change process used to improve mathematics teaching and thus enhance employment and life chances for socially disadvantaged students. The framework, called the RAMR cycle, is capable of being used by mathematics teachers for planning and delivering lessons and units…

  1. When a tree falls: Controls on wood decay predict standing dead tree fall and new risks in changing forests (United States)

    Brad Oberle; Kiona Ogle; Amy E. Zanne; Christopher W. Woodall


    When standing dead trees (snags) fall, they have major impacts on forest ecosystems. Snag fall can redistribute wildlife habitat and impact public safety, while governing important carbon (C) cycle consequences of tree mortality because ground contact accelerates C emissions during deadwood decay. Managing the consequences of altered snag dynamics in changing forests...

  2. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input. (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng


    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  3. "What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been": The Grateful Dead, the Deadheads, and the Refiguration of Subculture." (United States)

    Lane, Philip J.

    The relationship between mass mediated symbol systems and the development of subculture were studied through an analysis of the "hardcore" followers of the rock group, the Grateful Dead, i.e., the "Deadheads." As a way of compiling a "thick description" of the kind proposed by Clifford Geertz (1973), several key areas…

  4. Influence of the magnetic dead layer thickness of Mg-Zn ferrites nanoparticle on their magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, H.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, I.A.; Azzam, A. [Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Sattar, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)


    Nanoparticle ferrite with chemical formula Mg{sub (1−x)}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1) were prepared by sol-gel technique. Single phase structure of these ferrites was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed that the particle size of the samples in the range of (5.7–10.6 nm). The hysteresis studies showed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The magnetization behaviour with Zn-content is expressed in the light of Yafet-Kittel angles. The dead layer thickness (t) was calculated and its effect on the magnetization and magnetic losses was debated. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in an alternating magnetic field with frequency 198 kHz for these ferrites has been studied. It is found that, the thickness of magnetic dead layer of the surface of the materials has greatly affected the SAR value of the samples. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mg-Zn nanoparticle ferrite by sol-gel technique. • Methods of dead layer thickness calculation. • Magnetic behaviour explanation. • Relation between the Specific Absorption Rate, dead layer thickness and particle size.

  5. Live and dead benthic foraminiferal faunas from Whittard Canyon (NE Atlantic): Focus on taphonomic processes and paleo-environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duros, P.; Fontanier, C.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cesbron, F.; Metzger, E.; Jorissen, F.J.


    Dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in the > 150 mu m fraction of 4-5 cm deep sediment levels at 18 stations in the Whittard Canyon area in June 2007. This sediment layer is composed of fairly recent sediment (<312 years). The stations were located along 4 bathymetric transects

  6. Decapod crustaceans inhabiting live and dead colonies of three species of Acropora in the Roques Archipelago, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grajal, P. Alejandro; Laughlin, G. Roger


    A systematic account is given of the decapod crustaceans found in live and dead colonies of three species of the scleractinian coral Acropora (A. cervicornis, A. palmata, A. prolifera), collected during a 9 month period in a shallow reef flat in the southwestern portion of the Archipelago Los

  7. A simple method to correct the results of acoustic surveys for fish hidden in the dead zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tušer, Michal; Prchalová, Marie; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Čech, Martin; Peterka, Jiří; Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Kratochvíl, Michal; Draštík, Vladislav; Kubečka, Jan


    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2013), s. 358-363 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acoustic dead zone * benthic gillnet * freshwater benthic habitats * bottom slope Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  8. Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang


    Full Text Available Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT.

  9. National inventories of down and dead woody material forest carbon stocks in the United States: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; L.S. Heath; J.E. Smith


    Concerns over the effect of greenhouse gases and consequent international agreements and regional/national programs have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem carbon stocks. Down and dead woody (DDW) materials are a substantial component of forest carbon stocks; however, few surveys of DDW carbon stocks have been conducted at national-...

  10. Cell tracking using iron oxide fails to distinguish dead from living transplanted cells in the infarcted heart. (United States)

    Winter, E M; Hogers, B; van der Graaf, L M; Gittenberger-de Groot, A C; Poelmann, R E; van der Weerd, L


    Recently, debate has arisen about the usefulness of cell tracking using iron oxide-labeled cells. Two important issues in determining the usefulness of cell tracking with MRI are generally overlooked; first, the effect of graft rejection in immunocompetent models, and second, the necessity for careful histological confirmation of the fate of the labeled cells in the presence of iron oxide. Therefore, both iron oxide-labeled living as well as dead epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) were investigated in ischemic myocardium of immunodeficient non-obese diabetic (NOD)/acid: non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/scid) mice with 9.4T MRI until 6 weeks after surgery, at which time immunohistochemical analysis was performed. In both groups, voids on MRI scans were observed that did not change in number, size, or localization over time. Based on MRI, no distinction could be made between living and dead injected cells. Prussian blue staining confirmed that the hypointense spots on MRI corresponded to iron-loaded cells. However, in the dead-EPDC recipients, all iron-positive cells appeared to be macrophages, while the living-EPDC recipients also contained engrafted iron-loaded EPDCs. Iron labeling is inadequate for determining the fate of transplanted cells in the immunodeficient host, since dead cells produce an MRI signal indistinguishable from incorporated living cells. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Phytophthora ramorum is a generalist plant pathogen with differences in virulence between isolates from infectious and dead-end hosts (United States)

    D. Huberli; M. Garbelotto


    Variation in virulence was examined among isolates of Phytophthora ramorum from epidemiologically important or infectious (non-oak) and transmissive dead-end (oak) hosts from North America. Twelve isolates representative of the genetic, geographic and host range of P. ramorum in the western United States were inoculated on...

  12. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training. (United States)

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups means absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space.

  13. Landsat time series and lidar as predictors of live and dead basal area across five bark beetle-affected forests (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert E. Kennedy; Arjan J. H. Meddens


    Bark beetle-caused tree mortality affects important forest ecosystem processes. Remote sensing methodologies that quantify live and dead basal area (BA) in bark beetle-affected forests can provide valuable information to forest managers and researchers. We compared the utility of light detection and ranging (lidar) and the Landsat-based detection of trends in...

  14. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes. (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan


    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinguishing between live and dead standing tree biomass on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park, USA using small-fooprint lidar data (United States)

    Yunsuk Kim; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Dirk Pflugmacher; Chris L. Lauver; John L. Vankat


    Accurate estimation of live and dead biomass in forested ecosystems is important for studies of carbon dynamics, biodiversity, wildfire behavior, and for forest management. Lidar remote sensing has been used successfully to estimate live biomass, but studies focusing on dead biomass are rare. We used lidar data, in conjunction with field measurements from 58 plots to...

  16. The effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component in relation to ownership in forests of eastern Oregon (United States)

    David. Azuma


    Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to investigate the effects of a severe western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component of forests in 11 counties of eastern Oregon for two time periods. The ownership and the level of damage (as assessed by aerial surveys) affected the resulting down woody material and standing dead trees. The pattern of coarse...

  17. G.M. counter and pre-determined dead time; Compteur G.M. et temps mort impose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamotte, R; Le Baud, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This paper is divided into two main parts. - The first section recalls the principle on which a G.M. counter works, and examines the factors which lead to inaccuracies in counting. The concept of dead time, although simple risen associated with the counter alone, becomes complicated as soon as an electronic dead time is introduced to meet the demands of a measurement or an experiment. The resulting dead time, due to the coexistence of these dead times created by a single motivating factor, shows up as a function of certain laws of probability. From the analysis of the various cases of possible combinations, the conditions which must be fulfilled by a system with pre-determined dead time may be determined. This leads to a method for measuring the dead time of a G.M. counter, and the possibility of studying the latter under the utilisation conditions foreseen. - In the second part the principle, construction and characteristics of two systems with pre-determined dead time are discussed. To conclude, a comparison of several experimental results justifies an extension of the possibilities of a G.M. counter used in conjunction with such a system. (author) [French] Deux parties essentielles scindent cet expose. - La premiere partie rappelle le principe de fonctionnement d'un compteur G.M. et examine les facteurs d'imprecisions affectant les comptages. La notion de temps mort, simple quand elle est associee au compteur seul, se complique des qu'intervient un temps mort electronique introduit pour les besoins d'une mesure ou d'une experience. Le temps mort resultant, du a la coexistence de ces temps morts engendres par une meme cause, se manifeste en fonction de certaines lois de probabilites. L'analyse des differents cas de combinaisons possibles permet de preciser les imperatifs auxquels doit repondre un systeme a temps mort impose. Il en decoule une methode de mesure du temps mort d'un compteur G.M. et la possibilite d'etudier celui-ci dans les conditions d

  18. Overview of the geophysical studies in the Dead Sea coastal area related to evaporite karst and recent sinkhole development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Ezersky


    Full Text Available Since the early 80s, a progressively increasing number of sinkholes appeared along the Dead Sea coastal line. It has been found that their appearance is strongly correlating with the lowering of the Dead Sea level taking place with the rate of approximately 1 m/yr. Location of areas affected by sinkhole development corresponds to location of the salt formation deposited during the latest Pleistocene, when the Lake Lisan receded to later become the Dead Sea. Water flowing to the Dead Sea from adjacent and underlying aquifers dissolves salt and creates caverns that cause ground subsidence and consequent formation of sinkholes. Before subsidence, these caverns are not visible on the surface but can be investigated with surface geophysical methods. For that, we applied Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR, Transient Electromagnetic (TEM Seismic refraction and reflection, Multichannel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW, microgravity and magnetic surveys and their combinations. Our geophysical results allowed us to locate the salt formation and to detect caverns in salt thus contributing to better understanding sinkhole development mechanisms. Comparison of sinkhole appearance along the western DS shore derived from the recent database (2017 shows that predictions made on the base of geophysical data (2005-2008 are now confirmed thus demonstrating efficiency of our study. In this paper, we briefly present a summary of up to date knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of Dead Sea basin, of the physical properties of the salt rock and the most popular models explaining mechanisms of sinkhole development. We also share our experience gained during geophysical studies carried out in the framework of national and international research projects in this area for the last 20 years.

  19. Two-degree-of-freedom fractional order-PID controllers design for fractional order processes with dead-time. (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Zhou, Ping; Zhao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jinggang


    Recently, fractional order (FO) processes with dead-time have attracted more and more attention of many researchers in control field, but FO-PID controllers design techniques available for the FO processes with dead-time suffer from lack of direct systematic approaches. In this paper, a simple design and parameters tuning approach of two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) FO-PID controller based on internal model control (IMC) is proposed for FO processes with dead-time, conventional one-degree-of-freedom control exhibited the shortcoming of coupling of robustness and dynamic response performance. 2-DOF control can overcome the above weakness which means it realizes decoupling of robustness and dynamic performance from each other. The adjustable parameter η2 of FO-PID controller is directly related to the robustness of closed-loop system, and the analytical expression is given between the maximum sensitivity specification Ms and parameters η2. In addition, according to the dynamic performance requirement of the practical system, the parameters η1 can also be selected easily. By approximating the dead-time term of the process model with the first-order Padé or Taylor series, the expressions for 2-DOF FO-PID controller parameters are derived for three classes of FO processes with dead-time. Moreover, compared with other methods, the proposed method is simple and easy to implement. Finally, the simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark


    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the α ≈ 10 –2 level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.