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Sample records for dead box protein

  1. Functions of DEAD-box proteins in bacteria: current knowledge and pending questions.

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    Iost, Isabelle; Bizebard, Thierry; Dreyfus, Marc

    2013-08-01

    DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPases that are widespread in all three kingdoms of life. They are thought to rearrange the structures of RNA or ribonucleoprotein complexes but their exact mechanism of action is rarely known. Whereas in yeast most DEAD-box proteins are essential, no example of an essential bacterial DEAD-box protein has been reported so far; at most, their absence results in cold-sensitive growth. Moreover, whereas yeast DEAD-box proteins are implicated in virtually all reactions involving RNA, in E. coli (the bacterium where DEAD-box proteins have been mostly studied) their role is limited to ribosome biogenesis, mRNA degradation, and possibly translation initiation. Plausible reasons for these differences are discussed here. In spite of their dispensability, E. coli DEAD-box proteins are valuable models for the mechanism of action of DEAD-box proteins in general because the reactions in which they participate can be reproduced in vitro. Here we review our present understanding of this mechanism of action. Using selected examples for which information is available: (i) we describe how, by interacting directly with a particular RNA motif or by binding to proteins that themselves recognize such a motif, DEAD-box proteins are brought to their specific RNA substrate(s); (ii) we discuss the nature of the structural transitions that DEAD-box proteins induce on their substrates; and (iii) we analyze the reasons why these proteins are mostly important at low temperatures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases-Modulation for life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A DEAD box protein facilitates HIV-1 replication as a cellular co-factor of Rev

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    Fang Jianhua; Kubota, Satoshi; Yang Bin; Zhou Naiming; Zhang Hui; Godbout, Roseline; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1 Rev escorts unspliced viral mRNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells, which allows formation of infectious HIV-1 virions. We have identified a putative DEAD box (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) RNA helicase, DDX1, as a cellular co-factor of Rev, through yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems using the N-terminal motif of Rev as 'bait'. DDX1 is not a functional homolog of HIV-1 Rev, but down-regulation of DDX1 resulted in an alternative splicing pattern of Rev-responsive element (RRE)-containing mRNA, and attenuation of Gag p24 antigen production from HLfb rev(-) cells rescued by exogenous Rev. Co-transfection of a DDX1 expression vector with HIV-1 significantly increased viral production. DDX1 binding to Rev, as well as to the RRE, strongly suggest that DDX1 affects Rev function through the Rev-RRE axis. Moreover, down-regulation of DDX1 altered the steady state subcellular distribution of Rev, from nuclear/nucleolar to cytoplasmic dominance. These findings indicate that DDX1 is a critical cellular co-factor for Rev function, which maintains the proper subcellular distribution of this lentiviral regulatory protein. Therefore, alterations in DDX1-Rev interactions could induce HIV-1 persistence and targeting DDX1 may lead to rationally designed and novel anti-HIV-1 strategies and therapeutics

  3. The DEAD-Box Protein CYT-19 Uses Arginine Residues in Its C-Tail To Tether RNA Substrates.

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    Busa, Veronica F; Rector, Maxwell J; Russell, Rick

    2017-07-18

    DEAD-box proteins are nonprocessive RNA helicases that play diverse roles in cellular processes. The Neurospora crassa DEAD-box protein CYT-19 promotes mitochondrial group I intron splicing and functions as a general RNA chaperone. CYT-19 includes a disordered, arginine-rich "C-tail" that binds RNA, positioning the helicase core to capture and unwind nearby RNA helices. Here we probed the C-tail further by varying the number and positions of arginines within it. We found that removing sets of as few as four of the 11 arginines reduced RNA unwinding activity (k cat /K M ) to a degree equivalent to that seen upon removal of the C-tail, suggesting that a minimum or "threshold" number of arginines is required. In addition, a mutant with 16 arginines displayed RNA unwinding activity greater than that of wild-type CYT-19. The C-tail modifications impacted unwinding only of RNA helices within constructs that included an adjacent helix or structured RNA element that would allow C-tail binding, indicating that the helicase core remained active in the mutants. In addition, changes in RNA unwinding efficiency of the mutants were mirrored by changes in functional RNA affinity, as determined from the RNA concentration dependence of ATPase activity, suggesting that the C-tail functions primarily to increase RNA affinity. Interestingly, the salt concentration dependence of RNA unwinding activity is unaffected by C-tail composition, suggesting that the C-tail uses primarily hydrogen bonding, not electrostatic interactions, to bind double-stranded RNA. Our results provide insights into how an unstructured C-tail contributes to DEAD-box protein activity and suggest parallels with other families of RNA- and DNA-binding proteins.

  4. The DEAD-box protein MEL-46 is required in the germ line of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Minasaki, Ryuji; Puoti, Alessandro; Streit, Adrian

    2009-06-17

    In the hermaphrodite of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the first germ cells differentiate as sperm. Later the germ line switches to the production of oocytes. This process requires the activity of a genetic regulatory network that includes among others the fem, fog and mog genes. The function of some of these genes is germline specific while others also act in somatic tissues. DEAD box proteins have been shown to be involved in the control of gene expression at different steps such as transcription and pre-mRNA processing. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene mel-46 (maternal effect lethal) encodes a DEAD box protein that is related to the mammalian DDX20/Gemin3/DP103 genes. mel-46 is expressed throughout development and mutations in mel-46 display defects at multiple developmental stages. Here we focus on the role of mel-46 in the hermaphrodite germ line. mel-46(yt5) mutant hermaphrodites are partially penetrant sterile and fully penetrant maternal effect lethal. The germ line of mutants shows variable defects in oogenesis. Further, mel-46(yt5) suppresses the complete feminization caused by mutations in fog-2 and fem-3, two genes that are at the top and the center, respectively, of the genetic germline sex determining cascade, but not fog-1 that is at the bottom of this cascade. The C. elegans gene mel-46 encodes a DEAD box protein that is required maternally for early embryogenesis and zygotically for postembryonic development. In the germ line, it is required for proper oogenesis. Although it interacts genetically with genes of the germline sex determination machinery its primary function appears to be in oocyte differentiation rather than sex determination.

  5. The rice F-box protein KISS ME DEADLY2 functions as a negative regulator of cytokinin signalling.

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    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that play critical roles in growth and development. We recently determined that the transcriptional response to cytokinin of Arabidopsis is modulated by the KISS ME DEADLY (KMD) family of F-box proteins. Here we demonstrate a conserved function for a member of the rice KMD family. Ectopic overexpression of OsKMD2 in Arabidopsis results in decreased cytokinin sensitivity based on a hypocotyl growth response assay, the decrease in sensitivity correlating with a decrease in the levels of the transcriptional regulator AtARR12. Furthermore, OsKMD2 directly interacts with AtARR12 based on yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. These results indicate that both monocots and dicots employ a similar KMD-dependent mechanism to regulate the transcriptional response to cytokinin.

  6. Structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1, a putative interaction platform within a DEAD-box protein

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    Kellner, Julian N.; Meinhart, Anton, E-mail: anton.meinhart@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-08-25

    The structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1 was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The SPRY domain provides a putative protein–protein interaction platform within DDX1 that differs from other SPRY domains in its structure and conserved regions. The human RNA helicase DDX1 in the DEAD-box family plays an important role in RNA processing and has been associated with HIV-1 replication and tumour progression. Whereas previously described DEAD-box proteins have a structurally conserved core, DDX1 shows a unique structural feature: a large SPRY-domain insertion in its RecA-like consensus fold. SPRY domains are known to function as protein–protein interaction platforms. Here, the crystal structure of the SPRY domain of human DDX1 (hDSPRY) is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure reveals two layers of concave, antiparallel β-sheets that stack onto each other and a third β-sheet beneath the β-sandwich. A comparison with SPRY-domain structures from other eukaryotic proteins showed that the general β-sandwich fold is conserved; however, differences were detected in the loop regions, which were identified in other SPRY domains to be essential for interaction with cognate partners. In contrast, in hDSPRY these loop regions are not strictly conserved across species. Interestingly, though, a conserved patch of positive surface charge is found that may replace the connecting loops as a protein–protein interaction surface. The data presented here comprise the first structural information on DDX1 and provide insights into the unique domain architecture of this DEAD-box protein. By providing the structure of a putative interaction domain of DDX1, this work will serve as a basis for further studies of the interaction network within the hetero-oligomeric complexes of DDX1 and of its recruitment to the HIV-1 Rev protein as a viral replication factor.

  7. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

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    Patrick Schütz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  8. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

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    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-09-30

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  9. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

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    Mehrnoush Dehghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  10. Motif III in superfamily 2 "helicases" helps convert the binding energy of ATP into a high-affinity RNA binding site in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1.

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    Banroques, Josette; Doère, Monique; Dreyfus, Marc; Linder, Patrick; Tanner, N Kyle

    2010-03-05

    Motif III in the putative helicases of superfamily 2 is highly conserved in both its sequence and its structural context. It typically consists of the sequence alcohol-alanine-alcohol (S/T-A-S/T). Historically, it was thought to link ATPase activity with a "helicase" strand displacement activity that disrupts RNA or DNA duplexes. DEAD-box proteins constitute the largest family of superfamily 2; they are RNA-dependent ATPases and ATP-dependent RNA binding proteins that, in some cases, are able to disrupt short RNA duplexes. We made mutations of motif III (S-A-T) in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1 and analyzed in vivo phenotypes and in vitro properties. Moreover, we made a tertiary model of Ded1 based on the solved structure of Vasa. We used Ded1 because it has relatively high ATPase and RNA binding activities; it is able to displace moderately stable duplexes at a large excess of substrate. We find that the alanine and the threonine in the second and third positions of motif III are more important than the serine, but that mutations of all three residues have strong phenotypes. We purified the wild-type and various mutants expressed in Escherichia coli. We found that motif III mutations affect the RNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP (k(cat)), but not the affinity for ATP (K(m)). Moreover, mutations alter and reduce the affinity for single-stranded RNA and subsequently reduce the ability to disrupt duplexes. We obtained intragenic suppressors of the S-A-C mutant that compensate for the mutation by enhancing the affinity for ATP and RNA. We conclude that motif III and the binding energy of gamma-PO(4) of ATP are used to coordinate motifs I, II, and VI and the two RecA-like domains to create a high-affinity single-stranded RNA binding site. It also may help activate the beta,gamma-phosphoanhydride bond of ATP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

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    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

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    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  13. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

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    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  14. A Co-Opted DEAD-Box RNA helicase enhances tombusvirus plus-strand synthesis.

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    Nikolay Kovalev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. In this paper, we show that an essential translation factor, Ded1p DEAD-box RNA helicase of yeast, directly affects replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV. To separate the role of Ded1p in viral protein translation from its putative replication function, we utilized a cell-free TBSV replication assay and recombinant Ded1p. The in vitro data show that Ded1p plays a role in enhancing plus-strand synthesis by the viral replicase. We also find that Ded1p is a component of the tombusvirus replicase complex and Ded1p binds to the 3'-end of the viral minus-stranded RNA. The data obtained with wt and ATPase deficient Ded1p mutants support the model that Ded1p unwinds local structures at the 3'-end of the TBSV (-RNA, rendering the RNA compatible for initiation of (+-strand synthesis. Interestingly, we find that Ded1p and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, which is another host factor for TBSV, play non-overlapping functions to enhance (+-strand synthesis. Altogether, the two host factors enhance TBSV replication synergistically by interacting with the viral (-RNA and the replication proteins. In addition, we have developed an in vitro assay for Flock house virus (FHV, a small RNA virus of insects, that also demonstrated positive effect on FHV replicase activity by the added Ded1p helicase. Thus, two small RNA viruses, which do not code for their own helicases, seems to recruit a host RNA helicase to aid their replication in infected cells.

  15. microRNAs targeting DEAD-box helicases are involved in salinity stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Macovei Anca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa L., one of the most important food crop in the world, is considered to be a salt-sensitive crop. Excess levels of salt adversely affect all the major metabolic activities, including cell wall damage, cytoplasmic lysis and genomic stability. In order to cope with salt stress, plants have evolved high degrees of developmental plasticity, including adaptation via cascades of molecular networks and changes in gene expression profiles. Posttranscriptional regulation, through the activity of microRNAs, also plays an important role in the plant response to salinity conditions. MicroRNAs are small endogenous RNAs that modulate gene expression and are involved in the most essential physiological processes, including plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. Results In the present study, we investigated the expression profiles of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR408 and osa-MIR164e along with their targeted genes, under salinity stress conditions in wild type and transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 (Pea DNA Helicase gene. The present miRNAs were predicted to target the OsABP (ATP-Binding Protein, OsDSHCT (DOB1/SK12/helY-like DEAD-box Helicase and OsDBH (DEAD-Box Helicase genes, included in the DEAD-box helicase family. An in silico characterization of the proteins was performed and the miRNAs predicted targets were validated by RLM-5′RACE. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the OsABP, OsDBH and OsDSHCT genes were up-regulated in response to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments. The present study also highlighted an increased accumulation of the gene transcripts in wild type plants, with the exception of the OsABP mRNA which showed the highest level (15.1-fold change compared to control in the transgenic plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. Salinity treatments also affected the expression of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR164e and osa-MIR408, found to be significantly down-regulated, although the changes in mi

  16. The DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 Interacts with m6A RNA Demethylase ALKBH5

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    Abdullah Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDX3 is a member of the family of DEAD-box RNA helicases. DDX3 is a multifaceted helicase and plays essential roles in key biological processes such as cell cycle, stress response, apoptosis, and RNA metabolism. In this study, we found that DDX3 interacted with ALKBH5, an m6A RNA demethylase. The ATP domain of DDX3 and DSBH domain of ALKBH5 were indispensable to their interaction with each other. Furthermore, DDX3 could modulate the demethylation of mRNAs. We also showed that DDX3 regulated the methylation status of microRNAs and there was an interaction between DDX3 and AGO2. The dynamics of m6A RNA modification is still a field demanding further investigation, and here, we add a link by showing that RNA demethylation can be regulated by proteins such as DDX3.

  17. DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4) colocalizes with cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Jo, Jin-Ok; Ock, Mee Sun; Moon, Soo Hyun; Suh, Dong Soo; Yoon, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Namkung; Eo, Wan-Kyu; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Germ cell marker DDX4 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • Ovarian cancer stem cell marker CD133 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. • CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4. • Germ cell marker DDX4 has the potential of ovarian cancer stem cell marker. - Abstract: DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4), characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), is an RNA helicase which is implicated in various cellular processes involving the alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. DDX4 is known to be a germ cell-specific protein and is used as a sorting marker of germline stem cells for the production of oocytes. A recent report about DDX4 in ovarian cancer showed that DDX4 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and disrupts a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. We investigated the relationship between DDX4 and ovarian cancer stem cells by analyzing the expression patterns of DDX4 and the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers via tissue microarray. Both DDX4 and CD133 were significantly increased in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, and showed similar patterns of expression. In addition, DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. Furthermore, almost all CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4, suggesting a strong possibility that DDX4 plays an important role in cancer stem cells, and/or can be used as an ovarian cancer stem cell marker

  18. The DEAD box helicase RDE-12 promotes amplification of RNAi in cytoplasmic foci in C. elegans.

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    Yang, Huan; Vallandingham, Jim; Shiu, Philip; Li, Hua; Hunter, Craig P; Mak, Ho Yi

    2014-04-14

    RNAi is a potent mechanism for downregulating gene expression. Conserved RNAi pathway components are found in animals, plants, fungi, and other eukaryotes. In C. elegans, the RNAi response is greatly amplified by the synthesis of abundant secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Exogenous double-stranded RNA is processed by Dicer and RDE-1/Argonaute into primary siRNA that guides target mRNA recognition. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RRF-1 then engage the target mRNA for secondary siRNA synthesis. However, the molecular link between primary siRNA production and secondary siRNA synthesis remains largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the subcellular sites for target mRNA recognition and degradation coincide with sites where siRNA synthesis and amplification occur. In the C. elegans germline, cytoplasmic P granules at the nuclear pores and perinuclear Mutator foci contribute to target mRNA surveillance and siRNA amplification, respectively. We report that RDE-12, a conserved phenylalanine-glycine (FG) domain-containing DEAD box helicase, localizes in P granules and cytoplasmic foci that are enriched in RSD-6 but are excluded from the Mutator foci. Our results suggest that RDE-12 promotes secondary siRNA synthesis by orchestrating the recruitment of RDE-10 and RRF-1 to primary siRNA-targeted mRNA in distinct cytoplasmic compartments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

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    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Liao, Jung-Chi; Sun, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116. (paper)

  20. Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116

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    Zhang, Yuan; Palla, Mirkó; Sun, Andrew; Liao, Jung-Chi

    2013-09-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases are ATP-dependent proteins implicated in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. The yeast DEAD-box helicase Mss116 is unique in its functions of splicing group I and group II introns and activating mRNA translation, but the structural understanding of why it performs these unique functions remains unclear. Here we used sequence analysis and molecular dynamics simulation to identify residues in the flexible linker specific for yeast Mss116, potentially associated with its unique functions. We first identified residues that are 100% conserved in Mss116 of different species of the Saccharomycetaceae family. The amino acids of these conserved residues were then compared with the amino acids of the corresponding residue positions of other RNA helicases to identify residues that have distinct amino acids from other DEAD-box proteins. Four residues in the flexible linker, i.e. N334, E335, P336 and H339, are conserved and Mss116-specific. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted for the wild-type Mss116 structure and mutant models to examine mutational effects of the linker on the conformational equilibrium. Relatively short MD simulation runs (within 20 ns) were enough for us to observe mutational effects, suggesting serious structural perturbations by these mutations. The mutation of E335 depletes the interactions between E335 and K95 in domain 1. The interactions between N334/P336 and N496/I497 of domain 2 are also abolished by mutation. Our results suggest that tight interactions between the Mss116-specific flexible linker and the two RecA-like domains may be mechanically required to crimp RNA for the unique RNA processes of yeast Mss116.

  1. DEAD-box helicase 27 promotes colorectal cancer growth and metastasis and predicts poor survival in CRC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jieting; Chen, Huarong; Wong, Chi-Chun; Liu, Dabin; Li, Tong; Wang, Xiaohong; Ji, Jiafu; Sung, Joseph Jy; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Yu, Jun

    2018-03-14

    Copy number alterations (CNAs) are crucial for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this study, DEAD box polypeptide 27 (DDX27) was identified to be highly amplified in both TCGA CRC (474/615) and primary CRC (47/103), which was positively correlated with its mRNA overexpression. High DDX27 mRNA (N = 199) and protein expression (N = 260) predicted poor survival in CRC patients. Ectopic expression of DDX27 increased CRC cells proliferation, migration and invasion, but suppressed apoptosis. Conversely, silencing of DDX27 exerted opposite effects in vitro and significantly inhibited murine xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Up-regulation of DDX27 enhanced and prolonged TNF-α-mediated NF-κB signaling. Nucleophosmin (NPM1) was identified as a binding partner of DDX27. DDX27 increased nuclear NPM1 and NF-κB-p65 interaction to enhance DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Silencing NPM1 abrogated DDX27-activating NF-κB signaling and its tumor-promoting function. Together, DDX27 is overexpressed and plays a pivotal oncogenic role in CRC.

  2. Structural and biochemical analyses of the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 in association with THO or Yra1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yi [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, United States; Schmiege, Philip [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, United States; Blobel, Günter [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, United States

    2017-01-06

    mRNA is cotranscrptionally processed and packaged into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in the nucleus. Prior to export through the nuclear pore, mRNPs undergo several obligatory remodeling reactions. In yeast, one of these reactions involves loading of the mRNA-binding protein Yra1 by the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 as assisted by the hetero-pentameric THO complex. To obtain molecular insights into reaction mechanisms, we determined crystal structures of two relevant complexes: a THO hetero-pentamer bound to Sub2 at 6.0 Å resolution; and Sub2 associated with an ATP analogue, RNA, and a C-terminal fragment of Yra1 (Yra1-C) at 2.6 Å resolution. We found that the 25 nm long THO clamps Sub2 in a half-open configuration; in contrast, when bound to the ATP analogue, RNA and Yra1-C, Sub2 assumes a closed conformation. Both THO and Yra1-C stimulated Sub2’s intrinsic ATPase activity. We propose that THO surveys common landmarks in each nuclear mRNP to localize Sub2 for targeted loading of Yra1.

  3. Structural and biochemical analyses of the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 in association with THO or Yra1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Schmiege, Philip; Blobel, Günter

    2017-01-06

    mRNA is cotranscrptionally processed and packaged into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in the nucleus. Prior to export through the nuclear pore, mRNPs undergo several obligatory remodeling reactions. In yeast, one of these reactions involves loading of the mRNA-binding protein Yra1 by the DEAD-box ATPase Sub2 as assisted by the hetero-pentameric THO complex. To obtain molecular insights into reaction mechanisms, we determined crystal structures of two relevant complexes: a THO hetero-pentamer bound to Sub2 at 6.0 Å resolution; and Sub2 associated with an ATP analogue, RNA, and a C-terminal fragment of Yra1 (Yra1-C) at 2.6 Å resolution. We found that the 25 nm long THO clamps Sub2 in a half-open configuration; in contrast, when bound to the ATP analogue, RNA and Yra1-C, Sub2 assumes a closed conformation. Both THO and Yra1-C stimulated Sub2's intrinsic ATPase activity. We propose that THO surveys common landmarks in each nuclear mRNP to localize Sub2 for targeted loading of Yra1.

  4. Structure of the exon junction core complex with a trapped DEAD-box ATPase bound to RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Ballut, Lionel; Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2006-01-01

    exon junction core complex containing the DEAD-box adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII) bound to an ATP analog, MAGOH, Y14, a fragment of MLN51, and a polyuracil mRNA mimic. eIF4AIII interacts with the phosphate-ribose backbone of six consecutive nucleotides...... and prevents part of the bound RNA from being double stranded. The MAGOH and Y14 subunits lock eIF4AIII in a prehydrolysis state, and activation of the ATPase probably requires only modest conformational changes in eIF4AIII motif I....

  5. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Jain, Parul; Pham, Xuan Hoi; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum) and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  6. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  7. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Forné, Ignasi [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Imhof, Axel [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Eick, Dirk, E-mail: eick@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  8. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. ► DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. ► DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1α. ► DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1α, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  9. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Yuichiro, E-mail: ykanno@phar.toho-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Chiba (Japan); Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  10. Binding of DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 to the 5'-untranslated region of ASH1 mRNA represses localized translation of ASH1 in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianjun; Meng, Xiuhua; Li, Delin; Chen, Shaoyin; Luo, Jianmin; Zhu, Linjie; Singer, Robert H; Gu, Wei

    2017-06-09

    Local translation of specific mRNAs is regulated by dynamic changes in their subcellular localization, and these changes are due to complex mechanisms controlling cytoplasmic mRNA transport. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well suited to studying these mechanisms because many of its transcripts are transported from the mother cell to the budding daughter cell. Here, we investigated the translational control of ASH1 mRNA after transport and localization. We show that although ASH1 transcripts were translated after they reached the bud tip, some mRNAs were bound by the RNA-binding protein Puf6 and were non-polysomal. We also found that the DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 complexed with the untranslated ASH1 mRNA and Puf6. Loss of Dhh1 affected local translation of ASH1 mRNA and resulted in delocalization of ASH1 transcript in the bud. Forcibly shifting the non-polysomal ASH1 mRNA into polysomes was associated with Dhh1 dissociation. We further demonstrated that Dhh1 is not recruited to ASH1 mRNA co-transcriptionally, suggesting that it could bind to ASH1 mRNA within the cytoplasm. Of note, Dhh1 bound to the 5'-UTR of ASH1 mRNA and inhibited its translation in vitro These results suggest that after localization to the bud tip, a portion of the localized ASH1 mRNA becomes translationally inactive because of binding of Dhh1 and Puf6 to the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of ASH1 mRNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Bioactive L acidissima protein hydrolysates using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Sachin K; Arya, Shalini S

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the extraction and hydrolysis of proteins using single factor and Box-Behnken Design (BBD). From single factor tests, optimised extraction parameters were 1% alkali concentration, 40 °C temperature, 60 min time, and 1:20 solid to alkali ratio. Under these conditions; 924.31 mg/g of total protein was obtained from Limonia acidissima (L acidissima). The maximum degree of hydrolysis was 39.82% at pH 2, enzyme to substrate ratio 2.5% (w/w), and hydrolysis time was 42.41 min using BBD design. L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate showed 32.94% DPPH and 88.18% of ABTS activity at concentration of 100 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power of 0.16 and metal chelating activity of 87.39% was obtained from 5 mg/ml protein hydrolysates. This implied that L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate could be utilised in protein rich product or as protein supplements.

  12. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2010-02-02

    The invention relates to transgenic plants having reduced sensitivity to ethylene as a result of having a recombinant nucleic acid encoding a F-box protein, and a method of producing a transgenic plant with reduced ethylene sensitivity by transforming the plant with a nucleic acid sequence encoding a F-box protein.

  13. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei [Beijing, CN; Ecker, Joseph R [Carlsbad, CA

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between F-box proteins and proteins invovled in the ethylene response in plants is described. In particular, F-box proteins may bind to proteins involved in the ethylene response and target them for degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The transcription factor EIN3 is a key transcription factor mediating ethylne-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. EIN3 is degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. The link between F-box proteins and the ethylene response is a key step in modulating or regulating the response of a plant to ethylene. Described herein are transgenic plants having an altered sensitivity to ethylene, and methods for making transgenic plant haing an althered sensitivity to ethylene by modulating the level of activity of F-box proteins. Methods of altering the ethylene response in a plant by modulating the activity or expression of an F-box protein are described. Also described are methods of identifying compounds that modulate the ethylene response in plants by modulating the level of F-box protein expression or activity.

  14. The effect of box shape on the dynamic properties of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.A.; Mark, A.E.

    The effect of the box shape on the dynamic behavior of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions is evaluated. In particular, the influence of simulation boxes defined by the near-densest lattice packing (NDLP) in conjunction with rotational constraints is compared to that of standard

  15. Functional redundancy and/or ongoing pseudogenization among F-box protein genes expressed in Arabidopsis male gametophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Sobia; Durandet, Monique; Vesa, Simona; Pereira, Serge; Guerche, Philippe; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2014-06-01

    F-box protein genes family is one of the largest gene families in plants, with almost 700 predicted genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. F-box proteins are key components of the ubiquitin proteasome system that allows targeted protein degradation. Transcriptome analyses indicate that half of these F-box protein genes are found expressed in microspore and/or pollen, i.e., during male gametogenesis. To assess the role of F-box protein genes during this crucial developmental step, we selected 34 F-box protein genes recorded as highly and specifically expressed in pollen and isolated corresponding insertion mutants. We checked the expression level of each selected gene by RT-PCR and confirmed pollen expression for 25 genes, but specific expression for only 10 of the 34 F-box protein genes. In addition, we tested the expression level of selected F-box protein genes in 24 mutant lines and showed that 11 of them were null mutants. Transmission analysis of the mutations to the progeny showed that none of the single mutations was gametophytic lethal. These unaffected transmission efficiencies suggested leaky mutations or functional redundancy among F-box protein genes. Cytological observation of the gametophytes in the mutants confirmed these results. Combinations of mutations in F-box protein genes from the same subfamily did not lead to transmission defect either, further highlighting functional redundancy and/or a high proportion of pseudogenes among these F-box protein genes.

  16. Direct modulation of T-box riboswitch-controlled transcription by protein synthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Apostolidi, Maria; Li, Shuang; Lamprinou, Katerina; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zhang, Jinwei; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2017-09-29

    Recently, it was discovered that exposure to mainstream antibiotics activate numerous bacterial riboregulators that control antibiotic resistance genes including metabolite-binding riboswitches and other transcription attenuators. However, the effects of commonly used antibiotics, many of which exhibit RNA-binding properties, on the widespread T-box riboswitches, remain unknown. In Staphylococcus aureus, a species-specific glyS T-box controls the supply of glycine for both ribosomal translation and cell wall synthesis, making it a promising target for next-generation antimicrobials. Here, we report that specific protein synthesis inhibitors could either significantly increase T-box-mediated transcription antitermination, while other compounds could suppress it, both in vitro and in vivo. In-line probing of the full-length T-box combined with molecular modelling and docking analyses suggest that the antibiotics that promote transcription antitermination stabilize the T-box:tRNA complex through binding specific positions on stem I and the Staphylococcal-specific stem Sa. By contrast, the antibiotics that attenuate T-box transcription bind to other positions on stem I and do not interact with stem Sa. Taken together, our results reveal that the transcription of essential genes controlled by T-box riboswitches can be directly modulated by commonly used protein synthesis inhibitors. These findings accentuate the regulatory complexities of bacterial response to antimicrobials that involve multiple riboregulators. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Classification of EA1-box proteins and new insights into their role during reproduction in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Susanne; Márton, Mihaela L; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    EA1-box protein classification. Success in reproduction and vegetative development in flowering plants strongly depends on precise cell-to-cell signaling events mediated by secreted peptides.A small peptide family named as EA1-like (EAL) has been first described 10 years ago and includes EA1 involved in pollen tubes attraction by the female gametophyte and EAL1-regulating germ cell identity in maize. EALs consist of an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum-targeting motif, the highly conserved EA1-box and a short C-terminal alanine-rich domain. Whereas EAL peptides are exclusively found in the Gramineae, the EA1-box is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Based on in silico analysis and subcellular localization studies, we report here a new classification of EA1-box proteins in flowering plants. They can be distinguished into three protein classes: the already defined EAL proteins, the EAG (EA1-box glycine-rich) proteins and the EAC (EA1-box containing)proteins. While fusion proteins of EAL and EAC classes locate to the secretory pathway, EAGs are cytoplasmic and locate also to the nucleus. Moreover, we further show that the third EAL protein of Zea mays, EAL2, appears to be also involved in processes related to late embryogenic development as its peptide level increases after formation of leaf primordia. Immunohistochemical studies indicate its presence in the scutellar parenchyma and around the vasculature, where it is secreted to the extracellular space. In conclusion, the members of the maize EAL family possess very diverse functions during reproduction and it will now be exciting to elucidate the functions of EAGs and EACs in plants.

  18. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  19. Spliced X-box binding protein 1 couples the unfolded protein response to hexosamine biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao V; Deng, Yingfeng; Gao, Ningguo; Pedrozo, Zully; Li, Dan L; Morales, Cyndi R; Criollo, Alfredo; Luo, Xiang; Tan, Wei; Jiang, Nan; Lehrman, Mark A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Lavandero, Sergio; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Ferdous, Anwarul; Gillette, Thomas G; Scherer, Philipp E; Hill, Joseph A

    2014-03-13

    The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) for glycan synthesis and O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) protein modifications. Despite the established role of the HBP in metabolism and multiple diseases, regulation of the HBP remains largely undefined. Here, we show that spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), the most conserved signal transducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a direct transcriptional activator of the HBP. We demonstrate that the UPR triggers HBP activation via Xbp1s-dependent transcription of genes coding for key, rate-limiting enzymes. We further establish that this previously unrecognized UPR-HBP axis is triggered in a variety of stress conditions. Finally, we demonstrate a physiologic role for the UPR-HBP axis by showing that acute stimulation of Xbp1s in heart by ischemia/reperfusion confers robust cardioprotection in part through induction of the HBP. Collectively, these studies reveal that Xbp1s couples the UPR to the HBP to protect cells under stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  1. F-BOX proteins in cancer cachexia and muscle wasting: Emerging regulators and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukari, Ammar; Muqbil, Irfana; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Philip, Philip A; Azmi, Asfar S

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating metabolic syndrome accounting for fatigue, an impairment of normal activities, loss of muscle mass associated with body weight loss eventually leading to death in majority of patients with advanced disease. Cachexia patients undergoing skeletal muscle atrophy show consistent activation of the SCF ubiquitin ligase (F-BOX) family member Atrogin-1 (also known as MAFBx/FBXO32) alongside the activation of the muscle ring finger protein1 (MuRF1). Other lesser known F-BOX family members are also emerging as key players supporting muscle wasting pathways. Recent work highlights a spectrum of different cancer signaling mechanisms impacting F-BOX family members that feed forward muscle atrophy related genes during cachexia. These novel players provide unique opportunities to block cachexia induced skeletal muscle atrophy by therapeutically targeting the SCF protein ligases. Conversely, strategies that induce the production of proteins may be helpful to counter the effects of these F-BOX proteins. Through this review, we bring forward some novel targets that promote atrogin-1 signaling in cachexia and muscle wasting and highlight newer therapeutic opportunities that can help in the better management of patients with this devastating and fatal disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Lipid and Protein Metabolism after Classic Boxing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic fitness (MF) is a component of athletes' physical conditioning. This study aims to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation on Turkish Junior athletes' lipid and protein metabolism relating to MF after one month classic boxing training. Totally 20 voluntary junior male athletes were separated into two equal groups as the…

  3. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2) regulates amyloid precursor protein levels and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Graham; Hunt, Jack; Minakawa, Eiko; Sharkey, Lisa; Tipper, Nathan; Tennant, William; Paulson, Henry L

    2014-03-07

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane glycoprotein whose cleavage products, particularly amyloid-β, accumulate in Alzheimer disease (AD). APP is present at synapses and is thought to play a role in both the formation and plasticity of these critical neuronal structures. Despite the central role suggested for APP in AD pathogenesis, the mechanisms regulating APP in neurons and its processing into cleavage products remain incompletely understood. F-box only protein 2 (Fbxo2), a neuron-enriched ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that preferentially binds high-mannose glycans on glycoproteins, was previously implicated in APP processing by facilitating the degradation of the APP-cleaving β-secretase, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme. Here, we sought to determine whether Fbxo2 plays a similar role for other glycoproteins in the amyloid processing pathway. We present in vitro and in vivo evidence that APP is itself a substrate for Fbxo2. APP levels were decreased in the presence of Fbxo2 in non-neuronal cells, and increased in both cultured hippocampal neurons and brain tissue from Fbxo2 knock-out mice. The processing of APP into its cleavage products was also increased in hippocampi and cultured hippocampal neurons lacking Fbxo2. In hippocampal slices, this increase in cleavage products was accompanied by a significant reduction in APP at the cell surface. Taken together, these results suggest that Fbxo2 regulates APP levels and processing in the brain and may play a role in modulating AD pathogenesis.

  4. Duplex unwinding and ATPase activities of the DEAD-box helicase eIF4A are coupled by eIF4G and eIF4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özeş, Ali R.; Feoktistova, Kateryna; Avanzino, Brian C.; Fraser, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is a DEAD-box helicase that stimulates translation initiation by unwinding mRNA secondary structure. The accessory proteins, eIF4G, eIF4B, and eIF4H enhance the duplex unwinding activity of eIF4A, but the extent to which they modulate eIF4A activity is poorly understood. Here, we use real time fluorescence assays to determine the kinetic parameters of duplex unwinding and ATP hydrolysis by these initiation factors. To ensure efficient duplex unwinding, eIF4B and eIF4G cooperatively activate the duplex unwinding activity of eIF4A. Our data reveal that eIF4H is much less efficient at stimulating eIF4A unwinding activity than eIF4B, implying that eIF4H is not able to completely substitute for eIF4B in duplex unwinding. By monitoring unwinding and ATPase assays using identical conditions, we demonstrate that eIF4B couples the ATP hydrolysis cycle of eIF4A with strand separation, thereby minimizing non-productive unwinding events. Using duplex substrates with altered GC contents, but with similar predicted thermal stabilities, we further show that the rate of formation of productive unwinding complexes is strongly influenced by the local stability per base pair in addition to the stability of the entire duplex. This finding explains how a change in the GC content of a hairpin while maintaining overall predicted thermal stability is able to influence translation initiation. PMID:21840318

  5. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  6. The F-box protein FBXO44 mediates BRCA1 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-11-30

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCF(FBXO44)) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCF(FBXO44) reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCF(FBXO44) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCF(FBXO44)-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development.

  7. The F-box Protein FBXO44 Mediates BRCA1 Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P. Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCFFBXO44) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCFFBXO44 reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCFFBXO44 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCFFBXO44-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development. PMID:23086937

  8. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Roles of F-box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong

    2014-12-01

    F-box proteins (FBPs), the substrate-recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors.

  10. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-01-01

    of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis......The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were...... analysed for their ability to ubiquitinate proteins in vitro in co-operation with different E2s. All U-box domains exhibited ubiquitination activity and interacted productively with UBC4/5-type E2s. Three and four of the U-box domains mediated ubiquitin addition in the presence of UBC13 and UBC7 E2s...

  11. Proteins Related to the Type I Secretion System Are Associated with Secondary SecA_DEAD Domain Proteins in Some Species of Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Chlorobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K Kamneva

    Full Text Available A number of bacteria belonging to the PVC (Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae super-phylum contain unusual ribosome-bearing intracellular membranes. The evolutionary origins and functions of these membranes are unknown. Some proteins putatively associated with the presence of intracellular membranes in PVC bacteria contain signal peptides. Signal peptides mark proteins for translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes, and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes, by highly conserved Sec machinery. This suggests that proteins might be targeted to intracellular membranes in PVC bacteria via the Sec pathway. Here, we show that canonical signal peptides are significantly over-represented in proteins preferentially present in PVC bacteria possessing intracellular membranes, indicating involvement of Sec translocase in their cellular targeting. We also characterized Sec proteins using comparative genomics approaches, focusing on the PVC super-phylum. While we were unable to detect unique changes in Sec proteins conserved among membrane-bearing PVC species, we identified (1 SecA ATPase domain re-arrangements in some Planctomycetes, and (2 secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins in the genomes of some Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Chlorobi. This is the first report of potentially duplicated SecA in Gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic distribution of secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins suggests that the presence of these proteins is not related to the occurrence of PVC endomembranes. Further genomic analysis showed that secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins are located within genomic neighborhoods that also encode three proteins possessing domains specific for the Type I secretion system.

  12. Nopaline-type Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium encodes a VirF-like functional F-box protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2015-11-20

    During Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plants, several bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins are translocated into the host cell to facilitate infection. One of the most important of such translocated factors is VirF, an F-box protein produced by octopine strains of Agrobacterium, which presumably facilitates proteasomal uncoating of the invading T-DNA from its associated proteins. The presence of VirF also is thought to be involved in differences in host specificity between octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium, with the current dogma being that no functional VirF is encoded by nopaline strains. Here, we show that a protein with homology to octopine VirF is encoded by the Ti plasmid of the nopaline C58 strain of Agrobacterium. This protein, C58VirF, possesses the hallmarks of functional F-box proteins: it contains an active F-box domain and specifically interacts, via its F-box domain, with SKP1-like (ASK) protein components of the plant ubiquitin/proteasome system. Thus, our data suggest that nopaline strains of Agrobacterium have evolved to encode a functional F-box protein VirF.

  13. Olympic boxing is associated with elevated levels of the neuronal protein tau in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neselius, Sanna; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Randall, Jeffrey; Wilson, David; Marcusson, Jan; Brisby, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if olympic (amateur) boxing is associated with elevation of brain injury biomarkers in peripheral blood compared to controls. Thirty olympic boxers competing in at least 47 bouts were compared to 25 controls. Blood was collected from the controls at one occasion and from the boxers within 1-6 days after a bout and after a rest period of at least 14 days. Tau concentration in plasma was determined using a novel single molecule ELISA assay and S-100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and amyloid β 1-42 were determined using standard immunoassays. None of the boxers had been knocked-out during the bout. Plasma-tau was significantly increased in the boxers after a bout compared to controls (mean ± SD, 2.46 ± 5.10 vs. 0.79 ± 0.961 ng L(-1), p = 0.038). The other brain injury markers did not differ between the groups. Plasma-tau decreased significantly in the boxers after a resting period compared to after a bout (p = 0.030). Olympic boxing is associated with elevation of tau in plasma. The repetitive minimal head injury in boxing may lead to axonal injuries that can be diagnosed with a blood test.

  14. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-08-01

    The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were analysed for their ability to ubiquitinate proteins in vitro in co-operation with different E2s. All U-box domains exhibited ubiquitination activity and interacted productively with UBC4/5-type E2s. Three and four of the U-box domains mediated ubiquitin addition in the presence of UBC13 and UBC7 E2s respectively, but no productive interaction was observed with the UBC15 E2 tested. The activity of AtPUB54 [Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) plant U-box 54 protein] was dependent on Trp(266) in the E2-binding cleft, and the E2 selectivity was changed by substitution of this position. The function of the distant U-box protein, AtPUB49, representing a large family of eukaryotic proteins containing a U-box linked to a cyclophilin-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase domain, was characterized biochemically. AtPUB49 functioned both as a prolyl isomerase and a chaperone by catalysing cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and dissolving protein aggregates. In conclusion, both typical and atypical Arabidopsis U-box proteins were active E3s. The overlap in the E3/E2 selectivity suggests that in vivo specificity is not determined only by the E3-E2 interactions, but also by other parameters, e.g. co-existence or interactions with additional domains. The biochemical functions of AtPUB49 suggest that the protein can be involved in folding or degradation of protein substrates. Similar functions can also be retained within a protein complex with separate chaperone and U-box proteins.

  15. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  16. The Role of Y-Box Binding Protein 1 in Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ben; Fan, Chuqiao; Tu, Weiping; Fang, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in various cellular processes via the transcriptional and translational regulation of target gene expression. YB-1 promotes acute or chronic kidney injury through multiple molecular pathways; however, accumulating evidence suggests that significantly increased YB-1 levels are of great importance in renoprotection. In addition, YB-1 may contribute to obesity-related kidney disease by promoting adipogenesis. Thus, the role of YB-1 in kidney injury is complicated, and no comprehensive review is currently available. In this review, we summarise recent progress in our understanding of the function of YB-1 in kidney injury and provide an overview of the dual role of YB-1 in kidney disease. Moreover, we propose that YB-1 is a potential therapeutic target to restrict kidney disease. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-06-15

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (Atm(KD/-)) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm(-/-)) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate Atm(KD/-), but not Atm-proficientor Atm(-/-) leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy.

  18. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  19. Differential stability of TATA box binding proteins from archaea with different optimal growth temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitz, Annette; Soppa, Jörg; Krejtschi, Carsten; Hauser, Karin

    2009-09-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is involved in promoter recognition, the first step of transcription initiation. TBP is universally conserved and essential in archaea and eukaryotes. In archaea, TBPs have to be stable and to function in species that cover an extremely wide range of optimal growth temperatures (OGTs), from below 0 °C to more than 100 °C. Thus, the archaeal TBP family is ideally suited to study the evolutionary adaptation of proteins to an extremely wide range of temperatures. We characterized the thermostability of one mesophilic and one thermophilic TBP by infrared spectroscopy. Transition temperatures ( Tms) of thermal unfolding have been determined using TBPs from Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37 °C) and from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (OGT 65 °C). Furthermore, the influence of protein and salt concentration on thermostability has been characterized. Together with previous studies, our results reveal that the Tms of archaeal TBPs are closely correlated with the OGTs of the respective species. Noteworthy, this is also true for the TBP from M. mazei representing the first characterized TBP from a mesophilic archaeon. In contrast, the only characterized eukaryotic TBP of the mesophilic plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a Tm more than 40 °C above the OGT.

  20. The Polerovirus F box protein P0 targets ARGONAUTE1 to suppress RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolamiol, Diane; Pazhouhandeh, Maghsoud; Marrocco, Katia; Genschik, Pascal; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2007-09-18

    Plants employ post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) as an antiviral defense response. In this mechanism, viral-derived small RNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide degradation of the corresponding viral RNAs. ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) is a key component of RISC: it carries the RNA slicer activity. As a counter-defense, viruses have evolved various proteins that suppress PTGS. Recently, we showed that the Polerovirus P0 protein carries an F box motif required to form an SCF-like complex, which is also essential for P0's silencing suppressor function. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which P0 impairs PTGS. First we show that P0's expression does not affect the biogenesis of primary siRNAs in an inverted repeat-PTGS assay, but it does affect their activity. Moreover, P0's expression in transformed Arabidopsis plants leads to various developmental abnormalities reminiscent of mutants affected in miRNA pathways, which is accompanied by enhanced levels of several miRNA-target transcripts, suggesting that P0 acts at the level of RISC. Interestingly, ectopic expression of P0 triggered AGO1 protein decay in planta. Finally, we provide evidence that P0 physically interacts with AGO1. Based on these results, we propose that P0 hijacks the host SCF machinery to modulate gene silencing by destabilizing AGO1.

  1. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-07-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Deltamcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development.

  2. A proteomic screen reveals the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mdm34p as an essential target of the F-box protein Mdm30p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazuhisa; Kito, Keiji; Okada, Satoshi; Ito, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitination plays various critical roles in eukaryotic cellular regulation and is mediated by a cascade of enzymes including ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). The Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein complex comprises the largest E3 family, in each member of which a unique F-box protein binds its targets to define substrate specificity. Although genome sequencing uncovers a growing number of F-box proteins, most of them have remained as "orphans" because of the difficulties in identification of their substrates. To address this issue, we tested a quantitative proteomic approach by combining the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), parallel affinity purification (PAP) that we had developed for efficient enrichment of ubiquitinated proteins, and mass spectrometry (MS). We applied this SILAC-PAP-MS approach to compare ubiquitinated proteins between yeast cells with and without over-expressed Mdm30p, an F-box protein implicated in mitochondrial morphology. Consequently, we identified the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mdm34p as a target of Mdm30p. Furthermore, we found that mitochondrial defects induced by deletion of MDM30 are not only recapitulated by a mutant Mdm34p defective in interaction with Mdm30p but alleviated by ubiquitination-mimicking forms of Mdm34p. These results indicate that Mdm34p is a physiologically important target of Mdm30p.

  3. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-dependent cell responses by extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pedrazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein can operate in a synergistic fashion with different signal molecules promoting an increase of cell Ca(2+ influx. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect of HMGB1 are still unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that, at concentrations of agonist per se ineffective, HMGB1 potentiates the activation of the ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals and in a neuroblastoma cell line. This effect was abolished by the NMDA channel blocker MK-801. The HMGB1-facilitated NMDAR opening was followed by activation of the Ca(2+-dependent enzymes calpain and nitric oxide synthase in neuroblastoma cells, resulting in an increased production of NO, a consequent enhanced cell motility, and onset of morphological differentiation. We have also identified NMDAR as the mediator of HMGB1-stimulated murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation, induced by hexamethylenebisacetamide. The potentiation of NMDAR activation involved a peptide of HMGB1 located in the B box at the amino acids 130-139. This HMGB1 fragment did not overlap with binding sites for other cell surface receptors of HMGB1, such as the advanced glycation end products or the Toll-like receptor 4. Moreover, in a competition assay, the HMGB1((130-139 peptide displaced the NMDAR/HMGB1 interaction, suggesting that it comprised the molecular and functional site of HMGB1 regulating the NMDA receptor complex. CONCLUSION: We propose that the multifunctional cytokine-like molecule HMGB1 released by activated, stressed, and damaged or necrotic cells can facilitate NMDAR-mediated cell responses, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, independently of other known cell surface receptors for HMGB1.

  4. A large complement of the predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins are members of the U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stone, Sophia L; Salt, Jennifer N; Goring, Daphne R

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome was searched to identify predicted proteins containing armadillo (ARM) repeats, a motif known to mediate protein-protein interactions in a number of different animal proteins. Using domain database predictions and models generated in this study, 108 Arabidopsis proteins were identified that contained a minimum of two ARM repeats with the majority of proteins containing four to eight ARM repeats. Clustering analysis showed that the 108 predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins could be divided into multiple groups with wide differences in their domain compositions and organizations. Interestingly, 41 of the 108 Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins contained a U-box, a motif present in a family of E3 ligases, and these proteins represented the largest class of Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins. In 14 of these U-box/ARM repeat proteins, there was also a novel conserved domain identified in the N-terminal region. Based on the phylogenetic tree, representative U-box/ARM repeat proteins were selected for further study. RNA-blot analyses revealed that these U-box/ARM proteins are expressed in a variety of tissues in Arabidopsis. In addition, the selected U-box/ARM proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases. Thus, these U-box/ARM proteins represent a new family of E3 ligases in Arabidopsis.

  5. A Large Complement of the Predicted Arabidopsis ARM Repeat Proteins Are Members of the U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Family1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Yashwanti; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stone, Sophia L.; Salt, Jennifer N.; Goring, Daphne R.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome was searched to identify predicted proteins containing armadillo (ARM) repeats, a motif known to mediate protein-protein interactions in a number of different animal proteins. Using domain database predictions and models generated in this study, 108 Arabidopsis proteins were identified that contained a minimum of two ARM repeats with the majority of proteins containing four to eight ARM repeats. Clustering analysis showed that the 108 predicted Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins could be divided into multiple groups with wide differences in their domain compositions and organizations. Interestingly, 41 of the 108 Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins contained a U-box, a motif present in a family of E3 ligases, and these proteins represented the largest class of Arabidopsis ARM repeat proteins. In 14 of these U-box/ARM repeat proteins, there was also a novel conserved domain identified in the N-terminal region. Based on the phylogenetic tree, representative U-box/ARM repeat proteins were selected for further study. RNA-blot analyses revealed that these U-box/ARM proteins are expressed in a variety of tissues in Arabidopsis. In addition, the selected U-box/ARM proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases. Thus, these U-box/ARM proteins represent a new family of E3 ligases in Arabidopsis. PMID:14657406

  6. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Beyond ubiquitination: the atypical functions of Fbxo7 and other F-box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Randle, Suzanne J; Laman, Heike

    2013-10-09

    F-box proteins (FBPs) are substrate-recruiting subunits of Skp1-cullin1-FBP (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. To date, 69 FBPs have been identified in humans, but ubiquitinated substrates have only been identified for a few, with the majority of FBPs remaining 'orphans'. In recent years, a growing body of work has identified non-canonical, SCF-independent roles for about 12% of the human FBPs. These atypical FBPs affect processes as diverse as transcription, cell cycle regulation, mitochondrial dynamics and intracellular trafficking. Here, we provide a general review of FBPs, with a particular emphasis on these expanded functions. We review Fbxo7 as an exemplar of this special group as it has well-defined roles in both SCF and non-SCF complexes. We review its function as a cell cycle regulator, via its ability to stabilize p27 protein and Cdk6 complexes, and as a proteasome regulator, owing to its high affinity binding to PI31. We also highlight recent advances in our understanding of Fbxo7 function in Parkinson's disease, where it functions in the regulation of mitophagy with PINK1 and Parkin. We postulate that a few extraordinary FBPs act as platforms that seamlessly segue their canonical and non-canonical functions to integrate different cellular pathways and link their regulation.

  8. F-box protein interactions with the hallmark pathways in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Suzanne J; Laman, Heike

    2016-02-01

    F-box proteins (FBP) are the substrate specifying subunit of Skp1-Cul1-FBP (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases and are responsible for directing the ubiquitination of numerous proteins essential for cellular function. Due to their ability to regulate the expression and activity of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, FBPs themselves play important roles in cancer development and progression. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of FBPs and their targets in relation to their interaction with the hallmarks of cancer cell biology, including the regulation of proliferation, epigenetics, migration and invasion, metabolism, angiogenesis, cell death and DNA damage responses. Each cancer hallmark is revealed to have multiple FBPs which converge on common signalling hubs or response pathways. We also highlight the complex regulatory interplay between SCF-type ligases and other ubiquitin ligases. We suggest six highly interconnected FBPs affecting multiple cancer hallmarks, which may prove sensible candidates for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The F box protein Fbx6 regulates Chk1 stability and cellular sensitivity to replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Wei; Brognard, John; Coughlin, Chris; You, Zhongsheng; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Aslanian, Aaron; Manning, Gerard; Abraham, Robert T; Hunter, Tony

    2009-08-28

    ATR and Chk1 are two key protein kinases in the replication checkpoint. Activation of ATR-Chk1 has been extensively investigated, but checkpoint termination and replication fork restart are less well understood. Here, we report that DNA damage not only activates Chk1, but also exposes a degron-like region at the carboxyl terminus of Chk1 to an Fbx6-containing SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box) E3 ligase, which mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of Chk1 and, in turn, terminates the checkpoint. The protein levels of Chk1 and Fbx6 showed an inverse correlation in both cultured cancer cells and in human breast tumor tissues. Further, we show that low levels of Fbx6 and consequent impairment of replication stress-induced Chk1 degradation are associated with cancer cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent, camptothecin. We propose that Fbx6-dependent Chk1 degradation contributes to S phase checkpoint termination and that a defect in this mechanism might increase tumor cell resistance to certain anticancer drugs.

  10. F-box protein FBXL2 targets cyclin D2 for ubiquitination and degradation to inhibit leukemic cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bill B.; Glasser, Jennifer R.; Coon, Tiffany A.; Zou, Chunbin; Miller, Hannah L.; Fenton, Moon; McDyer, John F.; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hematologic maligancies exhibit a growth advantage by up-regulation of components within the molecular apparatus involved in cell-cycle progression. The SCF (Skip-Cullin1-F-box protein) E3 ligase family provides homeostatic feedback control of cell division by mediating ubiquitination and degradation of cell-cycle proteins. By screening several previously undescribed E3 ligase components, we describe the behavior of a relatively new SCF subunit, termed FBXL2, that ubiquitinates and destabilizes cyclin D2 protein leading to G0 phase arrest and apoptosis in leukemic and B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. FBXL2 expression was strongly suppressed, and yet cyclin D2 protein levels were robustly expressed in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patient samples. Depletion of endogenous FBXL2 stabilized cyclin D2 levels, whereas ectopically expressed FBXL2 decreased cyclin D2 lifespan. FBXL2 did not bind a phosphodegron within its substrate, which is typical of other F-box proteins, but uniquely targeted a calmodulin-binding signature within cyclin D2 to facilitate its polyubiquitination. Calmodulin competes with the F-box protein for access to this motif where it bound and protected cyclin D2 from FBXL2. Calmodulin reversed FBXL2-induced G0 phase arrest and attenuated FBXL2-induced apoptosis of lymphoblastoid cells. These results suggest an antiproliferative effect of SCFFBXL2 in lymphoproliferative malignancies. PMID:22323446

  11. In silico studies on structure-function of DNA GCC- box binding domain of brassica napus DREB1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamarunnisa, S.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    DREB1 is a transcriptional factor, which selectively binds with the promoters of the genes involved in stress response in the plants. Homology of DREB protein and its binding element have been detected in the genome of many plants. However, only a few reports exist that discusses the binding properties of this protein with the gene (s) promoter. In the present study, we have undertaken studies exploring the structure-function relationship of Brassica napus DREB1. Multiple sequence alignment, protein homology modeling and intermolecular docking of GCC-box binding domain (GBD) of the said protein was carried out using atomic coordinates of GBD from Arabdiopsis thaliana and GCC-box containing DNA respectively. Similarities and/or identities in multiple, sequence alignment, particularly at the functionally important amino acids, strongly suggested the binding specificity of B. napus DREB1 to GCC-box. Similarly, despite 56% sequence homology, tertiary structures of both template and modeled protein were found to be extremely similar as indicated by root mean square deviation of 0.34 A. More similarities were established between GBD of both A. thaliana and B. napus DREB1 by conducting protein docking with the DNA containing GCC-box. It appears that both proteins interact through their beta-sheet with the major DNA groove including both nitrogen bases and phosphate and sugar moieties. Additionally, in most cases the interacting residues were also found to be identical. Briefly, this study attempts to elucidate the molecular basis of DREB1 interaction with its target sequence in the promoter. (author)

  12. THE DEAD-END ELIMINATION THEOREM AND ITS USE IN PROTEIN SIDE-CHAIN POSITIONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESMET, J; DEMAEYER, M; HAZES, B; LASTERS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    THE prediction of a protein's tertiary structure is still a considerable problem because the huge amount of possible conformational space' makes it computationally difficult. With regard to side-chain modelling, a solution has been attempted by the grouping of side-chain conformations into

  13. F-box-like domain in the polerovirus protein P0 is required for silencing suppressor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhouhandeh, Maghsoud; Dieterle, Monika; Marrocco, Katia; Lechner, Esther; Berry, Bassam; Brault, Véronique; Hemmer, Odile; Kretsch, Thomas; Richards, Kenneth E.; Genschik, Pascal; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    Plants employ small RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing as a virus defense mechanism. In response, plant viruses encode proteins that can suppress RNA silencing, but the mode of action of most such proteins is poorly understood. Here, we show that the silencing suppressor protein P0 of two Arabidopsis-infecting poleroviruses interacts by means of a conserved minimal F-box motif with Arabidopsis thaliana orthologs of S-phase kinase-related protein 1 (SKP1), a component of the SCF family of ubiquitin E3 ligases. Point mutations in the F-box-like motif abolished the P0–SKP1 ortholog interaction, diminished virus pathogenicity, and inhibited the silencing suppressor activity of P0. Knockdown of expression of a SKP1 ortholog in Nicotiana benthamiana rendered the plants resistant to polerovirus infection. Together, the results support a model in which P0 acts as an F-box protein that targets an essential component of the host posttranscriptional gene silencing machinery. PMID:16446454

  14. Apple F-box Protein MdMAX2 Regulates Plant Photomorphogenesis and Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length. Further study indicated that MdMAX2 might promote plant photomorphogenesis by affecting the auxin signaling as well as other plant hormones. Transcripts of MdMAX2 were noticeably up-regulated in response to NaCl and Mannitol treatments. Moreover, compared with the wild type, the MdMAX2-overexpressing apple calli and Arabidopsis exhibited increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that MdMAX2 plays a positive regulatory role in plant photomorphogenesis and stress response.

  15. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, Pautistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1 in retinal tissue of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1(HMGB1in the retina of diabetic rats. METHODS:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into diabetic group and control group. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitioneal injection of 1% STZ with 60mg/Kg weight. The rats in control group received intraperitioneal injection of normal saline with same dosage. After injection, the rats were sacrificed and eyeballs were enucleated for HE staining, the retina fluorescence angiography, TUNEL and Western Blot detection at 1, 2 and 4mo for the expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the retinal cells disorder, cell densities decreases, microvasculars occlusion were founded with inner and outer nuclear layer thinning and ganglion cell apoptosis. The fluorescence angiography showed that peripheral capillaries became circuitous and vascular occlusion and non-perfusion area could be seen. The expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB were higher than those of control with time dependence and they had significant positive correlations(PCONCLUSION:The expression of HMGB1 increases in diabetic rat retina, which may involve in the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy through the NF- κB pathway.

  17. Y-box protein-1/p18 fragment identifies malignancies in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, Frank; Kanig, Nicolas; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Kaehne, Thilo; Eberhardt, Christiane S; Shpacovitch, Victoria; Trautwein, Christian; Mertens, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Immunohistochemical detection of cold shock proteins is predictive for deleterious outcome in various malignant diseases. We recently described active secretion of a family member, denoted Y-box (YB) protein-1. We tested the clinical and diagnostic value of YB-1 protein fragment p18 (YB-1/p18) detection in blood for malignant diseases. We used a novel monoclonal anti-YB-1 antibody to detect YB-1/p18 by immunoblotting in plasma samples of healthy volunteers (n = 33), patients with non-cancerous, mostly inflammatory diseases (n = 60), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 25) and advanced solid tumors (n = 20). YB-1/p18 was then tested in 111 patients with chronic liver diseases, alongside established tumor markers and various diagnostic measures, during evaluation for potential liver transplantation. We developed a novel immunoblot to detect the 18 kD fragment of secreted YB-1 in human plasma (YB-1/p18) that contains the cold-shock domains (CSD) 1-3 of the full-length protein. YB-1/p18 was detected in 11/25 HCC and 16/20 advanced carcinomas compared to 0/33 healthy volunteers and 10/60 patients with non-cancerous diseases. In 111 patients with chronic liver disease, YB-1/p18 was detected in 20 samples. Its occurrence was not associated with advanced Child stages of liver cirrhosis or liver function. In this cohort, YB-1/p18 was not a good marker for HCC, but proved most powerful in detecting malignancies other than HCC (60% positive) with a lower rate of false-positive results compared to established tumor markers. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was most sensitive in detecting HCC, but simultaneous assessment of AFP, CA19-9 and YB-1/p18 improved overall identification of HCC patients. Plasma YB-1/p18 can identify patients with malignancies, independent of acute inflammation, renal impairment or liver dysfunction. The detection of YB-1/p18 in human plasma may have potential as a tumor marker for screening of high-risk populations, e.g. before organ transplantation, and should

  18. Identification of the self-incompatibility locus F-box protein-containing complex in Petunia inflata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Sun, Penglin; Williams, Justin Stephen; Kao, Teh-hui

    2014-03-01

    The polymorphic S-locus regulating self-incompatibility (SI) in Petunia contains the S-RNase gene and a number of S-locus F-box (SLF) genes. While penetrating the style through the stigma, a pollen tube takes up all S-RNases, but only self S-RNase inhibits pollen tube growth. Recent evidence suggests that SLFs produced by pollen collectively interact with and detoxify non-self S-RNases, but none can interact with self S-RNase. An SLF may be the F-box protein component of an SCF complex (containing Cullin1, Skp1 and Rbx1), which mediates ubiquitination of protein substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. However, the precise nature of the complex is unknown. We used pollen extracts of a transgenic plant over-expressing GFP-fused S2-SLF1 (SLF1 of S 2-haplotype) for co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). We identified PiCUL1-P (a pollen-specific Cullin1), PiSSK1 (a pollen-specific Skp1-like protein) and PiRBX1 (an Rbx1). To validate the results, we raised transgenic plants over-expressing PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP and used pollen extracts for Co-IP-MS. The results confirmed the presence of PiCUL1-P and PiRBX1 in the complex and identified two different SLFs as the F-box protein component. Thus, all but Rbx1 of the complex may have evolved in SI, and all SLFs may be the F-box component of similar complexes.

  19. [Roles of Y box-binding protein 1 in SK-BR-3 breast cancer proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhong; Lü, Xinrui; Wang, Bing; Daudan, Lin; Yanan, Wang; Yuhui, Bu; Zhenfeng, Ma

    2014-09-30

    To explore the roles of Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in breast cancer cell proliferation. Twenty cases of surgical removal of breast cancer tissue (diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, stage II, by postoperative paraffin pathology) and normal breast tissues adjacent to carcinoma were collected during June 2013 to August 2013.Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels. Cultured mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 & SK-BR-3 cells) were harvested and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.SK-BR-3 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PDGF-BB and YB1 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR. Down-regulation or over-expression of YB1 by si-YB1 or Ad-GFP-YB1 was detected in SK-BR-3 cells. And MTS cell proliferation assay kit was used to detect cell proliferation. YB1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines than that in adjacent normal breast tissues and HBL-100 mammary epithelial cells respectively (P BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A down-regulation of endogenous YB1 decreases and an over-expression of exogenous YB1 promotes the proliferation activity in SK-BR-3 cells.

  20. Wheat F-Box Protein Gene TaFBA1 Is Involved in Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions, including high temperature, often affect the growth and production of crops worldwide. F-box protein, a core component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF E3 ligase complex, plays an important role in abiotic stress responses. A previously cloned gene from wheat, TaFBA1, encodes a homologous F-box protein. A Yeast two-Hybrid (Y2H assay showed that TaFBA1 interacted with other SCF proteins. We found that the expression of TaFBA1 could be induced by heat stress (45°C. Overexpression of TaFBA1 enhanced heat stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco, because growth inhibition was reduced and photosynthesis increased as compared with those in the wild type (WT plants. Furthermore, the accumulation of H2O2, O2-, and carbonyl protein decreased and cell damage was alleviated in transgenic plants under heat stress, which resulted in less oxidative damage. However, the transgenic plants contained more enzymatic antioxidants after heat stress, which might be related to the regulation of some antioxidant gene expressions. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the overexpression of TaFBA1 upregulated the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and abiotic stress responses. We identified the interaction of TaFBA1 with Triticum aestivum stress responsive protein 1 (TaASRP1 by Y2H assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assay. The results suggested that TaFBA1 may improve enzymatic antioxidant levels and regulate gene expression by interacting with other proteins, such as TaASRP1, which leads to the enhanced heat stress tolerance seen in the transgenic plants.

  1. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  2. A photo-responsive F-box protein FOF2 regulates floral initiation by promoting FLC expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Reqing; Li, Xinmei; Zhong, Ming; Yan, Jindong; Ji, Ronghuan; Li, Xu; Wang, Qin; Wu, Dan; Sun, Mengsi; Tang, Dongying; Lin, Jianzhong; Li, Hongyu; Liu, Bin; Liu, Hongtao; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying; Lin, Chentao

    2017-09-01

    Floral initiation is regulated by various genetic pathways in response to light, temperature, hormones and developmental status; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between different genetic pathways are not fully understood. Here, we show that the photoresponsive gene FOF2 (F-box of flowering 2) negatively regulates flowering. FOF2 encodes a putative F-box protein that interacts specifically with ASK14, and its overexpression results in later flowering under both long-day and short-day photoperiods. Conversely, transgenic plants expressing the F-box domain deletion mutant of FOF2 (FOF2ΔF), or double loss of function mutant of FOF2 and FOL1 (FOF2-LIKE 1) present early flowering phenotypes. The late flowering phenotype of the FOF2 overexpression lines is suppressed by the flc-3 loss-of-function mutation. Furthermore, FOF2 mRNA expression is regulated by autonomous pathway gene FCA, and the repressive effect of FOF2 in flowering can be overcome by vernalization. Interestingly, FOF2 expression is regulated by light. The protein level of FOF2 accumulates in response to light, whereas it is degraded under dark conditions via the 26S proteasome pathway. Our findings suggest a possible mechanistic link between light conditions and the autonomous floral promotion pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. NSs Virulence Factor of Rift Valley Fever Virus Engages the F-Box Proteins FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 To Degrade the Antiviral Protein Kinase PKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Markus; Lau, Simone; Samuel, Charles E; Hornung, Veit; Weber, Friedemann

    2016-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is a relevant pathogen of both humans and livestock in Africa. The nonstructural protein NSs is a major virulence factor known to suppress the type I interferon (IFN) response by inhibiting host cell transcription and by proteasomal degradation of a major antiviral IFN effector, the translation-inhibiting protein kinase PKR. Here, we identified components of the modular SCF (Skp1, Cul1, F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases as mediators of PKR destruction by NSs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the conserved SCF subunit Skp1 protected PKR from NSs-mediated degradation. Consequently, RVFV replication was severely reduced in Skp1-depleted cells when PKR was present. SCF complexes have a variable F-box protein subunit that determines substrate specificity for ubiquitination. We performed an siRNA screen for all (about 70) human F-box proteins and found FBXW11 to be involved in PKR degradation. The partial stabilization of PKR by FBXW11 depletion upregulated PKR autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the PKR substrate eIF2α and caused a shutoff of host cell protein synthesis in RVFV-infected cells. To maximally protect PKR from the action of NSs, knockdown of structurally and functionally related FBXW1 (also known as β-TRCP1), in addition to FBXW11 deletion, was necessary. Consequently, NSs was found to interact with both FBXW11 and β-TRCP1. Thus, NSs eliminates the antiviral kinase PKR by recruitment of SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases containing FBXW11 and β-TRCP1 as substrate recognition subunits. This antagonism of PKR by NSs is essential for efficient RVFV replication in mammalian cells. Rift Valley fever virus is a pathogen of humans and animals that has the potential to spread from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to other regions. A major virulence mechanism is the proteasomal degradation of the antiviral kinase PKR by the viral protein NSs. Here, we demonstrate that NSs

  4. Identification of novel putative-binding proteins for cellular prion protein and a specific interaction with the STIP1 homology and U-Box-containing protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Ana Paula Lappas; Richter, Larissa Morato Luciani; Atherino, Mariana Campos; Beirão, Breno Castello Branco; Fávaro, Celso; Costa, Michele Dietrich Moura; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Malnic, Bettina; Mercadante, Adriana Frohlich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases involve the conversion of the endogenous cellular prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded infectious isoform, PrPSc. Several functions have been attributed to PrPC, and its role has also been investigated in the olfactory system. PrPC is expressed in both the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory epithelium (OE) and the nasal cavity is an important route of transmission of diseases caused by prions. Moreover, Prnp−/− mice showed impaired behavior in olfactory tests. Given the high PrPC expression in OE and its putative role in olfaction, we screened a mouse OE cDNA library to identify novel PrPC-binding partners. Ten different putative PrPC ligands were identified, which were involved in functions such as cellular proliferation and apoptosis, cytoskeleton and vesicle transport, ubiquitination of proteins, stress response, and other physiological processes. In vitro binding assays confirmed the interaction of PrPC with STIP1 homology and U-Box containing protein 1 (Stub1) and are reported here for the first time. Stub1 is a co-chaperone with ubiquitin E3-ligase activity, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Physiological and pathological implications of PrPC-Stub1 interaction are under investigation. The PrPC-binding proteins identified here are not exclusive to the OE, suggesting that these interactions may occur in other tissues and play general biological roles. These data corroborate the proposal that PrPC is part of a multiprotein complex that modulates several cellular functions and provide a platform for further studies on the physiological and pathological roles of prion protein. PMID:26237451

  5. The involvement of wheat F-box protein gene TaFBA1 in the oxidative stress tolerance of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Zhou

    Full Text Available As one of the largest gene families, F-box domain proteins have been found to play important roles in abiotic stress responses via the ubiquitin pathway. TaFBA1 encodes a homologous F-box protein contained in E3 ubiquitin ligases. In our previous study, we found that the overexpression of TaFBA1 enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. To investigate the mechanisms involved, in this study, we investigated the tolerance of the transgenic plants to oxidative stress. Methyl viologen was used to induce oxidative stress conditions. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed that TaFBA1 expression was up-regulated by oxidative stress treatments. Under oxidative stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants showed a higher germination rate, higher root length and less growth inhibition than wild type (WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of the transgenic plants was also indicated by lower reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA content and cell membrane damage under oxidative stress compared with WT. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and peroxidase (POD, were observed in the transgenic plants than those in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via the overexpression of TaFBA1. In others, some stress responsive elements were found in the promoter region of TaFBA1, and TaFBA1 was located in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. These results suggest that TaFBA1 plays an important role in the oxidative stress tolerance of plants. This is important for understanding the functions of F-box proteins in plants' tolerance to multiple stress conditions.

  6. Assaying Auxin Receptor Activity Using SPR Assays with F-Box Proteins and Aux/IAA Degrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quareshy, Mussa; Uzunova, Veselina; Prusinska, Justyna M; Napier, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The identification of TIR1 as an auxin receptor combined with advanced biophysical instrumentation has led to the development of real-time activity assays for auxins. Traditionally, molecules have been assessed for auxinic activity using bioassays, and agrochemical compound discovery continues to be based on "spray and pray" technologies. Here, we describe the methodology behind an SPR-based assay that uses TIR1 and related F-box proteins with surface plasmon resonance spectrometry for rapid compound screening. In addition, methods for collecting kinetic binding data and data processing are given so that they may support programs for rational design of novel auxin ligands.

  7. PIP degron proteins, substrates of CRL4Cdt2, and not PIP boxes, interfere with DNA polymerase η and κ focus formation on UV damage

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanov, Nikolay; Kermi, Chames; Coulombe, Philippe; Van der Laan, Siem; Hodroj, Dana; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a well-known scaffold for many DNA replication and repair proteins, but how the switch between partners is regulated is currently unclear. Interaction with PCNA occurs via a domain known as a PCNA-Interacting Protein motif (PIP box). More recently, an additional specialized PIP box has been described, the « PIP degron », that targets PCNA-interacting proteins for proteasomal degradation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2. Here we provide evidence...

  8. The F-box protein Cdc4/Fbxw7 is a novel regulator of neural crest development in Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartley Rebecca S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural crest is a unique population of cells that arise in the vertebrate ectoderm at the neural plate border after which they migrate extensively throughout the embryo, giving rise to a wide range of derivatives. A number of proteins involved in neural crest development have dynamic expression patterns, and it is becoming clear that ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is partly responsible for this. Results Here we demonstrate a novel role for the F-box protein Cdc4/Fbxw7 in neural crest development. Two isoforms of Xenopus laevis Cdc4 were identified, and designated xCdc4α and xCdc4β. These are highly conserved with vertebrate Cdc4 orthologs, and the Xenopus proteins are functionally equivalent in terms of their ability to degrade Cyclin E, an established vertebrate Cdc4 target. Blocking xCdc4 function specifically inhibited neural crest development at an early stage, prior to expression of c-Myc, Snail2 and Snail. Conclusions We demonstrate that Cdc4, an ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit previously identified as targeting primarily cell cycle regulators for proteolysis, has additional roles in control of formation of the neural crest. Hence, we identify Cdc4 as a protein with separable but complementary functions in control of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  9. Deadly progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, R.; Abbotts, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are safe, they help to get through the future bottle-neck in the field of energy, nuclear power plants provide for cheap electrical power and support economic growth - these are the sedative formulae which have been used for years to close the populations eyes towards the real problems. In this book, the American lawyer Ralph Nader and the nuclear chemist John Abbots not only oppose this myth of atomic safety, but they also defeat this theory with numerous technical, economic, and political details. Having realized the fact that the development of atomic energy can no longer be prevented by warnings of independent experts, but only by massive protests by the population - i.e. the protest by informed persons-, they give an understandable introduction to the techniques of atomic energy, construction of nuclear power plants, radioactive radiation, safety, etc. Furthermore, they inform about the social, political, and economic background of the nuclear power forcing. Nader and Abbots show the uncertainty of science, they bring secret documents about failures already occured and point out the catastrophic consequences of possible defects. The result of the thorough study: A 'technologic Vietnam' impends both USA and all other nuclear power countries, if the population won't struggle against this dead-end programme of the governments. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  11. The F-box protein Fbp1 functions in the invasive growth and cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Rojas, Cristina; Hera, Concepcion

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins determine substrate specificity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous work has demonstrated that the F-box protein Fbp1, a component of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase complex, is essential for invasive growth and virulence of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Here, we show that, in addition to invasive growth, Fbp1 also contributes to vegetative hyphal fusion and fungal adhesion to tomato roots. All of these functions have been shown previously to require the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1. We found that Fbp1 is required for full phosphorylation of Fmk1, indicating that Fbp1 regulates virulence and invasive growth via the Fmk1 pathway. Moreover, the Δfbp1 mutant is hypersensitive to sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and calcofluor white (CFW) and shows reduced phosphorylation levels of the cell wall integrity MAPK Mpk1 after SDS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that Fbp1 contributes to both the invasive growth and cell wall integrity MAPK pathways of F. oxysporum. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Evaluation of cyclooxygenase protein expression in traumatized versus normal tissues from eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Lillian W; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lewbart, Gregory A; Correa, Maria T; Jones, Samuel L

    2012-06-01

    This pilot study was designed to determine whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, or both are expressed in normal turtle tissues and whether level of expression changes when tissue becomes inflamed. Five eastern box turtles, Terrapene carolina carolina, that either died or were euthanatized due to disease or injuries were used for this work. Tissues were obtained from the five turtles. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate tissues for COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. Densiometric analysis was used to compare Western blot bands within each turtle. COX-1 and COX-2 were found in the liver, kidney, grossly normal muscle, and grossly traumatized (inflamed) muscle of all study turtles. In all cases, COX-1 and COX-2 proteins were increased in traumatized muscle over grossly normal nontraumatized muscle. The highest levels of COX-1 and COX-2 proteins were found in kidney and liver. There was no statistical difference between the amount of COX-1 protein in liver and kidney, but traumatized muscle compared with grossly normal muscle had significantly greater COX-1 but not COX 2 protein concentrations. There was no statistical difference between the amount of COX-2 protein in liver and kidney. Traumatized muscle expressed nonstatistically significant greater amounts of COX-2 compared with grossly normal muscle. COX-1 and COX-2 proteins are expressed in turtle tissues, and both isoforms are upregulated during inflammation of muscle tissue. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that block both COX isoforms might be more efficacious than COX-2-selective drugs. This work suggests that NSAIDs should be evaluated for potential liver and kidney toxicity in turtles.

  13. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...

  14. Cyclin-like F-box protein plays a role in growth and development of the three model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boycheva I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irina Boycheva,1 Valya Vassileva,2 Miglena Revalska,1 Grigor Zehirov,2 Anelia Iantcheva1 1Department of Functional Genetics Legumes, 2AgroBioInstitute, Department of Plant Stress Molecular Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract: In eukaryotes, F-box proteins are one of the main components of the SCF complex that belongs to the family of ubiquitin E3 ligases, which catalyze protein ubiquitination and maintain the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. In the present study, we clarified the role and function of the gene encoding cyclin-like F-box protein from Medicago truncatula using transgenic plants of the model species M. truncatula, Lotus japonicas, and Arabidopsis thaliana generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphological and transcriptional analyses combined with flow cytometry and histochemistry demonstrated the participation of this protein in many aspects of plant growth and development, including processes of indirect somatic embryogenesis and symbiotic nodulation. The cyclin-like F-box gene showed expression in all plant organs and tissues comprised of actively dividing cells. The observed variations in root and hypocotyl growth, leaf and silique development, ploidy levels, and leaf parameters in the obtained transgenic lines demonstrated the effects of this gene on organ development. Furthermore, knockdown of cyclin-like F-box led to accumulation of higher levels of the G2/M transition-specific gene cyclin B1:1 (CYCB1:1, suggesting its possible role in cell cycle control. Together, the collected data suggest a similar role of the cyclin-like F-box protein in the three model species, providing evidence for the functional conservation of the studied gene. Keywords: cyclin-like F-box, model legumes, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant growth, plant development, cell cycle

  15. A bifunctional archaeal protein that is a component of 30S ribosomal subunits and interacts with C/D box small RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ciammaruconi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have identified a novel archaeal protein that apparently plays two distinct roles in ribosome metabolism. It is a polypeptide of about 18 kDa (termed Rbp18 that binds free cytosolic C/D box sRNAs in vivo and in vitro and behaves as a structural ribosomal protein, specifically a component of the 30S ribosomal subunit. As Rbp18 is selectively present in Crenarcheota and highly thermophilic Euryarchaeota, we propose that it serves to protect C/D box sRNAs from degradation and perhaps to stabilize thermophilic 30S subunits.

  16. Phenotypic analysis of newly isolated short-lifespan Neurospora crassa mutant deficient in a high mobility group box protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Li, ZhengHao; Ishimori, Keisuke; Kuwabara, Kazuki; Hatakeyama, Shin; Tanaka, Shuuitsu

    2017-08-01

    To elucidate genetic mechanisms affecting the lifespan of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we attempted to identify a gene of which a defect causes a short-lifespan. By screening a Neurospora knockout library, provided by the Fungal Genetics Stock Center at Kansas State University, several KO strains with a short-lifespan were isolated. FGSC#11693 is one of these, which shows similar phenotypes to known Neurospora short-lifespan mutants as follows: 1) hyphal growth ceases after about 2weeks of cultivation, despite that of the wild-type continuing for over 2years, 2) viability of conidia is lower than that of the wild-type, and 3) high sensitivity to mutagens such as methyl methanesulfonate, ultraviolet radiation, and hydroxyl urea is exhibited. The NCU number of the knocked-out gene in the KO strain is NCU02695, and recovery from the short-lifespan and mutagen sensitivity was achieved by the introduction of this gene from the wild-type. The putative amino acid sequence of the knocked-out gene contains two high mobility group box domains and a mitochondrial localization signal is found at the N-terminal of this sequence. Upon analyzing the subcellular localization of the gene product fused with GFP, GFP signals were detected in mitochondria. From these observations, the gene and KO strain were named mitochondrial high mobility group box protein 1 (MHG1) and mhg1 KO strain, respectively. The amount of mtDNA relative to the nuclear amount was lower in the mhg1 KO strain than in the wild-type. mtDNA aberration was also observed in the mhg1 KO strain. These results suggest that the MHG1 protein plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial abnormality caused by mtDNA aberration is responsible for the short-lifespan of the mhg1 KO strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SCF Ubiquitin Ligase F-box Protein Fbx15 Controls Nuclear Co-repressor Localization, Stress Response and Virulence of the Human Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Jöhnk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available F-box proteins share the F-box domain to connect substrates of E3 SCF ubiquitin RING ligases through the adaptor Skp1/A to Cul1/A scaffolds. F-box protein Fbx15 is part of the general stress response of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Oxidative stress induces a transient peak of fbx15 expression, resulting in 3x elevated Fbx15 protein levels. During non-stress conditions Fbx15 is phosphorylated and F-box mediated interaction with SkpA preferentially happens in smaller subpopulations in the cytoplasm. The F-box of Fbx15 is required for an appropriate oxidative stress response, which results in rapid dephosphorylation of Fbx15 and a shift of the cellular interaction with SkpA to the nucleus. Fbx15 binds SsnF/Ssn6 as part of the RcoA/Tup1-SsnF/Ssn6 co-repressor and is required for its correct nuclear localization. Dephosphorylated Fbx15 prevents SsnF/Ssn6 nuclear localization and results in the derepression of gliotoxin gene expression. fbx15 deletion mutants are unable to infect immunocompromised mice in a model for invasive aspergillosis. Fbx15 has a novel dual molecular function by controlling transcriptional repression and being part of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, which is essential for stress response, gliotoxin production and virulence in the opportunistic human pathogen A. fumigatus.

  18. Virtual Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  19. Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1 in the porcine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dong-Il

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1 is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1 gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Results We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected. Conclusions It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.

  20. Full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong K; Shakya, Akhalesh K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2016-01-04

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100 bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt -89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100 bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Full trans–activation mediated by the immediate–early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong K.; Shakya, Akhalesh K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100 bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt −89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100 bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). PMID:26541315

  2. Protein Interaction Screening for the Ankyrin Repeats and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Box (ASB) Family Identify Asb11 as a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Ubiquitin Ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Christina Aaen; Smedegaard, Stine; Sylvestersen, Kathrine Beck

    2014-01-01

    The Ankyrin and SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) box (ASB) family of proteins function as the substrate recognition subunit in a subset of Elongin-Cullin-SOCS (ECS) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Despite counting with 18 members in humans, the identity of the physiological targets of the Asb protei...

  3. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  4. C-reactive protein and high mobility group box 1 in dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrikova, Ivana; Rauserova-Lexmaulova, Leona; Rehakova, Kristina; Scheer, Peter; Doubek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    To (1) measure C-reactive protein (CRP) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and (2) evaluate their prognostic value and relationship to severity of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, routine hematological and acid-base parameters in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV). Prospective observational study from September 2010 to June 2012. Veterinary teaching hospital. Forty-one client-owned dogs with GDV. None. Blood was collected before surgery (baseline), postsurgery, 6-10 hours postsurgery, and 18-22 hours postsurgery. CRP and HMGB1 were measured in all samples, and routine hematological, biochemical, and acid-base analyses were performed. Only baseline and postsurgery samples were used from nonsurvivors (n = 10). CRP increased significantly from postsurgery sampling to 18-22 hours postsurgery, while HMGB1 did not change over time. There was a significant difference in HMGB1 between survivors and nonsurvivors over time. Both proteins correlated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome severity, total leukocyte, segmented neutrophils, and band counts. HMGB1 correlated also with acid-base parameters (pH, bicarbonate, base excess). HMGB1 and CRP behaved differently in regards to their kinetic patterns, with HMGB1 appearing to better reflect the severity of tissue injury in dogs with GDV than CRP. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. A STE12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora interacts with the MADS box protein MCM1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-11-01

    The MADS box protein MCM1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. MADS box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. We have recently shown that the S. macrospora MCM1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1. To further evaluate the functional roles of MCM1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify MCM1-interacting proteins. From this screen, we isolated a protein with a putative N-terminal homeodomain and C-terminal C2/H2-Zn2+ finger domains. The protein is a member of the highly conserved fungal STE12 transcription factor family of proteins and was therefore termed STE12. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of two-hybrid and far western analysis that in addition to MCM1, the S. macrospora STE12 protein is able to interact with the mating-type protein SMTA-1. Unlike the situation in the closely related heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, deletion (Delta) of the ste12 gene in S. macrospora neither affects vegetative growth nor fruiting body formation. However, ascus and ascospore development are highly impaired by the Deltaste12 mutation. Our data provide another example of the functional divergence within the fungal STE12 transcription factor family.

  6. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen; Nassal, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ϵ, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for...

  7. PIP degron proteins, substrates of CRL4Cdt2, and not PIP boxes, interfere with DNA polymerase η and κ focus formation on UV damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Nikolay; Kermi, Chames; Coulombe, Philippe; Van der Laan, Siem; Hodroj, Dana; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a well-known scaffold for many DNA replication and repair proteins, but how the switch between partners is regulated is currently unclear. Interaction with PCNA occurs via a domain known as a PCNA-Interacting Protein motif (PIP box). More recently, an additional specialized PIP box has been described, the « PIP degron », that targets PCNA-interacting proteins for proteasomal degradation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(Cdt2). Here we provide evidence that CRL4(Cdt2)-dependent degradation of PIP degron proteins plays a role in the switch of PCNA partners during the DNA damage response by facilitating accumulation of translesion synthesis DNA polymerases into nuclear foci. We show that expression of a nondegradable PIP degron (Cdt1) impairs both Pol η and Pol κ focus formation on ultraviolet irradiation and reduces cell viability, while canonical PIP box-containing proteins have no effect. Furthermore, we identify PIP degron-containing peptides from several substrates of CRL4(Cdt2) as efficient inhibitors of Pol η foci formation. By site-directed mutagenesis we show that inhibition depends on a conserved threonine residue that confers high affinity for PCNA-binding. Altogether these findings reveal an important regulative role for the CRL4(Cdt2) pathway in the switch of PCNA partners on DNA damage.

  8. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Roe, Judith L; Sessions, R Allen; Inouye, Carla; Serikawa, Kyle; Feldmann, Kenneth A; Weigel, Detlef; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2003-07-08

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for multiple processes in the developing Arabidopsis flower, including the proper patterning and identity of both petals and stamens. The gene encodes an F-box-containing protein, UFO, which interacts physically and genetically with the Skp1 homolog, ASK1. In this report, we describe four ufo alleles characterized by the absence of petals, which uncover another role for UFO in promoting second whorl development. This UFO-dependent pathway is required regardless of the second whorl organ to be formed, arguing that it affects a basic process acting in parallel with those establishing organ identity. However, the pathway is dispensable in the absence of AGAMOUS (AG), a known inhibitor of petal development. In situ hybridization results argue that AG is not transcribed in the petal region, suggesting that it acts non-cell-autonomously to inhibit second whorl development in ufo mutants. These results are combined into a genetic model explaining early second whorl initiation/proliferation, in which UFO functions to inhibit an AG-dependent activity.

  9. Vagal modulation of high mobility group box-1 protein mediates electroacupuncture-induced cardioprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yong, Yue; Li, Xing; Hu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-qiang; Song, Wei; Chen, Wen-ting; Xie, Jian; Chen, Xue-mei; Lv, Xin; Hou, Li-li; Wang, Ke; Zhou, Jia; Wang, Xiang-rui; Song, Jian-gang

    2015-10-26

    Excessive release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein from ischemic cardiomyocytes activates inflammatory cascades and enhances myocardial injury after reperfusion. Here we report evidence that electroacupuncture of mice at Neiguan acupoints can inhibit the up-regulation of cardiac HMGB1 following myocardial ischemia and attenuate the associated inflammatory responses and myocardial injury during reperfusion. These benefits of electroacupuncture were partially reversed by administering recombinant HMGB1 to the mice, and further potentiated by administering anti-HMGB1 antibody. Electroacupuncture-induced inhibition of HMGB1 release was markedly reduced by unilateral vagotomy or administration of nicotinic receptor antagonist, but not by chemical sympathectomy. The cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine mimicked the effects of electroacupuncture on HMGB1 release and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Culture experiments with isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes showed that acetylcholine, but not noradrenaline, inhibited hypoxia-induced release of HMGB1 via a α7nAchR-dependent pathway. These results suggest that electroacupuncture acts via the vagal nerve and its nicotinic receptor-mediated signaling to inhibit HMGB1 release from ischemic cardiomyocytes. This helps attenuate pro-inflammatory responses and myocardial injury during reperfusion.

  10. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Gi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeon-Soo [Department of Microbiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen, E-mail: hkyonsei@yuhs.ac [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of PKC-{zeta} leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of PKC-{zeta} in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-{zeta}, {lambda}, and {iota}) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-{zeta} by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-{zeta} in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-{zeta} is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  11. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hanna; Park, Minhee; Shin, Nara; Kim, Gamin; Kim, Yun Gi; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Hoguen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  12. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  13. Identification and characterization of the direct interaction between methotrexate (MTX and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kuroiwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX is an agent used in chemotherapy of tumors and autoimmune disease including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In addition, MTX has some anti-inflammatory activity. Although dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR is a well-known target for the anti-tumor effect of MTX, the mode of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of MTX is not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/RESULT: Here, we performed a screening of MTX-binding proteins using T7 phage display with a synthetic biotinylated MTX derivative. We then characterized the interactions using surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Using a T7 phage display screen, we identified T7 phages that displayed part of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein (K86-V175. Binding affinities as well as likely binding sites were characterized using genetically engineered truncated versions of HMGB1 protein (Al G1-K87, Bj: F88-K181, indicating that MTX binds to HMGB1 via two independent sites with a dissociation constants (KD of 0.50±0.03 µM for Al and 0.24 ± 0.01 µM for Bj. Although MTX did not inhibit the binding of HMGB1 to DNA via these domains, HMGB1/RAGE association was impeded in the presence of MTX. These data suggested that binding of MTX to part of the RAGE-binding region (K149-V175 in HMGB1 might be significant for the anti-inflammatory effect of MTX. Indeed, in murine macrophage-like cells (RAW 264.7, TNF-α release and mitogenic activity elicited by specific RAGE stimulation with a truncated monomeric HMGB1 were inhibited in the presence of MTX. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that HMGB1 is a direct binding protein of MTX. Moreover, binding of MTX to RAGE-binding region in HMGB1 inhibited the HMGB1/RAGE interaction at the molecular and cellular levels. These data might explain the molecular basis underlying the mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory effect of MTX.

  14. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien

    2012-01-01

    site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial...... diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites...... and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain...

  15. A Point Mutation in an F-Box Domain-Containing Protein Is Responsible for Brown Hull Phenotype in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of pigments affects the color of rice hulls while only limited information is known about its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, a rice brown hull 6 (bh6 mutant was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. Brown pigments started to accumulate in bh6 rice hulls after heading and reached a higher level in mature seeds. Some major agronomic traits including panicle length and 1000-grain weight in bh6 were significantly lower than those in its corresponding wild type IR64, while other agronomic traits such as plant height, growth duration and seed-setting rate were largely similar between the two genotypes. The analysis of pigment content showed that the contents of total flavonoids and anthocyanin in bh6 hulls were significantly higher than those in IR64 hulls. Our results showed that the brown hull phenotype in bh6 was controlled by a single recessive gene which locates on the long arm of chromosome 9. Sequencing analysis detected a single base substitution (G/A at position 1013 of the candidate gene (LOC_Os09g12150 encoding an F-box domain-containing protein (FBX310. Functional complementation experiment using the wild type allele can rescue the phenotype in bh6. Thus, we named this mutated gene as OsFBX310bh6, an allele of OsFBX310 functioning as an inhibitor of brown hull. The isolation of OsFBX310bh6 and its wild type allele can provide useful experimental materials and will facilitate the studies on revealing the mechanisms of flavonoid metabolism in monocot plants.

  16. [Changing laws of serum high mobility group box 1 protein in septic rats and the intervention effect of xuebijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-bing; He, Xian-di; Wang, Hua-xue; Zheng, Sheng-yong; Deng, Xi-ming; Duan, Li-bin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the changing laws of serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in septic rats and intervention effect of Xuebijing on it. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg BW) was intravenously injected into the tail vein of healthy male Wistar rats to prepare the sepsis rat model. In Experiment 1: 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., the normal group (A, n=10); the LPS model group (B, n=10), the LPS +Xuebijing treatment group (C, n=30). Rats in the C group were further divided into three subgroups, i.e., 2 h before LPS injection (group C1), 2 h after LPS injection (group C2), and 8 h after LPS injection (group C3), 10 in each group. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein to detect serum HMGB1 levels by Western blot at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after LPS injection. Experiment 2: 30 Wistar rats were equally divided into the LPS model group (D) and the LPS + Xuebijing treatment group (E), 15 in each group. They were treated as rats in the B group and the C1 group respectively. Five rats were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after LPS injection in the two groups. Blood as well as the tissue samples were harvested to measure such indices as ALT, AST, Cr, and BUN, as well as pathological changes of liver, lung, and kidney. (1) Compared with the A group, serum HMGB1 levels were higher at various time points in the B group (P decrement in the C3 group was less than that in the C1 and C2 groups (P multiple organ dysfunction. Xuebijing could reduce the serum levels of HMGB1, improve biochemical parameters, and attenuate severe inflammatory response of liver, lung, and kidney tissues in septic rats. Besides, the earlier use, the better effect obtained.

  17. GLASS BOX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this effort were to develop Glass Box capabilities to allow for the capturing of analyst activities and the associated data resources, track and log the results of automated processing...

  18. Protective effect of Sestrin2 on apoptosis of dendritic cells induced by high mobility group box-1 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xue WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the potential role of Sestrin2 (SESN2 in regulating the apoptosis of dendritic cells (DCs induced by high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1. Methods DCs (the murine DC cell line DC2.4 were cultured with or without HMGB1 stimulation (cultured with 10ng/ml HMGB1 for 8, 24 and 48 hours, or cultured with HMGB1 for 48 hours at different concentrations of 1, 10 and 100ng/ml, respectively, n=4. The protein level of SESN2, cleaved-caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were analyzed with Western blotting. Localization of SESN2 in cells was observed under confocal laser microscope (LSCM. Cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, DC2.4 cells were transfected with lentivirus containing SESN2 LV-RNA, SESN2 siRNA sequence expressing plasmids or blank vector (NC, NS, n=4. These cells were then stimulated with HMGB1 (100ng/ml for 48 hours, and the apoptosis was accessed as mentioned above. Results Compared with the control group, the expression of SESN2 was obviously up-regulated after HMGB1 (10ng/ml stimulation for 24 and 48 hours (P<0.05. In a dose-dependent response, the expression of SESN2 was markedly enhanced in treatment with 1, 10, 100ng/ml HMGB1 for 48 hours (P<0.05. Compared with the control group (7.35%±1.33%, the percentage of apoptosis was significantly increased with 10, 100ng/ml HMGB1 for 48 hours [(17.02%±4.85%, 17.48%±4.04%, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01]. After transfection, compared with blank vector group, the apoptosis of SESN2 siRNA group obviously elevated [(65.96%±2.50% vs. (50.01%±2.07%, P<0.05], and cleaved-caspase-3 expression significantly increased while Bcl-2 expression obviously decreased. In SESN2 LV-RNA group, the apoptosis significantly decreased [(35.57%±1.69% vs. (49.04%±4.87%, P<0.05], and cleaved-caspase-3 expression decreased and Bcl-2 expression obviously increased compared with blank vector group (P<0.05. Conclusion SESN2 has a protective effect against HMGB1 induced apoptosis of DC2

  19. [Effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L; Guo, X; Huang, H J; Liao, X M; Luo, X Q; Li, D; Zhou, H; Gao, X C; Tan, M Y

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To observe effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats. Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into HMGB1 group and simple scald (SS) group according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. Comb-like copper mould was placed on the back of rats for 20 s after being immersed in 100 ℃ hot water for 3 to 5 min to make three ischemic zones of wound. Immediately after scald, rats in HMGB1 group were subcutaneously injected with 0.4 μg HMGB1 and 0.1 mL phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and rats in SS group were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mL PBS from boarders of ischemic zone of scald wound. At post scald hour (PSH) 24, 48, and 72, 6 rats in each group were collected. Protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 24, 48, and 72 and protein expressions of CD31 in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The number of microvessel in CD31 immunohistochemical sections of ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 was calculated after observing by the microscope. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and CD31 in ischemic zone of wound were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at PSH 24, 48, and 72. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At PSH 24, 48, and 72, protein expressions of VEGF in ischemic zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were significantly higher than those of rats in SS group ( t =7.496, 4.437, 5.402, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were 0.038 8±0.007 9 and 0.057 7±0.001 2 respectively, significantly higher than 0.013 4±0.004 9 and 0.030 3±0.004 0 of rats in SS group ( t =10.257, 15.055, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group was obviously more than that of rats in SS group ( t =3.536, 4.000, P zone of wound of

  20. F-box protein FBXO31 is a dedicated checkpoint protein to facilitate cell cycle arrest through activation of regulators in radiation induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Manas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In response to radiation-induced DNA damage, eukaryotic cells initiate a complex signalling pathway, termed the DNA damage response (DDR), which coordinates cell cycle arrest with DNA repair. Previous study showed that induction of G1 arrest in response to radiation induced DNA damage is minimally a two-step process: a fast p53-independent initiation of G1 arrest mediated by cyclin D1 proteolysis and a slower maintenance of arrest resulting from increased p53 stability. We elucidated the molecular mechanism of slow and fast response of radiation induced DDR. We showed that FBXO31, a member of F-box family proteins, plays important role in DDR induced by ionizing radiation. We show that FBXO31 is responsible for promoting MDM2 degradation following radiation. FBXO31 interacts with and directs the degradation of MDM2 in ATM dependent phosphorylation of MDM2. FBXO31-mediated loss of MDM2 leads to elevated levels of p53, resulting in growth arrest. In cells depleted of FBXO31, MDM2 is not degraded and p53 levels do not increase following genotoxic stress. Thus, FBXO31 is essential for the classic robust increase in p53 levels following DNA damage

  1. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  2. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  3. The dengue vector Aedes aegypti contains a functional high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein with a unique regulatory C-terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Schneider Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti can spread the dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Thus, the search for key molecules involved in the mosquito survival represents today a promising vector control strategy. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB proteins are essential nuclear factors that maintain the high-order structure of chromatin, keeping eukaryotic cells viable. Outside the nucleus, secreted HMGB proteins could alert the innate immune system to foreign antigens and trigger the initiation of host defenses. In this work, we cloned and functionally characterized the HMGB1 protein from Aedes aegypti (AaHMGB1. The AaHMGB1 protein typically consists of two HMG-box DNA binding domains and an acidic C-terminus. Interestingly, AaHMGB1 contains a unique alanine/glutamine-rich (AQ-rich C-terminal region that seems to be exclusive of dipteran HMGB proteins. AaHMGB1 is localized to the cell nucleus, mainly associated with heterochromatin. Circular dichroism analyses of AaHMGB1 or the C-terminal truncated proteins revealed α-helical structures. We showed that AaHMGB1 can effectively bind and change the topology of DNA, and that the AQ-rich and the C-terminal acidic regions can modulate its ability to promote DNA supercoiling, as well as its preference to bind supercoiled DNA. AaHMGB1 is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, but not by CK2. Importantly, phosphorylation of AaHMGB1 by PKA or PKC completely abolishes its DNA bending activity. Thus, our study shows that a functional HMGB1 protein occurs in Aedes aegypt and we provide the first description of a HMGB1 protein containing an AQ-rich regulatory C-terminus.

  4. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien; Pira, Dorcas; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Polycomb repression controls the expression of hundreds of genes involved in development and is mediated by essentially two classes of chromatin-associated protein complexes. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27, an epigenetic mark that serves as a docking site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain. Using biochemical approaches and a novel in vivo imaging assay, we show that the short CBX2-2 isoform lacking the Pc box, does not participate in PRC1 protein complexes, but self-associates in vivo and forms complexes of high molecular weight. Furthermore, the CBX2 short isoform is still able to repress transcription, suggesting that Polycomb repression might occur in the absence of PRC1 formation.

  5. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 4 (Asb-4 colocalizes with insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4 in the hypothalamic neurons and mediates IRS4 degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zefeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates food intake. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 4 (Asb-4 is expressed in neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, target neurons in the regulation of food intake and metabolism by insulin and leptin. However, the target protein(s of Asb-4 in these neurons remains unknown. Insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4 is an adaptor molecule involved in the signal transduction by both insulin and leptin. In the present study we examined the colocalization and interaction of Asb-4 with IRS4 and the involvement of Asb-4 in insulin signaling. Results In situ hybridization showed that the expression pattern of Asb-4 was consistent with that of IRS4 in the rat brain. Double in situ hybridization showed that IRS4 colocalized with Asb-4, and both Asb-4 and IRS4 mRNA were expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In HEK293 cells co-transfected with Myc-tagged Asb-4 and Flag-tagged IRS4, Asb-4 co-immunoprecipitated with IRS4; In these cells endogenous IRS4 also co-immunoprecipitated with transfected Myc-Asb-4; Furthermore, Asb-4 co-immunoprecipitated with IRS4 in rat hypothalamic extracts. In HEK293 cells over expression of Asb-4 decreased IRS4 protein levels and deletion of the SOCS box abolished this effect. Asb-4 increased the ubiquitination of IRS4; Deletion of SOCS box abolished this effect. Expression of Asb-4 decreased both basal and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308. Conclusions These data demonstrated that Asb-4 co-localizes and interacts with IRS4 in hypothalamic neurons. The interaction of Asb-4 with IRS4 in cell lines mediates the degradation of IRS4 and decreases insulin signaling.

  6. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  7. Glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Wire rope earthquake proof supports having sufficient vibration transmitting and attenuating property are disposed between a fixed floor and the bottom of a glove box in order to improve earthquake proofness of the glove box. The vertical weight of the glove box is supported by support legs slidable on the surface of the fixed floor. The wire rope earthquake-proof supports when undergoing a load, cause stretching and rolling against the external force such as earthquakes, and provide flexible spring support and cause a great damping due to friction with strands. Further, the vertical weight is always supported by the support legs and, when a horizontal weight is applied, the glove box slides on the fixed floor freely with slidable members. In this way, stress concentration generated at joint portions of columns and beams can be moderated greatly and earthquake proofness can be improved. Further, quality control and maintenance for the device is almost unnecessary owing to excellent fatigue-resistant characteristics of the wire rope earthquake proof supports. (N.H.)

  8. Glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    An arrangement for effecting access for performing work within a glove box comprises an elongate arm-length impermeable flexible sleeve, a fitting having an aperture therethrough, adapted to be secured in sealing relation in a port, in a wall of the glove box, the fitting including an outwardly extending lip having at least one continuous groove extending around its outer periphery, one end of the sleeve extending through the aperture in fitting and being folded back against the outer periphery of the lip, a resilient fastening ring securing the sleeve in sealing engagement in the groove, clamping means securing the sleeves to the lip and a glove secured in sealing relation via a bushing to the other end of the sleeve. (author)

  9. The dsRNA binding protein RDE-4 interacts with RDE-1, DCR-1, and a DExH-box helicase to direct RNAi in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Hiroaki; Yigit, Erbay; Siomi, Haruhiko; Mello, Craig C

    2002-06-28

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA induces potent gene silencing, termed RNA interference (RNAi). At an early step in RNAi, an RNaseIII-related enzyme, Dicer (DCR-1), processes long-trigger dsRNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). DCR-1 is also required for processing endogenous regulatory RNAs called miRNAs, but how DCR-1 recognizes its endogenous and foreign substrates is not yet understood. Here we show that the C. elegans RNAi pathway gene, rde-4, encodes a dsRNA binding protein that interacts during RNAi with RNA identical to the trigger dsRNA. RDE-4 protein also interacts in vivo with DCR-1, RDE-1, and a conserved DExH-box helicase. Our findings suggest a model in which RDE-4 and RDE-1 function together to detect and retain foreign dsRNA and to present this dsRNA to DCR-1 for processing.

  10. Pollen S-locus F-box proteins of Petunia involved in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility are themselves subject to ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Penglin; Li, Shu; Lu, Dihong; Williams, Justin S; Kao, Teh-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Many flowering plants show self-incompatibility, an intra-specific reproductive barrier by which pistils reject self-pollen to prevent inbreeding and accept non-self pollen to promote out-crossing. In Petunia, the polymorphic S-locus determines self/non-self recognition. The locus contains a gene encoding an S-RNase, which controls pistil specificity, and multiple S-locus F-box (SLF) genes that collectively control pollen specificity. Each SLF is a component of an SCF (Skp1/Cullin/F-box) complex that is responsible for mediating degradation of non-self S-RNase(s), with which the SLF interacts, via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway. A complete set of SLFs is required to detoxify all non-self S-RNases to allow cross-compatible pollination. Here, we show that SLF1 of Petunia inflata is itself subject to degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway, and identify an 18 amino acid sequence in the C-terminal region of S2 -SLF1 (SLF1 of S2 haplotype) that contains a degradation motif. Seven of the 18 amino acids are conserved among all 17 SLF proteins of S2 haplotype and S3 haplotype involved in pollen specificity, suggesting that all SLF proteins are probably subject to similar degradation. Deleting the 18 amino acid sequence from S2 -SLF1 stabilized the protein but abolished its function in self-incompatibility, suggesting that dynamic cycling of SLF proteins is an integral part of their function in self-incompatibility. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Identification of novel putative-binding proteins for cellular prion protein and a specific interaction with the STIP1 homology and U-Box-containing protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gimenez, Ana Paula Lappas; Richter, Larissa Morato Luciani; Atherino, Mariana Campos; Beirão, Breno Castello Branco; Fávaro, Celso; Costa, Michele Dietrich Moura; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Malnic, Bettina; Mercadante, Adriana Frohlich

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases involve the conversion of the endogenous cellular prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded infectious isoform, PrPSc. Several functions have been attributed to PrPC, and its role has also been investigated in the olfactory system. PrPC is expressed in both the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory epithelium (OE) and the nasal cavity is an important route of transmission of diseases caused by prions. Moreover, Prnp−/− mice showed impaired behavior in olfactory tests. Given the high Pr...

  12. High mobility group box-1 protein in patients with suspected community-acquired infections and sepsis: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, Shahin; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang; Koldkjaer, Ole Graesbøll

    2008-01-01

    -infected patients and all infected patients, the area under the curve for HMGB1 was 0.59 (P white blood cell count, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (P

  13. Boxing clever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbury, Kate

    1999-09-10

    The outages caused by storms bringing down trees on power transmission lines on Boxing Day 1998 in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Northern England forced ScottishPower to modify its pylon policy. The results of the analysis of pylons requiring work by the Rural Care Team at ScottishPower are summarised, and the identification of the problems caused by the Sitk spruce is reported. The selection of the relocation and clearance remediation option, the policy of replacing one tree with two, the approach to landowners, and the need to consider environmental concerns during the planning of networks are discussed. (UK)

  14. Cell differentiation by interaction of two HMG-box proteins: Mat1-Mc activates M cell-specific genes in S.pombe by recruiting the ubiquitous transcription factor Ste11 to weak binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, S; Dooijes, D; Clevers, H

    1997-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mfm1 gene is expressed in an M cell-specific fashion. This regulation requires two HMG-box proteins: the ubiquitous Ste11 transcription factor and the M cell-controlling protein Mat1-Mc. Here we report that the mfm1 promoter contains a single, weak Stell-binding site...... where we could not detect Mat1-Mc in the resulting protein-DNA complex. When we changed a single base in the mfm1 TR-box, such that it resembled those boxes found in ubiquitously expressed genes, Ste11 binding was enhanced, and in vivo the mfm1 gene also became expressed in P cells where Mat1-Mc...

  15. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  16. The F-box Protein KIB1 Mediates Brassinosteroid-Induced Inactivation and Degradation of GSK3-like Kinases in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Li, Yuyao; Cao, Dong-Mei; Yang, Hongjuan; Oh, Eunkyoo; Bi, Yang; Zhu, Shengwei; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2017-06-01

    The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) family kinases are central cellular regulators highly conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, the GSK3-like kinase BIN2 phosphorylates a range of proteins to control broad developmental processes, and BIN2 is degraded through unknown mechanism upon receptor kinase-mediated brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Here we identify KIB1 as an F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of BIN2 while blocking its substrate access. Loss-of-function mutations of KIB1 and its homologs abolished BR-induced BIN2 degradation and caused severe BR-insensitive phenotypes. KIB1 directly interacted with BIN2 in a BR-dependent manner and promoted BIN2 ubiquitination in vitro. Expression of an F-box-truncated KIB1 caused BIN2 accumulation but dephosphorylation of its substrate BZR1 and activation of BR responses because KIB1 blocked BIN2 binding to BZR1. Our study demonstrates that KIB1 plays an essential role in BR signaling by inhibiting BIN2 through dual mechanisms of blocking substrate access and promoting degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Y-box-binding protein 1 interacts with hepatitis C virus NS3/4A and influences the equilibrium between viral RNA replication and infectious particle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Melançon, Pierre; Racine, Marie-Ève; Baril, Martin; Lamarre, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protein has several essential roles in the virus life cycle, most probably through dynamic interactions with host factors. To discover cellular cofactors that are co-opted by HCV for its replication, we elucidated the NS3/4A interactome using mass spectrometry and identified Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) as an interacting partner of NS3/4A protein and HCV genomic RNA. Importantly, silencing YB-1 expression decreased viral RNA replication and severely impaired the propagation of the infectious HCV molecular clone JFH-1. Immunofluorescence studies further revealed a drastic HCV-dependent redistribution of YB-1 to the surface of the lipid droplets, an important organelle for HCV assembly. Core and NS3 protein-dependent polyprotein maturation were shown to be required for YB-1 relocalization. Unexpectedly, YB-1 knockdown cells showed the increased production of viral infectious particles while HCV RNA replication was impaired. Our data support that HCV hijacks YB-1-containing ribonucleoparticles and that YB-1-NS3/4A-HCV RNA complexes regulate the equilibrium between HCV RNA replication and viral particle production.

  18. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  19. An apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-11-01

    Our studies showed that an apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, the homolog of AtBBX22, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple peel. Anthocyanin is responsible for the red pigmentation in apple peel and a R2R3 MYB gene, MdMYBA/1/10, a homolog of MdMYBA, controls its accumulation. Arabidopsis PAP1 is under the control of a series of upstream factors involved in light signal transduction and photomorphogenesis, such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and B-box family (BBX) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized the homolog of Arabidopsis BBX22 in apple, designated as MdCOL11. Overexpression of MdCOL11 in Arabidopsis enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. In apples, MdCOL11 was differentially expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in petals and the lowest expression in the xylem. Transcripts of MdCOL11 noticeably accumulated at the ripening stage, concomitant with increases in the expressions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In an in vitro treatment experiment, MdCOL11 was upregulated in an ultra-violet (UV)-B- and temperature-dependent manner, together with the inductions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes and anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase assay indicated that (1) MdCOL11 regulated the expression of MdMYBA and (2) MdCOL11 was a target of MdHY5. Taken together, our results suggest that MdCOL11 is involved in MdHY5-mediated signal transduction and regulates anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel, which sheds new light on anthocyanin accumulation in apples.

  20. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Leishmania amazonensis macrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; dos Santos, Guilherme R R M; Vitorino Dos Santos, José; Lima, Carolina; Medina, Jorge Mansur; Aktas, Bertal Huseyin; Lopes, Ulisses G

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers the integrated ER-stress response (IERSR) that ensures cellular survival of ER stress and represents a primordial form of innate immunity. We investigated the role of IERSR duringLeishmania amazonensisinfection. Treatment of RAW 264.7 infected macrophages with the ER stress-inducing agent thapsigargin (TG; 1 μM) increasedL. amazonensisinfectivity in an IFN1-α receptor (IFNAR)-dependent manner. In Western blot assays, we showed thatL. amazonensisactivates the inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE1)/ X-box binding protein (XBP)-1-splicing arms of the IERSR in host cells. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we showed an increased occupancy of enhancer and promoter sequences for theIfnbgene by XBP1 in infected RAW 264.7 cells. Knocking down XBP1 expression by transducing RAW 264.7 cells with the short hairpin XBP1 lentiviral vector significantly reduced the parasite proliferation associated with impaired translocation of phosphorylated IFN regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 to the nucleus and a decrease in IFN1-β expression. Knocking down XBP1 expression also increased NO concentration, as determined by Griess reaction and reduced the expression of antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, that protect parasites from oxidative stress. We conclude thatL. amazonensisactivation of XBP1 plays a critical role in infection by protecting the parasites from oxidative stress and increasing IFN1-β expression.-Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Calegari-Silva, T. C., Dos Santos, G. R. R. M., Vitorino dos Santos, J., Lima, C., Medina, J. M., Aktas, B. H., Lopes, U. G. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response inLeishmania amazonensismacrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor. © FASEB.

  1. Virulence factor NSs of rift valley fever virus recruits the F-box protein FBXO3 to degrade subunit p62 of general transcription factor TFIIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Markus; Habjan, Matthias; Hubel, Philipp; Busch, Laura; Lau, Simone; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pichlmair, Andreas; Weber, Friedemann

    2014-03-01

    The nonstructural protein NSs is the main virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus), a serious pathogen of livestock and humans in Africa. RVFV NSs blocks transcriptional upregulation of antiviral type I interferons (IFN) and destroys the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit p62 via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Here, we identified a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligases, F-box protein FBXO3, as a host cell interactor of NSs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of FBXO3 rescued p62 protein levels in RVFV-infected cells and elevated IFN transcription by 1 order of magnitude. NSs interacts with the full-length FBXO3 protein as well as with a truncated isoform that lacks the C-terminal acidic and poly(R)-rich domains. These isoforms are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NSs exclusively removes the nuclear pool of full-length FBXO3, likely due to consumption during the degradation process. F-box proteins form the variable substrate recognition subunit of the so-called SCF ubiquitin ligases, which also contain the constant components Skp1, cullin 1 (or cullin 7), and Rbx1. siRNA knockdown of Skp1 also protected p62 from degradation, suggesting involvement in NSs action. However, knockdown of cullin 1, cullin 7, or Rbx1 could not rescue p62 degradation by NSs. Our data show that the enzymatic removal of p62 via the host cell factor FBXO3 is a major mechanism of IFN suppression by RVFV. Rift Valley fever virus is a serious emerging pathogen of animals and humans. Its main virulence factor, NSs, enables unhindered virus replication by suppressing the antiviral innate immune system. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO3 as a novel host cell interactor of NSs. NSs recruits FBXO3 to destroy the general host cell transcription factor TFIIH-p62, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional upregulation of innate immunity.

  2. Serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Em, Serda; Ucar, Demet; Yazmalar, Levent; Mete, Nuriye; Nas, Kemal; Gezer, Orhan

    2013-08-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Previous studies have suggested that HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and its association with quality of life and psychological and functional status in these patients. Twenty-nine patients who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for the classification of FM and 29 healthy controls (HC) were included in the present study. Serum samples were collected from both the patients and the HC, and HMGB1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess the disease severity and functional status in patients with FM. Furthermore, the Nottingham Health Profile was used to assess quality of life in all subjects, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess depression and anxiety. The serum levels of HMGB1 protein were positively correlated with the FIQ scores in patients with FM (P = 0.002). Mean serum levels of HMGB1 were higher in patients with FM than in HC but this difference was not statistically significant. HMGB1 protein might be a good laboratory-sourced candidate for the assessment of functional status and disease severity in patients with FM. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal domain of the human spliceosomal DExD/H-box protein hPrp22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudlinzki, Denis; Nagel, Christian; Ficner, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the C-terminal domain of human hPrp22 are reported. This communication also contains data for the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The Homo sapiens DExD/H-box protein hPrp22 is a crucial component of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Within the splicing cycle, it is involved in the ligation of exons and generation of the lariat and it additionally catalyzes the release of mature mRNA from the spliceosomal U5 snRNP. The yeast homologue of this protein, yPrp22, shows ATP-dependent RNA-helicase activity and is capable of unwinding RNA/RNA duplex molecules. A truncated construct coding for residues 950–1183 of human Prp22, comprising the structurally and functionally uncharacterized C-terminal domain, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein was subsequently overproduced, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution, belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.2, c = 88.4 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  4. Y-box Binding Protein-1 Enhances Oncogenic Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells via Triggering Phospho-Activation of Smad2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stope, Matthias B; Weiss, Martin; Koensgen, Dominique; Popp, Simone L; Joffroy, Christian; Mustea, Alexander; Buck, Miriam B; Knabbe, Cornelius

    2017-12-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a role in diverse oncogenic pathways including cell proliferation and cell motility and is regulated by the pleiotropic factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1). In breast cancer, Sma/Mad related protein 2 (Smad2) represents the most common downstream transducer in TGFβ signaling. Here, YB-1's impact on Smad2 phospho-activation was characterized by incubation of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with or without TGFβ1 in the absence or presence of overexpressed YB-1 protein. The phospho-status of Smad2 was assessed via western blotting. Analysis of MCF-7 cells revealed no induction of total Smad2 neither in the presence of TGFβ1, nor during YB-1 overexpression. In contrast, incubation with TGFβ1 led to an increase of phosphorylated Smad2 forms which was significantly amplified by simultaneously overexpressed YB-1 (2.8±0.2-fold). Oncogenic YB-1 indirectly enhances TGFβ signaling cascades via Smad2 phospho-activation and may represent a promising factor for future diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 does not require activation of the hepatic X-box binding protein 1 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantel Olivares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, a key regulator of the metabolic response to fasting, is highly induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. The X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1 is one of several ER stress proteins that has been shown to directly activate the FGF21 promoter. We aimed to determine whether hepatic Xbp1 is required for induction of hepatic FGF21 in vivo. Methods: Mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Xbp1 (Xbp1LKO were subjected to fasting, pharmacologic ER stress, or a ketogenic diet, all potent stimuli of Fgf21 expression. Results: Hepatocyte-specific Xbp1 knockout mice demonstrated normal induction of FGF21 in response to fasting or pharmacologic ER stress and enhanced induction of FGF21 in response to a ketogenic diet. Consistent with preserved induction of FGF21, Xbp1LKO mice exhibited normal induction of FGF21 target genes and normal ketogenesis in response to fasting or a ketogenic diet. Conclusion: Hepatic Xbp1 is not required for induction of FGF21 under physiologic or pathophysiologic conditions in vivo. Keywords: Unfolded protein response, Endoplasmic reticulum stress, Fasting, Fatty acid oxidation, Ketogenic diet

  6. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  7. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...

  8. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  9. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  10. Real-time Kinetics of High-mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Oxidation in Extracellular Fluids Studied by in Situ Protein NMR Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Sahu, Debashish; Lee, Kwanbok; Lee, Yong Sun; Singh, Pomila; Rajarathnam, Krishna; Iwahara, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Some extracellular proteins are initially secreted in reduced forms via a non-canonical pathway bypassing the endoplasmic reticulum and become oxidized in the extracellular space. One such protein is HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1). Extracellular HMGB1 has different redox states that play distinct roles in inflammation. Using a unique NMR-based approach, we have investigated the kinetics of HMGB1 oxidation and the half-lives of all-thiol and disulfide HMGB1 species in serum, saliva, and cell culture medium. In this approach, salt-free lyophilized 15N-labeled all-thiol HMGB1 was dissolved in actual extracellular fluids, and the oxidation and clearance kinetics were monitored in situ by recording a series of heteronuclear 1H-15N correlation spectra. We found that the half-life depends significantly on the extracellular environment. For example, the half-life of all-thiol HMGB1 ranged from ∼17 min (in human serum and saliva) to 3 h (in prostate cancer cell culture medium). Furthermore, the binding of ligands (glycyrrhizin and heparin) to HMGB1 significantly modulated the oxidation kinetics. Thus, the balance between the roles of all-thiol and disulfide HMGB1 proteins depends significantly on the extracellular environment and can also be artificially modulated by ligands. This is important because extracellular HMGB1 has been suggested as a therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases and cancer. Our work demonstrates that the in situ protein NMR approach is powerful for investigating the behavior of proteins in actual extracellular fluids containing an enormous number of different molecules. PMID:23447529

  11. Box Integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-06-01

    By a "box integral" we mean here an expectation $\\langle|\\vec r - \\vec q|^s \\rangle$ where $\\vec r$runs over the unit $n$-cube,with $\\vec q$ and $s$ fixed, explicitly:\\begin eqnarray*&&\\int_01 \\cdots \\int_01 \\left((r_1 - q_1)2 + \\dots+(r_n-q_n)2\\right)^ s/2 \\ dr_1 \\cdots dr_n.\\end eqnarray* The study ofbox integrals leads one naturally into several disparate fields ofanalysis. While previous studies have focused upon symbolic evaluationand asymptotic analysis of special cases (notably $s = 1$), we workherein more generally--in interdisciplinary fashion--developing resultssuch as: (1) analytic continuation (in complex $s$), (2) relevantcombinatorial identities, (3) rapidly converging series, (4) statisticalinferences, (5) connections to mathematical physics, and (6)extreme-precision quadrature techniques appropriate for these integrals.These intuitions and results open up avenues of experimental mathematics,with a view to new conjectures and theorems on integrals of thistype.

  12. Adipocyte spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 promotes adiponectin multimerization and systemic glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sha, H.; Yang, L.; Liu, M.; Xia, S.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Kersten, A.H.; Qi, L.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in

  13. Inhibition of Y-box binding protein-1 slows the growth of glioblastoma multiforme and sensitizes to temozolomide independent O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Fotovati, Abbas; Lee, Cathy; Wang, Michelle; Cote, Gilbert; Guns, Emma; Toyota, Brian; Faury, Damien; Jabado, Nada; Dunn, Sandra E

    2009-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive type of brain tumor where 5 years. In adults, GBM is the most common type of brain tumor. It is rarer in children, where it constitutes approximately 15% of all brain tumors diagnosed. These tumors are often invasive, making surgical resection difficult. Further, they can be refractory to current therapies such as temozolomide. The current dogma is that temozolomide resistance rests on the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) because it cleaves methylated DNA adducts formed by the drug. Our laboratory recently reported that another drug resistance gene known as the Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is highly expressed in primary GBM but not in normal brain tissues based on the evaluation of primary tumors. We therefore questioned whether GBM depend on YB-1 for growth and/or response to temozolomide. Herein, we report that YB-1 inhibition reduced tumor cell invasion and growth in monolayer as well as in soft agar. Moreover, blocking this protein ultimately delayed tumor onset in mice. Importantly, inhibiting YB-1 enhanced temozolomide sensitivity in a manner that was independent of MGMT in models of adult and pediatric GBM. In conclusion, inhibiting YB-1 may be a novel way to improve the treatment of GBM.

  14. Forkhead Box Protein C2 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Migration and Invasion in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (SKOV3/CDDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Forkhead Box Protein C2 (FOXC2 has been reported to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, it is unclear whether FOXC2 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of FOXC2 on EMT and invasive characteristics of CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: MTT, Western blot, scratch wound healing, matrigel transwell invasion, attachment and detachment assays were performed to detect half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of CDDP, expression of EMT-related proteins and invasive characteristics in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3/CDDP and its parental cell line (SKOV3. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA was used to knockdown FOXC2 and analyze the effect of FOXC2 knockdown on EMT and invasive characteristics of SKOV3/CDDP cells. Also, the effect of FOXC2 upregulation on EMT and invasive characteristics of SKOV3 cells was analyzed. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying FOXC2-regulating EMT in ovarian cancer cells was determined. Results: Compared with parental SKOV3 cell line, SKOV3/CDDP showed higher IC50 of CDDP (43.26μM (PConclusions: Taken together, these data demonstrate that FOXC2 may be a promoter of EMT phenotype in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  15. Electrostatic potentials of the S-locus F-box proteins contribute to the pollen S specificity in self-incompatibility in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhui; Zhang, Yue; Song, Yanzhai; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Jiangbo; Li, Qun; Zhang, Dongfen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a self/non-self discrimination system found widely in angiosperms and, in many species, is controlled by a single polymorphic S-locus. In the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, the S-locus encodes a single S-RNase and a cluster of S-locus F-box (SLF) proteins to control the pistil and pollen expression of SI, respectively. Previous studies have shown that their cytosolic interactions determine their recognition specificity, but the physical force between their interactions remains unclear. In this study, we show that the electrostatic potentials of SLF contribute to the pollen S specificity through a physical mechanism of 'like charges repel and unlike charges attract' between SLFs and S-RNases in Petunia hybrida. Strikingly, the alteration of a single C-terminal amino acid of SLF reversed its surface electrostatic potentials and subsequently the pollen S specificity. Collectively, our results reveal that the electrostatic potentials act as a major physical force between cytosolic SLFs and S-RNases, providing a mechanistic insight into the self/non-self discrimination between cytosolic proteins in angiosperms. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Cui, Jian; Yang, Xiang-Min; Jing, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2017-01-20

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD) prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells.

  17. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  18. F-Box Protein FBXO22 Mediates Polyubiquitination and Degradation of CD147 to Reverse Cisplatin Resistance of Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment of cancer. As posttranslational modification is becoming widely recognized to affect the function of oncoproteins, targeting specific posttranslational protein modification provides an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein contributing to chemo-resistance of cancer cells in a variety of human malignancies. Ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification mediating protein degradation. Degradation of oncoproteins, CD147 included, emerges as an attractive alternative for tumor inhibition. However, the ubiquitination of CD147 remains elusive. Here in this study, we found that deletion of the CD147 intracellular domain (CD147-ICD prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, and we identified that CD147-ICD interacts with FBXO22 using mass spectrometry and Western blot. Then, we demonstrated that FBXO22 mediates the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by recognizing CD147-ICD. While knocking down of FBXO22 prolonged the half-life of CD147 in HEK293T cells, we found that FBXO22 regulates CD147 protein turnover in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and A549 cells. Moreover, we found that the low level of FBXO22 contributes to the accumulation of CD147 and thereafter the cisplatin resistance of A549/DDP cells. To conclude, our study demonstrated that FBXO22 mediated the polyubiquitination and degradation of CD147 by interacting with CD147-ICD, and CD147 polyubiquitination by FBXO22 reversed cisplatin resistance of tumor cells.

  19. MicroRNA-132 sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to cisplatin through regulation of forkhead box A1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Ling; Zhao, Yi-Gang; Chen, Bin; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer is one of the major hindrances in cisplatin (DPP) treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The mechanism of such resistance remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the mechanism of DDP resistance and attempted to reduce chemoresistance. Here, we found that miR-132, as a tumor suppressor, was poorly expressed in a cisplatin resistant CNE2 cell line (CNE2/DPP) accompanied with a decreased expression of miR-132 and an increased expression of FOXA1 compared with the parental cells CNE2. Exogenous overexpression of miR-132 in CNE2/DPP could sensitize their reaction to the treatment of cisplatin. In addition, FOXA1 knockdown in CNE2/DPP cells increased the chemosensitivity to DPP, suggesting the dependence of FOXA1 regulation in miR-132 activity. Moreover, miR-132 can restore cisplatin treatment response in cisplatin-resistant xenografts in vivo, while FOXA1 protein levels were decreased. In summary, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of miR-132/FOXA1 signaling in the cisplatin resistance of NPC cells. Targeting of miR-132 is a potential therapeutic approach for NPC.

  20. Forkhead box protein A2, a pioneer factor for hepatogenesis, is involved in the expression of hepatic phenotype of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Nobuhisa; Fugo, Kazunori; Kishimoto, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma is a high-malignant variant of adenocarcinoma with a hepatic or fetal-intestinal phenotype. The number of cases of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas is increasing, but the molecular mechanism underlying the aberrant production of AFP is unclear. Here we sought to assess the role of Forkhead box A (FoxA)2, which is a pioneer transcription factor in the differentiation of hepatoblasts. FoxA2 expression was investigated in five cases of AFP-producing gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry, and all cases showed FoxA2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed the DNA binding of FoxA2 on the regulatory element of AFP gene in AFP-producing adenocarcinoma cells. The inhibition of FoxA2 expression with siRNA reduced the mRNA expression of liver-specific proteins, including AFP, albumin, and transferrin. The inhibition of FoxA2 also reduced the expressions of liver-enriched nuclear factors, i.e., hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α and HNF6, although the expressions of HNF1α and HNF1β were not affected. The same effect as FoxA2 knockdown in AFP producing adenocarcinoma cells was also observed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our results suggest that FoxA2 plays a key role in the expression of hepatic phenotype of AFP-producing adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  2. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  3. Expression of ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein 4 (Asb-4) in proopiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus of mice produces a hyperphagic, lean phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Yao; Chai, Biao-Xin; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Hui; Mulholland, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein 4 (Asb-4) is specifically expressed in the energy homeostasis-related brain areas and colocalizes with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Injection of insulin into the third ventricle of the rat brain increased Asb-4 mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus but not in the ARC of the hypothalamus, whereas injection of leptin (ip) increased Asb-4 expression in both mouse paraventricular nucleus and ARC. A transgenic mouse in which Myc-tagged Asb-4 is specifically expressed in POMC neurons of the ARC was made and used to study the effects of Asb-4 on ingestive behavior and metabolic rate. Animals with overexpression of Asb-4 in POMC neurons demonstrated an increase in food intake. However, POMC-Asb-4 transgenic animals gained significantly less weight from 6-30 wk of age. The POMC-Asb-4 mice had reduced fat mass and increased lean mass and lower levels of blood leptin. The transgenic animals were resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Transgenic mice had significantly higher rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production than wild-type mice during both light and dark periods. The locomotive activity of transgenic mice was increased. The overexpression of Asb-4 in POMC neurons increased POMC mRNA expression in the ARC. The transgenic animals had no observed effect on peripheral glucose metabolism and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. These results indicate that Asb-4 is a key regulatory protein in the central nervous system, involved in the control of feeding behavior and metabolic rate.

  4. Self-incompatibility in Petunia inflata: the relationship between a self-incompatibility locus F-box protein and its non-self S-RNases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Penglin; Kao, Teh-hui

    2013-02-01

    The highly polymorphic S (for self-incompatibility) locus regulates self-incompatibility in Petunia inflata; the S-RNase regulates pistil specificity, and multiple S-locus F-box (SLF) genes regulate pollen specificity. The collaborative non-self recognition model predicts that, for any S-haplotype, an unknown number of SLFs collectively recognize all non-self S-RNases to mediate their ubiquitination and degradation. Using a gain-of-function assay, we examined the relationships between S2-SLF1 (for S2-allelic product of Type-1 SLF) and four S-RNases. The results suggest that S2-SLF1 interacts with S7- and S13-RNases, and the previously identified S1- and S3-RNases, but not with S5- or S11-RNase. An artificial microRNA expressed by the S2-SLF1 promoter, but not by the vegetative cell-specific promoter, Late Anther Tomato 52, suppressed expression of S2-SLF1 in S2 pollen, suggesting that SLF1 is specific to the generative cell. The S2 pollen with S2-SLF1 suppressed was compatible with S3-, S5-, S7-, S11-, and S13-carrying pistils, confirming that other SLF proteins are responsible for detoxifying S5- and S11-RNases and suggesting that S2-SLF1 is not the only SLF in S2 pollen that interacts with S3-, S7-, and S13-RNases. Petunia may have evolved at least two types of SLF proteins to detoxify any non-self S-RNase to minimize the deleterious effects of mutation in any SLF.

  5. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein.

  6. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  7. A comparison of high-mobility group-box 1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and procalcitonin in severe community-acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, Shahin; Koldkjaer, Ole G; Møller, Holger J

    2008-01-01

    manner. Demographic data, comorbidity, routine biochemistry, microbiological data, infection focus, severity score and mortality on day 28 were recorded. Plasma and serum were sampled within 24 hours after admission. Levels of all studied markers (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6, C-reactive protein, white blood...... patients compared with nonbacteraemic patients (P white blood cell count and neutrophils (P ... (HMGB1, LBP, PCT, IL-6) and infection markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils) were elevated among bacteraemic patients. PCT performed best as a diagnostic test marker for bacteraemia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...

  8. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  9. Dressing the dead body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Nordström

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My current research focuses on textiles and rites, especially woven textiles for funerals and moments of loss. What active role can a textile such as an infant-wrapping cloth or a funeral pall play in the mourning process? This article will describe the development and current questions that address 1 the infant-wrapping cloth – the textile that is used to dress, clothe, or cover the dead body with particular attention to the question of infant mortality and the material practices of care. 2 The funeral pall that is used at funerals, draped over the coffin or as a body cover at hospital viewing rooms. One example to be presented is Kortedalakrönika (‘The Chronicle of Kortedala’, a collaborative project, woven for a church in Gothenburg. My work is based in artistic practice but opens up several scientific and existential questions.

  10. Dead of night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  11. X-box binding protein 1 is essential for the anti-oxidant defense and cell survival in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhong

    Full Text Available Damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an early event in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 is a key transcription factor that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis and cell survival. This study aimed to delineate the role of endogenous XBP1 in the RPE. Our results show that in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration, XBP1 activation was suppressed in the RPE/choroid complex, accompanied by decreased anti-oxidant genes and increased oxidative stress. Knockdown of XBP1 by siRNA resulted in reduced expression of SOD1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione synthase and sensitized RPE cells to oxidative damage. Using Cre/LoxP system, we generated a mouse line that lacks XBP1 only in RPE cells. Compared to wildtype littermates, RPE-XBP1 KO mice expressed less SOD1, SOD2, and catalase in the RPE, and had increased oxidative stress. At age 3 months and older, these mice exhibited apoptosis of RPE cells, decreased number of cone photoreceptors, shortened photoreceptor outer segment, reduced ONL thickness, and deficit in retinal function. Electron microscopy showed abnormal ultrastructure, Bruch's membrane thickening, and disrupted basal membrane infolding in XBP1-deficient RPE. These results indicate that XBP1 is an important gene involved in regulation of the anti-oxidant defense in the RPE, and that impaired activation of XBP1 may contribute to RPE dysfunction and cell death during retinal degeneration and AMD.

  12. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  13. Neogambogic acid prevents silica-induced fibrosis via inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 and MCP-1-induced protein 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhang, Mei, E-mail: meizhang1717@163.com [Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Wang, Zhongjiang [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Cheng, Yusi; Liu, Haijun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Zhou, Zewei [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Han, Bing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Chen, Baoan [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yao, Honghong, E-mail: yaohh@seu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chao, Jie, E-mail: chaojie@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Respiration, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}); early stages are characterized by alveolar inflammation, and later stages are characterized by progressive lung fibrosis. Mounting evidence indicates that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Whether neogambogic acid (NGA) inhibits macrophage and fibroblast activation induced by SiO{sub 2} by targeting HMGB1 remains unclear. Methods and results: Experiments using cultured mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) demonstrated that SiO{sub 2} treatment induces the expression of HMGB1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway; in turn, this expression causes macrophage apoptosis and fibroblast activation. Pretreating macrophages with NGA inhibited the HMGB1 expression induced by SiO{sub 2} and attenuated both macrophage apoptosis and fibroblast activation. Moreover, NGA directly inhibited MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) expression, as well as markers of fibroblast activation and migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the effects of NGA on macrophages and fibroblasts were confirmed in vivo by exposing mice to SiO{sub 2}. Conclusion: NGA can prevent SiO{sub 2}-induced macrophage activation and apoptosis via HMGB1 inhibition and SiO{sub 2}-induced fibrosis via the MCPIP1 pathway. Targeting HMGB1 and MCPIP1 with NGA could provide insights into the potential development of a therapeutic approach for alleviating the inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • The SiO{sub 2} induced HMGB1 in alveolar macrophage and MCPIP1 in fibroblast. • NGA rescued the SiO{sub 2}-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages via HMGB1 signaling. • NGA inhibited the fibroblast activation induced by SiO{sub 2} via MCPIP1 signaling. • NGA might represent a potential therapeutic approach for silicosis.

  14. Youth in Dead End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  15. Malaria's deadly grip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Joseph D; Rowe, J Alexandra; Higgins, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host microvasculature is a key virulence determinant. Parasite binding is mediated by a large family of clonally variant adhesion proteins, termed P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), encoded by var genes and expressed...

  16. Effect of different accellerators and inoculums used in fermentation on quality of dead chicken silage flour as feed ingredient for catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bakrie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating the effect using molasses and cornmeal as additives with Lactobacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. as inoculums during fermentation on the quality of silage flour made from dead chickens. The study was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of 2 factors with 5 replications. The materials used were the newly dead chickens which were chopped and mixed thoroughly with all ingredients; then transferred into a 5 liters plastic box for fermentation. Observations were made after 3 weeks fermentation, including: a physical characteristics, b microbial contents, and c nutritional contents. The data were calculated using variance analysis utilizing computer program of SPSS version 21.0. It was found that based on the protein contents the Lactobacillus sp. (19.0% was better than the Streptomyces sp. (17.8% if combined with molasses and corn meal as the accelerators. However, the fat contents produced were relatively similar for both of the inoculums (mean of 37.8%. It can be concluded that in order to obtain a best fermented product in terms of the protein and fat content, the dead chicken should be fermented using molasses and cornmeal as the accelerator and Lactobacillus sp. as the inoculum.

  17. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  18. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  19. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  20. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaconcetta Sicurella

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2 are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat. In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ, induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1

  1. Comparative growth and development of spiders reared on live and dead prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific.

  2. The immunosuppressives FK 506 and cyclosporin A inhibit the generation of protein factors binding to the two purine boxes of the interleukin 2 enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabletz, T; Pietrowski, I; Serfling, E

    1991-01-11

    Like Cyclosporin A (CsA), the macrolide FK 506 is a potent immunosuppressive that inhibits early steps of T cell activation, including the synthesis of Interleukin 2 (II-2) and numerous other lymphokines. The block of II-2 synthesis occurs at the transcriptional level. At concentrations that block T cell activation, FK 506 and CsA inhibit the proto-enhancer activity of Purine boxes of the II-2 promoter and the generation of lymphocyte-specific factors binding to the Purine boxes. Under the same conditions, the DNA binding of other II-2 enhancer factors remains unaffected by both compounds. These results support the view that FK 506 and CsA, which both inhibit the activity of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, suppress T cell activation by a similar, if not identical mechanism.

  3. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  4. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  5. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of an F-box family gene CarF-box1 from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Gu, Hanyan; Wang, Xiansheng; Chen, Quanjia; Shi, Shubing; Zhang, Jusong; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Hao

    2012-03-01

    F-box protein family has been found to play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress responses via the ubiquitin pathway. In this study, an F-box gene CarF-box1 (for Cicer arietinum F-box gene 1, Genbank accession no. GU247510) was isolated based on a cDNA library constructed with chickpea seedling leaves treated by polyethylene glycol. CarF-box1 encoded a putative protein with 345 amino acids and contained no intron within genomic DNA sequence. CarF-box1 is a KFB-type F-box protein, having a conserved F-box domain in the N-terminus and a Kelch repeat domain in the C-terminus. CarF-box1 was localized in the nucleus. CarF-box1 exhibited organ-specific expression and showed different expression patterns during seed development and germination processes, especially strongly expressed in the blooming flowers. In the leaves, CarF-box1 could be significantly induced by drought stress and slightly induced by IAA treatment, while in the roots, CarF-box1 could be strongly induced by drought, salinity and methyl jasmonate stresses. Our results suggest that CarF-box1 encodes an F-box protein and may be involved in various plant developmental processes and abiotic stress responses.

  7. Isolation of three B-box zinc finger proteins that interact with STF1 and COP1 defines a HY5/COP1 interaction network involved in light control of development in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Su Young; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeon, Su Jeong; Sim, Soon Ae; Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Yoo, Cheol Min; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Hong, Jong Chan

    2016-01-01

    LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and STF1 (Soybean TGACG-motif binding Factor 1) are two related bZIP transcription factors that play a positive role in photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. In this study, we compared full length STF1 and truncated STF1 overexpression lines and found that the C-terminal 133 amino acids (194–306) possess all the HY5-like function in Arabidopsis. The STF1-DC1 mutant (1–306), with a 20 amino acid deletion at the carboxy terminus, failed to complement the hy5 mutant phenotype, which suggests an intact C-terminus is required for STF1 function. To understand the role of the C-terminal domain in photomorphogenesis we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to isolate proteins that bind to the STF1 C-terminus. We isolated three soybean cDNAs encoding the zinc-finger proteins GmSTO, GmSTH, and GmSTH2, which interact with STF1. These proteins belong to a family of B-box zinc finger proteins that include Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO) and STO HOMOLOG (STH) and STH2, which play a role in light-dependent development and gene expression. The C-terminal 63 amino acids of STF1, containing a leucine zipper and the two N-terminal B-boxes, contains the domain involved in interactions between STF1 and GmSTO. In addition, we identified an interaction between soybean COP1 (GmCOP1) and GmSTO and GmSTH, as well as STF1, which strongly suggests the presence of a similar regulatory circuit for light signaling in soybean as in Arabidopsis. This study shows that photomorphogenic control requires complex molecular interactions among several different classes of transcription factors such as bZIP, B-box factors, and COP1, a ubiquitin ligase. - Highlights: • STF1 interact with GmSTO, GmSTH and GmSTH2. • The bZIP transcription factor STF1 requires an intact C-terminal domain for STF1 function. • STF1 and GmSTO are nuclear proteins.

  8. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Sebesta, Marek; Sisakova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR). Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s) at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54...... and the replicative DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). This interaction was only mildly weakened by the mutation of two key hydrophobic residues in the highly-conserved PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box) of Rad54 (Rad54-AA). Intriguingly, the rad54-AA mutant cells displayed sensitivity to DNA damage...

  9. Pion in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-02-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the δ regime. (orig.)

  10. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  11. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  12. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  13. Protein Kinase R Degradation Is Essential for Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection and Is Regulated by SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF)FBXW11-NSs E3 Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhasani, Rajini; Tran, Julie P; Retterer, Cary; Kota, Krishna P; Whitehouse, Chris A; Bavari, Sina

    2016-02-01

    Activated protein kinase R (PKR) plays a vital role in antiviral defense primarily by inhibiting protein synthesis and augmenting interferon responses. Many viral proteins have adopted unique strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of PKR. The NSs (Non-structural s) protein which is encoded by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) promotes early PKR proteasomal degradation through a previously undefined mechanism. In this study, we demonstrate that NSs carries out this activity by assembling the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box)(FBXW11) E3 ligase. NSs binds to the F-box protein, FBXW11, via the six amino acid sequence DDGFVE called the degron sequence and recruits PKR through an alternate binding site to the SCF(FBXW11) E3 ligase. We further show that disrupting the assembly of the SCF(FBXW11-NSs) E3 ligase with MLN4924 (a small molecule inhibitor of SCF E3 ligase activity) or NSs degron viral mutants or siRNA knockdown of FBXW11 can block PKR degradation. Surprisingly, under these conditions when PKR degradation was blocked, NSs was essential and sufficient to activate PKR causing potent inhibition of RVFV infection by suppressing viral protein synthesis. These antiviral effects were antagonized by the loss of PKR expression or with a NSs deleted mutant virus. Therefore, early PKR activation by disassembly of SCF(FBXW11-NSs) E3 ligase is sufficient to inhibit RVFV infection. Furthermore, FBXW11 and BTRC are the two homologues of the βTrCP (Beta-transducin repeat containing protein) gene that were previously described to be functionally redundant. However, in RVFV infection, among the two homologues of βTrCP, FBXW11 plays a dominant role in PKR degradation and is the limiting factor in the assembly of the SCF(FBXW11) complex. Thus, FBXW11 serves as a master regulator of RVFV infection by promoting PKR degradation. Overall these findings provide new insights into NSs regulation of PKR activity and offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention of RVFV infection.

  14. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  15. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must be...

  16. XBP1 (X-Box-Binding Protein-1)-Dependent O-GlcNAcylation Is Neuroprotective in Ischemic Stroke in Young Mice and Its Impairment in Aged Mice Is Rescued by Thiamet-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Yu, Shu; Yu, Zhui; Sheng, Huaxin; Li, Ying; Liu, Shuai; Warner, David S; Paschen, Wulf; Yang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Impaired protein homeostasis induced by endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction is a key feature of a variety of age-related brain diseases including stroke. To restore endoplasmic reticulum function impaired by stress, the unfolded protein response is activated. A key unfolded protein response prosurvival pathway is controlled by the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor (inositol-requiring enzyme-1), XBP1 (downstream X-box-binding protein-1), and O-GlcNAc (O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine) modification of proteins (O-GlcNAcylation). Stroke impairs endoplasmic reticulum function, which activates unfolded protein response. The rationale of this study was to explore the potentials of the IRE1/XBP1/O-GlcNAc axis as a target for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. Mice with Xbp1 loss and gain of function in neurons were generated. Stroke was induced by transient or permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in young and aged mice. Thiamet-G was used to increase O-GlcNAcylation. Deletion of Xbp1 worsened outcome after transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. After stroke, O-GlcNAcylation was activated in neurons of the stroke penumbra in young mice, which was largely Xbp1 dependent. This activation of O-GlcNAcylation was impaired in aged mice. Pharmacological increase of O-GlcNAcylation before or after stroke improved outcome in both young and aged mice. Our study indicates a critical role for the IRE1/XBP1 unfolded protein response branch in stroke outcome. O-GlcNAcylation is a prosurvival pathway that is activated in the stroke penumbra in young mice but impaired in aged mice. Boosting prosurvival pathways to counterbalance the age-related decline in the brain's self-healing capacity could be a promising strategy to improve ischemic stroke outcome in aged brains. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  18. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  19. Structure and biochemical function of a prototypical Arabidopsis U-box domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille; Kragelund, Birthe B; Olsen, Addie N

    2004-01-01

    U-box proteins, as well as other proteins involved in regulated protein degradation, are apparently over-represented in Arabidopsis compared with other model eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis protein AtPUB14 contains a typical U-box domain followed by an Armadillo repeat region, a domain organization t...

  20. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  1. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  2. Prognostic implications of the nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 and CXCR4 expression in ovarian cancer: their correlation with activated Akt, LRP/MVP and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Basaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Toshio; Wake, Norio; Ono, Mayumi; Nishio, Kazuto; Kuwano, Michihiko; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be a poor prognostic factor in several human malignancies, including ovarian carcinoma. Following on from our basic study dealing with microarray analyses of YB-1-associated gene expression in ovarian cancer cells, we examined whether nuclear localization of YB-1 is associated with the expression of CXCR4, a vault protein named lung resistance-related vault protein (LRP/MVP), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human ovarian carcinoma. Fifty-three surgically resected ovarian carcinomas treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin were examined immunohistochemically for nuclear YB-1 expression and intrinsic expression of p-Akt, P-gp, LRP/MVP and CXCR4. Nuclear expression of YB-1 demonstrated significant correlation with p-Akt, P-gp and LRP expression, but no relationship with CXCR4 expression. By multivariate analysis, only YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression were independent prognostic factors with regard to overall survival. These results indicate that YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression are important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  4. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  5. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  6. Multiple conformational states of DnaA protein regulate its interaction with DnaA boxes in the initiation of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera J; Bhatia, Lavesh; Yilmaz, Gulden; Biswas-Fiss, Esther E; Biswas, Subhasis B

    2017-09-01

    DnaA protein is the initiator of genomic DNA replication in prokaryotes. It binds to specific DNA sequences in the origin of DNA replication and unwinds small AT-rich sequences downstream for the assembly of the replisome. The mechanism of activation of DnaA that enables it to bind and organize the origin DNA and leads to replication initiation remains unclear. In this study, we have developed double-labeled fluorescent DnaA probes to analyze conformational states of DnaA protein upon binding DNA, nucleotide, and Soj sporulation protein using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Our studies demonstrate that DnaA protein undergoes large conformational changes upon binding to substrates and there are multiple distinct conformational states that enable it to initiate DNA replication. DnaA protein adopted a relaxed conformation by expanding ~15Å upon binding ATP and DNA to form the ATP·DnaA·DNA complex. Hydrolysis of bound ATP to ADP led to a contraction of DnaA within the complex. The relaxed conformation of DnaA is likely required for the formation of the multi-protein ATP·DnaA·DNA complex. In the initiation of sporulation, Soj binding to DnaA prevented relaxation of its conformation. Soj·ADP appeared to block the activation of DnaA, suggesting a mechanism for Soj·ADP in switching initiation of DNA replication to sporulation. Our studies demonstrate that multiple conformational states of DnaA protein regulate its binding to DNA in the initiation of DNA replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. All 17 S-locus F-box proteins of the S2 - and S3 -haplotypes of Petunia inflata are assembled into similar SCF complexes with a specific function in self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Williams, Justin S; Sun, Penglin; Kao, Teh-Hui

    2016-09-01

    The collaborative non-self-recognition model for S-RNase-based self-incompatibility predicts that multiple S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs) produced by pollen of a given S-haplotype collectively mediate ubiquitination and degradation of all non-self S-RNases, but not self S-RNases, in the pollen tube, thereby resulting in cross-compatible pollination but self-incompatible pollination. We had previously used pollen extracts containing GFP-fused S2 -SLF1 (SLF1 with an S2 -haplotype) of Petunia inflata for co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and mass spectrometry (MS), and identified PiCUL1-P (a pollen-specific Cullin1), PiSSK1 (a pollen-specific Skp1-like protein) and PiRBX1 (a conventional Rbx1) as components of the SCF(S) (2-) (SLF) (1) complex. Using pollen extracts containing PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP for Co-IP/MS, we identified two additional SLFs (SLF4 and SLF13) that were assembled into SCF(SLF) complexes. As 17 SLF genes (SLF1 to SLF17) have been identified in S2 and S3 pollen, here we examined whether all 17 SLFs are assembled into similar complexes and, if so, whether these complexes are unique to SLFs. We modified the previous Co-IP/MS procedure, including the addition of style extracts from four different S-genotypes to pollen extracts containing PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP, to perform four separate experiments. The results taken together show that all 17 SLFs and an SLF-like protein, SLFLike1 (encoded by an S-locus-linked gene), co-immunoprecipitated with PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP. Moreover, of the 179 other F-box proteins predicted by S2 and S3 pollen transcriptomes, only a pair with 94.9% identity and another pair with 99.7% identity co-immunoprecipitated with PiSSK1:FLAG:GFP. These results suggest that SCF(SLF) complexes have evolved specifically to function in self-incompatibility. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  9. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, E Christian

    2016-06-01

    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dead time of dual detector tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the dead time for the dual detector nuclear tool with the analogue signal transmission is given in the paper. At least two different times exist in such tools: the dead time of detectors (for final computation they assumed identical to each other) and the dead time of the signal transmission set-up. A method of two radioactive sources is proposed to measure these two different dead times. When the times used for measuring every countrate needed in the dead time determination algorithm are taken into account, the statistical accuracy of the dead time determination can be obtained. These estimations are performed by the computer simulation method. Two codes have been designed: DEADT2D (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors) and DEADT2DS (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors with Statistics). The first code calculates the dead time based on the recorded countrates only, the second is doing a 'simulation job' and provides information on the statistical distribution of the observed dead times. The theory and the numerical solutions were checked both by the simulation calculations and by the experiments performed with the ODSN-102 tool (the experiments were performed by T. Zorski). (Author)

  11. Localization and Differential Expression of the Krüppel-Associated Box Zinc Finger Proteins 1 and 54 in Early Mouse Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Maria; Teperek, Marta; Elholm, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    -fused reporter gene into zygotes demonstrated the intracellular distribution of ZFP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ZFP54-GFP colocalized with a DNA marker in the two-cell embryo. The KRAB domain was essential to colocalize with DNA, and deletion of the KRAB domain in ZFP1-GFP and ZFP54-GFP localized...

  12. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; McSherry, K.

    1985-11-01

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  13. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Indications for a role of XBP1 in antibacterial and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Hua; Peng, Shaoqing; Zhang, Fumiao; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2017-08-01

    X box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) is a transcription factor that is essential for the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the differentiation of plasma cells, and some findings have also uncovered its function in innate immunity. XBP1 typically has two different transcripts, un-spliced (XBP1u) and spliced forms (XBP1s), but XBP1s is an active transcription factor in the regulation of target genes. To date, there is no evidence about the identification and function of XBP1 in common carp. Moreover, no data are currently available regarding the role of fish XBP1 in innate immunity. Thus, to determine whether XBP1 is involved in innate immune response in common carp, we cloned CcXBP1s and examined the expression of XBP1s and a XBP1s stimulated gene (IL-6) after Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) challenges. The results imply that CcXBP1s, as an active transcription factor, might play regulation roles in the antibacterial and antiviral innate immune responses of common carp. This allows us to gain new insights into the immunological function of XBP1 in fish innate immunity and the evolution of this important class of genes across vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  15. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  16. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  17. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  18. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  19. Outside the box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Queensland-based Hydrasyst wants to take its motto of 'Do more with less' into the greywater sector with a new water recycling and energy recovery technology launched in November, called The Grey Box. The company is initially targeting large industrial laundries as they are major generators of greywater and heavy energy users, but it has ambitions well beyond that. The average commercial laundry consumes 1-5ML of water a week, using about 16 litres for every 1kg of clothing washed. Hydrasyst director Stephen Balemi said The Grey Box can slash the volume by 80 per cent. While he was reluctant to disclose too much technical detail, he claimed it is the only technology serving the $1 billion a year laundry sector that combines microfiltration / ultrafiltration membrane technology and energy reduction components. The heart of the system is a ceramic hollow fibre membrane. Balemi said it produces higher filtrate quality than competitors, meaning the recycled water can be reused more often, and can process feed water of up to 70°C compared to typical ultrafiltration membranes that cap out at about 38°C. This means the recycled water can be reused at higher temperatures, with the heat in it recovered by a precise steam heater built into The Grey Box. “As an overall measure, it saves 80 per cent of the water that is processed and saves 20 per cent of the energy,” Balemi said. Four systems have already been installed, with one going into a large commercial laundry in south Queensland and another to AMP's state-of-the-art 6 Green Star building in Brisbane. “We can modify them slightly to suit the industry, depending on the quality of raw water they are trying to recycle and also depending on the size of the project,,” said Balemi. Where many organisations build systems to specification, The Grey Box is offered in three standard sizes: the HY20 (20kL per day, based on a 10 hour day), HY80 (80kL per day) and HY130 (130kL per day). They can be used

  20. Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) promotes cell proliferation, adhesion and drug resistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan [Department of Pathogen, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Zhu, Xinghua; Yin, Haibing [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); He, Yunhua [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); Li, Chunsun; Liu, Yushan; Lu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Yali; Shen, Rong [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Xu, Xiaohong, E-mail: xuxiaohongnantong@126.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-15

    YB-1 is a multifunctional protein, which has been shown to correlate with resistance to treatment of various tumor types. This study investigated the expression and biologic function of YB-1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression statuses of YB-1 and pYB-1{sup S102} were reversely correlated with the clinical outcomes of DLBCL patients. In addition, we found that YB-1 could promote the proliferation of DLBCL cells by accelerating the G1/S transition. Ectopic expression of YB-1 could markedly increase the expression of cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Furthermore, we found that adhesion of DLBCL cells to fibronectin (FN) could increase YB-1 phosphorylation at Ser102 and pYB-1{sup S102} nuclear translocation. In addition, overexpression of YB-1 could increase the adhesion of DLBCL cells to FN. Intriguingly, we found that YB-1 overexpression could confer drug resistance through cell-adhesion dependent and independent mechanisms in DLBCL. Silencing of YB-1 could sensitize DLBCL cells to mitoxantrone and overcome cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) phenotype in an AKT-dependent manner. - Highlights: • The expression statuses of YB-1 and pYB-1{sup S102} are reversely correlated with outcomes of DLBCL patients. • YB-1 promotes cell proliferation by accelerating G1/S transition in DLBCL. • YB-1 confers drug resistance to mitoxantrone in DLBCL.

  1. Global and stage specific patterns of Krüppel-associated-box zinc finger protein gene expression in murine early embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corsinotti

    Full Text Available Highly coordinated transcription networks orchestrate the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cell and the earliest steps of mammalian development. KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins represent the largest group of transcription factors encoded by the genomes of higher vertebrates including mice and humans. Together with their putatively universal cofactor KAP1, they have been implicated in events as diverse as the silencing of endogenous retroelements, the maintenance of imprinting and the pluripotent self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, although the genomic targets and specific functions of individual members of this gene family remain largely undefined. Here, we first generated a list of Ensembl-annotated KRAB-containing genes encoding the mouse and human genomes. We then defined the transcription levels of these genes in murine early embryonic cells. We found that the majority of KRAB-ZFP genes are expressed in mouse pluripotent stem cells and other early progenitors. However, we also identified distinctively cell- or stage-specific patterns of expression, some of which are pluripotency-restricted. Finally, we determined that individual KRAB-ZFP genes exhibit highly distinctive modes of expression, even when grouped in genomic clusters, and that these cannot be correlated with the presence of prototypic repressive or activating chromatin marks. These results pave the way to delineating the role of specific KRAB-ZFPs in early embryogenesis.

  2. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  3. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  4. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  5. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  6. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  7. Acsys in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; Smedinghoff, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System (ACSYS) at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a stand-alone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements. (authors)

  8. Boxing with Bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    When Protech Mining moved onto a greenfields site near Ermelo in mid-November last year to start work on the establishment of a box cut for an underground bituminous coal and anthracite mine for Delta Colliery, the company could not have foreseen the difficulties it was to encounter from the unusually high rainfall which fell, almost without abatement, from the time the first sod was turned. Production at the so called Mooiplants mine will commence in March 2001. Mining will take place at a maximum depth of 47 m and coal will be extracted from underground by two conveyor belts and stockpiled. Bell B40 CM mining trucks and an 18 Bell B20 articulated dump truck will be in the haulage fleet. 3 photos.

  9. Determination of detection equipment dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of determining dead time by short-lived source measurement. It is based on measuring the sample count rates in different time intervals when only dead time correction is changed with the changing count of recorded pulses. The dead time may be determined from the measured values by a numerical-graphical method. The method is described. The advantage of the method is the minimization of errors and inaccuracies; the disadvantage is that the half-life of the source used should very accurately be known. (J.P.)

  10. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  11. What Makes a Better Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  12. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  13. Relativistic particle in a box

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case

  14. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  15. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  16. Another method of dead time correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method of the correction of counting losses caused by a non-extended dead time of pulse detection systems is presented. The approach is based on the distribution of time intervals between pulses at the output of the system. The method was verified both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the suggested technique is more reliable and accurate than other methods based on a separate measurement of the dead time. (author) 5 refs

  17. Acquired Dependence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia on the DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mazurek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML therapy involves compounds that are cytotoxic to both normal and cancer cells, and relapsed AML is resistant to subsequent chemotherapy. Thus, agents are needed that selectively kill AML cells with minimal toxicity. Here, we report that AML is dependent on DDX5 and that inhibiting DDX5 expression slows AML cell proliferation in vitro and AML progression in vivo but is not toxic to cells from normal bone marrow. Inhibition of DDX5 expression in AML cells induces apoptosis via induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This apoptotic response can be blocked either by BCL2 overexpression or treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Combining DDX5 knockdown with a BCL2 family inhibitor cooperates to induce cell death in AML cells. By inhibiting DDX5 expression in vivo, we show that DDX5 is dispensable for normal hematopoiesis and tissue homeostasis. These results validate DDX5 as a potential target for blocking AML.

  18. DEAD-box RNA helicase is dispensable for mitochondrial translation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richterová, Lenka; Vávrová, Zuzana; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 1 (2011), 300-303 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Mitochondrial translation * RNA helicase * Cytochrome c oxidase * Mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2011

  19. First experimental evidence that a harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones detects odors of non-rotten dead prey by olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiany Miranda Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvestmen feed on live, dead and fresh, or decomposing animals, fungi, and plant matter, being very dependent on chemoreception to find food. Herein we performed an experiment to test if individuals of Discocyrtus pectinifemur Mello-Leitão, 1937 (Gonyleptidae (n = 23 behave differently when in contact with olfactory cues from different sources (rotten prey, non-rotten prey and a control. Using dead crickets in a box covered with a mesh, and recording the time the harvestmen spent in the vicinities of the box, we show that D. pectinifemur detects non-rotten prey and stays longer on it than on the other two treatments. Our results contrast with a previous study on another species, showing that we should not generalize results obtained for one species. Our data also suggest that olfactory receptors occur on the legs of these harvestmen and that D. pectinifemur might choose dietary items based on olfaction.

  20. Thinking Inside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeheim, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences

  1. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  2. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  3. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and are received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass...

  4. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  6. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  7. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  8. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  9. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  10. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA

  11. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  12. Injury risk in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred

    2005-10-01

    Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.

  13. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  14. Decontamination of TRU glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.H.

    1978-03-01

    Two glove boxes that had been used for work with transuranic nuclides (TRU) for about 12 years were decontaminated in a test program to collect data for developing a decontamination facility for large equipment highly contaminated with alpha emitters. A simple chemical technique consisting of a cycle of water flushes and alkaline permanganate and oxalic acid washes was used for both boxes. The test showed that glove boxes and similar equipment that are grossly contaminated with transuranic nuclides can be decontaminated to the current DIE nonretrievable disposal guide of <10 nCi TRU/g with a moderate amount of decontamination solution and manpower. Decontamination of the first box from an estimated 1.3 Ci to about 5 mCi (6 nCi/g) required 1.3 gallons of decontamination solution and 0.03 man-hour of work for each square foot of surface area. The second box was decontaminated from an estimated 3.4 Ci to about 2.8 mCi (4.2 nCi/g) using 0.9 gallon of decontamination solution and 0.02 man-hour for each square foot of surface area. Further reductions in contamination were achieved by repetitive decontamination cycles, but the effectiveness of the technique decreased sharply after the initial cycle

  15. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  16. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., is substantially important to national security. (See paragraph (b) of this section.) (iii) Escape of... security or an essential national defense mission. (2) Substantially important to national security based... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a...

  17. Bibliography on dead-time effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) Working Party has assembled a bibliography of the publications dealing with the measurement of dead times, the evaluation of the corresponding corrections and of other closely related subjects. It contains some 350 references, each of which is given with its full title; an author index is added. The search has been stopped in August 1975

  18. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  19. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  20. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  1. Medical and Safety Reforms in Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The continued existence of boxing as an accepted sport in civilized society has been long debated. The position of the American Medical Association (AMA) has evolved from promoting increased safety and medical reform to recommending total abolition of both amateur and professional boxing. In response to the AMA opposition to boxing, the boxing community has attempted to increase the safeguards in amateur and professional boxing. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation, which is the national regulatory agency for all amateur boxing in the United States, has taken several actions to prevent the occurrence of acute brain injury and is currently conducting epidemiologic studies to assess the long-term neuropsychologic consequences of amateur boxing. In professional boxing, state regulatory agencies such as the New York State Athletic Commission have introduced several medical interventions to prevent and reduce neurologic injury. The lack of a national regulatory agency to govern professional boxing has stimulated the formation of the Association of Boxing Commissions and potential legislation for the federal regulation of professional boxing by a federally chartered organization called the United States Boxing Commission. The AMA's opposition to boxing and the medical and safety reforms implemented by the proponents of boxing are discussed. PMID:3385788

  2. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  3. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixture, wiring device, or similar item, including each separately installed connection and junction box... used. (d) As appropriate, each outlet-box or junction-box installation must meet the following...

  5. Timing of APC/C substrate degradation is determined by fzy/fzr specificity of destruction boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Zur, Amit; Brandeis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), activated by fzy and fzr, degrades cell cycle proteins that carry RXXL or KEN destruction boxes (d-boxes). APC/C substrates regulate sequential events and must be degraded in the correct order during mitosis and G1. We studied how d-boxes determine APC/Cfzy/APC/Cfzr specificity and degradation timing. Cyclin B1 has an RXXL box and is degraded by both APC/Cfzy and APC/Cfzr; fzy has a KEN box and is degraded by APC/Cfzr only. We characterized th...

  6. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  7. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  8. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  9. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  10. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  11. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  12. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  13. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  14. Perturbative search for dead-end CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possibility of self-organized criticality, we look for CFTs without any relevant scalar deformations (a.k.a. dead-end CFTs) within power-counting renormalizable quantum field theories with a weakly coupled Lagrangian description. In three dimensions, the only candidates are pure (Abelian) gauge theories, which may be further deformed by Chern-Simons terms. In four dimensions, we show that there are infinitely many non-trivial candidates based on chiral gauge theories. Using the three-loop beta functions, we compute the gap of scaling dimensions above the marginal value, and it can be as small as O(10"−"5) and robust against the perturbative corrections. These classes of candidates are very weakly coupled and our perturbative conclusion seems difficult to refute. Thus, the hypothesis that non-trivial dead-end CFTs do not exist is likely to be false in four dimensions.

  15. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  16. Preparations of prokaryotic expression system, standard protein and antiserum, of human Y- box binding protein 1%人YB-1的高效原核表达及其标准蛋白与抗血清的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朴; 史静; 郭变琴; 钟梁; 梁勤东; 涂植光

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To construct a GST- expression system of human Y - box binding protein 1 (YB - 1), prepare the YB - 1 standard protein and its antiserum. Methods : The code sequence of YB - 1 was subcloned to the expression vector pGEX - 6P - 1. The recombinant vector was transformed into E. coli BL21 to express fusion protein GST- YB1. SDS- PAGE was applied to analyze the expression level and form of fusion protein. Then, YB- 1 standard protein was obtained by the means of GST - affinity chromatography and column - protease - digestion. The rabbit was immunized with YB - 1 protein to prepare the anti - YB1 polyclonal antibody. Results: The recombinant expression vector was constructed. SDS - PAGE and Western blot results showed that the GST - fusion protein was high- level expressed with soluble - form, and YB - 1 standard protein and its antisermn were obtained successfully. Conclusions: An economical, rapid method to prepare YB - 1 standard protein is established, and further obtained the high titer and affinity YB - 1 polyclonal antibody, which lay foundations for preparation of YB - 1 monoclonal antibody and development of YB - 1 quantitative analysis methods.%目的:构建YB1-GST表达系统,建立经济高效YB-1蛋白制备方法并制备其多抗。方法:将YB-1编码序列亚克隆至表达载体pGEX-6P-1;转化表达菌并确定可溶性表达最佳条件;采用GST亲和层析与层析柱上PSP酶切融合蛋白获取无标签蛋白的YB-1,经超滤浓缩及Western blot鉴定后,进-步真空冷冻于燥,制备YB-1标准蛋白;采用大剂量YB-1长程免疫方案免疫家兔以制备其抗体。结果:成功构建了表达载体pGEX—YB1;SDS—PAGE结果显示,YB1-GST融合蛋白以可溶性表达为主;Western blot结果证实,表达产物经GST亲和层析、PSP酶切以及真空冷冻干燥后获得了纯度较高的YB-1标准蛋白,将该蛋白免疫家兔获得了较高效价与特异性的

  17. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  18. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  1. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  2. Water box for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Robert; Viaud, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a water box for connecting an assembly composed of a vertical steam generator and a vertical pump to the vessel of the nuclear reactor, the assembly forming the primary cooling system of a pressurised water reactor. This invention makes it easy to dismantle the pump on the water box without significant loss of water in the primary cooling system of the reactor and particularly without it being necessary to drain the water contained in the steam generator beforehand. It makes it possible to shorten the time required for dismantling the primary pump in order to service or repair it and makes dismantling safer in that the dismantling does not involve draining the steam generator and therefore the critical storage of a large amount of cooling water that has been in contact with the fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactor core [fr

  3. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  4. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  5. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements

  6. Invariant box parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.J.; Wagner, D.

    1998-01-01

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n≥3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  8. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  9. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  10. A new G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  11. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  12. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  13. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  14. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to the Box Particle Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gning, Amadou; Ristic, B; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Abdallah, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for solving nonlinear filtering problems. This approach is particularly appealing in practical situations involving imprecise stochastic measurements, thus resulting in very broad posterior densities. It relies on the concept of a box particle, which occupies a small and controllable rectangular region having a non-zero volume in the state space. Key advantages of the box particle filter (Box-PF) against the standard particle filter (PF) are in its reduced c...

  16. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Liu, Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by L\\"uscher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these f...

  17. A novel ethylene-responsive factor from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, is a GCC-box- and DRE-motif binding protein that negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. The three-box paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravon, Tamar; Vaidman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    The classical three-box paradox of Kirkpatrick (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 4891) is compared to the original quantum three-box paradox of Aharonov and Vaidman (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315). It is argued that the quantum three-box experiment is a 'quantum paradox' in the sense that it is an example of a classical task which cannot be accomplished using classical means, but can be accomplished using quantum devices. It is shown that Kirkpatrick's card game is analogous to a different game with a particle in three boxes which does not contain paradoxical features

  19. Dimension measuring method for channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hiroto.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns detection of a channel box for spent fuel assemblies of a BWR type reactor, which measures a cross sectional shape and dimension of the channel box to check deformation amount such as expansion. That is, a customary fuel exchanger and a dimension measuring device are used. The lower end of the channel box is measured by a distance sensor of the dimension measuring device when it is aligned with a position of the distance sensor. The channel box is lowered at the same time while detecting axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The position of the channel box in an axial direction is detected based on axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The lower end of the channel box can accurately be recognized by the detection of both of them. Subsequent deformation measurement for the channel box at accurate axial positions is enabled. In addition, since the axial position data of the fuel exchanger per se are detected, an axial profile of the channel box can be measured even if a lifting speed of the channel box is varied on every region. (I.S.)

  20. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  1. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  2. Comparison Between PCI and Box Girder in BridgesPrestressed Concrete Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Cut; Zainuddin, Z.; Is, Syafridal; Rahim, Robbi

    2018-04-01

    This research is done by comparing PCI and Box Girder types of prestressed concrete design. The method used is load balance. Previous studies have just discussed the differences in terms of effectiveness and economics. In this study, the researchers want to know the design process by comparing the working forces, the resulting moment, and the losses of the prestressed. As the case in this study, the researchers used the bridge with the span of 31 meters. The tendon pulling system was conducted with post-tensioning system The analysis result showed that prestressed of the Girder box type sustained the greatest moment due to the combination of its own weight, additional dead load, lane load, and wind load of 44,029 kNm, while the biggest moment of PCI Girder was 7,556.75 KNm The Girder beam box experiences greater moment and shear force than PCI Girder. This is the effect of the weight of its own Girderboxwaslarger than PCI Girder. The losses ofprestressed style of Girderboxand PCI Girder type were 24.85% and 26.32%, respectively.Moreover, it showed that the type of Girder box is cheaper, easier, and more efficient than PCI Girder.

  3. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  5. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  6. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parents/caregivers' attitudes toward dead neonates. Hospital-based postbereavement programs should be organized to ... Dead neonates at the Neonatal Intensive Care Units,. Pediatric Emergency Department, Pediatric Surgical .... interventions and newborn survival. Niger J Med 2006; 15:108–114. 3 Kalkofen RW. After a ...

  7. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  8. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  9. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  10. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNILOGIES OF CHITOSAN PRODUCTION FROM DEAD BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  12. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  13. Electrical requirements for unshielded glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The specification relates to the general design and installation of electrical services required in unshielded glove boxes in which atmospheres of air, argon or nitrogen etc. may exist either temporarily or permanently. The specification does not apply to electrical services for glove boxes with flammable explosive atmospheres. (author)

  14. British Box Business: A History of OCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal

    2018-01-01

    Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701......Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701...

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  16. Opportunities in white-box cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, W.

    White-box cryptography is the discipline of implementing a cryptographic algorithm in software such that an adversary will have difficulty extracting the cryptographic key. This approach assumes that the adversary has full access to and full control over the implementation's execution. White-box

  17. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  18. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  19. Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.

  20. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  1. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  2. Boxing against drones : Drones in sports education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, S.G.; Barakova, E.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how drones could be integrated into the context of sports, boxing in particular. The goal of this project is to design a drone application that allows direct and embodied interaction. The sport of boxing provides a very interesting setting, because the intimidating and

  3. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including any... poultry at the destination listed on the permit required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (b) Dressed... quarantined area only if: (1) The dressed carcasses are from birds or poultry that were slaughtered in a...

  4. Genomic Organization, Phylogenetic Comparison and Differential Expression of the SBP-Box Family Genes in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongmin; Li, Jun; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Hao; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The SBP-box gene family is specific to plants and encodes a class of zinc finger-containing transcription factors with a broad range of functions. Although SBP-box genes have been identified in numerous plants including green algae, moss, silver birch, snapdragon, Arabidopsis, rice and maize, there is little information concerning SBP-box genes, or the corresponding miR156/157, function in grapevine. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen SBP-box gene family members were identified in Vitis vinifera, twelve of which bore sequences that were complementary to miRNA156/157. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that plant SBP-domain proteins could be classified into seven subgroups, with the V. vinifera SBP-domain proteins being more closely related to SBP-domain proteins from dicotyledonous angiosperms than those from monocotyledonous angiosperms. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologs of several grape SBP genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of the grape SBP-box genes in various organs and at different stages of fruit development in V. quinquangularis ‘Shang-24’ revealed distinct spatiotemporal patterns. While the majority of the grape SBP-box genes lacking a miR156/157 target site were expressed ubiquitously and constitutively, most genes bearing a miR156/157 target site exhibited distinct expression patterns, possibly due to the inhibitory role of the microRNA. Furthermore, microarray data mining and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis identified several grape SBP-box genes that are potentially involved in the defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Conclusion The results presented here provide a further understanding of SBP-box gene function in plants, and yields additional insights into the mechanism of stress management in grape, which may have important implications for the future success of this crop. PMID:23527172

  5. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  6. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  7. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  8. Dustproof cooling of the electrical box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemec Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In present are electrical boxes cooled by air through the intake hole on the bottom electrical box to the box space with electrotechnical elements and exhaust through the hole at the top to the surrounding by natural convection. This cooling method is effective but operate with the risk of contamination electrotechnical elements by dust sucking from surrounding air. The goal of this work is solution of the dustproof cooling of the electrical box by natural convection. The work deal with design of the device with the heat transfer by the phase change of the working fluid and experimental measuring its thermal performance at the cooling electrotechnical elements loaded by heat 1 200 W in the dustproof electrical box.

  9. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  10. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  11. A Conserved Metal Binding Motif in the Bacillus subtilis Competence Protein ComFA Enhances Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Scott S; Falbel, Tanya G; Hromada, Susan; Burton, Briana M

    2017-08-01

    Genetic competence is a process in which cells are able to take up DNA from their environment, resulting in horizontal gene transfer, a major mechanism for generating diversity in bacteria. Many bacteria carry homologs of the central DNA uptake machinery that has been well characterized in Bacillus subtilis It has been postulated that the B. subtilis competence helicase ComFA belongs to the DEAD box family of helicases/translocases. Here, we made a series of mutants to analyze conserved amino acid motifs in several regions of B. subtilis ComFA. First, we confirmed that ComFA activity requires amino acid residues conserved among the DEAD box helicases, and second, we show that a zinc finger-like motif consisting of four cysteines is required for efficient transformation. Each cysteine in the motif is important, and mutation of at least two of the cysteines dramatically reduces transformation efficiency. Further, combining multiple cysteine mutations with the helicase mutations shows an additive phenotype. Our results suggest that the helicase and metal binding functions are two distinct activities important for ComFA function during transformation. IMPORTANCE ComFA is a highly conserved protein that has a role in DNA uptake during natural competence, a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer observed in many bacteria. Investigation of the details of the DNA uptake mechanism is important for understanding the ways in which bacteria gain new traits from their environment, such as drug resistance. To dissect the role of ComFA in the DNA uptake machinery, we introduced point mutations into several motifs in the protein sequence. We demonstrate that several amino acid motifs conserved among ComFA proteins are important for efficient transformation. This report is the first to demonstrate the functional requirement of an amino-terminal cysteine motif in ComFA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  13. Are We the Walking Dead? Burnout as Zombie Apocalypse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R

    2016-11-01

    The Walking Dead , one of the most popular television shows in recent history, uses the plot of a zombie apocalypse as a lens into exploring the human condition. Amidst a particularly dangerous moment, the show's hero references the human struggle to survive by remarking, " We are the walking dead." This offhand comment sheds light upon physicians' struggles in medicine, in particular the high prevalence of burnout and the challenge to cultivate compassion and meaning. This is an important question for our age and for our profession. Are we the walking dead? © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  15. Design report for shielded glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Min, D. K.; Park, S. W.

    1999-05-01

    For the examination of spent fuels and high radioactive specimens using a specially equipped scanning electron microscope, a shielded glove box was designed and constructed at PIE facility of KAERI. This glove box consisted of shielding walls, containment box, lead glasses, manipulators, gloves, ventilation systems, doors, hot-cell specimen cask adapter, etc. It was emphasized that both the easy operation and radiation safety are important factors in the shielded glove box were installed also considered as a important factor to build the basic concept of the assembling. Two sliding doors and one hinge-type door were installed for the easy installation, operation and maintenance of scanning electron microscope. Containment box which confines the radioactive material into the box consisted of reinforced transparent glasses, aluminum frames and stainless steel plate liner. Therefore everything beyond the containment box can be seen through the lead glass which installed at the front shielding wall. All shielding walls and doors were introduced separately into the room and assembled by bolting. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  16. Two particle states in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Liu Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The exact two-particle energy eigenstates in an asymmetric rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions in all three directions are studied. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained. These results can be viewed as a generalization of the corresponding formulae in a cubic box obtained by Luescher before. In particular, the s-wave scattering length is related to the energy shift in the finite box. Possible applications of these formulae are also discussed

  17. DEAD-Box RNA Helicases are among the Constituents of the Tobacco Pollen mRNA Storing Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Potěšil, D.; Zdráhal, Z.; Honys, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2013) ISSN 2329-9029 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13049 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Translation * mRNA storage * RNA helicase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Novel functions of prototype foamy virus Gag glycine- arginine-rich boxes in reverse transcription and particle morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllers, Erik; Uhlig, Tobias; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Fiebig, Uwe; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Lindemann, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    Prototype foamy virus (PFV) Gag lacks the characteristic orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs that are essential for various steps of the orthoretroviral replication cycle, such as RNA packaging, reverse transcription, infectivity, integration, and viral assembly. Instead, it contains three glycine-arginine-rich boxes (GR boxes) in its C terminus that putatively represent a functional equivalent. We used a four-plasmid replication-deficient PFV vector system, with uncoupled RNA genome packaging and structural protein translation, to analyze the effects of deletion and various substitution mutations within each GR box on particle release, particle-associated protein composition, RNA packaging, DNA content, infectivity, particle morphology, and intracellular localization. The degree of viral particle release by all mutants was similar to that of the wild type. Only minimal effects on Pol encapsidation, exogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and genomic viral RNA packaging were observed. In contrast, particle-associated DNA content and infectivity were drastically reduced for all deletion mutants and were undetectable for all alanine substitution mutants. Furthermore, GR box I mutants had significant changes in particle morphology, and GR box II mutants lacked the typical nuclear localization pattern of PFV Gag. Finally, it could be shown that GR boxes I and III, but not GR box II, can functionally complement each other. It therefore appears that, similar to the orthoretroviral Cys-His motifs, the PFV Gag GR boxes are important for RNA encapsidation, genome reverse transcription, and virion infectivity as well as for particle morphogenesis.

  19. Extensive overproduction of the AdhE protein by rng mutations depends on mutations in the cra gene or in the Cra-box of the adhE promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Naoko; Umitsuki, Genryou; Clark, David P; Nagai, Kazuo; Wachi, Masaaki

    2002-07-05

    Escherichia coli RNase G encoded by the rng gene is involved in degradation of adhE mRNA. Overproduction of the AdhE protein by rng mutants was found to depend on the genetic background of strains derived from DC272 (adhC81) or MC1061. We found that DC272 carried a point mutation in the Cra-binding site of the adhE promoter. The Cra protein encoded by the cra gene is known to act as a repressor of adhE. P1-phage-mediated transduction and lacZ fusion analysis with the mutant adhE promoter confirmed that this mutation is responsible for overproduction. On the other hand, Southern hybridization revealed that MC1061 had a 0.85-kb deletion of the cra gene. Overproduction of AdhE in the MC1061 background was reversed to the wild-type levels by introduction of a plasmid carrying the cra(+) gene. These results indicated that expression of the adhE gene was regulated transcriptionally by Cra and posttranscriptionally by RNase G. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  20. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  1. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  2. Optimal linear filtering of Poisson process with dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhova, E.V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a derivation of an integral equation defining the impulsed transient of optimum linear filtering for evaluation of the intensity of the fluctuating Poisson process with allowance for dead time of transducers

  3. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania

    1983-01-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  4. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky's question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  5. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  6. Glove boxes. Dimensions and requirements. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The standard is to be applied to work done in glove-boxes, whereby either the personnel need to be protected from the damaging effects of the materials being handled, or the materials from the effects of the environment. It is to be applied to glove-boxes in which substances are handled which emit ionising radiation (radioactive substances). This norm is not restricted to glove-boxes in which processes are carried out on a technique scale. In accordance with this norm, only those pressures and temperatures are allowed to be present in the glove-boxes, that do not offer significantly from the work areas. Alongside the stipulations of this standard regard is also always to be taken of the regulations in the radiation protection ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  8. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  10. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  11. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  12. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  13. Dead wood for biodiversity - foresters torn between mistrust and commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuffic, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Dead wood is a key element in forest biodiversity, which is used as one of the indicators for sustainable development of forests. A survey was conducted among foresters and users in the Landes de Gascogne and ile-de-France areas so as to assess practises and social representations associated with dead wood. From the results of the survey, it appears that there is a diversity of practices and divergences about the implications connected with dead wood. The 64 respondents can be divided into roughly six groups (G1: 'industrial foresters', G2: the 'silvicultural foresters', G3: the 'remote foresters', G4: the 'environmentalist foresters', G5: the 'naturalists' and G6: the 'users'). Among other things, they can be differentiated by their management practises, their degree of knowledge about and concern with ecology, their social networks, their aesthetic judgment, their perception of risks and their economic requirements. While underscoring the scarce popularity on average of the biodiversity-related issues, this sociological survey also highlights: the need for a minimal regulatory framework to achieve integrated retention of dead wood, the serious concern of forest managers in the Landes with plant health risks associated with dead wood, and the need for a functional justification for keeping dead wood in the ecosystem. (authors)

  14. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  15. Molecular dissection of the APC/C inhibitor Rca1 shows a novel F-box-dependent function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Norman; Querings, Silvia; Grosskortenhaus, Ruth; Reis, Tânia; Sprenger, Frank

    2006-12-01

    Rca1 (regulator of Cyclin A)/Emi (early mitotic inhibitor) proteins are essential inhibitors of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In Drosophila, Rca1 is required during G2 to prevent premature cyclin degradation by the Fizzy-related (Fzr)-dependent APC/C activity. Here, we present a structure and function analysis of Rca1 showing that a carboxy-terminal fragment is sufficient for APC/C inhibition. Rca1/Emi proteins contain a conserved F-box and interact with components of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex. So far, no function has been ascribed to this domain. We find that the F-box of Rca1 is dispensable for APC/C-Fzr inhibition during G2. Nevertheless, we show that Rca1 has an additional function at the G1-S transition, which requires the F-box. Overexpression of Rca1 accelerates the G1-S transition in an F-box-dependent manner. Conversely, S-phase entry is delayed in cells in which endogenous Rca1 is replaced by a transgene lacking the F-box. We propose that Rca1 acts as an F-box protein in an as yet uncharacterized SCF complex, which promotes S-phase entry.

  16. Study on structural integrity in box structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki; Ueta, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Tadashi; Ikeuchi, Toshiaki; Kodama, Tetsuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    This study was carried out to give an experimental foundation to the structural integrity of a box structure. Crack growth tests were performed on the reduced scale models, simulating typical portions of the box structure, in air at room temperature. The results show that the amount of crack growth is too small to injure the structural integrity of the models for the postulated loading cycle, and make clear the effective structure against crack growth. (author)

  17. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  18. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  19. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Herrera, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. 


 PMID:10597855

  20. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  1. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    - FR (NPP Gravelines) was conducted (22-23th of May 2001). The main objectives of the INEX series of exercises were focused on: decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions; the use of real time communications with actual equipment and procedures; public information and interaction with media; the use of real weather for real time forecasts. For real further improvement of (nuclear) emergency management and response, not only national and international exercises such as INEX, CONVEX, JINEX etc. are needed, but the efforts to improve personal performance of key-persons involved is crucial. Structural plans to train and exercise individuals and teams should therefore be developed as well. To move the dead horse and create a racehorse need a lot of personal skills and attention. It is also recognized that often the carrot is better than the whip. (author)

  2. A flexible system to capture sample vials in a storage box - the box vial scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Steven E; Kressin, Kenneth R; Deick, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Tracking sample vials in a research environment is a critical task and doing so efficiently can have a large impact on productivity, especially in high volume laboratories. There are several challenges to automating the capture process, including the variety of containers used to store samples. We developed a fast and robust system to capture the location of sample vials being placed in storage that allows the laboratories the flexibility to use sample containers of varying dimensions. With a single scan, this device captures the box identifier, the vial identifier and the location of each vial within a freezer storage box. The sample vials are tracked through a barcode label affixed to the cap while the boxes are tracked by a barcode label on the side of the box. Scanning units are placed at the point of use and forward data to a sever application for processing the scanned data. Scanning units consist of an industrial barcode reader mounted in a fixture positioning the box for scanning and providing lighting during the scan. The server application transforms the scan data into a list of storage locations holding vial identifiers. The list is then transferred to the laboratory database. The box vial scanner captures the IDs and location information for an entire box of sample vials into the laboratory database in a single scan. The system accommodates a wide variety of vials sizes by inserting risers under the sample box and a variety of storage box layouts are supported via the processing algorithm on the server.

  3. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-01-15

    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  4. A method for the measurement of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equations are derived for (a) the determination of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system in the components preceding the paralysis unit which imposes the set dead time, and (b) a more accurate correction of count rates in a single-channel system, taking into account the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. (author)

  5. Exergaming boxing versus heavy-bag boxing: are these equipotent for individuals with spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M; Husain, Ruby

    2017-08-01

    Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy-bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing. Cross-sectional study. Exercise laboratory setting in a university medical center. Seventeen participants with SCI were recruited, of which sixteen were male and only one female. Their mean age was 35.6±10.2 years. All of them performed a 15-minute physical exercise session of exergaming and heavy-bag boxing in a sitting position. The study assessed physiological responses in terms of oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure between exergaming and heavy-bag boxing derived from open-circuit spirometry. Participants also rated their perceived exertion using Borg's category-ratio ratings of perceived exertion. Both exergaming (MET: 4.3±1.0) and heavy-bag boxing (MET: 4.4±1.0) achieved moderate exercise intensities in these participants with SCI. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences (P>0.05, Cohen's d: 0.02-0.49) in the physiological or perceived exertional responses between the two modalities of boxing. Post session user survey reported all the participants found exergaming boxing more enjoyable. Exergaming boxing, was able to produce equipotent physiological responses as conventional heavy-bag boxing. The intensity of both exercise modalities achieved recommended intensities for health and fitness benefits. Exergaming boxing have the potential to provide an enjoyable, self-competitive environment for moderate-vigorous exercise even at the comfort of their homes.

  6. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  7. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not more...

  8. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for a...

  9. Plutonium glove boxes - metrology and operational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyer, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective was to undertake a literature review in support of NII's ongoing work in improving safety in the nuclear industry to help define suitable standards of cleanliness for plutonium glove boxes. This is to cover the following areas: existing or proposed national/international standards relating to plutonium glove box cleanliness management; practicable metrology options for assessing the plutonium content of glove boxes; any available dose information relating to the operation of modern and 'old design'; current contamination levels of specific significance (i.e. any accepted level in decommissioning/waste terms, typical criticality limits (if available), any box plutonium loadings that are documented with corresponding operator doses etc.); and, techniques for the decontamination of plutonium glove boxes and their relative effectiveness. This should then form the basis of any further development work undertaken by the UK nuclear industry. Main recommendations are as follows: 1) No information could be found in open literature on acceptable levels of contamination in boxes and action levels for cleanup. If these are not available in closed publications the 2) Where possible, the decontamination methods identified should be tested and dose information recorded against each method to allow informed decisions on which is the optimum technique for a particular form of contamination. 3) Consideration should be given to utilisation of metrology options which have the lowest potential for exposure of operators. Preferred options, may be detection from the outside of boxes using hand-held or permanently located radiation detectors, or semi-intrusive methods such as air-ionisation readings which would require one-off installation of detectors in ductwork

  10. Aussteigen (getting out Impossible—Montage and Life Scenarios in Andres Veiel’s Film Black Box BRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Katharina Seiler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Andres Veiel’s 2001 documentary film, Black Box BRD, links the biography of Alfred Herrhausen, RAF victim, with one of the 3rdgeneration RAF terrorists, Wolfgang Grams. In my paper, I trace how the film’s aesthetics introduce an image montage of two life scenarios by establishing both parallels and contrast, and therefore, following Susan Haywards definition “creates a third meaning” (112. I examine how the film establishes an aesthetic concept of Aussteigen (getting out—along of the alive, visible bodies—the contemporary interviewees, and dead, invisible bodies—of Herrhausen and Grams.

  11. Hemoadsorption of high-mobility-group box 1 using a porous polymethylmethacrylate fiber in a swine acute liver failure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Ryusuke; Shinoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Masayuki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Kaoru; Fujieda, Hiroaki; Yagi, Hiroshi; Mizota, Takamasa; Nishiyama, Ryo; Oshima, Go; Yamada, Shingo; Matsubara, Kentaro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Kitago, Minoru; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2018-04-01

    High-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 has been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to develop a column that effectively adsorbs high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 by altering the pore size of the fiber. First, we produced three types of porous polymethylmethacrylate fiber by altering the concentration of polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. We then selected a fiber based on the results of an in vitro incubation test of high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 adsorption. Using the selected fiber, we constructed a new column and tested its high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 adsorption capacity during 4-h extracorporeal hemoperfusion in a swine acute liver failure model. Electron microscope observation showed that the three types of fibers had different pore sizes on the surface and in cross section, which were dependent on the concentration of polymethylmethacrylate. In the in vitro incubation test, fiber with moderate-sized pores demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity. In the in vivo hemoperfusion study, the ratio of the high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 concentration at the outlet versus the inlet of the column was significantly lower with the new column than with the control column during 4-h extracorporeal hemoperfusion. The normalized plasma level of high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 at 12 h after the completion of hemoperfusion was significantly lower with the new column than with the control column. The newly developed polymethylmethacrylate column adsorbs high-mobility-group box chromosomal protein 1 during hemoperfusion in swine ALF model.

  12. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  13. Loss of Hda activity stimulates replication initiation from I-box, but not R4 mutant origins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Leise; Fujimitsu, Kazuyuki; Katayama, Tsutomu; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is limited by the initiator protein DnaA associated with ATP. Within the replication origin, binding sites for DnaA associated with ATP or ADP (R boxes) and the DnaA(ATP) specific sites (I-boxes, tau-boxes and 6-mer sites) are found. We analysed chromosome replication of cells carrying mutations in conserved regions of oriC. Cells carrying mutations in DnaA-boxes I2, I3, R2, R3 and R5 as well as FIS and IHF binding sites resembled wild-type cells with respect to origin concentration. Initiation of replication in these mutants occurred in synchrony or with slight asynchrony only. Furthermore, lack of Hda stimulated initiation in all these mutants. The DnaA(ATP) containing complex that leads to initiation can therefore be formed in the absence of several of the origin DnaA binding sites including both DnaA(ATP) specific I-boxes. However, competition between I-box mutant and wild-type origins, revealed a positive role of I-boxes on initiation. On the other hand, mutations affecting DnaA-box R4 were found to be compromised for initiation and could not be augmented by an increase in cellular DnaA(ATP)/DnaA(ADP) ratio. Compared with the sites tested here, R4 therefore seems to contribute to initiation most critically.

  14. Boxing-acute complications and late sequelae: from concussion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förstl, Hans; Haass, Christian; Hemmer, Bernhard; Meyer, Bernhard; Halle, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Boxing has received increased public attention and acceptance in recent years. However, this development has not been accompanied by a critical discussion of the early and late health complications. We selectively review recent studies on the acute, subacute, and chronic neuropsychiatric consequences of boxing. Cerebral concussions ("knock-outs") are the most relevant acute consequence of boxing. The number of reported cases of death in the ring seems to have mildly decreased. Subacute neuropsychological deficits appear to last longer than subjective symptoms. The associated molecular changes demonstrate neuronal and glial injury correlated with the number and severity of blows to the head (altered total tau, beta-amyloid, neurofilament light protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neuron-specific enolase). The risk of a punch-drunk syndrome (boxer's dementia, dementia pugilistica) as a late effect of chronic traumatic brain injury is associated with the duration of a boxer's career and with his earlier stamina. There are similarities (e.g. increased risk with ApoE4-polymorphism, beta-amyloid pathology) and differences (more tau pathology in boxers) compared with Alzheimer's disease. Protective gear has led to a remarkable reduction of risks in amateur boxing. Similar measures can also be used in professional boxing, but may decrease the thrill, which does appeal to many supporters.

  15. Forkhead-box transcription factors and their role in the immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffer, PJ; Burgering, BMT

    2004-01-01

    It is more than a decade since the discovery of the first forkhead-box (FOX) transcription factor in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the intervening time, there has been an explosion in the identification and characterization of members of this family of proteins. Importantly, in the past

  16. Fuel assembly and fuel channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Toraki; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Ishizaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Junjiro; Aizawa, Yasuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    A fuel channel box has a square cylindrical shape and, in the transversal cross sectional shape, the wall thickness of a corner portion is greater than that of a central portion of the side wall except for an upper portion thereof. The upper portion of the channel box includes a region to be in contact with an upper lattice plate and a region to attach a channel spacer. Then, the wall thickness of these regions is uniform in the transversal cross section and they have the same wall thickness with that of the corner portion which has the increased wall thickness. With such a constitution, the upper portion of the channel box receives a counter force applied from the upper lattice plate upon occurrence of earthquakes and moderate it to reduce local stresses and deformation. Further, a similar region with increased wall thickness is disposed also to the lower portion of the channel box, thereby enabling to suppress the amount of coolants leaked from a portion between the lower portion and a lower tie plate, and improve the mechanical integrity of the channel box. (I.N.)

  17. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  18. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  19. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  20. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  1. Dead Pericarps of Dry Fruits Function as Long-Term Storage for Active Hydrolytic Enzymes and Other Substances That Affect Germination and Microbial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godwin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that dead pericarps of dry indehiscent fruits have evolved to provide an additional physical layer for embryo protection and as a means for long distance dispersal. The pericarps of dry fruits undergo programmed cell death (PCD during maturation whereby most macromolecules such DNA, RNA, and proteins are thought to be degraded and their constituents remobilized to filial tissues such as embryo and endosperm. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the dead pericarp represents an elaborated layer that is capable of storing active proteins and other substances for increasing survival rate of germinating seeds. Using in gel assays we found that dead pericarps of both dehiscent and indehiscent dry fruits of various plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba release upon hydration multiple active hydrolytic enzymes that can persist in an active form for decades, including nucleases, proteases, and chitinases. Proteomic analysis of indehiscent pericarp of S. alba revealed multiple proteins released upon hydration, among them proteases and chitinases, as well as proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS detoxification and cell wall modification. Pericarps appear to function also as a nutritional element-rich storage for nitrate, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and others. Sinapis alba dehiscent and indehiscent pericarps possess germination inhibitory substances as well as substances that promote microbial growth. Collectively, our study explored previously unknown features of the dead pericarp acting also as a reservoir of biological active proteins, and other substances capable of “engineering” the microenvironment for the benefit of the embryo.

  2. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  3. Lévy flights in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A quantum Lévy process in a box involves topological constraints in space. •The eigenvalue problem is formulated for the Lévy process in the box. •The path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is constructed. •The evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation. -- Abstract: It is shown that a quantum Lévy process in a box leads to a problem involving topological constraints in space, and its treatment in the framework of the path integral formalism with the Lévy measure is suggested. The eigenvalue problem for the infinite potential well is properly defined and solved. An analytical expression for the evolution operator is obtained in the path integral presentation, and the path integral takes the correct limit of the local quantum mechanics with topological constraints. An example of the Lévy process in oscillating walls is also considered in the adiabatic approximation

  4. Design and Development of Smart Medicine Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The Smart Medicine Box is successfully designed in helping the introvert patients taking their medicine without help of others. This project is to develop a robotic device that can assist patient to take medicine alone by implementing an IOT apps system for controlling the Smart Medicine Box where it will overcome an emotional disturbance experience by the introvert patients. There are four sensors such as PIR, IR, temperature and ultrasonic sensors use for the project. The purpose of PIR sensor is to detect hand movement near the device, while IR sensor is to detect the line follower on the floor. The LM 35 acts as the detection of the temperature inside the box and the ultrasonic acts as the detection of the obstacle in front of the device. The MIT Apps Invention 2 is used to develop an apps and collect the data from sensors through Arduino microcontroller. A proof of concept design has implemented and demonstrated successfully.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  6. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  7. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  8. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  9. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  11. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  12. Experimental realization of the quantum box problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resch, K.J.; Lundeen, J.S.; Steinberg, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The three-box problem is a gedankenexperiment designed to elucidate some interesting features of quantum measurement and locality. A particle is prepared in a particular superposition of three boxes, and later found in a different (but nonorthogonal) superposition. It was predicted that appropriate 'weak' measurements of particle position in the interval between preparation and post-selection would find the particle in two different places, each with certainty. We verify these predictions in an optical experiment and address the issues of locality and of negative probability

  13. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen V; Parish, Tanya

    2018-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules. M. tuberculosis currently causes over 1.8 million deaths a year, making it the world's most deadly human pathogen.

  14. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  15. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Jan A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  16. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  17. Fibrillarin and Nop56 interact before being co-assembled in box C/D snoRNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechertier, Tanguy; Grob, Alice; Hernandez-Verdun, Daniele; Roussel, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs play crucial roles in ribosome biogenesis. They guide folding, site-specific nucleotide modifications and participate in cleavage of precursor ribosomal RNAs. To better understand how the biogenesis of the box C/D small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) occur in a cellular context, we used a new approach based on the possibility of relocalizing a given nuclear complex by adding an affinity tag for B23 to one component of this complex. We selectively delocalized each core box C/D protein, namely 15.5kD, Nop56, Nop58 and fibrillarin, and analyzed the effect of such changes on other components of the box C/D snoRNPs. We show that modifying the localization and the mobility of core box C/D proteins impairs their association with box C/D snoRNPs. In addition, we demonstrate that fibrillarin and Nop56 directly interact in vivo. This interaction, indispensable for the association of both proteins with the box C/D snoRNPs, does not involve the glycine- and arginine-rich domain or the RNA-binding domain but the alpha-helix domain of fibrillarin. In addition, no RNA seems required to maintain fibrillarin-Nop56 interaction

  18. Perturbation in protein expression of the sterile salmonid hybrids between female brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou during early spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Senda, Yoshie; Abe, Syuiti

    2013-05-01

    Most males and females of intergeneric hybrid (BM) between female brook trout (Bt) Salvelinus fontinalis and male masu salmon (Ms) Oncorhynchus masou had undeveloped gonads, with abnormal germ cell development shown by histological examination. To understand the cause of this hybrid sterility, expression profiles of testicular proteins in the BM and parental species were examined with 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Compared with the parental species, more than 60% of differentially expressed protein spots were down-regulated in BM. A total of 16 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated proteins were identified in BM. Up-regulated were transferrin and other somatic cell-predominant proteins, whereas down-regulated were some germ cell-specific proteins such as DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa. Other pronouncedly down-regulated proteins included tubulins and heat shock proteins that are supposed to have roles in spermatogenesis. The present findings suggest direct association of the observed perturbation in protein expression with the failure of spermatogenesis and the sterility in the examined salmonid hybrids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  20. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  1. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  2. Box and block test in Beninese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natta, Ditouah Didier Niama; Alagnidé, Etienne; Kpadonou, Toussaint Godonou; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan G

    2015-11-01

    To determine the Box and Block Test norm in a sub-Saharan population and to compare these data with published norms for North American adults. A total of 692 healthy Beninese people, age range 20-85 years, were recruited. These subjects were asked to perform the Box and Block Test with both hands. Box and Block Test scores (mean and standard deviation (SD)) for women and men were, respectively, 81.3 (15.4) and 79 (16.6) for the dominant hand and 73.2 (13.7) and 72 (14.8) for the non-dominant hand. Mean Box and Block Test scores ranged from 89.1 (12.7) for people under the age of 25 years to 55.23 (10.5) for people over the age of 74 years. Manual dexterity was better for women than men, for dominant hand than non-dominant hand, and for younger subjects. In comparison with published results for US subjects, Beninese subjects had better dexterity below the age of 50 years in both sexes for the right hand and worse dexterity over 64 years of age in both sexes for the right hand. Developing and validating outcome scales in Africa will help to improve functional assessment of African populations in clinical practice and research.

  3. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Ying; Meng Guozhan; Feng Xu; Gong Ming; He Song; Li Gang; Liu Chuan; Liu Yubin; Ma Jianping; Meng Xiangfei; Shen Yan; Zhang Jianbo

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Luescher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  5. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  6. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  7. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beam bridge is the bridge of choice for short and short-to-medium span bridges. This choice is because of the ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal, and high torsional sti...

  8. Coincidence counting corrections for dead time losses and accidental coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1987-04-01

    An equation is derived for the calculation of the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting taking into account the dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The derivation is an extension of the method of J. Bryant [Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 14:143, 1963]. The improvement on Bryant's formula has been verified by experiment

  9. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  10. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial biomethanization. This study was investigated with the aim of evaluating the biofuel potentials of dead neem leaves in Maroua town. The number of neem trees, as well as biomass produced by ...

  11. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis: A deadly disease | Cree | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the diagnosis, cause, course and required treatment of this deadly disease among physicians and surgeons around the world is limited. Methods: A study was undertaken at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka Zambia to review the incidence, associated pathology, management given, ...

  13. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  14. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  15. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  16. Theory of precipitation effects on dead cylindrical fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Fosberg

    1972-01-01

    Numerical and analytical solutions of the Fickian diffusion equation were used to determine the effects of precipitation on dead cylindrical forest fuels. The analytical solution provided a physical framework. The numerical solutions were then used to refine the analytical solution through a similarity argument. The theoretical solutions predicted realistic rates of...

  17. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  18. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T

    2008-03-01

    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.

  19. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns ...

  20. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  1. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  2. Stylistic Variation In Three English Translations Of The Dead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 different English translations were published. In this article the stylistic variation of three of these translations are analysed. It is suggested that the issue of stylistic variation boils down to linguistically inscribed preference in the choice and construction of discourses in the ...

  3. Down dead wood statistics for Maine timberlands, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; David C. Chojnacky; David C. Chojnacky

    2001-01-01

    Down dead wood (DDW) is important for its role in carbon and nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, wildfire behavior, plant reproduction, and wildlife habitat. DDW was measured for the first time during a forest inventory of Maine by the USDA Forest Service in 1994-1996. Pieces greater than 3 feet long and greater than 3 inches in diameter at point of intersection...

  4. Literary Genres in Poetic Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, William Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Among the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are four literary compositions that bear the superscriptional designations shir and mizmor. These designations correspond directly to superscriptional designations provided many times in both the now-canonical Psalter and the various witnesses to those texts unearthed at Qumran. On its face, this fact…

  5. Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead Mosquito at a Time By Alex Perry (2011). Melissa Raemaekers. Abstract. Pp xiv + 219. R210. Picador Africa, Pan Macmillan, South Africa. 2011. ISBN 978-1-77010-146-3. February 2012, Vol. 102, No. 2 SAMJ. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  6. Cowboys and zombies: destabilizing patriarchal discourse in The Walking Dead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.

    2012-01-01

    The serialized comic book The Walking Dead, written by Robert Kirkman and drawn by Charlie Adlard, has been published by Image Comics from October 2003, and is still being released in monthly instalments as of this writing. It has won numerous awards, including the prestigious Eisner Award for Best

  7. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  8. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  9. The active structure of the Dead Sea depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2003-04-01

    The ~220km long gravitational and structural Dead Sea Depression (DSD), situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), is centered by the Dead Sea basin sensu strictu (DSB), which has been described since the 1960?s as a pull-apart basin over a presumed left-hand fault step. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, question this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v); It is apparently inconsistent with the symmetrical structure of the DSD; (vi) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. Integration of newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution and petroleum seismic reflection data, earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments) now shows that the active upper crustal manifestation of the DSD is a broad shear zone dominated by internal fault systems oriented NNE and NNW. These fault systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. Motion on the NNE system is normal-dextral, suggesting that counterclockwise rotation may have taken place within the shear zone. The overall sinistral motion between the Arabian and Israel-Sinai plates along the DSD is thus accommodated by distributed shear across the N-S extending DSD. The three-dimensionality of this motion at the DSD may be related to the rate of convergence

  10. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  11. SMRT has tissue-specific isoform profiles that include a form containing one CoRNR box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Stephen; Malartre, Marianne; Sharpe, Colin

    2005-01-01

    SMRT acts as a corepressor for a range of transcription factors. The amino-terminal part of the protein includes domains that mainly mediate transcriptional repression whilst the carboxy-terminal part includes domains that interact with nuclear receptors using up to three motifs called CoRNR boxes. The region of the SMRT primary transcript encoding the interaction domains is subject to alternative splicing that varies the inclusion of the third CoRNR box. The profile in mice includes an abundant, novel SMRT isoform that possesses just one CoRNR box. Mouse tissues therefore express SMRT isoforms containing one, two or three CoRNR boxes. In frogs, the SMRT isoform profile is tissue-specific. The mouse also shows distinct profiles generated by differential expression levels of the SMRT transcript isoforms. The formation of multiple SMRT isoforms and their tissue-specific regulation indicates a mechanism, whereby cells can define the repertoire of transcription factors regulated by SMRT

  12. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  13. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, Kees-Jan; Wong, L Y Elaine; Christoffels, Vincent M; Klarenbeek, Meinke; Ruijter, Jan M; Moorman, Antoon F M; Barnett, Phil

    2008-06-01

    T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart. They regulate the gap-junction-encoding gene Connexin43 (Cx43) and other genes critical for heart development and function. Discovering protein partners of Tbx2 and Tbx3 will shed light on the mechanisms by which these factors regulate these gene programs. Employing an yeast 2-hybrid screen and subsequent in vitro pull-down experiments we demonstrate that muscle segment homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 are able to bind the cardiac T-box proteins Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx5. This interaction, as that of the related Nkx2.5 protein, is supported by the T-box and homeodomain alone. Overlapping spatiotemporal expression patterns of Msx1 and Msx2 together with the T-box genes during cardiac development in mouse and chicken underscore the biological significance of this interaction. We demonstrate that Msx proteins together with Tbx2 and Tbx3 suppress Cx43 promoter activity and down regulate Cx43 gene activity in a rat heart-derived cell line. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we demonstrate that Msx1 can bind the Cx43 promoter at a conserved binding site located in close proximity to a previously defined T-box binding site, and that the activity of Msx proteins on this promoter appears dependent in the presence of Tbx3. Msx1 and Msx2 can function in concert with the T-box proteins to suppress Cx43 and other working myocardial genes.

  14. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows: (1..., commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use...

  15. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  16. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  17. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  18. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Public Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  19. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement...

  20. Water-cooled target-box design at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.; Lambert, J.

    1983-01-01

    The target boxes in the main experimental beam line (Line A) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have operated since 1976. A program of replacing the boxes is underway. This paper will present past history, design considerations, calculational results and the final box design

  1. Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  2. Occurrence of organohalogens at the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbesing, Christoph; Kotte, Karsten; Keppler, Frank; Krause, Torsten; Bahlmann, Enno; Schöler, Heinfried

    2013-04-01

    Most arid and semi-arid regions are characterized by evaporites, which are assured sources for volatile organohalogens (VOX) [1]. These compounds play an important role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. The Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan is the world's most famous and biggest all-season water covered salt lake. In both countries chemical plants like the Dead Sea Works and the Arab Potash Company are located at the southern part of the Dead Sea and mine various elements such as bromine and magnesium. Conveying sea water through constructed evaporation pans multifarious salts are enriched and precipitated. In contrast, the Northern basin and main part of the Dead Sea has remained almost untouched by industrial salt production. Its fresh water supply from the Jordan River is constantly decreasing, leading to further increased salinity. During a HALOPROC campaign (Natural Halogenation Processes in the Environment) we collected various samples including air, soils, sediments, halophytic plants, ground- and seawater from the Northern and Southern basin of the Israeli side of the Dead Sea. These samples were investigated for the occurrence of halocarbons using different analytical techniques. Most samples were analyzed for volatile organohalogens such as haloalkanes using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Interestingly, there is a strong enrichment of trihalomethanes (THM), especially all chlorinated and brominated ones and also the iodinated compound dichloroiodomethane were found in the Southern basin. In addition, volatile organic carbons (VOC) such as ethene and some other alkenes were analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) to obtain further information about potential precursors of halogenated compounds. Halophytic plants were investigated for their potential to release chloromethane and bromomethane but also for their stable carbon and hydrogen isotope composition. For this purpose, a plant chamber was

  3. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  4. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...... and adaptation logic through a clear identification of the set of data that is relevant for the latter. The framework provides an original perspective from which we survey a representative set of approaches to adaptation, ranging from programming languages and paradigms to computational models and architectural...

  5. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  6. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  7. The 'Falling Box' method in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladush, V.D.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of justification, generalization, and applicability of the 'falling box' method to obtained some exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations are investigated. The 'physical' inference of the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter and Kerr metrics is shown. Explanation is given for the well-known relativistic phenomenon which consists in that gravity is created by the double density of the electrical field energy

  8. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO 3 -KNO 3 eutectic (177 0 C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 melts (250 0 C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl 3 -NaCl (175 0 C), as well as AlCl 3 -organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  9. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  10. Removable glove for a glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The glove includes one part forming a cuff and another part forming the glove. These two parts are joined in a leak-tight manner by a rigid ring. The glove part is interchangeable without breaking the seal through two neighbouring grooves formed on the ring to receive a bead made on the open end of the glove. The grooves are visible when the glove is placed outside the glove box, thereby enabling the glove part to be changed in this position [fr

  11. The future of grey-box fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelt, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Society are becoming more dependent on software, and more artifacts are being connected to the Internet each day [31]. This makes the work of tracking down vulnerabilities in software a moral obligation for software developers. Since manual testing is expensive [7], automated bug finding techniques are attractive within the quality assurance field, since it can save companies a lot of money. This thesis summarizes the research of an automated bug finding technique called grey-box fuzzing, wit...

  12. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  13. Cardiovascular issues in boxing and contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the inherent risks associated with exercise in general and boxing in particular, the sport has had a limited number of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Screening should be based on risks involved and become more extensive with the advancement of the athlete. Anatomic and electrophysiologic risks need to be assessed and may preclude participation with resultant life style and economic complications. There should be adequate preparation for the rare potential cardiovascular complication at all events, with the ability to rapidly assess and treat arrhythmias.

  14. Acute subdural hematoma because of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Hidehiko; Saito, Takeshi; Sakagami, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Jyoji; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2009-02-01

    To identify factors determining the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) arising from boxing injuries by comparing with ASDH due to any nonboxing cause. Two groups were selected for this study: 10 patients with ASDH because of boxing injuries and 26 patients with nonboxer ASDH. All of the patients underwent neurologic examination by neurosurgeons. Primary resuscitation and stabilization as well as operative therapy were performed to all patients according to the European Brain Injury Consortium Guidelines. Two groups were compared in terms of age, the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, neurologic findings, craniogram and brain computed tomography scan findings, operative findings, and prognosis. As potential prognostic indicators for boxers, the time interval until surgery, the Glasgow Outcome Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and the site of bleeding were analyzed. The characteristics of patients because of boxing injuries are that patients were younger, had lucid interval, and had no cerebral contusion or contralateral brain injury. There was no significant difference in initial Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and their prognosis. The most peculiar clinical presentation of boxers' ASDH was that all bleedings were limited from "bridging veins" or "cortical veins." The prognosis of boxers was most closely correlated with the site of bleeding (r2 = 0.81; p = 0.0001) and the midline shift (r2 = 0.67; p = 0.007). Our study shows that ASDH because of boxing is characterized by bleeding from bridging or cortical veins, and that the site of bleeding is a significant determinant of their prognosis.

  15. Cover gas box for handling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstler, K.; Betzl, K.

    1978-01-01

    An inert atmosphere box has been developed to work with sodium experimentally and analytically. The volumen of the box is 0.6 m 3 . A blower mounted inside the work chamber constantly circulates the argon from the work chamber through a gas purification system (nickel-catalyst 6525 and molecular sieve 4A). The flow rate is 450 l/h. The box is equipped with neoprene gloves. The glove ports can be closed with interior flanges. The work chamber is constantly kept to a low superpressure of 25 mm water gange. In a bypass the oxygen concentration is measured with the OXYLYT-electrolyte cell and the water vapour concentration with the KEIDEL-electrolytic hygrometer. During long-term operation oxygen levels of 35 vpm and water vapour levels of 50 vpm can be hold even when the gloves are not covered. By means of putting a vessel with liquid sodium in the work chamber oxygen levels of 8 vpm and water vapour levels of 20 vpm can be attained for short times. The inert atmosphere purity can be improved by means of increasing the gas flow rate. (author)

  16. Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity as the major drivers of beetle diversity in dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bassler; Roland Brandl; Boris Buche; Alexander Szallies; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jorg Muller; Christopher Baraloto

    2016-01-01

    1. Resource availability and habitat heterogeneity are principle drivers of biodiversity, but their individual roles often remain unclear since both factors are usually correlated. The biodiversity of species dependent on dead wood could be driven by either resource availability represented by dead-wood amount or habitat heterogeneity characterized by dead-wood...

  17. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead)

  19. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Kars (Alice); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J. de Vries; A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); C. Hilvering

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate

  20. Awakening the "Walking Dead": Zombie Pedagogy for Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dawn Wadsworth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out the pedagogical benefits of using popular zombie productions, particularly AMC's The Walking Dead, to teach a critical introduction to modern political theory. Based on my undergraduate course: "Political Theory, Climate Change, and the Zombie Apocalypse," the article outlines how The Walking Dead can be used to critique the mythic assumptions built into modern social contract theory; to introduce other political ideologies, including conservatism, anarchism, fascism, and communism; and to consider the political challenges raised by a global problem such as climate change in an increasingly neoliberal environment. Zombie productions are offered as a particularly salient pedagogical tool that can help awaken critical political analysis for the Millennial Generation.

  1. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  2. The Dead Mother, the Uncanny, and the Holy Ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent portrayals of dead mothers frequently appeared in French art from 1800 to 1850. This essay focuses on one of the latest manifestations of this image, namely, the French Realist Jules Breton's (1827-1906 painting The Hunger of 1850, in order to examine the psycho-historical elements associated with the mother's death. Through an analysis of the "Uncanny" as formulated by both Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud, we will address the undissolvable link between the structuralization of "homeliness" in the late eighteenth century and the dread it evoked in the early nineteenth century, as two sides of the same coin. We will simultaneously consider the inherent conflictuality embodied by the dead mother according to the French psychoanalyst André Green, who dealt with the experience of "nothingness" that characterizes children of mothers-who-refuse-to-die.

  3. Solution of the Markov chain for the dead time problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degweker, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for solving the equation for the Markov chain, describing the effect of a non-extendible dead time on the statistics of time correlated pulses, is discussed. The equation, which was derived in an earlier paper, describes a non-linear process and is not amenable to exact solution. The present method consists of representing the probability generating function as a factorial cumulant expansion and neglecting factorial cumulants beyond the second. This results in a closed set of non-linear equations for the factorial moments. Stationary solutions of these equations, which are of interest for calculating the count rate, are obtained iteratively. The method is applied to the variable dead time counter technique for estimation of system parameters in passive neutron assay of Pu and reactor noise analysis. Comparisons of results by this method with Monte Carlo calculations are presented. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  5. Is it practical to use the gamma camera dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, P.P.; Morin, J.F.; Caroff, J.; Lahellec, M.; Savina, A.

    1975-01-01

    The linearity of gamma camera counting is an essential feature for users engaged in quantitative dynamic studies. Instead of defining this quality by the usual dead time, the disadvantages of which are reported, it is proposed to use the experimental count rate giving 10% loss. It is shown that by proceeding in this way all ambiguity would be abolished, where both the counting linearity itself and its relation to sensitivity are concerned [fr

  6. Thermodynamics of the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The dead zone, a quiescent region enclosed in the turbulent flow of a protoplanetary disk, seems to be a promising site for planet formation. Indeed, the development of a density maximum at the dead zone inner edge, that has the property to trap the infalling dust, is a natural outcome of the accretion mismatch at this interface. Moreover, the flow here may be unstable and organize itself into vortical structures that efficiently collect dust grains. The inner edge location is however loosely constrained. In particular, it depends on the thermodynamical prescriptions of the disk model that is considered. It has been recently proposed that the inner edge is not static and that the variations of young stars accretion luminosity are the signature of this interface displacements. This thesis address the question of the impact of the gas thermodynamics onto its dynamics around the dead zone inner edge. MHD simulations including the complex interplay between thermodynamical processes and the dynamics confirmed the dynamical behaviour of the inner edge. A first measure of the interface velocity has been realised. This result has been compared to the predictions of a mean field model. It revealed the crucial role of the energy transport by density waves excited at the interface. These simulations also exhibit a new intriguing phenomenon: vortices forming at the interface follow a cycle of formation-migration-destruction. This vortex cycle may compromise the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge. This thesis claims that thermodynamical processes are at the heart of how the region around the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks works. (author) [fr

  7. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie

    2007-01-01

    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  8. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  9. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  10. Combining native MS approaches to decipher archaeal box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particle structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Jean-Michel; Manival, Xavier; Tillault, Anne-Sophie; Atmanene, Cédric; Bobo, Claude; Branlant, Christiane; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Charpentier, Bruno; Cianférani, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Site-specific isomerization of uridines into pseudouridines in RNAs is catalyzed either by stand-alone enzymes or by box H/ACA ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/sRNPs). The archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs are five-component complexes that consist of a guide RNA and the aCBF5, aNOP10, L7Ae, and aGAR1 proteins. In this study, we performed pairwise incubations of individual constituents of archaeal box H/ACA sRNPs and analyzed their interactions by native MS to build a 2D-connectivity map of direct binders. We describe the use of native MS in combination with ion mobility-MS to monitor the in vitro assembly of the active H/ACA sRNP particle. Real-time native MS was used to monitor how box H/ACA particle functions in multiple-turnover conditions. Native MS also unambiguously revealed that a substrate RNA containing 5-fluorouridine (f(5) U) was hydrolyzed into 5-fluoro-6-hydroxy-pseudouridine (f(5) ho(6) Ψ). In terms of enzymatic mechanism, box H/ACA sRNP was shown to catalyze the pseudouridylation of a first RNA substrate, then to release the RNA product (S22 f(5) ho(6) ψ) from the RNP enzyme and reload a new substrate RNA molecule. Altogether, our native MS-based approaches provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process and catalytic mechanism of box H/ACA RNPs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  12. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  13. Correction for intrinsic and set dead-time losses in radioactivity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1992-12-01

    Equations are derived for the determination of the intrinsic dead time of the components which precede the paralysis unit in a counting system for measuring radioactivity. The determination depends on the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. Improved formulae are given for the dead-time correction of the count rate of a radioactive source in a single-channel system. A variable in the formulae is the intrinsic dead time which is determined concurrently with the counting of the source. The only extra equipment required in a conventional system is a scaler. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  14. Implementation of T-box/T/sup -1/-box based AES design on latest xilinx fpga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, D.E.; Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an efficient implementation of the AES (Advance Encryption Standard) based on Tbox/T-1-box design for both the encryption and decryption on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The proposed architecture not only make efficient use of full capacity of dedicated 32 Kb BRAM (Block RAM) of latest Xilinx FPGAs (Virtex-5, Virtex-6 and 7 Series) but also saves considerable amount of BRAM and logical resources by using multiple accesses from single BRAM in one cycle of system clock as compared to conventional LUT (Look-Up-Table) techniques. The proposed T-box/T-1-box based AES design for both the encryption and decryption fits into just 4 BRAMs on FPGA and results in good efficiency TPS (Throughput per Slice) with less power consumption. (author)

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...

  16. DFBX boxes -- electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik, Jon P.; Corradi, Carol A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Green, MichaelA.; Hafalia, Aurelio Q.; Kajiyama, Yoichi Jr.; Knolls, Michael J.; LaMantia, Roberto F.; Rasson, Joseph E.; Reavill, Dulie; Turner, William C.

    2002-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets

  17. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  18. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  19. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  20. Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit and Boxing Fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented text the author points out to anthropological as well as axiological foundations of the boxing fight from the viewpoint of Hegel’s philosophy. In the genial idealist’s views it is possible to perceive the appreciation of the body, which constitutes a necessary basis for the man’s physical activity, for his work oriented towards the self-transformation and the transformation of the external world, as well as for rivalry and the hand-to-hand fight. While focusing our attention on the issue of rivalry and on the situation of the fight - and regarding it from the viewpoint of the master - slave theory (included in the phenomenology of spirit, it is possible to proclaim that even a conventionalised boxing fight - that is, restricted by cultural and sports rules of the game - has features of the fight to the death between two Hegelian forms of selfknowledge striving for self-affirmation and self-realisation. In the boxing fight, similarly as in the above mentioned Hegelian theory, a problem of work and of the development of the human individual (that is, of the subject, self-knowledge, the participant of the fight appears. There appears also a prospect of death as a possible end of merciless rivalry. The fight revalues the human way in an important way, whereas the prospect for death, the awareness of its proximity, the feeling that its close and possible, saturates the life with additional values. It places the boxer, just like every subject fighting in a similar or a different way, on the path towards absolute abstraction - that is, it brings him closer to his self-fulfilment in the Absolute, to the absolute synthesis. The Hegelian viewpoint enables also to appreciate the boxing fight as a manifestation of low culture (being in contrast with high culture, to turn attention to the relations which - according to Hegel - take place between the Absolute and the man, as well as to show which place is occupied by the subject both in

  1. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  3. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  5. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  6. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  7. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  8. Making the weight: a case study from professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P; Robertson, Colin; Sutton, Laura; MacLaren, Don P M

    2010-02-01

    Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 + or - 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.

  9. Structural basis for substrate placement by an archaeal box C/D ribonucleoprotein particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; Wang, Ruiying; Yang, Fangping; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; Zhang, Xinxin; Maxwell, E Stuart; Li, Hong

    2010-09-24

    Box C/D small nucleolar and Cajal body ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/scaRNPs) direct site-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs and are critical for gene expression. Here we report crystal structures of an archaeal box C/D RNP containing three core proteins (fibrillarin, Nop56/58, and L7Ae) and a half-mer box C/D guide RNA paired with a substrate RNA. The structure reveals a guide-substrate RNA duplex orientation imposed by a composite protein surface and the conserved GAEK motif of Nop56/58. Molecular modeling supports a dual C/D RNP structure that closely mimics that recently visualized by electron microscopy. The substrate-bound dual RNP model predicts an asymmetric protein distribution between the RNP that binds and methylates the substrate RNA. The predicted asymmetric nature of the holoenzyme is consistent with previous biochemical data on RNP assembly and provides a simple solution for accommodating base-pairing between the C/D guide RNA and large ribosomal and spliceosomal substrate RNAs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  11. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  12. Cdc20 mediates D-box-dependent degradation of Sp100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Ke-min; Zhou, Cai-hong; Xue, Jing-lun [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ji, Chao-neng, E-mail: Chnji@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Jin-zhong, E-mail: kingbellchen@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 is a co-activator of APC/C complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc20 recruits Sp100 and mediates its degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-box of Sp100 is required for Cdc20-mediated degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sp100 expresses consistently at both the mRNA and protein levels in cell cycle. -- Abstract: Cdc20 is a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C complex), which recruits substrates at particular phases of the cell cycle and mediates their degradation. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein, which localizes to nuclear particles during interphase and disperses from them during mitosis, participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cycle has not yet been fully characterized. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) predictor database. The putative D-box of Sp100 was verified by mutational analysis. Overexpression of Cdc20 resulted in decreased levels of both endogenous Sp100 protein and overexpressed Sp100 mRNA in HEK 293 cells. Only an overexpressed D-box deletion mutant of Sp100 accumulated in HEK293 cells that also overexpressed Cdc20. Cdc20 knockdown by cdc20 specific siRNA resulted in increased Sp100 protein levels in cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the Cdc20 mediated degradation of Sp100 is diminished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggests that the ubiquitination pathway is involved in this process. However, unlike the other Cdc20 substrates, which display oscillating protein levels, the level of Sp100 protein remains constant throughout the cell cycle. Additionally, both overexpression and knockdown of endogenous Sp100 had no effect on the cell cycle. Our results suggested that sp100 is a novel substrate of Cdc20 and it is degraded by the ubiquitination pathway. The intact D-box of Sp100 was necessary for this process. These findings expand

  13. Cdc20 mediates D-box-dependent degradation of Sp100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Ke-min; Zhou, Cai-hong; Xue, Jing-lun; Ji, Chao-neng; Chen, Jin-zhong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cdc20 is a co-activator of APC/C complex. ► Cdc20 recruits Sp100 and mediates its degradation. ► The D-box of Sp100 is required for Cdc20-mediated degradation. ► Sp100 expresses consistently at both the mRNA and protein levels in cell cycle. -- Abstract: Cdc20 is a co-activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C complex), which recruits substrates at particular phases of the cell cycle and mediates their degradation. Sp100 is a PML-NB scaffold protein, which localizes to nuclear particles during interphase and disperses from them during mitosis, participates in viral resistance, transcriptional regulation, and apoptosis. However, its metabolism during the cell cycle has not yet been fully characterized. We found a putative D-box in Sp100 using the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) predictor database. The putative D-box of Sp100 was verified by mutational analysis. Overexpression of Cdc20 resulted in decreased levels of both endogenous Sp100 protein and overexpressed Sp100 mRNA in HEK 293 cells. Only an overexpressed D-box deletion mutant of Sp100 accumulated in HEK293 cells that also overexpressed Cdc20. Cdc20 knockdown by cdc20 specific siRNA resulted in increased Sp100 protein levels in cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the Cdc20 mediated degradation of Sp100 is diminished by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggests that the ubiquitination pathway is involved in this process. However, unlike the other Cdc20 substrates, which display oscillating protein levels, the level of Sp100 protein remains constant throughout the cell cycle. Additionally, both overexpression and knockdown of endogenous Sp100 had no effect on the cell cycle. Our results suggested that sp100 is a novel substrate of Cdc20 and it is degraded by the ubiquitination pathway. The intact D-box of Sp100 was necessary for this process. These findings expand our knowledge of both Sp100 and Cdc20 as well as their role in ubiquitination.

  14. Authentic interdomain communication in an RNA helicase reconstituted by expressed protein ligation of two helicase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Theissen, Bettina; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    RNA helicases mediate structural rearrangements of RNA or RNA-protein complexes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Members of the DEAD box helicase family consist of two flexibly connected helicase domains. They share nine conserved sequence motifs that are involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding, and helicase activity. Most of these motifs line the cleft between the two helicase domains, and extensive communication between them is required for RNA unwinding. The two helicase domains of the Bacillus subtilis RNA helicase YxiN were produced separately as intein fusions, and a functional RNA helicase was generated by expressed protein ligation. The ligated helicase binds adenine nucleotides with very similar affinities to the wild-type protein. Importantly, its intrinsically low ATPase activity is stimulated by RNA, and the Michaelis-Menten parameters are similar to those of the wild-type. Finally, ligated YxiN unwinds a minimal RNA substrate to an extent comparable to that of the wild-type helicase, confirming authentic interdomain communication.

  15. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  16. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  17. Hairy black holes in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  18. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Integration of a zero dead-volume PDMS rotary switch valve in a miniaturised (bio)electroanalytical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godino, Neus; del Campo, Francisco Javier; Munoz, Francesc Xavier

    2010-01-01

    contains a microreactor so that various reaction and incubation steps can be carried out in isolation from the detection event with zero dead volume. This avoids contamination and fouling of the electrodes by proteins or other organic matter, and extends the useful lifetime of the detector. The system...... operation is demonstrated by a model example, consisting in the functionalisation of streptavidin-coated magnetic particles with biotinylated beta-galactosidase over periods ranging from 5 to 15 min, at which point the particles saturate. Although the system is intended for the development of enzyme-based...

  20. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...