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Sample records for deacetylase hdac inhibitors

  1. Design and synthesis of aryl ether and sulfone hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

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    Pabba, Chittari; Gregg, Brian T; Kitchen, Douglas B; Chen, Zhen Jia; Judkins, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with aryl ether and aryl sulfone residues at the terminus of a substituted, unsaturated 5-carbon spacer moiety have been synthesized for the first time and evaluated. Compounds with meta- and para-substitution on the aryl ring of ether hydroxamic acids 19c, 20c, 19e, 19f and 19g are potent HDAC inhibitors with activities at low nanomolar levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors - emerging roles in neuronal memory, learning, synaptic plasticity and neural regeneration.

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    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Ramadoss, Mahalakshmi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed.

  3. Prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors

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    Kouskoumvekaki, Irene; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Bjorkling, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we developed a model for prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs and drug like molecules. In the present work, the model was applied on a series of novel Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors discovered at TopoTarget. The applicability of our model was evaluated on the se......Recently we developed a model for prediction of pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs and drug like molecules. In the present work, the model was applied on a series of novel Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors discovered at TopoTarget. The applicability of our model was evaluated...

  4. The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs Inhibitors in Health and Disease

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    Shalome A. Bassett

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food.

  5. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1: An in Silico Approach

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    Mohamed A. Abdallah Elbadawi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1 homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1.

  6. Kinetic and structural insights into the binding of histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1, 2) inhibitors.

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    Wagner, Florence F; Weïwer, Michel; Steinbacher, Stefan; Schomburg, Adrian; Reinemer, Peter; Gale, Jennifer P; Campbell, Arthur J; Fisher, Stewart L; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Reis, Surya A; Hennig, Krista M; Thomas, Méryl; Müller, Peter; Jefson, Martin R; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Holson, Edward B

    2016-09-15

    The structure-activity and structure-kinetic relationships of a series of novel and selective ortho-aminoanilide inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 2 are described. Different kinetic and thermodynamic selectivity profiles were obtained by varying the moiety occupying an 11Å channel leading to the Zn(2+) catalytic pocket of HDACs 1 and 2, two paralogs with a high degree of structural similarity. The design of these novel inhibitors was informed by two ligand-bound crystal structures of truncated hHDAC2. BRD4884 and BRD7232 possess kinetic selectivity for HDAC1 versus HDAC2. We demonstrate that the binding kinetics of HDAC inhibitors can be tuned for individual isoforms in order to modulate target residence time while retaining functional activity and increased histone H4K12 and H3K9 acetylation in primary mouse neuronal cell culture assays. These chromatin modifiers, with tuned binding kinetic profiles, can be used to define the relation between target engagement requirements and the pharmacodynamic response of HDACs in different disease applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

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    Pavlik, Christopher M.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D.; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L.; Gerwick, William H.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2013-01-01

    A dark-brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca, and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat®], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity. PMID:24164245

  8. The effects of the Histone Deacetylase (HDAC Inhibitor 4-Phenylbutyrate on gap junction conductance and permeability

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    Joshua eKaufman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal resistance is a key factor in determining cardiac action potential propagation. Action potential conduction velocity has been shown to be proportional to the square root of longitudinal resistance. A major determinant of longitudinal resistance in myocardium is the gap junction channel, comprised of connexin proteins. Within the ventricular myocardium connexin 43 (Cx43 is the dominantly expressed connexin. Reduced numbers of gap junction channels will result in an increase in longitudinal resistance creating the possibility of slowed conduction velocity while increased numbers of channels would potentially result in an increase in conduction velocity. We sought to determine if inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB, a known inhibitor of HDAC resulted in an increase in junctional conductance and permeability, which is not the result of changes in single channel unitary conductance. These experiments were performed using HEK-293 cells and HeLa cells stably transfected with Cx43. Following treatment with increasing concentrations of 4-PB up-regulation of Cx43 was observed via Western blot analysis. Junctional (gj conductance and unitary single channel conductance were measured via whole-cell patch clamp. In addition intercellular transfer of Lucifer Yellow (LY was determined by fluorescence microscopy. The data in this study indicates that 4-PB is able to enhance functional Cx43 gap junction coupling as indicated by LY dye transfer and multichannel and single channel data along with Western blot analysis. As a corollary, pharmacological agents such as 4-PB have the potential, by increasing intercellular coupling, to reduce the effect of ischemia. It remains to be seen whether drugs like 4-PB will be effective in preventing cardiac maladies.

  9. Class 1-Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Enhance HIV Latency Reversal while Preserving the Activity of HDAC Isoforms Necessary for Maximal HIV Gene Expression.

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    Zaikos, Thomas D; Painter, Mark M; Sebastian Kettinger, Nadia T; Terry, Valeri H; Collins, Kathleen L

    2018-03-15

    reservoir elimination. Because histone deacetylases (HDACs) promote HIV latency, HDAC inhibitors have been a focus of HIV cure research. However, many of these inhibitors broadly affect multiple classes of HDACs, including those that promote HIV gene expression (class 1 HDACs). Here, we demonstrate that targeted treatment with class 1-selective HDAC inhibitors induced more potent HIV latency reversal than broadly acting agents. Additionally, we provide evidence that broadly acting HDIs are limited by inhibitory effects on non-class 1 HDACs that support the activity of proviral factors. Thus, our work demonstrates that the use of targeted approaches to induce maximum latency reversal affords the greatest likelihood of reservoir elimination. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. A Novel Class of Schistosoma mansoni Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) Inhibitors Identified by Structure-Based Virtual Screening and In Vitro Testing.

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    Simoben, Conrad V; Robaa, Dina; Chakrabarti, Alokta; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Marek, Martin; Lancelot, Julien; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Melesina, Jelena; Shaik, Tajith B; Pierce, Raymond J; Romier, Christophe; Jung, Manfred; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2018-03-02

    A promising means in the search of new small molecules for the treatment of schistosomiasis (amongst other parasitic ailments) is by targeting the parasitic epigenome. In the present study, a docking based virtual screening procedure using the crystal structure of histone deacetylase 8 from Schistosoma mansoni (smHDAC8) was designed. From the developed screening protocol, we were able to identify eight novel N -(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl)- n -alkylhydroxamate derivatives as smHDAC8 inhibitors with IC 50 values ranging from 4.4-20.3 µM against smHDAC8. These newly identified inhibitors were further tested against human histone deacetylases (hsHDAC1, 6 and 8), and were found also to be exerting interesting activity against them. In silico prediction of the docking pose of the compounds was confirmed by the resolved crystal structure of one of the identified hits. This confirmed these compounds were able to chelate the catalytic zinc ion in a bidentate fashion, whilst showing an inverted binding mode of the hydroxamate group when compared to the reported smHDAC8/hydroxamates crystal structures. Therefore, they can be considered as new potential scaffold for the development of new smHDAC8 inhibitors by further investigation of their structure-activity relationship.

  11. Clinical significance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1, HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions.

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    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been associated with human malignant tumor development and progression, and HDAC inhibitors are currently being explored as anticancer agents in clinical trials. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 proteins' expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions. HDAC-1, HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 74 patients with benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Enhanced HDAC-2 and HDAC-6 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant, compared to benign, thyroid lesions (p = 0.0042 and p = 0.0069, respectively). Enhanced HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 expression was significantly more frequently observed in cases with papillary carcinoma compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0065, p = 0.0394, and p = 0.0061, respectively). In malignant thyroid lesions, HDAC-1, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (p = 0.0169, p = 0.0056, and p = 0.0234, respectively); HDAC-2 expression with lymphatic and vascular invasion (p = 0.0299 and p = 0.0391, respectively); and HDAC-4 expression with capsular invasion (p = 0.0464). The cellular pattern of HDAC-1 and HDAC-2 distribution (nuclear vs. nuclear and cytoplasmic) presented a distinct discrimination between malignant and benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0030 and p = 0.0028, respectively) as well as between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.0028, respectively). HDAC-1, HDAC-2, HDAC-4, and HDAC-6 may be associated with the malignant thyroid transformation and could be considered as useful biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in this neoplasia.

  12. Dynamic Structure-Based Pharmacophore Model Development: A New and Effective Addition in the Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8 Inhibitor Discovery

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    Keun Woo Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8 is an enzyme involved in deacetylating the amino groups of terminal lysine residues, thereby repressing the transcription of various genes including tumor suppressor gene. The over expression of HDAC8 was observed in many cancers and thus inhibition of this enzyme has emerged as an efficient cancer therapeutic strategy. In an effort to facilitate the future discovery of HDAC8 inhibitors, we developed two pharmacophore models containing six and five pharmacophoric features, respectively, using the representative structures from two molecular dynamic (MD simulations performed in Gromacs 4.0.5 package. Various analyses of trajectories obtained from MD simulations have displayed the changes upon inhibitor binding. Thus utilization of the dynamically-responded protein structures in pharmacophore development has the added advantage of considering the conformational flexibility of protein. The MD trajectories were clustered based on single-linkage method and representative structures were taken to be used in the pharmacophore model development. Active site complimenting structure-based pharmacophore models were developed using Discovery Studio 2.5 program and validated using a dataset of known HDAC8 inhibitors. Virtual screening of chemical database coupled with drug-like filter has identified drug-like hit compounds that match the pharmacophore models. Molecular docking of these hits reduced the false positives and identified two potential compounds to be used in future HDAC8 inhibitor design.

  13. Profile of Class I Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) by Human Dendritic Cells after Alcohol Consumption and In Vitro Alcohol Treatment and Their Implication in Oxidative Stress: Role of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Mocetinostat.

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    Agudelo, Marisela; Figueroa, Gloria; Parira, Tiyash; Yndart, Adriana; Muñoz, Karla; Atluri, Venkata; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to play a role in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets. However, the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress of human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) has not been elucidated. In the current study, we took a novel approach combining ex vivo, in vitro and in silico analyses to elucidate the mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and role of HDACs in the periphery. ex vivo and in vitro analyses of alcohol-modulation of class I HDACs and activity by MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users and non-alcohol users was performed. Additionally, MDDCs treated with alcohol were assessed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and fluorometric assay. The functional effects of alcohol-induce oxidative stress were measured in vitro using PCR array and in silico using gene expression network analysis. Our findings show, for the first time, that MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users have higher levels of class I HDACs compare to controls and alcohol treatment in vitro differentially modulates HDACs expression. Further, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) blocked alcohol-induction of class I HDACs and modulated alcohol-induced oxidative stress related genes expressed by MDDCs. In silico analysis revealed new target genes and pathways on the mode of action of alcohol and HDACi. Findings elucidating the ability of alcohol to modulate class I HDACs may be useful for the treatment of alcohol-induced oxidative damage and may delineate new potential immune-modulatory mechanisms.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors: Saha (Vorinostat) Analogs and Biaryl Indolyl Benzamide Inhibitors Display Isoform Selectivity

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    Negmeldin, Ahmed Thabet

    HDAC proteins have emerged as interesting targets for anti-cancer drugs due to their involvement in cancers, as well as several other diseases. Several HDAC inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as anti-cancer drugs, including SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Vorinostat). Unfortunately, SAHA inhibits most HDAC isoforms, which limit its use as a pharmacological tool and may lead to side effects in the clinic. In this work we were interested in developing isoform selective HDAC inhibitors, which may decrease or eliminate the side effects associated with non-selective inhibitors treatment. In addition, isoform selective HDAC inhibitors can be used as biological tools to help understand the HDAC-related cancer biology. Our strategy was based on synthesis and screening of several derivatives of the non-selective FDA approved drug SAHA substituted at different positions of the linker region. Several SAHA analogs modified at the C4 and C5 positions of the linker were synthesized. The new C4- and C5-modified SAHA libraries, along with the previously synthesized C2-modified SAHA analogs were screened in vitro and in cellulo for HDAC isoform selectivity. Interestingly, several analogs exhibited dual HDAC6/HDAC8 selectivity. Enantioselective syntheses of the pure enantiomers of some of the interesting analogs were performed and the enantiomers were screened in vitro. Among the most interesting analogs, ( R)-C4-benzyl SAHA displayed 520- to 1300-fold selectivity for HDAC6 and HDAC8 over HDAC1, 2, and 3, with IC50 values of 48 and 27 nM with HDAC6 and 8, respectively. Docking studies were performed to provide structural rationale for the observed selectivity of the new analogs. In addition, rational design, synthesis, and screening of several other biaryl indolyl benzamide HDAC inhibitors is discussed, and some showed modest HDAC1 selectivity. The new biaryl indolyl benzamides can be useful to further develop HDAC1 selective inhibitors. The dual HDAC6/8 selective

  15. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat for pediatric and adult patients and its application for dose specification.

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    Moj, Daniel; Britz, Hannah; Burhenne, Jürgen; Stewart, Clinton F; Egerer, Gerlinde; Haefeli, Walter E; Lehr, Thorsten

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at recommending pediatric dosages of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat and potentially more effective adult dosing regimens than the approved standard dosing regimen of 400 mg/day, using a comprehensive physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling approach. A PBPK/PD model for vorinostat was developed for predictions in adults and children. It includes the maturation of relevant metabolizing enzymes. The PBPK model was expanded by (1) effect compartments to describe vorinostat concentration-time profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), (2) an indirect response model to predict the HDAC inhibition, and (3) a thrombocyte model to predict the dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. Parameterization of drug and system-specific processes was based on published and unpublished in silico, in vivo, and in vitro data. The PBPK modeling software used was PK-Sim and MoBi. The PBPK/PD model suggests dosages of 80 and 230 mg/m 2 for children of 0-1 and 1-17 years of age, respectively. In comparison with the approved standard treatment, in silico trials reveal 11 dosing regimens (9 oral, and 2 intravenous infusion rates) increasing the HDAC inhibition by an average of 31%, prolonging the HDAC inhibition by 181%, while only decreasing the circulating thrombocytes to a tolerable 53%. The most promising dosing regimen prolongs the HDAC inhibition by 509%. Thoroughly developed PBPK models enable dosage recommendations in pediatric patients and integrated PBPK/PD models, considering PD biomarkers (e.g., HDAC activity and platelet count), are well suited to guide future efficacy trials by identifying dosing regimens potentially superior to standard dosing regimens.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs: multitargeted anticancer agents

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    Ververis K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Ververis,1 Alison Hiong,1 Tom C Karagiannis,1,* Paul V Licciardi2,*1Epigenomic Medicine, Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct, 2Allergy and Immune Disorders, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are an emerging class of therapeutics with potential as anticancer drugs. The rationale for developing HDAC inhibitors (and other chromatin-modifying agents as anticancer therapies arose from the understanding that in addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic changes such as dysregulation of HDAC enzymes can alter phenotype and gene expression, disturb homeostasis, and contribute to neoplastic growth. The family of HDAC inhibitors is large and diverse. It includes a range of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that differ in terms of structure, function, and specificity. HDAC inhibitors have multiple cell type-specific effects in vitro and in vivo, such as growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptosis in malignant cells. HDAC inhibitors have the potential to be used as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Currently, there are two HDAC inhibitors that have received approval from the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Zolinza and depsipeptide (romidepsin, Istodax. More recently, depsipeptide has also gained FDA approval for the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Many more clinical trials assessing the effects of various HDAC inhibitors on hematological and solid malignancies are currently being conducted. Despite the proven anticancer effects of particular HDAC inhibitors against certain cancers, many aspects of HDAC enzymes and HDAC inhibitors are still not fully understood. Increasing our understanding of the effects of HDAC inhibitors, their targets and mechanisms of action will be critical for the

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

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    Tomas Eckschlager

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC and histone acetyltransferases (HAT. HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  18. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat.

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    Carbone, Carmine; Di Gennaro, Elena; Piro, Geny; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca 2+ dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. We demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effect of the HDACi vorinostat is paralleled by the induction of TG2 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells but not in ex vivo treated peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect was also shared by other pan-HDACi and resulted in increased TG2 transamidating activity. Notably, high TG2 basal levels in a panel of cancer cell lines correlated with lower vorinostat antiproliferative activity. Notably, in TG2-knockdown cancer cells vorinostat anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced, whereas in TG2-full-length transfected cells were impaired, suggesting that TG2 could represent a mechanism of intrinsic or acquired resistance to vorinostat. In fact, co-treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of TG2 transamidating activity potentiated the antitumor effect of vorinostat. Moreover, vorinostat-resistant MCF7 cells selected by stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug, significantly overexpressed TG2 protein compared to parental cells, and co-treatment of these cells with TG2 inhibitors reversed vorinostat-resistance. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TG2 is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to vorinostat, as well as to other HDACi.

  19. Macrocyclic Peptoid–Peptide Hybrids as Inhibitors of Class I Histone Deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Montero, Ana; Leman, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first macrocyclic peptoid-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The compounds selectively inhibit human class I HDAC isoforms in vitro, with no inhibition of the tubulin deacetylase activity associated with class IIb HDAC...

  20. A novel class of small molecule inhibitors of HDAC6.

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    Inks, Elizabeth S; Josey, Benjamin J; Jesinkey, Sean R; Chou, C James

    2012-02-17

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that play significant roles in numerous biological processes and diseases. HDACs are best known for their repressive influence on gene transcription through histone deacetylation. Mapping of nonhistone acetylated proteins and acetylation-modifying enzymes involved in various cellular pathways has shown protein acetylation/deacetylation also plays key roles in a variety of cellular processes including RNA splicing, nuclear transport, and cytoskeletal remodeling. Studies of HDACs have accelerated due to the availability of small molecule HDAC inhibitors, most of which contain a canonical hydroxamic acid or benzamide that chelates the metal catalytic site. To increase the pool of unique and novel HDAC inhibitor pharmacophores, a pharmacological active compound screen was performed. Several unique HDAC inhibitor pharmacophores were identified in vitro. One class of novel HDAC inhibitors, with a central naphthoquinone structure, displayed a selective inhibition profile against HDAC6. Here we present the results of a unique class of HDAC6 inhibitors identified using this compound library screen. In addition, we demonstrated that treatment of human acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11 with the selective HDAC6 inhibitors decreases levels of mutant FLT-3 and constitutively active STAT5 and attenuates Erk phosphorylation, all of which are associated with the inhibitor's selective toxicity against leukemia.

  1. Polyamine Deacetylase Structure and Catalysis: Prokaryotic Acetylpolyamine Amidohydrolase and Eukaryotic HDAC10.

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    Shinsky, Stephen; Christianson, David W

    2018-03-13

    Polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are small aliphatic cations that serve myriad biological functions in all forms of life. While polyamine biosynthesis and cellular trafficking pathways are generally well defined, it is only recently that the molecular basis of reversible polyamine acetylation has been established. In particular, enzymes that catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions have been identified and structurally characterized: histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) from Homo sapiens and Danio rerio (zebrafish) is a highly specific N8-acetylspermidine deacetylase, and its prokaryotic counterpart, acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) from Mycoplana ramosa, is a broad-specificity polyamine deacetylase. Similar to the greater family of HDACs, which mainly serve as lysine deacetylases, both enzymes adopt the characteristic arginase-deacetylase fold and employ a Zn2+-activated water molecule for catalysis. In contrast with HDACs, however, the active sites of HDAC10 and APAH are sterically constricted to enforce specificity for long, slender polyamine substrates and exclude bulky peptides and proteins containing acetyl-L-lysine. Crystal structures of APAH and D. rerio HDAC10 reveal that quaternary structure, i.e., dimer assembly, provides the steric constriction that directs the polyamine substrate specificity of APAH, whereas tertiary structure - a unique 310 helix defined by the P(E,A)CE motif - provides the steric constriction that directs the polyamine substrate specificity of HDAC10. Given the recent identification of HDAC10 and spermidine as mediators of autophagy, HDAC10 is rapidly emerging as a biomarker and target for the design of isozyme-selective inhibitors that will suppress autophagic responses to cancer chemotherapy, thereby rendering cancer cells more susceptible to cytotoxic drugs.

  2. Design and synthesis of triple inhibitors of janus kinase (JAK), histone deacetylase (HDAC) and Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90).

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    Yao, Lianbin; Ohlson, Sten; Dymock, Brian W

    2018-03-03

    Inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in a cancer cell with a single molecule could result in better therapies that are simpler to administer. Efficacy may be achieved with reduced potency against individual targets if there is synergy through multiple pathway inhibition. To achieve this, it is necessary to be able to build multi-component ligands by joining together key pharmacophores in a way which maintains sufficient activity against the individual pathways. In this work, designed triple inhibiting ligands are explored aiming to block three completely different target types: a kinase (JAK2), an epigenetic target (HDAC) and a chaperone (HSP90). Although these enzymes have totally different functions they are related through inter-dependent pathways in the developing cancer cell. Synthesis of several complex multi-inhibiting ligands are presented along with initial enzyme inhibition data against 3 biological target classes of interest. A lead compound, 47, was discovered which had low micromolar activity for all 3 targets. Further development of these complex trispecific designed multiple ligands could result in a 'transient drug', an alternative combination therapy for treating cancer mediated via a single molecule. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to compounds of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, solvate, or prodrug thereof, wherein X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, W1, W2, W3, and W4 are as described. The present invention relates generally to inhibitors of histone deacetylase and to methods...

  4. The Class I HDAC Inhibitor RGFP963 Enhances Consolidation of Cued Fear Extinction

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    Bowers, Mallory E.; Xia, Bing; Carreiro, Samantha; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that broad, nonspecific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition enhances learning and memory, however, the contribution of the various HDACs to specific forms of learning is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the Class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP963, enhances consolidation of cued fear extinction. However, RGFP966, a strong…

  5. The Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 in Huntington's Disease Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqun Jia

    Full Text Available An important epigenetic modification in Huntington's disease (HD research is histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes. HDAC inhibitors have proven effective in HD model systems, and recent work is now focused on functional dissection of the individual HDAC enzymes in these effects. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3, a member of the class I subfamily of HDACs, has previously been implicated in neuronal toxicity and huntingtin-induced cell death. Hence, we tested the effects of RGFP966 ((E-N-(2-amino-4-fluorophenyl-3-(1-cinnamyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylacrylamide, a benzamide-type HDAC inhibitor that selectively targets HDAC3, in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that RGFP966 at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg improves motor deficits on rotarod and in open field exploration, accompanied by neuroprotective effects on striatal volume. In light of previous studies implicating HDAC3 in immune function, we measured gene expression changes for 84 immune-related genes elicited by RGFP966 using quantitative PCR arrays. RGFP966 treatment did not cause widespread changes in cytokine/chemokine gene expression patterns, but did significantly alter the striatal expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif, a hormone immune modulator associated with glial cell activation, in N171-82Q transgenic mice, but not WT mice. Accordingly, RGFP966-treated mice showed decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the striatum of N171-82Q transgenic mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the beneficial actions of HDAC3 inhibition could be related, in part, with lowered Mif levels and its associated downstream effects.

  6. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiso, Hiroshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Furukawa, Noboru, E-mail: n-furu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nakagawa, Junichi [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Bio-Industry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  7. HDAC6 Is a Bruchpilot Deacetylase that Facilitates Neurotransmitter Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miskiewicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic densities are specialized structures involved in synaptic vesicle tethering and neurotransmission; however, the mechanisms regulating their function remain understudied. In Drosophila, Bruchpilot is a major constituent of the presynaptic density that tethers vesicles. Here, we show that HDAC6 is necessary and sufficient for deacetylation of Bruchpilot. HDAC6 expression is also controlled by TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein deregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Animals expressing TDP-43 harboring pathogenic mutations show increased HDAC6 expression, decreased Bruchpilot acetylation, larger vesicle-tethering sites, and increased neurotransmission, defects similar to those seen upon expression of HDAC6 and opposite to hdac6 null mutants. Consequently, reduced levels of HDAC6 or increased levels of ELP3, a Bruchpilot acetyltransferase, rescue the presynaptic density defects in TDP-43-expressing flies as well as the decreased adult locomotion. Our work identifies HDAC6 as a Bruchpilot deacetylase and indicates that regulating acetylation of a presynaptic release-site protein is critical for maintaining normal neurotransmission.

  8. Combining BET and HDAC inhibitors synergistically induces apoptosis of melanoma and suppresses AKT and YAP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Anja; Cullinane, Carleen; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Wilmott, James S.; Gunatilake, Dilini; Madore, Jason; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Y.; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Smithers, Nicholas; McArthur, Grant A.; Hersey, Peter; Gallagher, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation marks have an important role in controlling gene expression and are removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). These marks are read by bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and novel inhibitiors of these proteins are currently in clinical development. Inhibitors of HDAC and BET proteins have individually been shown to cause apoptosis and reduce growth of melanoma cells. Here we show that combining the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 and BET inhibitor I-BET151 synergistically i...

  9. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as a novel treatment for diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan P; Dahllöf, Mattias Salling; Lundh, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Both common forms of diabetes have an inflammatory pathogenesis in which immune and metabolic factors converge on interleukin-1ß as a key mediator of insulin resistance and ß-cell failure. In addition to improving insulin resistance and preventing ß-cell inflammatory damage, there is evidence...... of genetic association between diabetes and histone deacetylases (HDACs); and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) promote ß-cell development, proliferation, differentiation and function and positively affect late diabetic microvascular complications. Here we review this evidence and propose that there is a strong...... rationale for preclinical studies and clinical trials with the aim of testing the utility of HDACi as a novel therapy for diabetes....

  10. Epigenetic modulation with histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeenah; Thomas, Scott; Munster, Pamela N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of dysregulated gene silencing to epigenomic alterations in cancer development provides the rationale for the use of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, in cancer therapy. HDAC inhibitors have been approved as single agents for cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma and have shown promising activity in reversing therapy resistance in other tumor types. The effects of HDAC inhibitors on immune modulation have created a recent interest in their potential role in immunotherapy. This review describes the current understanding on integrating HDAC inhibitors into various immunotherapeutic approaches, such as cancer vaccines, adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Furthermore, it summarizes promising treatment strategies in epigenetic immune priming from clinical trials that are currently underway.

  11. Towards histone deacetylase inhibitors as new antimalarial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Tran, Thanh N; Fairlie, David P

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important enzymes that effect post-translational modifications of proteins by altering the acetylation state of lysine residues. HDACs control epigenetic changes that trigger cell transformation and proliferation of transformed cells associated with many diseases. These enzymes are validated drug targets for some types of cancer and are promising therapeutic targets for a range of other diseases, including malaria. Annually, there are ~500 million clinical cases of malaria and ~0.8-1.2 million deaths. There is no licensed vaccine for preventing malaria, and parasites that cause malaria are becoming resistant to current drugs, necessitating the search for new therapies. HDAC inhibitors are emerging as a promising new class of antimalarial drugs with potent and selective action against Plasmodium parasites in vitro. Recent studies on the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the growth and development of P. falciparum have provided important new information on transcriptional regulation in malaria parasites and have validated the potential of this class of inhibitors for malaria therapy. To realise effective HDAC inhibitors for clinical trials, next generation inhibitors must not inhibit other human HDACs or proteins required for normal human physiology, be highly selective in killing parasites in vivo without killing normal host cells, and have improved bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles. This review summarizes current knowledge about malaria parasite HDACs and HDAC inhibitors with antimalarial properties, and provides insights for their development into new drugs for treatment of malaria.

  12. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes cell cycle arrest and re-sensitizes rituximab- and chemo-resistant lymphoma cells to chemotherapy agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Gu, Juan J; Zhang, Qunling; Mavis, Cory; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Czuczman, Myron S; Guo, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical models of chemotherapy resistance and clinical observations derived from the prospective multicenter phase III collaborative trial in relapsed aggressive lymphoma (CORAL) study demonstrated that primary refractory/relapsed B cell diffuse large B cell lymphoma has a poor clinical outcome with current available second-line treatments. Preclinically, we found that rituximab resistance is associated with a deregulation on the mitochondrial potential rendering lymphoma cells resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic stimuli. There is a dire need to develop agents capable to execute alternative pathways of cell death in an attempt to overcome chemotherapy resistance. Posttranscriptional histone modification plays an important role in regulating gene transcription and is altered by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs regulate several key cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, antigen presentation, and/or immune regulation. Given their influence in multiple regulatory pathways, HDAC inhibition is an attractive strategy to evaluate its anti-proliferation activity in cancer cells. To this end, we studied the anti-proliferation activity and mechanisms of action of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) in rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant preclinical models. A panel of rituximab-chemotherapy-sensitive (RSCL) and rituximab-chemotherapy-resistant cell lines (RRCL) and primary tumor cells isolated from relapsed/refractory B cell lymphoma patients were exposed to escalating doses of vorinostat. Changes in mitochondrial potential, ATP synthesis, and cell cycle distribution were determined by Alamar blue reduction, Titer-Glo luminescent assays, and flow cytometric, respectively. Protein lysates were isolated from vorinostat-exposed cells, and changes in members of Bcl-2 family, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and the acetylation status of histone H3 were

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Deleu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel drugs such as bortezomib and high dose chemotherapy combined with stem cell transplantation improved the outcome of multiple myeloma patients in the past decade. However, multiple myeloma often remains incurable due to the development of drug resistance governed by the bone marrow micro-environment. Therefore targeting new pathways to overcome this resistance is needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors represent a new class of anti-myeloma agents. Inhibiting HDACs results in histone hyperacetylation and alterations in chromatine structure, which, in turn, cause growth arrest differentiation and/or apoptosis in several tumor cells. Here we summarize the molecular actions of HDACi as a single agent or in combination with other drugs in different in vitro and in vivo myeloma models and in (preclinical trials.

  14. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, on cartilage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TCA), on cartilage regeneration in a rabbit perichondrial graft model. Methods: Perichondrial grafts (20 × 20 mm2) were derived from the ears of New Zealand rabbits and transplanted onto the paravertebral muscle of the face of each ...

  15. Treatment of Chronic Kidney Diseases with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougang eZhuang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immmunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in preclinical models.

  16. HDAC Inhibitor L-Carnitine and Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Synergistically Exert Anti-Tumor Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Yang, Changshan; Liao, Siyan; Guo, Haiping; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Shouting; Guan, Lixia; Liu, Chunjiao; Xu, Li; Zhang, Change; Song, Wenbin; Li, Bing; Tang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC) is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel) was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by fl...

  17. Synthesis of Sulfonamides and Evaluation of Their Histone Deacetylase (HDAC Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae–Chul Jung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of sulfonamides 4–22 as novel histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors is described. The key synthetic strategies involve N–sulfonylation of L–proline benzyl ester hydrochloride (2 and coupling reaction of N–sulfonyl chloride 3 with amines in high yields. It was found that several compounds showed good cellular potency with the most potent compound 20 exhibiting an IC50 = 2.8 μM in vitro.

  18. Interpreting clinical assays for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As opposed to genetics, dealing with gene expressions by direct DNA sequence modifications, the term epigenetics applies to all the external influences that target the chromatin structure of cells with impact on gene expression unrelated to the sequence coding of DNA itself. In normal cells, epigenetics modulates gene expression through all development steps. When “imprinted” early by the environment, epigenetic changes influence the organism at an early stage and can be transmitted to the progeny. Together with DNA sequence alterations, DNA aberrant cytosine methylation and microRNA deregulation, epigenetic modifications participate in the malignant transformation of cells. Their reversible nature has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy. The efforts made to inhibit in particular the epigenetic enzyme family called histone deacetylases (HDACs) are described. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as a viable clinical therapeutic approach for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, but also to a lesser degree for noncancerous diseases. Three epigenetic drugs are already arriving at the patient’s bedside, and more than 100 clinical assays for HDACi are registered on the National Cancer Institute website. They explore the eventual additive benefits of combined therapies. In the context of the pleiotropic effects of HDAC isoforms, more specific HDACi and more informative screening tests are being developed for the benefit of the patients

  19. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induced differentiation and accelerated mineralization of pulp-derived cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) alter the homeostatic balance between 2 groups of cellular enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs), increasing transcription and influencing cell behavior. This study investigated the potential of 2 HDACis, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), to promote reparative processes in pulp cells as assayed by viability, cell cycle, and mineralization analyses.

  1. Dual-Acting Histone Deacetylase-Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrant, William; Patil, Vishal; Canzoneri, Joshua C.; Yao, Li-Pan; Hood, Rebecca; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Current chemotherapy regimens are comprised mostly of single-target drugs which are often plagued by toxic side effects and resistance development. A pharmacological strategy for circumventing these drawbacks could involve designing multivalent ligands that can modulate multiple targets while avoiding the toxicity of a single-targeted agent. Two attractive targets, histone deacetylase (HDAC) and topoisomerase I (Topo I), are cellular modulators that can broadly arrest cancer proliferation through a range of downstream effects. Both are clinically validated targets with multiple inhibitors in therapeutic use. We describe herein the design and synthesis of dual-acting histone deacetylase-topoisomerase I inhibitors. We also show that these dual-acting agents retain activity against HDAC and Topo I, and potently arrest cancer proliferation. PMID:23622981

  2. Tetrahydroisoquinolines as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors for treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a critical process in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs remove the acetyl group, leading to chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. HDAC inhibitors are considered a new class of anticancer agents and have been shown to alter gene transcription and exert antitumor effects. This paper describes our work on the structural determination and structure-activity relationship (SAR optimization of tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds as HDAC inhibitors. These compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit HDAC 1, 3, 6 and for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Among these, compound 82 showed the greatest inhibitory activity toward HDAC 1, 3, 6 and strongly inhibited growth of the cancer cell lines, with results clearly superior to those of the reference compound, vorinostat (SAHA. Compound 82 increased the acetylation of histones H3, H4 and tubulin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that it is a broad inhibitor of HDACs.

  3. Discovery of HDAC inhibitors with potent activity against multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Finn K; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Avery, Vicky M; Andrews, Katherine T; Kurz, Thomas

    2014-07-23

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against Plasmodium berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Class IIa-Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Discovered Using an in Silico Virtual Screening Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Yi; Lin, Tony Eight; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Tseng, Hui-Ju; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Huang, Wei-Jan

    2017-06-12

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) contain eighteen isoforms that can be divided into four classes. Of these isoform enzymes, class IIa (containing HDAC4, 5, 7 and 9) target unique substrates, some of which are client proteins associated with epigenetic control. Class IIa HDACs are reportedly associated with some neuronal disorders, making HDACs therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, some reported HDAC inhibitors contain hydroxamate moiety that chelates with zinc ion to become the cofactor of HDAC enzymes. However, the hydroxamate functional group is shown to cause undesirable effects and has poor pharmacokinetic profile. This study used in silico virtual screening methodology to identify several nonhydroxamate compounds, obtained from National Cancer Institute database, which potentially inhibited HDAC4. Comparisons of the enzyme inhibitory activity against a panel of HDAC isoforms revealed these compounds had strong inhibitory activity against class IIa HDACs, but weak inhibitory activity against class I HDACs. Further analysis revealed that a single residue affects the cavity size between class I and class IIa HDACs, thus contributing to the selectivity of HDAC inhibitors discovered in this study. The discovery of these inhibitors presents the possibility of developing new therapeutic treatments that can circumvent the problems seen in traditional hydroxamate-based drugs.

  5. Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strobl, Jeannie

    2001-01-01

    The research goal is to demonstrate HDACl is a new chemotherapeutic target for human breast tumor cells and to identify new HDACl inhibitors on the basis of the structure of quinoline antimalarials...

  6. Inhibition of SRC-3 enhances sensitivity of human cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhengzhi, E-mail: zouzhengzhi@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Luo, Xiaoyong [Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Luoyang Central Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Luoyang 471000 (China); Nie, Peipei [KingMed Diagnostics and KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wu, Baoyan; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Yanchun [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Wang, Wenyi [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Geng, Guojun; Jiang, Jie [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China); Mi, Yanjun, E-mail: myjgj_77@163.com [Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000 (China)

    2016-09-09

    SRC-3 is widely expressed in multiple tumor types and involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising antitumor drugs. However, the poor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors has restricted its further clinical application. Here, we reported the novel finding that depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors (SAHA and romidepsin). In contrast, overexpression of SRC-3 decreased SAHA-induced cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. The combination of bufalin and SAHA was particular efficient in attenuating AKT activation and reducing Bcl-2 levels. Taken together, these accumulating data might guide development of new breast and lung cancer therapies. - Highlights: • Depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. • Overexpression of SRC-3 enhanced cancer cell resistance to HDAC inhibitors. • SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. • Bufalin synergized with HDAC inhibitor attenuated AKT activation and reduced Bcl-2 levels in human cancer cell.

  7. HDAC6 deacetylase activity is required for hypoxia-induced invadopodia formation and cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Arsenault

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in the cancer field, tumor cell invasion and metastasis remain a major clinical challenge. Cell invasion across tissue boundaries depends largely on extracellular matrix degradation, which can be initiated by formation of actin-rich cell structures specialized in matrix degradation called invadopodia. Although the hypoxic microenvironment within solid tumors has been increasingly recognized as an important driver of local invasion and metastasis, little is known about how hypoxia influences invadopodia biogenesis. Here, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6, a cytoplasmic member of the histone deacetylase family, is a novel modulator of hypoxia-induced invadopodia formation. Hypoxia was found to enhance HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase activity through activation of the EGFR pathway. Activated HDAC6, in turn, triggered Smad3 phosphorylation resulting in nuclear accumulation. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity or knockdown of the protein inhibited both hypoxia-induced Smad3 activation and invadopodia formation. Our data provide evidence that hypoxia influences invadopodia formation in a biphasic manner, which involves the activation of HDAC6 deacetylase activity by EGFR, resulting in enhanced Smad phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. The identification of HDAC6 as a key participant of hypoxia-induced cell invasion may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastasis in cancer patients.

  8. Reactivation of latent HIV by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Kotaro; Chavez, Leonard; Hakre, Shweta; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Verdin, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Latent HIV persists in CD4(+) T cells in infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Latency is associated with transcriptional silencing of the integrated provirus and driven, at least in part, by histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of chromatin-associated proteins that regulate histone acetylation and the accessibility of DNA to transcription factors. Remarkably, inhibition of HDACs is sufficient to reactivate a fraction of latent HIV in a variety of experimental systems. This basic observation led to the shock and kill idea that forcing the transcriptional activation of HIV might lead to virus expression, to virus- or host-induced cell death of the reactivated cells, and to the eradication of the pool of latently infected cells. Such intervention might possibly lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. Here, we review the basic biology of HDACs and their inhibitors, the role of HDACs in HIV latency, and recent efforts to use HDAC inhibitors to reactivate latent HIV in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An HDAC inhibitor enhances the antitumor activity of a CMV promoter-driven DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M-D; Chen, C-S; Yang, C-R; Yuan, S-Y; Tsai, J-J; Tu, C-F; Wang, C-C; Yen, M-C; Lin, C-C

    2010-03-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter is considered to be one of the strongest promoters for driving the in vivo expression of genes encoded by DNA vaccines. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines has so far been disappointing (particularly in humans), and this might be explained in part by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated chromatin condensation. Hence, we sought to investigate whether increasing the expression of DNA vaccine antigens with the HDAC inhibitor OSU-HDAC42 would enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccines in vivo. A luciferase assay was used to determine the effects of OSU-HDAC42 on CMV promoter-driven DNA plasmids in vitro and in vivo. Three HDAC inhibitors were able to activate expression from the CMV promoter in NIH3T3 cells and MBT-2 bladder cancer cells. The expression of luciferase was significantly enhanced by co-administration of pCMV-luciferase and OSU-HDAC42 in mice. To explore whether OSU-HDAC42 could enhance the specific antitumor activity of a neu DNA vaccine driven by the CMV promoter, we evaluated therapeutic effects and immune responses in a mouse tumor natively overexpressing HER2/neu. Mice receiving OSU-HDAC42 in combination with the CMV-promoter neu DNA vaccine exhibited stronger antitumor effects than mice given the DNA vaccine only. In addition, a correlation between the antitumor effects and the specific cellular immune responses was observed in the mice receiving the DNA vaccine and OSU-HDAC42.

  10. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Fitzsimons

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  11. The histone deacetylase HDAC4 regulates long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Helen L; Schwartz, Silvia; Given, Fiona M; Scott, Maxwell J

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlates with enhancement of long-term memory and current research is concentrated on determining the roles that individual HDACs play in cognitive function. Here, we investigate the role of HDAC4 in long-term memory formation in Drosophila. We show that overexpression of HDAC4 in the adult mushroom body, an important structure for memory formation, resulted in a specific impairment in long-term courtship memory, but had no affect on short-term memory. Overexpression of an HDAC4 catalytic mutant also abolished LTM, suggesting a mode of action independent of catalytic activity. We found that overexpression of HDAC4 resulted in a redistribution of the transcription factor MEF2 from a relatively uniform distribution through the nucleus into punctate nuclear bodies, where it colocalized with HDAC4. As MEF2 has also been implicated in regulation of long-term memory, these data suggest that the repressive effects of HDAC4 on long-term memory may be through interaction with MEF2. In the same genetic background, we also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC4 impairs long-term memory, therefore we demonstrate that HDAC4 is not only a repressor of long-term memory, but also modulates normal memory formation.

  12. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Michele; Soncini, Debora; Fruscione, Floriana; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Garuti, Anna; Emionite, Laura; Moran, Eva; Magnone, Mirko; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Reverberi, Daniele; Caffa, Irene; Salis, Annalisa; Cagnetta, Antonia; Bergamaschi, Micaela; Casciaro, Salvatore; Pierri, Ivana; Damonte, Gianluca; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gobbi, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco; Bruzzone, Santina; Nencioni, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+)-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+)-dependent HDACs (sirtuins) in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+)-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527) and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+) levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+)-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  13. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cea

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527 and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  14. An Isochemogenic Set of Inhibitors To Define the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylases in β-Cell Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florence F; Lundh, Morten; Kaya, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. However, it has been difficult to dissect the role of individual HDACs due to a lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the synthesis of a series...... and demonstrate for the first time that selective inhibition of an individual HDAC isoform retains beneficial biological activity and mitigates mechanism-based toxicities. The highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor BRD3308 suppressed pancreatic β-cell apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines, as expected, or now...

  15. New benzothiazole/thiazole-containing hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanh Tung, Truong; Oanh, Dao Thi Kim; Dung, Phan Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Results from clinical studies have demonstrated that inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes possess promise for the treatment of several types of cancer. Zolinza(®) (widely known as SAHA) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma. As a continuity of our ongoing...

  16. Prostate Cancer Prevention by Sulforaphane, a Novel Dietary Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhen, Yu

    2008-01-01

    ...) as a novel histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor and explore the mechanism of SFN protection against prostate cancer, different stage of prostate cancerous cells were treated with 15muM or 30 muM SFN and harvest 48hr later for MTT assay...

  17. Comparative gene expression profiling of P. falciparum malaria parasites exposed to three different histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine T Andrews

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are being intensively pursued as potential new drugs for a range of diseases, including malaria. HDAC inhibitors are also important tools for the study of epigenetic mechanisms, transcriptional control, and other important cellular processes. In this study the effects of three structurally related antimalarial HDAC inhibitors on P. falciparum malaria parasite gene expression were compared. The three hydroxamate-based compounds, trichostatin A (TSA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat® and a 2-aminosuberic acid derivative (2-ASA-9, all caused profound transcriptional effects, with ~2-21% of genes having >2-fold altered expression following 2 h exposure to the compounds. Only two genes, alpha tubulin II and a hydrolase, were up-regulated by all three compounds after 2 h exposure in all biological replicates examined. The transcriptional changes observed after 2 h exposure to HDAC inhibitors were found to be largely transitory, with only 1-5% of genes being regulated after removing the compounds and culturing for a further 2 h. Despite some structural similarity, the three inhibitors caused quite diverse transcriptional effects, possibly reflecting subtle differences in mode of action or cellular distribution. This dataset represents an important contribution to our understanding of how HDAC inhibitors act on malaria parasites and identifies alpha tubulin II as a potential transcriptional marker of HDAC inhibition in malaria parasites that may be able to be exploited for future development of HDAC inhibitors as new antimalarial agents.

  18. The histone deacetylase HDAC1 positively regulates Notch signaling during Drosophila wing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across different animal species and plays crucial roles in development and physiology. Regulation of Notch signaling occurs at multiple levels in different tissues and cell types. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase HDAC1 acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling during Drosophila wing development. Depletion of HDAC1 causes wing notches on the margin of adult wing. Consistently, the expression of Notch target genes is reduced in the absence of HDAC1 during wing margin formation. We further provide evidence that HDAC1 acts upstream of Notch activation. Mechanistically, we show that HDAC1 regulates Notch protein levels by promoting Notch transcription. Consistent with this, the HDAC1-associated transcriptional co-repressor Atrophin (Atro is also required for transcriptional activation of Notch in the wing disc. In summary, our results demonstrate that HDAC1 positively regulates Notch signaling and reveal a previously unidentified function of HDAC1 in Notch signaling.

  19. HDAC1 and HDAC2 collectively regulate intestinal stem cell homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimberlin, Cheryl D.; Lancini, Cesare; Sno, Rachel; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; McLean, Chelsea M.; Vlaming, Hanneke; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Bots, Michael; Medema, Jan Paul; Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are posttranslational modifiers that deacetylate proteins. Despite their crucial role in numerous biological processes, the use of broad-range HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), has shown clinical efficacy. However, undesired side effects highlight the necessity to better

  20. Selective Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Synergize with Azacitidine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chengyin; Moore, Nathan; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Quayle, Steven N; Huang, Pengyu; van Duzer, John H; Jarpe, Matthew B; Jones, Simon S; Yang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by defects in myeloid differentiation and increased proliferation of neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells. Outcomes for patients with AML remain poor, highlighting the need for novel treatment options. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, and inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have exhibited activity in preclinical AML models. Combination studies with HDAC inhibitors plus DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have potential beneficial clinical activity in AML, however the toxicity profiles of non-selective HDAC inhibitors in the combination setting limit their clinical utility. In this work, we describe the preclinical development of selective inhibitors of HDAC1 and HDAC2, which are hypothesized to have improved safety profiles, for combination therapy in AML. We demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 is sufficient to achieve efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with azacitidine in preclinical models of AML, including established AML cell lines, primary leukemia cells from AML patient bone marrow samples and in vivo xenograft models of human AML. Gene expression profiling of AML cells treated with either an HDAC1/2 inhibitor, azacitidine, or the combination of both have identified a list of genes involved in transcription and cell cycle regulation as potential mediators of the combinatorial effects of HDAC1/2 inhibition with azacitidine. Together, these findings support the clinical evaluation of selective HDAC1/2 inhibitors in combination with azacitidine in AML patients.

  1. Selective Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Synergize with Azacitidine in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyin Min

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by defects in myeloid differentiation and increased proliferation of neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells. Outcomes for patients with AML remain poor, highlighting the need for novel treatment options. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, and inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes have exhibited activity in preclinical AML models. Combination studies with HDAC inhibitors plus DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have potential beneficial clinical activity in AML, however the toxicity profiles of non-selective HDAC inhibitors in the combination setting limit their clinical utility. In this work, we describe the preclinical development of selective inhibitors of HDAC1 and HDAC2, which are hypothesized to have improved safety profiles, for combination therapy in AML. We demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 is sufficient to achieve efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with azacitidine in preclinical models of AML, including established AML cell lines, primary leukemia cells from AML patient bone marrow samples and in vivo xenograft models of human AML. Gene expression profiling of AML cells treated with either an HDAC1/2 inhibitor, azacitidine, or the combination of both have identified a list of genes involved in transcription and cell cycle regulation as potential mediators of the combinatorial effects of HDAC1/2 inhibition with azacitidine. Together, these findings support the clinical evaluation of selective HDAC1/2 inhibitors in combination with azacitidine in AML patients.

  2. Class I Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Entinostat Suppresses Regulatory T Cells and Enhances Immunotherapies in Renal and Prostate Cancer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Li; Ciesielski, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Miles, Kiersten M.; Ellis, Leigh; Sotomayor, Paula; Shrikant, Protul; Fenstermaker, Robert; Pili, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM) in a ...

  3. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC 3) as emerging drug target in NF-kappa B-mediated inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leus, Niek G. J.; Zwinderman, Martijn R. H.; Dekker, Frank J.

    Activation of inflammatory gene expression is regulated, among other factors, by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modifications is lysine acetylations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetylations from lysines, thereby influencing

  4. A novel class I HDAC inhibitor, MPT0G030, induces cell apoptosis and differentiation in human colorectal cancer cells via HDAC1/PKCδ and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Liou, Jing-Ping; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Yi-Min; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-07-30

    Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes contributes to cancer development and progression. Compared with gene mutations or deletions, epigenetic changes are reversible, which alter the chromatin structure remodeling instead of changes in DNA sequence, and therefore become a promising strategy for chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that responsible for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. MPT0G030 is a potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitor which showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. in vitro fluorometric HDAC activity assay showed that MPT0G030 effectively inhibited Class I HDACs (HDAC1~3), which were overexpressed in many malignant neoplasms. Interestingly, MPT0G030 not only induced histone acetylation and tumor suppressor p21 transcription, but also redistributed E-cadherin and activated Protein Kinase C δ (PKCδ), which was linked to cell apoptosis and differentiation. Further, activation of PKCδ was demonstrated to be modulated through HDAC1. The in vivo anticancer activity of MPT0G030 and the importance of PKCδ were confirmed in the HT-29 tumor xenograft models. Taken together, those results indicate that MPT0G030, a class I HDAC inhibitor, has great potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Improve the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, James J.; Markert, James M.; Hurst, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50) for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy. PMID:24651853

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors improve the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50 for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy.

  7. The discovery of novel HDAC3 inhibitors via virtual screening and in vitro bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jie; Hu, Huabin; Xue, Wenjie; Wang, Xiang Simon; Wu, Song

    2018-12-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a potential target for the treatment of human diseases such as cancers, diabetes, chronic inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we proposed a virtual screening (VS) pipeline named "Hypo1_FRED_SAHA-3" for the discovery of HDAC3 inhibitors (HDAC3Is) and had thoroughly validated it by theoretical calculations. In this study, we attempted to explore its practical utility in a large-scale VS campaign. To this end, we used the VS pipeline to hierarchically screen the Specs chemical library. In order to facilitate compound cherry-picking, we then developed a knowledge-based pose filter (PF) by using our in-house quantitative structure activity relationship- (QSAR-) modelling approach and coupled it with FRED and Autodock Vina. Afterward, we purchased and tested 11 diverse compounds for their HDAC3 inhibitory activity in vitro. The bioassay has identified compound 2 (Specs ID: AN-979/41971160) as a HDAC3I (IC 50  = 6.1 μM), which proved the efficacy of our workflow. As a medicinal chemistry study, we performed a follow-up substructure search and identified two more hit compounds of the same chemical type, i.e. 2-1 (AQ-390/42122119, IC 50  = 1.3 μM) and 2-2 (AN-329/43450111, IC 50  = 12.5 μM). Based on the chemical structures and activities, we have demonstrated the essential role of the capping group in maintaining the activity for this class of HDAC3Is. In addition, we tested the hit compounds for their in vitro activities on other HDACs, including HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC8, HDAC4 and HDAC6. We have identified these compounds are HDAC1/2/3 selective inhibitors, of which compound 2 show the best selectivity profile. Taken together, the present study is an experimental validation and an update to our earlier VS strategy. The identified hits could be used as starting structures for the development of highly potent and selective HDAC3Is.

  8. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1, -2, -4 and -6 expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity and patients' survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Damaskos, Christos; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Zizi-Serbetzoglou, Adamantia; Tsoukalas, Nicolaos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-10-26

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been associated with malignant tumor development and progression in humans. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are currently being explored as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HDAC-1, -2, -4 and -6 protein expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. HDAC-1, -2, -4 and -6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on 70 pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue specimens and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological characteristics and patients' survival. Enhanced HDAC-1 expression was significantly associated with increased tumor proliferative capacity (p = 0.0238) and borderline with the absence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0632). Elevated HDAC-4 expression was significantly associated with the absence of organ metastases (p = 0.0453) and borderline with the absence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0571) and tumor proliferative capacity (p = 0.0576). Enhanced HDAC-6 expression was significantly associated with earlier histopathological stage (p = 0.0115) and borderline with smaller tumor size (p = 0.0864). Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with enhanced HDAC-1 and -6 expression showed significantly longer survival times compared to those with low expression (p = 0.0022 and p = 0.0113, respectively), while a borderline association concerning HDAC-2 expression was noted (p = 0.0634). The present study suggested that HDACs may be implicated in pancreatic malignant disease progression, being considered of clinical utility with potential use as therapeutic targets.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in oral squamous cell carcinoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoulas, Jason; Giaginis, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Manolis, Evangelos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The involvement of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) family in tumor development and progression is well demonstrated. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) constitute a novel, heterogeneous family of highly selective anticancer agents that inhibit HDACs and present significant antitumor activity in several human malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Areas covered: This review summarizes the current research on the anticancer activity of HDACis against OSCC. The review also presents the molecular mechanisms of HDACis action and the existing studies evaluating their utilization in combined therapies of OSCC. Expert opinion: The currently available data support evidence that HDACis may provide new therapeutic options against OSCC, decreasing treatment side effects and allowing a more conservative therapeutic approach. Future research should be focused on in vivo and clinical evaluation of their utilization as combined therapies or monotherapies. Before HDACis can be brought into clinical practice as treatment options for OSCC, further evaluation is needed to determine their optimal dosage, the appropriate duration of treatment and whether they should be used in combination or as stand-alone therapeutics.

  10. Treatment with a selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor decreases lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieson, Miranda D; Gojmerac, Alexander M; Khan, Deena; Dai, Rujuan; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Caudell, David L; Liao, Xiaofeng; Luo, Xin M; Reilly, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    To date, there are 18 histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, divided into four classes, which alter protein function by removing acetyl groups from lysine residues. Prior studies report that non-selective HDAC inhibitors decrease disease in lupus mouse models. Concern for adverse side effects of non-selective HDAC inhibition supports investigation of selective-HDAC inhibition. We hypothesized that a selective HDAC-6 inhibitor (HDAC6i) will alleviate disease in a mouse model of lupus by increasing acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Intraperitoneal injections of the selective HDAC6i ACY-1083 (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg), vehicle control, or dexamethasone were administered to 21-week-old, female NZB/W mice, 5 days a week, for 13 weeks. Disease progression was evaluated by proteinuria, serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibody, cytokines and immunoglobulins, and post mortem evaluation of nephritis and T cell populations in the spleen. HDAC6i treatment decreased proteinuria, glomerular histopathology, IgG, and C3 scores when compared to vehicle-treated mice. Within glomeruli of HDAC6i-treated mice, there was increased acetylation of alpha-tubulin and decreased NF-κB. Additionally, HDAC6i decreased serum IL-12/IL-23 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest HDAC-6 inhibition may decrease lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice via mechanisms involving acetylation of alpha-tubulin and decreased NF-κB in glomeruli as well as inhibition of Th17 cells.

  11. A role for the histone deacetylase HDAC4 in the life-cycle of HIV-1-based vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Gary D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 integration is mediated by the HIV-1 integrase protein, which joins 3'-ends of viral DNA to host cell DNA. To complete the integration process, HIV-1 DNA has to be joined to host cell DNA also at the 5'-ends. This process is called post-integration repair (PIR. Integration and PIR involve a number of cellular co-factors. These proteins exhibit different degrees of involvement in integration and/or PIR. Some are required for efficient integration or PIR. On the other hand, some reduce the efficiency of integration. Finally, some are involved in integration site selection. We have studied the role of the histone deacetylase HDAC4 in these processes. HDAC4 was demonstrated to play a role in both cellular double-strand DNA break repair and transcriptional regulation. We observed that HDAC4 associates with viral DNA in an integrase-dependent manner. Moreover, infection with HIV-1-based vectors induces foci of the HDAC4 protein. The related histone deacetylases, HDAC2 and HDAC6, failed to associate with viral DNA after infection. These data suggest that HDAC4 accumulates at integration sites. Finally, overexpression studies with HDAC4 mutants suggest that HDAC4 may be required for efficient transduction by HIV-1-based vectors in cells that are deficient in other DNA repair proteins. We conclude that HDAC4 is likely involved in PIR.

  12. Ligand Based Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening Studies to Design Novel HDAC2 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kandakatla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases 2 (HDAC2, Class I histone deacetylase (HDAC family, emerged as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various cancers. A total of 48 inhibitors of two different chemotypes were used to generate pharmacophore model using 3D QSAR pharmacophore generation (HypoGen algorithm module in Discovery Studio. The best HypoGen model consists of four pharmacophore features namely, one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA, and one hydrogen donor (HBD, one hydrophobic (HYP and one aromatic centres, (RA. This model was validated against 20 test set compounds and this model was utilized as a 3D query for virtual screening to validate against NCI and Maybridge database and the hits further screened by Lipinski’s rule of 5, and a total of 382 hit compounds from NCI and 243 hit compounds from Maybridge were found and were subjected to molecular docking in the active site of HDAC2 (PDB: 3MAX. Finally eight hit compounds, NSC108392, NSC127064, NSC110782, and NSC748337 from NCI database and MFCD01935795, MFCD00830779, MFCD00661790, and MFCD00124221 from Maybridge database, were considered as novel potential HDAC2 inhibitors.

  13. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Are Protective in Acute but Not in Chronic Models of Ototoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hui Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants. In vivo, however, treatment with SAHA attenuated neither GM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in guinea pigs nor kanamycin (KM-induced hearing loss and hair cell loss in mice under chronic models of ototoxicity. These findings suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA attenuates aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in an acute model, but not in chronic models, cautioning that one cannot rely solely on in vitro experiments to test the efficacy of otoprotectant compounds.

  14. HDAC3-selective inhibitor enhances extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior in a persistent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaez, Melissa; McQuown, Susan C; Rogge, George A; Astarabadi, Mariam; Jacques, Vincent; Carreiro, Samantha; Rusche, James R; Wood, Marcelo A

    2013-02-12

    Nonspecific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been shown to facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behavior in a manner resistant to reinstatement. A key open question is which specific HDAC is involved in the extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Using the selective HDAC3 inhibitor RGFP966, we investigated the role of HDAC3 in extinction and found that systemic treatment with RGFP966 facilitates extinction in mice in a manner resistant to reinstatement. We also investigated whether the facilitated extinction is related to the enhancement of extinction consolidation during extinction learning or to negative effects on performance or reconsolidation. These are key distinctions with regard to any compound being used to modulate extinction, because a more rapid decrease in a defined behavior is interpreted as facilitated extinction. Using an innovative combination of behavioral paradigms, we found that a single treatment of RGFP966 enhances extinction of a previously established cocaine-conditioned place preference, while simultaneously enhancing long-term object-location memory within subjects. During extinction consolidation, HDAC3 inhibition promotes a distinct pattern of histone acetylation linked to gene expression within the infralimbic cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens. Thus, the facilitated extinction of drug-seeking cannot be explained by adverse effects on performance. These results demonstrate that HDAC3 inhibition enhances the memory processes involved in extinction of drug-seeking behavior.

  15. Enhancement of pomalidomide anti-tumor response with ACY-241, a selective HDAC6 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J North

    Full Text Available Thalidomide-based Immunomodulatory Drugs (IMiDs®, including lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are effective therapeutics for multiple myeloma. These agents have been approved with, or are under clinical development with, other targeted therapies including proteasome inhibitors, αCD38 monoclonal antibodies, as well as histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors for combination therapy. HDAC inhibitors broadly targeting Class I and IIb HDACs have shown potent preclinical efficacy but have frequently demonstrated an undesirable safety profile in combination therapy approaches in clinical studies. Therefore, development of more selective HDAC inhibitors could provide enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects in combination with IMiDs® for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including multiple myeloma. Here, the second generation selective HDAC6 inhibitor citarinostat (ACY-241, with a more favorable safety profile than non-selective pan-HDAC inhibitors, is shown to synergize with pomalidomide in in vitro assays through promoting greater apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, utilizing a multiple myeloma in vivo murine xenograft model, combination treatment with pomalidomide and ACY-241 leads to increased tumor growth inhibition. At the molecular level, combination treatment with ACY-241 and pomalidomide leads to greater suppression of the pro-survival factors survivin, Myc, and IRF4. The results presented here demonstrate synergy between pomalidomide and ACY-241 in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, providing further impetus for clinical development of ACY-241 for use in combination with IMiDs for patients with multiple myeloma and potentially other B-cell malignancies.

  16. Development of histone deacetylase inhibitor in antitumor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Li Biao; Zhang Yifan

    2007-01-01

    Human genome project has made a great progress, but the study about the gene expression regulation is still at the beginning. It's found that many diseases such as cancer are related to the deactivation of some gene expressions, whose epigenetic mechanisms involve DNA methylation, histone acetylation and other structural changes in chromatin. That disturbs the normal gene expression regulation and cell multiplication, which finally induce the carcinogenesis. So the re-expression of inactive genes may play a part in inhibiting the carcinogenesis. On the basis of the view, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has a variety of applications in the study of disease and tumor, including the thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, it comtribute to the mew way of the redifferentication and radioidine therapy against poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (authors)

  17. A Thoroughly Validated Virtual Screening Strategy for Discovery of Novel HDAC3 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 has been recently identified as a potential target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases, such as chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Virtual screening (VS is currently a routine technique for hit identification, but its success depends on rational development of VS strategies. To facilitate this process, we applied our previously released benchmarking dataset, i.e., MUBD-HDAC3 to the evaluation of structure-based VS (SBVS and ligand-based VS (LBVS combinatorial approaches. We have identified FRED (Chemgauss4 docking against a structural model of HDAC3, i.e., SAHA-3 generated by a computationally inexpensive “flexible docking”, as the best SBVS approach and a common feature pharmacophore model, i.e., Hypo1 generated by Catalyst/HipHop as the optimal model for LBVS. We then developed a pipeline that was composed of Hypo1, FRED (Chemgauss4, and SAHA-3 sequentially, and demonstrated that it was superior to other combinations in terms of ligand enrichment. In summary, we present the first highly-validated, rationally-designed VS strategy specific to HDAC3 inhibitor discovery. The constructed pipeline is publicly accessible for the scientific community to identify novel HDAC3 inhibitors in a time-efficient and cost-effective way.

  18. Molecular regulation of MHC class I chain-related protein A expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Jensen, Helle; Pedersen, Marianne T

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we characterize the molecular signal pathways that lead to MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) expression after histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor (HDAC-i) treatment of Jurkat T cells. Chelating calcium with BAPTA-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC- and CMV-mediated MICA......1 site from position -113 to -93 relative to the mRNA start site was important for HDAC and CMV-induced promoter activity. Sp1 was subsequently shown to be important, as targeted mutation of the Sp1 binding sequence or siRNA mediated down modulation of Sp1-inhibited MICA promoter activity...

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Antagonize Distinct Pathways to Suppress Tumorigenesis of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra Vleeshouwer-Neumann

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS is the most common soft tissue cancer in children. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or metastatic disease remains poor. ERMS genomes show few recurrent mutations, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic regulation might play a major role in driving ERMS tumor biology. In this study, we have demonstrated the diverse roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs in the pathogenesis of ERMS by characterizing effects of HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; also known as vorinostat in vitro and in vivo. TSA and SAHA suppress ERMS tumor growth and progression by inducing myogenic differentiation as well as reducing the self-renewal and migratory capacity of ERMS cells. Differential expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed downregulation of key oncogenic pathways upon HDAC inhibitor treatment. By gain-of-function, loss-of-function, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP studies, we show that Notch1- and EphrinB1-mediated pathways are regulated by HDACs to inhibit differentiation and enhance migratory capacity of ERMS cells, respectively. Our study demonstrates that aberrant HDAC activity plays a major role in ERMS pathogenesis. Druggable targets in the molecular pathways affected by HDAC inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for ERMS patients.

  20. Radio-sensitizing Effects of Novel Histone De-Acetylase Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    deacetylase, suppresses the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res, 60: 5165- 5170, 2000. 9. Saito, A., Yamashita, T., Mariko, Y ...induces apoptosis and CD95 / CD95 ligand expression in human neuroblastoma. Cancer Res, 59: 4392-4399, 1999. 12. Vigushin, D. M., Ali, S., Pace, P. E...deacetylase inhibitor, (S)-HDAC-42, in prostate cancer . Clin Cancer Res, 12: 5199-5206, 2006. 40. Chung, Y . L., Lee, Y . H., Yen, S. H., and Chi, K. H

  1. The role of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor in diabetes mellitus: experimental evidence for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes mellitus (DM), β-cell reprogramming and its complications is an emerging concept. Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between DM and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote β-cell differentiation, proliferation, function and improve insulin resistance. Moreover, gut microbes and diet-derived products can alter the host epigenome. Furthermore, butyrate and butyrate-producing microbes are decreased in DM. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by microbiota and has been proven as an HDAC inhibitor. The present review provides a pragmatic interpretation of chromatin-dependent and independent complex signaling/mechanisms of butyrate for the treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 DM, with an emphasis on the promising strategies for its drugability and therapeutic implication.

  2. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams David E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Results Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1. Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. Conclusion The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor

  3. Amino acid starvation induces reactivation of silenced transgenes and latent HIV-1 provirus via down-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Ilaria; Della Chiara, Giulia; D'Ambrosio, Rosa Lucia; Huichalaf, Claudia; Brambilla, Paola; Corbetta, Silvia; Riba, Michela; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Valente, Sergio; Casari, Giorgio; Mai, Antonello; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Gabellini, Davide; Poli, Guido; Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2012-08-21

    The epigenetic silencing of exogenous transcriptional units integrated into the genome represents a critical problem both for long-term gene therapy efficacy and for the eradication of latent viral infections. We report here that limitation of essential amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, causes selective up-regulation of exogenous transgene expression in mammalian cells. Prolonged amino acid deprivation led to significant and reversible increase in the expression levels of stably integrated transgenes transcribed by means of viral or human promoters in HeLa cells. This phenomenon was mediated by epigenetic chromatin modifications, because histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reproduced starvation-induced transgene up-regulation, and transcriptome analysis, ChIP, and pharmacological and RNAi approaches revealed that a specific class II HDAC, namely HDAC4, plays a critical role in maintaining the silencing of exogenous transgenes. This mechanism was also operational in cells chronically infected with HIV-1, the etiological agent of AIDS, in a latency state. Indeed, both amino acid starvation and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC4 promoted reactivation of HIV-1 transcription and reverse transcriptase activity production in HDAC4(+) ACH-2 T-lymphocytic cells but not in HDAC4(-) U1 promonocytic cells. Thus, amino acid deprivation leads to transcriptional derepression of silenced transgenes, including integrated plasmids and retroviruses, by a process involving inactivation or down-regulation of HDAC4. These findings suggest that selective targeting of HDAC4 might represent a unique strategy for modulating the expression of therapeutic viral vectors, as well as that of integrated HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs without significant cytotoxicity.

  4. Development of Improved HDAC6 Inhibitors as Pharmacological Therapy for Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Veronick; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Jarpe, Matthew; Van Damme, Philip; Robberecht, Wim; Van Den Bosch, Ludo

    2017-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 2500. The degeneration of motor and sensory nerve axons leads to motor and sensory symptoms that progress over time and have an important impact on the daily life of these patients. Currently, there is no curative treatment available. Recently, we identified histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which deacetylates α-tubulin, as a potential therapeutic target in axonal CMT (CMT2). Pharmacological inhibition of the deacetylating function of HDAC6 reversed the motor and sensory deficits in a mouse model for mutant "small heat shock protein B1" (HSPB1)-induced CMT2 at the behavioral and electrophysiological level. In order to translate this potential therapeutic strategy into a clinical application, small drug-like molecules that are potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors are essential. To screen for these, we developed a method that consisted of 3 distinct phases and that was based on the pathological findings in the mutant HSPB1-induced CMT2 mouse model. Three different inhibitors (ACY-738, ACY-775, and ACY-1215) were tested and demonstrated to be both potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors. Moreover, these inhibitors increased the innervation of the neuromuscular junctions in the gastrocnemius muscle and improved the motor and sensory nerve conduction, confirming that HDAC6 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy in CMT2. Furthermore, ACY-1215 is an interesting lead molecule as it is currently tested in clinical trials for cancer. Taken together, these results may speed up the translation of pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 into a therapy against CMT2.

  5. HDAC inhibitors and neurodegeneration: at the edge between protection and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karen C.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) as a therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative disorders has been examined with great interest in the last decade. The functional response to treatment with broad-spectrum inhibitors however, has been heterogeneous: protective in some cases and detrimental in others. In this review we discuss potential underlying causes for these apparently contradictory results. Because HDACs are part of repressive complexes, the functional outcome has been characteristically attributed to enhanced gene expression due to increased acetylation of lysine residues on nucleosomal histones. However, it is important to take into consideration that the up-regulation of diverse sets of genes (i.e. pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic) may orchestrate different responses in diverse cell types. An alternative possibility is that broad-spectrum pharmacological inhibition may target nuclear or cytosolic HDAC isoforms, with distinct non-histone substrates (i.e. transcription factors; cytoskeletal proteins). Thus, for any given neurological disorder, it is important to take into account the effect of HDACIs on neuronal, glial and inflammatory cells and define the relative contribution of distinct HDAC isoforms to the pathological process. This review article addresses how opposing effects on distinct cell types may profoundly influence the overall therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors when investigating treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20123018

  6. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrillo Richard L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs can regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes and activities of transcriptional factors involved in both cancer initiation and progression through alteration of either DNA or the structural components of chromatin. Recently, the role of gene repression through modulation such as acetylation in cancer patients has been clinically validated with several inhibitors of HDACs. One of the HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat, has been approved by FDA for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL for patients with progressive, persistent, or recurrent disease on or following two systemic therapies. Other inhibitors, for example, FK228, PXD101, PCI-24781, ITF2357, MGCD0103, MS-275, valproic acid and LBH589 have also demonstrated therapeutic potential as monotherapy or combination with other anti-tumor drugs in CTCL and other malignancies. At least 80 clinical trials are underway, testing more than eleven different HDAC inhibitory agents including both hematological and solid malignancies. This review focuses on recent development in clinical trials testing HDAC inhibitors as anti-tumor agents.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Therapy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Takai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in ovarian cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs in treating ovarian cancer. HDACIs were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in a variety of ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, HDACIs were able to induce the accumulation of acetylated histones in the chromatin of the p21WAF1 gene in human ovarian carcinoma cells. In xenograft models, some of HDACIs have demonstrated antitumor activity with only few side effects. Some clinical trials demonstrate that HDACI drugs provide an important class of new mechanism-based therapeutics for ovarian cancer. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating ovarian cancer, especially focusing on preclinical studies and clinical trials.

  8. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Engel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat®, romidepsin (Istodax® and belinostat (Beleodaq®, are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10–200 nM, while only romidepsin was active at sub-μM concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM. The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4.

  9. HDAC Inhibitors without an Active Site Zn2+-Binding Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickers, Chris J.; Olsen, Christian Adam; Leman, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    -target interactions with other metalloenzymes. As a step toward mitigating this issue, here, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure−activity characterizations of cyclic α3β-tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors that lack the presumed indispensable Zn2+-binding group. The lead compounds (e.g., 15 and 26) display good...... potency against class 1 HDACs and are active in tissue culture against various human cancer cell lines. Importantly, enzymological analysis of 26 indicates that the cyclic α3β-tetrapeptide is a fast-on/ off competitive inhibitor of HDACs 1−3 with Ki values of 49, 33, and 37 nM, respectively. Our proof...

  10. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-κB activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-κB as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-κB activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-α. TNF-α expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-κB activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-α does not lead to activation of NF-κB, because disruption of TNF-α activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-κB, IκBα degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-κB requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-κB seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-κB reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-κB signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin

  11. HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers in fear, anxiety and trauma therapy: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A novel strategy to treat anxiety and fear-related disorders such as phobias, panic and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is combining CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), including extinction-based exposure therapy, with cognitive enhancers. By targeting and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevention. Progress in revealing the role of epigenetic regulation of specific genes associated with extinction memory generation has opened new avenues in this direction. The present review examines recent evidence from pre-clinical studies showing that increasing histone acetylation, either via genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDACs (histone deacetylases) by e.g. vorinostat/SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), entinostat/MS-275, sodium butyrate, TSA (trichostatin A) or VPA (valproic acid), or by targeting HATs (histone acetyltransferases), augments fear extinction and, importantly, generates a long-term extinction memory that can protect from return of fear phenomena. The molecular mechanisms and pathways involved including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor signalling are just beginning to be revealed. First studies in healthy humans are in support of extinction-facilitating effects of HDAC inhibitors. Very recent evidence that HDAC inhibitors can rescue deficits in extinction-memory-impaired rodents indicates a potential clinical utility of this approach also for exposure therapy-resistant patients. Important future work includes investigation of the long-term safety aspects of HDAC inhibitor treatment, as well as design of isotype(s)-specific inhibitors. Taken together, HDAC inhibitors display promising potential as pharmacological adjuncts to augment the efficacy of exposure-based approaches in anxiety and trauma therapy.

  12. Structure of ‘linkerless’ hydroxamic acid inhibitor-HDAC8 complex confirms the formation of an isoform-specific subpocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabackman, Alexa A.; Frankson, Rochelle; Marsan, Eric S.; Perry, Kay; Cole, Kathryn E. (Ithaca); (Cornell); (Christopher Newport U)

    2016-11-04

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylated lysine side chains in histone and non-histone proteins, and play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. Aberrant HDAC activity is associated with cancer, making these enzymes important targets for drug design. In general, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) block the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and/or apoptosis, and comprise some of the leading therapies in cancer treatments. To date, four HDACi have been FDA approved for the treatment of cancers: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza®), romidepsin (FK228, Istodax®), belinostat (Beleodaq®), and panobinostat (Farydak®). Most current inhibitors are pan-HDACi, and non-selectively target a number of HDAC isoforms. Six previously reported HDACi were rationally designed, however, to target a unique sub-pocket found only in HDAC8. While these inhibitors were indeed potent against HDAC8, and even demonstrated specificity for HDAC8 over HDACs 1 and 6, there were no structural data to confirm the mode of binding. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Compound 6 complexed with HDAC8 to 1.98 Å resolution. We also describe the use of molecular docking studies to explore the binding interactions of the other 5 related HDACi. Our studies confirm that the HDACi induce the formation of and bind in the HDAC8-specific subpocket, offering insights into isoform-specific inhibition.

  13. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA acts in synergism with fenretinide and doxorubicin to control growth of rhabdoid tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerl, Kornelius; Eveslage, Maria; Jung, Manfred; Meisterernst, Michael; Frühwald, Michael; Ries, David; Unland, Rebecca; Borchert, Christiane; Moreno, Natalia; Hasselblatt, Martin; Jürgens, Heribert; Kool, Marcel; Görlich, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive malignancies affecting infants and very young children. In many instances these tumors are resistant to conventional type chemotherapy necessitating alternative approaches. Proliferation assays (MTT), apoptosis (propidium iodide/annexin V) and cell cycle analysis (DAPI), RNA expression microarrays and western blots were used to identify synergism of the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor SAHA with fenretinide, tamoxifen and doxorubicin in rhabdoidtumor cell lines. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are overexpressed in primary rhabdoid tumors and rhabdoid tumor cell lines. Targeting HDACs in rhabdoid tumors induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. On the other hand HDAC inhibition induces deregulated gene programs (MYCC-, RB program and the stem cell program) in rhabdoid tumors. These programs are in general associated with cell cycle progression. Targeting these activated pro-proliferative genes by combined approaches of HDAC-inhibitors plus fenretinide, which inhibits cyclinD1, exhibit strong synergistic effects on induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition sensitizes rhabdoid tumor cell lines to cell death induced by chemotherapy. Our data demonstrate that HDAC inhibitor treatment in combination with fenretinide or conventional chemotherapy is a promising tool for the treatment of chemoresistant rhabdoid tumors

  14. Natural chalcones as dual inhibitors of HDACs and NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORLIKOVA, B.; SCHNEKENBURGER, M.; ZLOH, M.; GOLAIS, F.; DIEDERICH, M.; TASDEMIR, D.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) are emerging as a promising biological target for cancer and inflammation. Using a fluorescence assay, we tested the in vitro HDAC inhibitory activity of twenty-one natural chalcones, a widespread group of natural products with well-known anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. Since HDACs regulate the expression of the transcription factor NF-κB, we also evaluated the inhibitory potential of the compounds on NF-κB activation. Only four chalcones, isoliquiritigenin (no. 10), butein (no. 12), homobutein (no. 15) and the glycoside marein (no. 21) showed HDAC inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 60–190 μM, whereas a number of compounds inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation with IC50 values in the range of 8–41 μM. Interestingly, three chalcones (nos. 10, 12 and 15) inhibited both TNFα-induced NF-κB activity and total HDAC activity of classes I, II and IV. Molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to shed light into dual activity and to draw structure-activity relationships among chalcones (nos. 1–21). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that provides evidence for HDACs as potential drug targets for natural chalcones. The dual inhibitory potential of the selected chalcones on NF-κB and HDACs was investigated for the first time. This study demonstrates that chalcones can serve as lead compounds in the development of dual inhibitors against both targets in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. PMID:22710558

  15. Molecular regulation of MHC class I chain-related protein A expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Jensen, Helle; Pedersen, Marianne T

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we characterize the molecular signal pathways that lead to MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) expression after histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor (HDAC-i) treatment of Jurkat T cells. Chelating calcium with BAPTA-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC- and CMV-mediated MICA....../B expression. It was further observed that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were depleted after HDAC treatment. NF-kappaB activity can be induced by HDAC treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 was not observed after HDAC treatment of Jurkat T cells and even though we could effectively...... inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation, we made a promoter construct consisting of approximately 3 kb of the proximal MICA promoter in front of GFP. Deletion analysis showed that a germinal center-box containing a putative Sp...

  16. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-05

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural and Synthetic Macrocyclic Inhibitors of the Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex; Kristensen, Helle; Leman, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes has emerged as a target for development of cancer chemotherapy. Four compounds have gained approval for clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, and several are currently in clinical trials. However, none of these compounds...

  18. A new HDAC inhibitor cinnamoylphenazine shows antitumor activity in association with intensive macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing-Yan; Shang, Bo-Yang; Du, Yue; Li, Yi; Li, Liang; Xu, Xian-Dong; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2017-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that intensive macropinocytosis occurs in cancer cells and neutral red (NR) is noted for its capability to enter into the cell massively through a process mimetic to macropinocytosis. In addition, trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) has been found to be an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). In the present study, cinnamoylphenazine (CA-PZ) that consists of NR and tCA moieties was synthesized and evaluated. As shown, CA-PZ massively entered into colon carcinoma HT-29 cells and pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2 cells and this entry was blocked by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis), indicating a macropinocytosis-mediated uptake. Furthermore, CA-PZ markedly increased the protein expression levels of acetyl-H3, acetyl-H4 and p21 in HT-29 cells and MIA PaCa-2 cells. CA-PZ significantly inhibited the growth of colon carcinoma HT-29 and pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2 xenografts. By in vivo imaging, CA-PZ displayed prominent accumulation in the tumor xenografts. The study indicates that the newly synthesized CA-PZ acts as an HDAC inhibitor in association with intensive macropinocytosis-mediated intracellular delivery in cancer cells. The use of neutral red for preparation of chimeric molecules with the attribute of macropinocytosis-mediated intracellular delivery might open an alternative way for development of HDAC inhibitors.

  19. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Baoan; Qin, Shukui; Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming; Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance phosphorylation of histone H2AX after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yubin; Adachi, Masaaki; Zou Huichao; Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are believed to be promising radiosensitizers. To explore their effects on ionizing radiation (IR), we examined whether the HDAC inhibitors m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) and depsipeptide FK228 affect H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX), a landmark of DNA double-strand breaks after IR exposure. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitors on clonogenic assay in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and progression of A549 xenograft tumors. IR-induced DNA damage was evaluated by histone γ-H2AX. Histone hyperacetylation was induced by overexpression of histone acetyltransferase p300 and evaluated by Western blots. Results M-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxyamide pretreatment radiosensitized A549 cells and strongly inhibited A549 xenograft tumor progression. CBHA and FK228, but not 5-fluorouracil, enhanced IR-induced γ-H2AX in A549 and other cancer cell lines. Overexpression of p300 similarly augmented IR-induced γ-H2AX. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance IR-induced γ-H2AX, most likely through histone hyperacetylation, and radiosensitize various cancers

  1. miR-2861 as novel HDAC5 inhibitor in CHO cells enhances productivity while maintaining product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Simon; Paul, Albert Jesuran; Wagner, Andreas; Mathias, Sven; Geiss, Melanie; Schandock, Franziska; Domnowski, Martin; Zimmermann, Jörg; Handrick, René; Hesse, Friedemann; Otte, Kerstin

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been exploited for years to improve recombinant protein expression in mammalian production cells. However, global HDAC inhibition is associated with negative effects on various cellular processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression in almost all eukaryotic cell types by controlling entire cellular pathways. Since miRNAs recently have gained much attention as next-generation cell engineering tool to improve Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell factories, we were interested if miRNAs are able to specifically repress HDAC expression in CHO cells to circumvent limitations of unspecific HDAC inhibition. We discovered a novel miRNA in CHO cells, miR-2861, which was shown to enhance productivity in various recombinant CHO cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-2861 might post-transcriptionally regulate HDAC5 in CHO cells. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated HDAC5 suppression could be demonstrated to phenocopy pro-productive effects of miR-2861 in CHO cells. This supports the notion that miRNA-induced inhibition of HDAC5 may contribute to productivity enhancing effects of miR-2861. Furthermore, since product quality is fundamental to safety and functionality of biologics, we examined the effect of HDAC inhibition on critical product quality attributes. In contrast to unspecific HDAC inhibition using VPA, enforced expression of miR-2861 did not negatively influence antibody aggregation or N-glycosylation. Our findings highlight the superiority of miRNA-mediated inhibition of specific HDACs and present miR-2861 as novel cell engineering tool for improving CHO manufacturing cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Therapeutic applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fan; Choy, Edwin; Tu, Chongqi; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2017-09-01

    Sarcomas are a rare group of malignant tumors originating from mesenchymal stem cells. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are currently the only standard treatments for sarcoma. However, their response rates to chemotherapy are quite low. Toxic side effects and multi-drug chemoresistance make treatment even more challenging. Therefore, better drugs to treat sarcomas are needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are epigenetic modifying agents that can inhibit sarcoma growth in vitro and in vivo through a variety of pathways, including inducing tumor cell apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest, impairing tumor invasion and preventing metastasis. Importantly, preclinical studies have revealed that HDIs can not only sensitize sarcomas to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but also increase treatment responses when combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs. Several phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of HDIs either as monotherapy or in combination with standard chemotherapeutic agents or targeted therapeutic drugs for sarcomas. Combination regimen for sarcomas appear to be more promising than monotherapy when using HDIs. This review summarizes our current understanding and therapeutic applications of HDIs in sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HDAC inhibitor LMK-235 promotes the odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Chen, Ting; Han, Qianqian; Chen, Ming; You, Jie; Fang, Fuchun; Peng, Ling; Wu, Buling

    2018-01-01

    The role of dental pulp cells (DPCs) in hard dental tissue regeneration had received increasing attention because DPCs can differentiate into odontoblasts and other tissue-specific cells. In recent years, epigenetic modifications had been identified to serve an important role in cell differentiation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been widely studied by many researchers. However, the effects of HDAC4 and HDAC5 on the differentiation of DPCs and the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that LMK-235, a specific human HDAC4 and HDAC5 inhibitor, increased the expression of specific odontoblastic gene expression levels detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in dental pulp cells, and did not reduce cell proliferation tested by MTT assay after 3 days in culture at a low concentration. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein, runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The increased gene and protein expression of specific markers demonstrated, indicating that LMK-235 promoted the odontoblast induction of DPCs. ALP activity and mineralised nodule formation were also enhanced due to the effect of LMK-235, detected by an ALP activity test and Alizarin Red S staining, respectively. Additionally, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was tested to see if it takes part in the differentiation of DPCs treated with LMK-235, and it was demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of VEGF, AKT and mTOR were upregulated. These findings indicated that LMK-235 may serve a key role in the proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of DPCs, and could be used to accelerate dental tissue regeneration. PMID:29138868

  4. HDAC inhibitor LMK‑235 promotes the odontoblast differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Chen, Ting; Han, Qianqian; Chen, Ming; You, Jie; Fang, Fuchun; Peng, Ling; Wu, Buling

    2018-01-01

    The role of dental pulp cells (DPCs) in hard dental tissue regeneration had received increasing attention because DPCs can differentiate into odontoblasts and other tissue‑specific cells. In recent years, epigenetic modifications had been identified to serve an important role in cell differentiation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been widely studied by many researchers. However, the effects of HDAC4 and HDAC5 on the differentiation of DPCs and the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that LMK‑235, a specific human HDAC4 and HDAC5 inhibitor, increased the expression of specific odontoblastic gene expression levels detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) in dental pulp cells, and did not reduce cell proliferation tested by MTT assay after 3 days in culture at a low concentration. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of dentin sialophosphoprotein, runt‑related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were evaluated by RT‑qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The increased gene and protein expression of specific markers demonstrated, indicating that LMK‑235 promoted the odontoblast induction of DPCs. ALP activity and mineralised nodule formation were also enhanced due to the effect of LMK‑235, detected by an ALP activity test and Alizarin Red S staining, respectively. Additionally, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/RAC‑gamma serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was tested to see if it takes part in the differentiation of DPCs treated with LMK‑235, and it was demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of VEGF, AKT and mTOR were upregulated. These findings indicated that LMK‑235 may serve a key role in the proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of DPCs, and could be used to accelerate dental tissue regeneration.

  5. Determination of the class and isoform selectivity of small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, N.; Jeffers, M.; Kumar, S.

    2008-01-01

    The human HDAC (histone deacetylase) family, a well-validated anticancer target, plays a key role in the control of gene expression through regulation of transcription. While HDACs can be subdivided into three main classes, the class I, class II and class III HDACs (sirtuins), it is presently...

  6. Evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) as therapeutic leads for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Angela K; Guiguemde, W Armand; Guy, R Kiplin

    2015-08-15

    Two of the histone deacetylases, TbDAC1 and TbDAC3, have been reported to be essential genes in trypanosomes. Therefore, we tested the activity of a panel of human histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for their ability to block proliferation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among the HDACi's, the hydroxamic acid derivatives panobinostat and belinostat exhibited potency that appeared to make them viable candidates for development due to their reported pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, cellular pharmacodynamic analysis demonstrated that these drugs were unable to kill cultured parasites at exposures seen in patients at their tolerated doses and additionally failed to show any synergistic effects in combination with pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, or nifurtimox. Analysis of the potency of the entire HDACi panel revealed no correlations between potency against any human HDAC isoform and inhibition of T. brucei proliferation, suggesting that the trypanosome histone deacetylases possess a unique specificity. These studies confirmed that HDAC inhibitors have potential as leads against human African trypanosomiasis but that none of the current clinical candidates can be directly repurposed. Therefore, development of HDACi's with appropriate specificity and potency may be a viable route to a new class of anti-trypanosomal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Sobolewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE. In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa. We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1. Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer.

  8. Santacruzamate A, a potent and selective histone deacetylase inhibitor from the Panamanian marine cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Christopher M; Wong, Christina Y B; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L; Gerwick, William H; Balunas, Marcy J

    2013-11-22

    A dark brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity.

  9. Analysis of Histone Deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) Alternative Splicing and Its Role in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Toward Smooth Muscle Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyao; Margariti, Andriana; Zeng, Lingfang

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have a central role in the regulation of gene expression, which undergoes alternative splicing during embryonic stem cell (ES) cell differentiation. Alternative splicing gives rise to vast diversity over gene information, arousing public concerns in the last decade. In this chapter, we describe a strategy to detect HDAC7 alternative splicing and analyze its function on ES cell differentiation.

  10. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nurul Islam et al. Figure 1. Some natural and synthetic cyclic tetrapeptide. HDAC inhibitors. were measured on a JEOL JMS-SX 102A instrument. NMR spectra were recorded on a JEOL JNM A500. MHz spectrometer in DMSO-d6 solutions with refer- ence to TMS. All 1H shifts are given in parts per million. (s = singlet; d ...

  11. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, ...

  12. New inhibitors of HDAC to purge latent HIV-1 reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejnar, Jiří; Hirsch, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2010), s. 505-506 ISSN 1750-1911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HAART * HIV latency * HDAC inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.429, year: 2010

  13. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  14. Dual-Acting Histone Deacetylase-Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrant, William; Patil, Vishal; Canzoneri, Joshua C.; Yao, Li-Pan; Hood, Rebecca; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Current chemotherapy regimens are comprised mostly of single-target drugs which are often plagued by toxic side effects and resistance development. A pharmacological strategy for circumventing these drawbacks could involve designing multivalent ligands that can modulate multiple targets while avoiding the toxicity of a single-targeted agent. Two attractive targets, histone deacetylase (HDAC) and topoisomerase I (Topo I), are cellular modulators that can broadly arrest cancer proliferation thr...

  15. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, Marianne T.

    pathways that lead to MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells. Chelating Calcium with Bapta-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC-inhibitor mediated MICA/B expression. It was further observed that ER Calcium stores were depleted after HDAC-inhibitor treatment. NF-kB activity can...... be induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 was not observed after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells, and even though we could effectively inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation...

  16. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC inhibitor treatment of cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle

    pathways that lead to MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of cancer cells. Chelating Calcium with Bapta-AM or EGTA potently inhibited HDAC-inhibitor and CMV mediated MICA/B expression. It was further observed that ER Calcium stores were depleted after HDAC-inhibitor treatment. NF-kB activity can...... be induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 was not observed after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells and even though we could effectively inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation...

  17. Cell lines radiosensitization of thyroid cancer by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Dagrosa, M A; Rossich, L; Casal, M; Pisarev, M A; Thomasz, L; Juvenal G J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. Surgical resection and radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for well-differentiated tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) are agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and as a consequence remodeling of chromatin structure. They can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptotic cell death in different tumor cells. The use of HDAC-I agents could be of utility to enhance the response to external radiation therapy of those thyroid cancers that are refractory to most conventional therapeutic treatments. Objective: To study the effect of HDAC-I as radiosensitizers for the treatment of thyroid cancer and their ability to induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Materials and methods: The human thyroid follicular (WRO) and papillary (TPC-1) carcinoma cell lines were seeded and incubated with increasing doses (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) of the HDAC-I sodium butirate (NaB) and valproic acid (VA) to evaluate cell proliferation and iodide uptake. Cells were irradiated with a 60 Co γ-ray source (1 ± 5% Gy/min) and postirradiation survival was quantified with the colony formation assay. Survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated for each cell line. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated at a dose of 3 Gy. Iodide uptake, PCR analysis and transient transfection studies were performed. Results: Cell proliferation was not significantly suppressed after 24 hours of incubation with both drugs at all assayed doses. Iodide uptake was not modified after incubation with HDAC-I of both cell lines. SF2 was reduced from 68 ± 1.6 % in the control WRO cells to 42 ± 3.8 % (P<0.001) in NaB-treated cells. In TPC-1 SF2 was reduced from 32 ± 1.1 % in the control cells to 24 ± 0.8 % (P<0.01). In VA-treated cells SF2 was reduced from 69 ± 0.02 % in control WRO cells to 56 ± 0.01 % (P<0.01) and from 31 ± 2 % in control TPC-1 cells to 11 ± 1 % (P<0.01). There was an arrest

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are potent inducers of gene expression in latent EBV and sensitize lymphoma cells to nucleoside antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal K; Perrine, Susan P; Williams, Robert M; Faller, Douglas V

    2012-01-26

    Induction of EBV lytic-phase gene expression, combined with exposure to an antiherpes viral drug, represents a promising targeted therapeutic approach to EBV-associated lymphomas. Short-chain fatty acids or certain chemotherapeutics have been used to induce EBV lytic-phase gene expression in cultured cells and mouse models, but these studies generally have not translated into clinical application. The recent success of a clinical trial with the pan-histone deacetylase (pan-HDAC) inhibitor arginine butyrate and the antiherpes viral drug ganciclovir in the treatment of EBV lymphomas prompted us to investigate the potential of several HDAC inhibitors, including some new, highly potent compounds, to sensitize EBV(+) human lymphoma cells to antiviral agents in vitro. Our study included short-chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate and valproic acid); hydroxamic acids (oxamflatin, Scriptaid, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid, panobinostat [LBH589], and belinostat [PXD101]); the benzamide MS275; the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin; and the recently discovered HDAC inhibitor largazole. With the exception of suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid and PXD101, all of the other HDAC inhibitors effectively sensitized EBV(+) lymphoma cells to ganciclovir. LBH589, MS275, and largazole were effective at nanomolar concentrations and were 10(4) to 10(5) times more potent than butyrate. The effectiveness and potency of these HDAC inhibitors make them potentially applicable as sensitizers to antivirals for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphomas.

  19. Preclinical Studies of Chemotherapy Using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Takai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in endometrial cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs in treating endometrial cancer. HDACIs were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in a variety of endometrial cancer cell lines. Furthermore, HDACIs were able to induce the accumulation of acetylated histones in the chromatin of the p21WAF1 gene in human endometrial carcinoma cells. In xenograft models, some HDACIs have demonstrated antitumor activity with only few side effects. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating endometrial cancer, with a special focus on preclinical studies.

  20. Unique characteristics of histone deacetylase inhibitors in reactivation of latent HIV-1 in Bcl-2-transduced primary resting CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Xing, Sifei; Yang, Hung-Chih; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B; Siliciano, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells is a major barrier to eradication. In vitro models involving transformed cell lines have been used to search for small molecules that reactivate latent HIV-1. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can reverse HIV-1 latent infection. Most studies on HDAC inhibitors have been performed in cell line models that differ in important aspects from the resting CD4+ T cells that harbour latent HIV-1 in vivo. Therefore, we evaluated the potency and kinetics of HDAC inhibitors in a primary cell model of HIV-1 latency that involves resting CD4+ T cells. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing reporter virus NL4-3-Δ6-drGFP was used to generate latent infection in Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cells. Seventeen HDAC inhibitors were tested in this primary cell model. The effects of these HDAC inhibitors on the reactivation of latent HIV-1 were determined and compared with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 co-stimulation. In Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cells, short-term treatment with HDAC inhibitors resulted in very limited reactivation of latent HIV-1, while prolonged treatment greatly enhanced drug efficacy. The effects of HDAC inhibitors in reactivating latent HIV-1 correlated with their inhibitory effects on class I HDACs. Importantly, HIV-1 reactivated by HDAC inhibitors can quickly re-establish latent infection upon drug removal. We identified unique features of HDAC inhibitor-induced reactivation of latent HIV-1 in primary CD4+ T cells. Our findings may be useful for the design of eradication trials.

  1. Histone deacetylases 1 and 3 but not 2 mediate cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis in INS-1 cells and dispersed primary islets from rats and are differentially regulated in the islets of type 1 diabetic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, M.; Christensen, D.P.; Damgaard Nielsen, M.; Richardson, S.J.; Dahllof, M.S.; Skovgaard, T.; Berthelsen, J.; Dinarello, C.A.; Stevenazzi, A.; Mascagni, P.; Grunnet, L.G.; Morgan, N.G.; Mandrup-Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising pharmacological targets in cancer and autoimmune diseases. All 11 classical HDACs (HDAC1-11) are found in the pancreatic beta cell, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) protect beta cells from inflammatory insults. We investigated which HDACs

  2. HDAC inhibitor L-carnitine and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21(cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like activity assay. Here we report that (i the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21(cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.

  3. Bicyclic-Capped Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors with Improved Activity in a Model of Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Benoy, Veronick; Bergman, Joel A; Kalin, Jay H; Frojuello, Mariana; Vistoli, Giulio; Haeck, Wanda; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-02-17

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system where progressive degeneration of motor and sensory nerves leads to motor problems and sensory loss and for which no pharmacological treatment is available. Recently, it has been shown in a model for the axonal form of CMT that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a target for the development of a pharmacological therapy. Therefore, we aimed at developing new selective and activity-specific HDAC6 inhibitors with improved biochemical properties. By utilizing a bicyclic cap as the structural scaffold from which to build upon, we developed several analogues that showed improved potency compared to tubastatin A while maintaining excellent selectivity compared to HDAC1. Further screening in N2a cells examining both the acetylation of α-tubulin and histones narrowed down the library of compounds to three potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors. In mutant HSPB1-expressing DRG neurons, serving as an in vitro model for CMT2, these inhibitors were able to restore the mitochondrial axonal transport deficits. Combining structure-based development of HDAC6 inhibitors, screening in N2a cells and in a neuronal model for CMT2F, and preliminary ADMET and pharmacokinetic profiles, resulted in the selection of compound 23d that possesses improved biochemical, functional, and druglike properties compared to tubastatin A.

  4. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsi Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.

  5. Largazole Analogues as Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Anticancer Agents: An Overview of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Giulio; Di Fabio, Romano; Ferrante, Luca; Summa, Vincenzo; Botta, Maurizio

    2017-12-07

    Since the time of its identification, the natural compound largazole rapidly caught the attention of the medicinal chemistry community for its impressive potency as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and its strong antiproliferative activity against a broad panel of cancer cell lines. The design of largazole analogues is an expanding field of study, due to their remarkable potential as novel anticancer therapeutics. At present, a large ensemble of largazole analogues has been reported, allowing the identification of important structure-activity relationships (SAR) that can guide the design of novel compounds with improved HDAC inhibitory profiles, anticancer activity, and pharmacokinetic properties. The aim of this review is to concisely summarize the information obtained by biological evaluations of the various largazole analogues reported to date, with particular attention given to the latest analogues, as well as to analyze the various SAR obtained from this data, with the purpose of providing useful guidelines for the development of novel potent and selective HDAC inhibitors to be used as anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Meinsma, Rutger J.; Bosma, Peter; Kemp, Stephan; Caron, Huib N.; Kuilenburg, Andre B.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype

  7. Cancer cells become susceptible to natural killer cell killing after exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors due to glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Søren; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Andresen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    apoptosis or oxidative stress caused by HDAC inhibitor treatment did not affect MICA/B expression, suggesting involvement of a separate signal pathway not directly coupled to induction of cell death. HDAC inhibitor treatment induced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity and down-regulation of GSK-3......We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors lead to functional expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) on cancer cells, making them potent targets for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing through a NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) restricted mechanism. Blocking either...

  8. Novel amide derivatives as inhibitors of histone deacetylase: design, synthesis and SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrianov, V.; Gailite, V.; Lola, D.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is emerging as an innovative and effective approach for the treatment of cancer. A series of novel amide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit human HDACs. Multiple compounds were identified as potent...

  9. HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A promotes proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hexiu; Park, Joo-Young; Choi, Hwajung; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with a broad spectrum of epigenetic activities known to regulate diverse cellular mechanisms, including differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we demonstrate that TSA promotes proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in vitro and has the ability to enhance dentin formation and odontoblast differentiation in vivo during tooth development. We observed that TSA increased the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 in hDPSCs at a certain concentration and the activation of JNK/c-Jun pathway was essential for TSA-dependent hDPSC proliferation. Further, TSA accelerated mineral nodule formation in vitro and increased gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin. In addition, TSA significantly upregulated the levels of phospho-Smad2/3, Smad4, and nuclear factor I-C, while the specific inhibitor of Smad3 inhibits TSA enhancing mineralization differentiation of hDPSCs. HDAC3 is downregulated by TSA treatment, suggesting a possible mediator of TSA-dependent pathways among the members of HDAC family. Moreover, TSA-injected embryos exhibited increased dentin thickness, larger dentin areas, and higher odontoblast numbers in their postnatal molars with stronger dentin sialoprotein expression in immunohistochemical staining. These findings indicate that TSA may serve a key role in proliferation and odontoblast differentiation of hDPSCs in dental developmental stages and can be used as an accelerator in dental hard tissue engineering.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat suppresses the growth of uterine sarcomas in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Edgar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine sarcomas are very rare malignancies with no approved chemotherapy protocols. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors belong to the most promising groups of compounds for molecular targeting therapy. Here, we described the antitumor effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat on MES-SA uterine sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated effects of vorinostat on growth and colony forming ability by using uterine sarcoma MES-SA cells. We analyzed the influence of vorinostat on expression of different HDACs, p21WAF1 and activation of apoptosis. Finally, we examined the antitumor effects of vorinostat on uterine sarcoma in vivo. Results Vorinostat efficiently suppressed MES-SA cell growth at a low dosage (3 μM already after 24 hours treatment. Decrease of cell survival was even more pronounced after prolonged treatment and reached 9% and 2% after 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Colony forming capability of MES-SA cells treated with 3 μM vorinostat for 24 and 48 hours was significantly diminished and blocked after 72 hours. HDACs class I (HDAC2 and 3 as well as class II (HDAC7 were preferentially affected by this treatment. Vorinostat significantly increased p21WAF1 expression and apoptosis. Nude mice injected with 5 × 106 MES-SA cells were treated for 21 days with vorinostat (50 mg/kg/day and, in comparison to placebo group, a tumor growth reduction of more than 50% was observed. Results obtained by light- and electron-microscopy suggested pronounced activation of apoptosis in tumors isolated from vorinostat-treated mice. Conclusions Our data strongly indicate the high therapeutic potential of vorinostat in uterine sarcomas.

  11. Acetylation site specificities of lysine deacetylase inhibitors in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölz, Christian; Weinert, Brian Tate; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2015-01-01

    Lysine deacetylases inhibitors (KDACIs) are used in basic research, and many are being investigated in clinical trials for treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, their specificities in cells are incompletely characterized. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to obtain acety......1-α, providing a possible mechanistic explanation of its adverse, pro-inflammatory effects. Our results offer a systems view of KDACI specificities, providing a framework for studying function of acetylation and deacetylases....

  12. Structure optimization and preliminary bioactivity evaluation of N-hydroxybenzamide-based HDAC inhibitors with Y-shaped cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggong; He, Feng; Qu, Ying; Zhang, Qiuqiong; Lv, Jiahui; Zhang, Xiangna; Xu, Ana; Miao, Pannan; Wu, Jingde

    2018-02-18

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are effective small molecules in the treatment of human cancers. In our continuing efforts to develop novel N-hydroxyterephthalamide-based HDACIs, herein we report the design and development of a new class of N-hydroxybenzamide-based HDACIs. In this new class of analogs, we inserted an ethylene moiety in the linker and used indole as a part of the Y-shaped cap group. Biological characterization identified compounds 4o, 4p, 4q and 4t to show improved HDAC inhibition, while no isoform selectivity for HDACs was observed. These compounds also exhibited improved anti-proliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines when compared to their parent compound and positive control SAHA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetylation of FoxO1 Activates Bim Expression to Induce Apoptosis in Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Depsipeptide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor induced apoptosis are incompletely understood. In this study, depsipeptide, a novel HDAC inhibitor, was shown to be able to induce significant apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer cells. Further study showed that Bim, a BH3-only proapoptotic protein, was significantly upregulated by depsipeptide in cancer cells, and Bim's function in depsipeptide-induced apoptosis was confirmed by knockdown of Bim with RNAi. In addition, we found that depsipeptide-induced expression of Bim was directly dependent on acetylation of forkhead box class O1 (FoxO1 that is catalyzed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein, and indirectly induced by a decreased four-and-a-half LIM-domain protein 2. Moreover, our results demonstrated that FoxO1 acetylation is required for the depsipeptide-induced activation of Bim and apoptosis, using transfection with a plasmid containing FoxO1 mutated at lysine sites and a luciferase reporter assay. These data show for the first time that an HDAC inhibitor induces apoptosis through the FoxO1 acetylation-Bim pathway.

  14. Light-Controlled Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors : Towards Photopharmacological Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Ourailidou, Maria E.; Velema, Willem A.; Dekker, Frank J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment suffers from limitations that have a major impact on the patient's quality of life and survival. In the case of chemotherapy, the systemic distribution of cytotoxic drugs reduces their efficacy and causes severe side effects due to nonselective toxicity. Photopharmacology allows a

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (HDACi) Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA)-mediated Correction of α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchecareilh, Marion; Hutt, Darren M.; Szajner, Patricia; Flotte, Terence R.; Balch, William E.

    2012-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin (α1AT) deficiency (α1ATD) is a consequence of defective folding, trafficking, and secretion of α1AT in response to a defect in its interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis machineries. The most common and severe form of α1ATD is caused by the Z-variant and is characterized by the accumulation of α1AT polymers in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver leading to a severe reduction (>85%) of α1AT in the serum and its anti-protease activity in the lung. In this organ α1AT is critical for ensuring tissue integrity by inhibiting neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades elastin. Given the limited therapeutic options in α1ATD, a more detailed understanding of the folding and trafficking biology governing α1AT biogenesis and its response to small molecule regulators is required. Herein we report the correction of Z-α1AT secretion in response to treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), acting in part through HDAC7 silencing and involving a calnexin-sensitive mechanism. SAHA-mediated correction restores Z-α1AT secretion and serpin activity to a level 50% that observed for wild-type α1AT. These data suggest that HDAC activity can influence Z-α1AT protein traffic and that SAHA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for α1ATD and other protein misfolding diseases. PMID:22995909

  16. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A Lockett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8, phenylbutyrate (PB or sodium butyrate (NaB impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates.

  17. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, on cartilage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transplanted onto the paravertebral muscle of the face of each rabbit. The rabbits were separated into ... Conclusion: Treatment with trichostatin A, an HDAC inhibitor, enhances cartilage regeneration in rabbit recipients of a perichondrial graft. ..... Stillaert FB, Monstrey S. The use of platelet-rich plasma in plastic surgery: a ...

  18. Identification of potential isoform-selective histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer therapy: a combined approach of structure-based virtual screening, ADMET prediction and molecular dynamics simulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Abdullahi Ibrahim; Yelekçi, Kemal

    2017-10-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have gained increased attention as targets for anticancer drug design and development. HDAC inhibitors have proven to be effective for reversing the malignant phenotype in HDAC-dependent cancer cases. However, lack of selectivity of the many HDAC inhibitors in clinical use and trials contributes to toxicities to healthy cells. It is believed that, the continued identification of isoform-selective inhibitors will eliminate these undesirable adverse effects - a task that remains a major challenge to HDAC inhibitor designs. Here, in an attempt to identify isoform-selective inhibitors, a large compound library containing 2,703,000 compounds retrieved from Otava database was screened against class I HDACs by exhaustive approach of structure-based virtual screening using rDOCK and Autodock Vina. A total of 41 compounds were found to show high-isoform selectivity and were further redocked into their respective targets using Autodock4. Thirty-six compounds showed remarkable isoform selectivity and passed drug-likeness and absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity prediction tests using ADMET Predictor™ and admetSAR. Furthermore, to study the stability of ligand binding modes, 10 ns-molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the free HDAC isoforms and their complexes with respective best-ranked ligands were performed using nanoscale MD software. The inhibitors remained bound to their respective targets over time of the simulation and the overall potential energy, root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation profiles suggested that the detected compounds may be potential isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors or serve as promising scaffolds for further optimization towards the design of selective inhibitors for cancer therapy.

  19. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. A truncating mutation of HDAC2 in human cancers confers resistance to histone deacetylase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropero, S; Fraga, MF; Ballestar, E

    2006-01-01

    arising in individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. The presence of the HDAC2 frameshift mutation causes a loss of HDAC2 protein expression and enzymatic activity and renders these cells more resistant to the usual antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of histone...

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Marcela; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2016), s. 2217-2231 ISSN 2040-2503 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14128 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : acute myeloid-leukemia * epithelial-mesenchymal transition * acute myelogenous leukemia * tumor-initiating cells * human aml cells * breast- cancer * hdac inhibitors * sirtuin inhibitors * colorectal - cancer * anticancer agents Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Seiko [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

  3. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC inhibitor treatment of cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle

    be induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 was not observed after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells and even though we could effectively inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation...

  4. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Is Associated With Reduced Stroke Risk After Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L; Crichton, Siobhan; Wolfe, Charles D A; Yi, Qilong; Li, Linxin; Hankey, Graeme J; Rothwell, Peter M; Markus, Hugh S

    2018-01-01

    A variant in the histone deacetylase 9 ( HDAC9 ) gene is associated with large artery stroke. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC9 might offer a novel secondary preventative treatment for ischemic stroke. The antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (SVA) is a nonspecific inhibitor of HDAC9. We tested whether SVA therapy given after ischemic stroke was associated with reduced recurrent stroke rate. Data were pooled from 3 prospective studies recruiting patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack and long-term follow-up: the South London Stroke Register, The Vitamins to Prevent Stroke Study, and the Oxford Vascular Study. Patients receiving SVA were compared with patients who received antiepileptic drugs other than SVA using survival analysis and Cox Regression. A total of 11 949 patients with confirmed ischemic event were included. Recurrent stroke rate was lower in patient taking SVA (17 of 168) than other antiepileptic drugs (105 of 530; log-rank survival analysis P =0.002). On Cox regression, controlling for potential cofounders, SVA remained associated with reduced stroke (hazard ratio=0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.7; P =0.002). A similar result was obtained when patients taking SVA were compared with all cases not taking SVA (Cox regression, hazard ratio=0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.77; P =0.003). These results suggest that exposure to SVA, an inhibitor of HDAC, may be associated with a lower recurrent stroke risk although we cannot exclude residual confounding in this study design. This supports the hypothesis that HDAC9 is important in the ischemic stroke pathogenesis and that its inhibition, by SVA or a more specific HDAC9 inhibitor, is worthy of evaluation as a treatment to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. The NAE inhibitor pevonedistat interacts with the HDAC inhibitor belinostat to target AML cells by disrupting the DDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Kmieciak, Maciej; Leng, Yun; Li, Lihong; Lin, Hui; Rizzo, Kathryn A; Dumur, Catherine I; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Rahmani, Mohamed; Povirk, Lawrence; Chalasani, Sri; Berger, Allison J; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven

    2016-05-05

    Two classes of novel agents, NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, have shown single-agent activity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Here we examined mechanisms underlying interactions between the NAE inhibitor pevonedistat (MLN4924) and the approved HDAC inhibitor belinostat in AML/MDS cells. MLN4924/belinostat coadministration synergistically induced AML cell apoptosis with or without p53 deficiency or FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD), whereas p53 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown or enforced FLT3-ITD expression significantly sensitized cells to the regimen. MLN4924 blocked belinostat-induced antiapoptotic gene expression through nuclear factor-κB inactivation. Each agent upregulated Bim, and Bim knockdown significantly attenuated apoptosis. Microarrays revealed distinct DNA damage response (DDR) genetic profiles between individual vs combined MLN4924/belinostat exposure. Whereas belinostat abrogated the MLN4924-activated intra-S checkpoint through Chk1 and Wee1 inhibition/downregulation, cotreatment downregulated multiple homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining repair proteins, triggering robust double-stranded breaks, chromatin pulverization, and apoptosis. Consistently, Chk1 or Wee1 shRNA knockdown significantly sensitized AML cells to MLN4924. MLN4924/belinostat displayed activity against primary AML or MDS cells, including those carrying next-generation sequencing-defined poor-prognostic cancer hotspot mutations, and CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD123(+) populations, but not normal CD34(+) progenitors. Finally, combined treatment markedly reduced tumor burden and significantly prolonged animal survival (P DDR in AML/MDS cells. This strategy warrants further consideration in AML/MDS, particularly in disease with unfavorable genetic aberrations. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi eHe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, nonmammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA or valproic acid (VPA increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line.

  7. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential

  8. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  9. Homing in on an intracellular target for delivery of loaded nanoparticles functionalized with a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shi, Yaling; Zheng, Yueqin; Pan, Chengcheng; Yang, Xiaoying; Dou, Taoyan; Wang, Binghe; Lu, Wen

    2017-09-15

    Functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are usually used to enhance cellular penetration for targeted drug delivery that can improve efficacy and reduce side effects. However, it is difficult to exploit intracellular targets for similar delivery applications. Herein we describe the targeted delivery of functionalized NPs by homing in on an intracellular target, histone deacetylases (HDACs). Specifically, a modified poly-lactide-co-glycolideacid (FPLGA) was yielded by conjugation with an HDAC inhibitor. Subsequently, FPLGA was used to prepare functionalized FPLGA NPs. Compared to unmodified NPs, FPLGA NPs were more efficiently uptaken or retained by MCF-7 cells and showed longer retention time intracellular. In vivo fluorescence imaging also revealed that they had a higher accumulation and a slower elimination than unmodified NPs. FPLGA NPs loaded with paclitaxel exhibited superior anticancer efficacy compared with unmodified NPs. These results offer a promising approach for intracellular drug delivery through elevating the concentration of NPs.

  10. Radiosensitizing Effect of a Phenylbutyrate-Derived Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yen-Shen [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Hung [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tzen, Kai-Yuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Gao, Ming [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institutes of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kulp, Samuel K. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institutes of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is integrated into the multimodal treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to conventional treatment. Tumor control remains unsatisfactory and the sublethal effect associates with secondary spread. The use of an effective molecularly targeted agent in combination with radiotherapy is a potential therapeutic approach. Our aim was to assess the effect of combining a phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, AR-42, with radiotherapy in in vitro and in vivo models of human HCC. Methods and Materials: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and PLC-5) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism of combining AR-42 with irradiation. Flow cytometry analyzed the cell cycle changes, whereas Western blot investigated the protein expressions after the combined treatment. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing ectopic and orthotopic HCC xenografts were treated with AR-42 and/or radiotherapy for the in vivo response. Results: AR-42 significantly enhanced radiation-induced cell death by the inhibition of the DNA end-binding activity of Ku70, a highly versatile regulatory protein for DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and apoptosis. In ectopic xenografts of Huh-7 and PLC-5, pretreatment with AR-42 significantly enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect of radiotherapy by 48% and 66%, respectively. A similar combinatorial effect of AR-42 (10 and 25 mg/kg) and radiotherapy was observed in Huh-7 orthotopic model of tumor growth by 52% and 82%, respectively. This tumor suppression was associated with inhibition of intratumoral Ku70 activity as well as reductions in markers of HDAC activity and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conclusion: AR-42 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of HDAC with therapeutic value as a radiosensitizer of HCC.

  11. Radiosensitizing Effect of a Phenylbutyrate-Derived Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yen-Shen; Chou, Chia-Hung; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Gao, Ming; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Kulp, Samuel K.; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is integrated into the multimodal treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to conventional treatment. Tumor control remains unsatisfactory and the sublethal effect associates with secondary spread. The use of an effective molecularly targeted agent in combination with radiotherapy is a potential therapeutic approach. Our aim was to assess the effect of combining a phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, AR-42, with radiotherapy in in vitro and in vivo models of human HCC. Methods and Materials: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and PLC-5) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism of combining AR-42 with irradiation. Flow cytometry analyzed the cell cycle changes, whereas Western blot investigated the protein expressions after the combined treatment. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing ectopic and orthotopic HCC xenografts were treated with AR-42 and/or radiotherapy for the in vivo response. Results: AR-42 significantly enhanced radiation-induced cell death by the inhibition of the DNA end-binding activity of Ku70, a highly versatile regulatory protein for DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and apoptosis. In ectopic xenografts of Huh-7 and PLC-5, pretreatment with AR-42 significantly enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect of radiotherapy by 48% and 66%, respectively. A similar combinatorial effect of AR-42 (10 and 25 mg/kg) and radiotherapy was observed in Huh-7 orthotopic model of tumor growth by 52% and 82%, respectively. This tumor suppression was associated with inhibition of intratumoral Ku70 activity as well as reductions in markers of HDAC activity and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conclusion: AR-42 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of HDAC with therapeutic value as a radiosensitizer of HCC.

  12. The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) increases the susceptibility of uninfected CD4+ T cells to HIV by increasing the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Mark B; Tilton, Carisa A; Mao, Hongxia; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Tabler, Caroline O; Haqqani, Aiman A; Karn, Jonathan; Tilton, John C

    2014-09-01

    Latently infected cells remain a primary barrier to eradication of HIV-1. Over the past decade, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which latency is established and maintained has led to the discovery of a number of compounds that selectively reactivate latent proviruses without inducing polyclonal T cell activation. Recently, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has been demonstrated to induce HIV transcription from latently infected cells when administered to patients. While vorinostat will be given in the context of antiretroviral therapy (ART), infection of new cells by induced virus remains a clinical concern. Here, we demonstrate that vorinostat significantly increases the susceptibility of CD4(+) T cells to infection by HIV in a dose- and time-dependent manner that is independent of receptor and coreceptor usage. Vorinostat does not enhance viral fusion with cells but rather enhances the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events, including reverse transcription, nuclear import, and integration, and enhances viral production in a spreading-infection assay. Selective inhibition of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 with tubacin recapitulated the effect of vorinostat. These findings reveal a previously unknown cytoplasmic effect of HDAC inhibitors promoting productive infection of CD4(+) T cells that is distinct from their well-characterized effects on nuclear histone acetylation and long-terminal-repeat (LTR) transcription. Our results indicate that careful monitoring of patients and ART intensification are warranted during vorinostat treatment and indicate that HDAC inhibitors that selectively target nuclear class I HDACs could reactivate latent HIV without increasing the susceptibility of uninfected cells to HIV. HDAC inhibitors, particularly vorinostat, are currently being investigated clinically as part of a "shock-and-kill" strategy to purge latent reservoirs of HIV. We demonstrate here that vorinostat increases the

  13. HDACs class II-selective inhibition alters nuclear receptor-dependent differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebbioso, Angela; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Bugge, Anne Skovsø

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic deregulation contributes to diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, osteodystrophy, cardiovascular defects, and obesity. For this reason, several inhibitors for histone deacetylases (HDACs) are being validated as novel anti-cancer drugs in clinical studies and display important a...

  14. Overcoming Barriers in Oncolytic Virotherapy with HDAC Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Antonio; Scott, Eleanor M.; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) target and destroy cancer cells while sparing their normal counterparts. These viruses have been evaluated in numerous studies at both pre-clinical and clinical levels and the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an oncolytic herpesvirus-based treatment raises optimism that OVs will become a therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, to improve clinical outcome, there is a need to increase OV efficacy. In addition to killing cancer cells directly through lysis, OVs can stimulate the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. The host immune system thus represents a “double-edged sword” for oncolytic virotherapy: on the one hand, a robust anti-viral response will limit OV replication and spread; on the other hand, the immune-mediated component of OV therapy may be its most important anti-cancer mechanism. Although the relative contribution of direct viral oncolysis and indirect, immune-mediated oncosuppression to overall OV efficacy is unclear, it is likely that an initial period of vigorous OV multiplication and lytic activity will most optimally set the stage for subsequent adaptive anti-tumour immunity. In this review, we consider the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a means of boosting virus replication and lessening the negative impact of innate immunity on the direct oncolytic effect. We also discuss an alternative approach, aimed at potentiating OV-elicited anti-tumour immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. We conclude by proposing a two-phase combinatorial strategy in which initial OV replication and spread is maximised through transient HDAC inhibition, with anti-tumour immune responses subsequently enhanced by immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:26751469

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and pancreatic cancer: are there any promising clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2013-02-28

    Pancreatic cancer, although not very frequent, has an exceptionally high mortality rate, making it one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in developed countries. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose, allowing few patients to have the necessary treatment at a relatively early stage. Despite a marginal benefit in survival, the overall response of pancreatic cancer to current systemic therapy continues to be poor, and new therapies are desperately needed. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes play an important role in the development and progression of cancer and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have been shown to induce differentiation and cell cycle arrest, activate the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, and inhibit invasion, migration and angiogenesis in different cancer cell lines. As a result of promising preclinical data, various HDACIs are being tested as either monotherapeutic agents or in combination regimens for both solid and hematological malignancies. Vorinostat was the first HDACI approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The use of HDACIs in clinical trials, in pretreated and relapsed patients suffering from advanced pancreatic cancer is discussed. Unfortunately, clinical data for HDACIs in patients with pancreatic cancer are inadequate, because only a few studies have included patients suffering from this type of neoplasm and the number of pancreatic cancer patients that entered HDACIs phase II/III trials, among others with advanced solid tumors, is very limited. More studies recruiting patients with pancreatic cancer remain to determine the efficiency of these therapies.

  16. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, represses hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha expression through translational inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Hutt

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor--eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate improves metabolism and reduces muscle atrophy during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael E; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Qaisar, Rizwan; Sloane, Lauren; Rahman, Md M; Kinter, Michael; Van Remmen, Holly

    2015-12-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function during aging, is a major contributor to disability and frailty in the elderly. Previous studies found a protective effect of reduced histone deacetylase activity in models of neurogenic muscle atrophy. Because loss of muscle mass during aging is associated with loss of motor neuron innervation, we investigated the potential for the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor butyrate to modulate age-related muscle loss. Consistent with previous studies, we found significant loss of hindlimb muscle mass in 26-month-old C57Bl/6 female mice fed a control diet. Butyrate treatment starting at 16 months of age wholly or partially protected against muscle atrophy in hindlimb muscles. Butyrate increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and prevented intramuscular fat accumulation in the old mice. In addition to the protective effect on muscle mass, butyrate reduced fat mass and improved glucose metabolism in 26-month-old mice as determined by a glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, butyrate increased markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and whole-body oxygen consumption without affecting activity. The increase in mass in butyrate-treated mice was not due to reduced ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. However, butyrate reduced markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis and altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Our data is the first to show a beneficial effect of butyrate on muscle mass during aging and suggests HDACs contribute to age-related muscle atrophy and may be effective targets for intervention in sarcopenia and age-related metabolic disease. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Antidepressant-like properties of novel HDAC6-selective inhibitors with improved brain bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Jeanine; Boulden, Janette; Lee, Bridgin G; Blendy, Julie A; Jarpe, Matthew; Mazitschek, Ralph; Van Duzer, John H; Jones, Simon; Berton, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors have been reported to produce antidepressant and pro-cognitive effects in animal models, however, poor brain bioavailability or lack of isoform selectivity of current probes has limited our understanding of their mode of action. We report the characterization of novel pyrimidine hydroxyl amide small molecule inhibitors of HDAC6, brain bioavailable upon systemic administration. We show that two compounds in this family, ACY-738 and ACY-775, inhibit HDAC6 with low nanomolar potency and a selectivity of 60- to 1500-fold over class I HDACs. In contrast to tubastatin A, a reference HDAC6 inhibitor with similar potency and peripheral activity, but more limited brain bioavailability, ACY-738 and ACY-775 induce dramatic increases in α-tubulin acetylation in brain and stimulate mouse exploratory behaviors in novel, but not familiar environments. Interestingly, despite a lack of detectable effect on histone acetylation, we show that ACY-738 and ACY-775 share the antidepressant-like properties of other HDAC inhibitors, such as SAHA and MS-275, in the tail suspension test and social defeat paradigm. These effects of ACY-738 and ACY-775 are directly attributable to the inhibition of HDAC6 expressed centrally, as they are fully abrogated in mice with a neural-specific loss of function of HDAC6. Furthermore, administered in combination, a behaviorally inactive dose of ACY-738 markedly potentiates the anti-immobility activity of a subactive dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Our results validate new isoform-selective probes for in vivo pharmacological studies of HDAC6 in the CNS and reinforce the viability of this HDAC isoform as a potential target for antidepressant development.

  19. Repurposing Pan-HDAC Inhibitors for ARID1A-Mutated Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukumoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: ARID1A, a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, is among the most frequently mutated genes across cancer types. ARID1A is mutated in more than 50% of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCCs, diseases that have no effective therapy. Here, we show that ARID1A mutation confers sensitivity to pan-HDAC inhibitors such as SAHA in ovarian cancers. This correlated with enhanced growth suppression induced by the inhibition of HDAC2 activity in ARID1A-mutated cells. HDAC2 interacts with EZH2 in an ARID1A status-dependent manner. HDAC2 functions as a co-repressor of EZH2 to suppress the expression of EZH2/ARID1A target tumor suppressor genes such as PIK3IP1 to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis. SAHA reduced the growth and ascites of the ARID1A-inactivated OCCCs in both orthotopic and genetic mouse models. This correlated with a significant improvement of survival of mice bearing ARID1A-mutated OCCCs. These findings provided preclinical rationales for repurposing FDA-approved pan-HDAC inhibitors for treating ARID1A-mutated cancers. : Fukumoto et al. show that ARID1A mutation confers sensitivity to pan-HDAC inhibitors such as SAHA in ovarian cancers. This correlated with enhanced growth suppression induced by the inhibition of HDAC2 activity in ARID1A-mutated cells. These findings provided preclinical rationales for repurposing FDA-approved pan-HDAC inhibitors for treating ARID1A-mutated cancers. Keywords: ovarian cancer, ARID1A, HDAC2, pan-HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, SWI/SNF, chromatin remodeling

  20. PLK1 inhibitors synergistically potentiate HDAC inhibitor lethality in imatinib mesylate-sensitive or -resistant BCR/ABL+ leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Patel, Hiral; Nguyen, Tri; Attkisson, Elisa; Grant, Steven

    2013-01-15

    To determine whether Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors (e.g., BI2536) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (e.g., vorinostat) interact synergistically in the BCR/ABL(+) leukemia cells sensitive or resistant to imatinib mesylate (IM) in vitro and in vivo. K562 and LAMA84 cells sensitive or resistant to imatinib mesylate and primary CML cells were exposed to BI2536 and vorinostat. Effects on cell viability and signaling pathways were determined using flow cytometry, Western blotting, and gene transfection. K562 and BV173/E255K animal models were used to test in vivo efficacy. Cotreatment with BI2536 and vorinostat synergistically induced cell death in parental or imatinib mesylate-resistant BCR/ABL(+) cells and primary CD34(+) bone marrow cells but was minimally toxic to normal cells. BI2536/vorinostat cotreatment triggered pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of p-BCR/ABL, caspase activation, PARP cleavage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage (manifest by increased expression of γH2A.X, p-ATM, p-ATR), events attenuated by the antioxidant TBAP. PLK1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown significantly increased HDACI lethality, whereas HDAC1-3 shRNA knockdown reciprocally increased BI2536-induced apoptosis. Genetic interruption of the DNA damage linker H1.2 partially but significantly reduced PLK1/HDAC inhibitor-mediated cell death, suggesting a functional role for DNA damage in lethality. Finally, BI2536/vorinostat cotreatment dramatically reduced tumor growth in both subcutaneous and systemic BCR/ABL(+) leukemia xenograft models and significantly enhanced animal survival. These findings suggest that concomitant PLK1 and HDAC inhibition is active against imatinib mesylate-sensitive or refractory CML and ALL cells both in vitro and in vivo and that this strategy warrants further evaluation in the setting of BCR/ABL(+) leukemias. ©2012 AACR.

  1. A Rationally Designed Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Distinct Antitumor Activity against Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs are a class of antineoplastic agents previously demonstrating preclinical chemosensitizing activity against drug-resistant cancer cells and mouse xenografts. However, whereas clinical studies have shown efficacy against human hematologic malignancies, solid tumor trials have proved disappointing. We previously developed a novel HDACI, “OSU-HDAC42,” and herein examine its activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts. OSU-HDAC42, (i unlike most HDACIs, elicited a more than five-fold increase in G2-phase cells, at 2.5 µM, with G2 arrest followed by apoptosis; (ii at 1.0 µM, completely repressed messenger RNA expression of the cell cycle progression gene cdc2; (iii at low doses (0.25–1.0 µM for 24 hours, induced tumor cell epithelial differentiation, as evidenced by morphology changes and a more than five-fold up-regulation of epithelium-specific cytokeratins; (iv potently abrogated the growth of numerous ovarian cancer cells, with IC50 values of 0.5 to 1.0 µM, whereas also remaining eight-fold less toxic (IC50 of 8.6 µM to normal ovarian surface epithelial cells; and (v chemosensitizated platinum-resistant mouse xenografts to cisplatin. Compared with the clinically approved HDACI suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, 1.0 µM OSU-HDAC42 was more biochemically potent (i.e., enzyme-inhibitory, as suggested by greater gene up-regulation and acetylation of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In p53-dysfunctional cells, however, OSU-HDAC42 was two- to eight-fold less inductive of p53-regulated genes, whereas also having a two-fold higher IC50 than p53-functional cells, demonstrating some interaction with p53 tumor-suppressive cascades. These findings establish OSU-HDAC42 as a promising therapeutic agent for drug-resistant ovarian cancer and justify its further investigation.

  2. Prevention of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer by a Novel Polypharmacological Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tzu-Tang; Lin, Yi-Ting; Tseng, Ruo-Yu; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lin, Yu-Chin; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Fang, Jim-Min; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide cancer with rising annual incidence. Inflammation is a well-known cause of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) and altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have contributed to colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is an important strategy to reduce cancer-related mortality. Recently, various polypharmacologic molecules that dually inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC) and other therapeutic targets have been developed. Prevention for colitis was examined by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse models. Prevention for colorectal cancer was examined by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) mouse models. Immunohistochemical staining was utilized to analyze the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and COX-II expression in mouse tissue specimens. The endotoxin activity was evaluated by Endotoxin Activity Assay Kit. We synthesized a statin hydroxamate that simultaneously inhibited HDAC and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). Its preventive effect on colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer in mouse models was examined. Oral administration of this statin hydroxamate could prevent acute inflammation in the DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer with superior activity than the combination of lovastatin and SAHA. It also reduced proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, expression of COX-II, and cyclin D1 in inflammation and tumor tissues, as well as decreasing the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in tumor-surrounding regions. Stemness of colorectal cancer and the release of endotoxin in AOM/DSS mouse models were also attenuated by this small molecule. This study demonstrates that the polypharmacological HDAC inhibitor has promising effect on the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer, and serum endotoxin level might serve as a potential biomarker for its chemoprevention. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4158-69. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for

  3. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Cui, Xin; Zha, Lin; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-02-26

    Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or β3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, β-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. β-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (Pgc1α), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1α. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei; Uesato, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Tanimura, Susumu; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients

  5. Carbamates as Potential Prodrugs and a New Warhead for HDAC Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina King

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed and synthesized carbamates of the clinically-approved HDAC (histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA in order to validate our previously-proposed hypothesis that these carbamates might serve as prodrugs for hydroxamic acid containing HDAC inhibitors. Biochemical assays proved our new compounds to be potent inhibitors of histone deacetylases in vitro, and they also showed antiproliferative effects in leukemic cells. These results, as well as stability analysis led to the suggestion that the intact carbamates are inhibitors of histone deacetylases themselves, representing a new zinc-binding warhead in HDAC inhibitor design. This suggestion was further supported by the synthesis and evaluation of a carbamate derivative of the HDAC6-selective inhibitor bufexamac.

  6. The HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat diminishes the in vitro metastatic behavior of Osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Brynien, Daniel; Weiss, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  7. The HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Diminishes the In Vitro Metastatic Behavior of Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  8. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, improves the development and acetylation level of miniature porcine handmade cloning embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J M; Cui, K Q; Li, Z P; Lu, X R; Xu, Z F; Liu, Q Y; Huang, B; Shi, D S

    2017-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) can change the histone acetylation and significantly enhance the developmental competence of the pre-implantation SCNT embryo. To select a proper histone deacetylase inhibitor to improve the success rate and potentially developmental ability of handmade cloning (HMC) embryos of miniature porcine, we compared the effect of two histone deacetylase inhibitors (SAHA vs. VPA) on HMC embryo development, their histone acetylation level and the expression level of relevant genes. The blastocyst rate and number of blastocyst cells of HMC embryos treated with SAHA (SAHA-HMC) or VPA (VPA-HMC) were significantly higher than those of control (Control-HMC), respectively, but there were no significant difference between SAHA-HMC and VPA-HMC groups. In addition, the acetylation level (AcH4K8) of Control-HMC and VPA-HMC embryos at the blastocyst stage, respectively, was significantly lower than that of in vitro fertilized (IVF) and SAHA-HMC embryos. However, the acetylation H4K8 of the blastocysts had no significant difference between SAHA-HMC and the IVF groups. The SAHA-HMC blastocysts indicated comparative expression levels of Oct4 and HDAC1 (histone deacetyltransferase gene) with those of IVF blastocysts. In contrast, the expression levels of Oct4 were lower and those of HDAC1 were higher in the VPA-HMC and Control-HMC blastocysts, respectively, compared to those of the IVF blastocysts. Our results demonstrated that the HMC embryos treated by SAHA could promote the pre-implantation development and increase the levels of histone H4K8 acetylation and the expression of the OCT4 gene, yet decrease the expression of the HDAC1 gene to the comparable level of the IVF embryos. Our results proved that SAHA may be a better histone deacetylase inhibitor for porcine HMC compared to VPA, and furthermore, it may indicate that SAHA can effectively correct the abnormal histone acetylation during the HMC embryo development and subsequently improve the

  9. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Mithramycin A Impact a Similar Neuroprotective Pathway at a Crossroad between Cancer and Neurodegeneration

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    Manuela Basso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mithramycin A (MTM and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are effective therapeutic agents for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. MTM is a FDA approved aureolic acid-type antibiotic that binds to GC-rich DNA sequences and interferes with Sp1 transcription factor binding to its target sites (GC box. HDACi, on the other hand, modulate the activity of class I and II histone deacetylases. They mediate their protective function, in part, by regulating the acetylation status of histones or transcription factors, including Sp1, and in turn chromatin accessibility to the transcriptional machinery. Because these two classes of structurally and functionally diverse compounds mediate similar therapeutic functions, we investigated whether they act on redundant or synergistic pathways to protect neurons from oxidative death. Non-protective doses of each of the drugs do not synergize to create resistance to oxidative death suggesting that these distinct agents act via a similar pathway. Accordingly, we found that protection by MTM and HDACi is associated with diminished expression of the oncogene, Myc and enhanced expression of a tumor suppressor, p21waf1/cip1. We also find that neuroprotection by MTM or Myc knockdown is associated with downregulation of class I HDAC levels. Our results support a model in which the established antitumor drug MTM or canonical HDACi act via distinct mechanisms to converge on the downregulation of HDAC levels or activity respectively. These findings support the conclusion that an imbalance in histone acetylase and HDAC activity in favor of HDACs is key not only for oncogenic transformation, but also neurodegeneration.

  10. Clinical use and applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma

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    Tandon N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidhi Tandon, Vijay Ramakrishnan, Shaji K Kumar Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The incorporation of various novel therapies has resulted in a significant survival benefit in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with multiple myeloma (MM over the past decade. Despite these advances, resistance to therapy leads to eventual relapse and fatal outcomes in the vast majority of patients. Hence, there is an unmet need for new safe and efficacious therapies for continued improvement in outcomes. Given the role of epigenetic aberrations in the pathogenesis and progression of MM and the success of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi in other malignancies, many HDACi have been tried in MM. Various preclinical studies helped us to understand the antimyeloma activity of different HDACi in MM as a single agent or in combination with conventional, novel, and immune therapies. The early clinical trials of HDACi depicted only modest single-agent activity, but recent studies have revealed encouraging clinical response rates in combination with other antimyeloma agents, especially proteasome inhibitors. This led to the approval of the combination of panobinostat and bortezomib for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MM patients with two prior lines of treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration. However, it remains yet to be defined how we can incorporate HDACi in the current therapeutic paradigms for MM that will help to achieve longer disease control and significant survival benefits. In addition, isoform-selective and/or class-selective HDAC inhibition to reduce unfavorable side effects needs further evaluation. Keywords: HDAC inhibitors, Panobinostat, epigenetics, myeloma, relapse

  11. Histone/protein deacetylase inhibitor therapy for enhancement of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cell function post-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Beier, U H; Akimova, T; Dahiya, S; Han, R; Samanta, A; Levine, M H; Hancock, W W

    2018-03-30

    T-regulatory (Treg) cells are like other cells present throughout the body in being subject to biochemical modifications in response to extracellular signals. An important component of these responses involves changes in post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones and many non-histone proteins, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, ubiquitination/deubiquitination and acetylation/deacetylation. Foxp3, the key transcription factor of Tregs, is constantly being rapidly turned over, and a number of these PTMs determine its level of expression and activity. Of interest in the transplant setting, modulation of the acetylation or deacetylation of key lysine residues in Foxp3 can promote the stability and function, leading to increased Treg production and increased Treg suppressive activity. This mini-review focuses on recent data concerning the roles that histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs) play in control of Treg function, and how small molecule HDAC inhibitors can be used to promote Treg-dependent allograft survival in experimental models. These data are discussed in the light of increasing interest in the identification and clinical evaluation of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors, and their potential application as tools to modulate Foxp3+ Treg cell numbers and function in transplant recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic Analysis of Time-Series Gene Expression Data on Tumor Cell-Selective Apoptotic Responses to HDAC Inhibitors

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    Yun-feng Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or vorinostat is the first nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. SAHA affects histone acetylation in chromatin and a variety of nonhistone substrates, thus influencing many cellular processes. In particularly, SAHA induces selective apoptosis of tumor cells, although the mechanism is not well understood. A series of microarray experiments was recently conducted to investigate tumor cell-selective proapoptotic transcriptional responses induced by SAHA. Based on that gene expression time series, we propose a novel framework for detailed analysis of the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis selectively induced by SAHA. Our analyses indicated that SAHA selectively disrupted the DNA damage response, cell cycle, p53 expression, and mitochondrial integrity of tumor samples to induce selective tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest a possible regulation network. Our research extends the existing research.

  13. Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase activity by gallic acid, sulforaphane, TMP269, and panobinostat.

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    Choi, Sin Young; Kee, Hae Jin; Jin, Li; Ryu, Yuhee; Sun, Simei; Kim, Gwi Ran; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-02-23

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9). The selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, TMP269, and the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, but not MC1568, clearly inhibited class IIa HDAC activities. Among the three phytochemicals, gallic acid showed remarkable inhibition, whereas sulforaphane presented mild inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Piceatannol inhibited only HDAC7 activity. As expected, the anti-hypertensive drugs losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide did not affect the activity of any class IIa HDAC. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of several compounds on the activity of class l HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) and class IIb HDAC (HDAC6). MC1568 did not affect the activities of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, but it reduced the activity of HDAC8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Gallic acid weakly inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 activities, but strongly inhibited HDAC8 activity with effectiveness comparable to that of trichostatin A. Inhibition of HDAC2 activity by sulforaphane was stronger than that by piceatnnaol. These results indicated that gallic acid is a powerful dietary inhibitor of HDAC8 and class IIa/b HDAC activities. Sulforaphane may also be used as a dietary inhibitor of HDAC2 and class IIa HDAC. Our findings suggest that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, does not inhibit class IIa HDAC, but inhibits

  14. HDAC3 but not HDAC2 mediates visual experience-dependent radial glia proliferation in the developing Xenopus tectum

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    Juanmei Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGs are one of the important progenitor cells that can differentiate into neurons or glia to form functional neural circuits in the developing central nervous system (CNS. Histone deacetylases (HDACs has been associated with visual activity dependent changes in BrdU-positive progenitor cells in the developing brain. We previously have shown that HDAC1 is involved in the experience-dependent proliferation of RGs. However, it is less clear whether two other members of class I HDACs, HDAC2 and HDAC3, are involved in the regulation of radial glia proliferation. Here, we reported that HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression were developmentally regulated in tectal cells, especially in the ventricular layer of the BLBP-positive RGs. Pharmacological blockade using an inhibitor of class I HDACs, MS-275 decreased the number of BrdU-positive dividing progenitor cells. Specific knockdown of HDAC3 but not HDAC2 decreased the number of BrdU- and BLBP-labeled cells, suggesting that the proliferation of radial glia was selectively mediated by HDAC3. Visual deprivation induced selective augmentation of histone H4 acetylation at lysine 16 in BLBP-positive cells. Furthermore, the visual deprivation-induced increase in BrdU-positive cells was partially blocked by HDAC3 downregulation but not by HDAC2 knockdown at stage 49 tadpoles. These data revealed a specific role of HDAC3 in experience-dependent radial glia proliferation during the development of Xenopus tectum.

  15. Preclinical activity, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacokinetic properties of a selective HDAC6 inhibitor, ACY-1215, in combination with bortezomib in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana; Hideshima, Teru; Kung, Andrew L; Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Tamang, David; Yang, Min; Jarpe, Matthew; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Ogier, Walter C; Cirstea, Diana; Rodig, Scott; Eda, Homare; Scullen, Tyler; Canavese, Miriam; Bradner, James; Anderson, Kenneth C; Jones, Simon S; Raje, Noopur

    2012-03-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymatic activity has been linked to the transcription of DNA in cancers including multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, HDAC inhibitors used alone and in combination are being actively studied as novel therapies in MM. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of ACY-1215, an HDAC6-selective inhibitor, alone and in combination with bortezomib in MM. Low doses of ACY-1215 combined with bortezomib triggered synergistic anti-MM activity, resulting in protracted endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and poly (ADP) ribosome polymerase. In vivo, the anti-MM activity of ACY-1215 in combination with bortezomib was confirmed using 2 different xenograft SCID mouse models: human MM injected subcutaneously (the plasmacytoma model) and luciferase-expressing human MM injected intravenously (the disseminated MM model). Tumor growth was significantly delayed and overall survival was significantly prolonged in animals treated with the combination therapy. Pharmacokinetic data showed peak plasma levels of ACY-1215 at 4 hours after treatment coincident with an increase in acetylated α-tubulin, a marker of HDAC6 inhibition, by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. These studies provide preclinical rationale for acetylated α-tubulin use as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in future clinical trials.

  16. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A modulates CD4+ T cell responses

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    Moreira José

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs induce hyperacetylation of core histones modulating chromatin structure and affecting gene expression. These compounds are also able to induce growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Even though several genes modulated by HDAC inhibition have been identified, those genes clearly responsible for the biological effects of these drugs have remained elusive. We investigated the pharmacological effect of the HDACI and potential anti-cancer agent Trichostatin A (TSA on primary T cells. Methods To ascertain the effect of TSA on resting and activated T cells we used a model system where an enriched cell population consisting of primary T-cells was stimulated in vitro with immobilized anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies whilst exposed to pharmacological concentrations of Trichostatin A. Results We found that this drug causes a rapid decline in cytokine expression, accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and induces apoptotic cell death. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC plays a critical role in the apoptotic response to TSA, as dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers block TSA-induced T-cell death. Treatment of T cells with TSA results in the altered expression of a subset of genes involved in T cell responses, as assessed by microarray gene expression profiling. We also observed up- as well as down-regulation of various costimulatory/adhesion molecules, such as CD28 and CD154, important for T-cell function. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that HDAC inhibitors have an immunomodulatory potential that may contribute to the potency and specificity of these antineoplastic compounds and might be useful in the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

  17. Combination Therapy With Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi for the Treatment of Cancer: Achieving the Full Therapeutic Potential of HDACi

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    Amila Suraweera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic changes in DNA are involved in cancer development and tumor progression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are key regulators of gene expression that act as transcriptional repressors by removing acetyl groups from histones. HDACs are dysregulated in many cancers, making them a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, a novel class of small-molecular therapeutics, are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration as anticancer agents. While they have shown great promise, resistance to HDACi is often observed and furthermore, HDACi have shown limited success in treating solid tumors. The combination of HDACi with standard chemotherapeutic drugs has demonstrated promising anticancer effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we summarize the research thus far on HDACi in combination therapy, with other anticancer agents and their translation into preclinical and clinical studies. We additionally highlight the side effects associated with HDACi in cancer therapy and discuss potential biomarkers to either select or predict a patient’s response to these agents, in order to limit the off-target toxicity associated with HDACi.

  18. Effect of clinically approved HDAC inhibitors on Plasmodium, Leishmania and Schistosoma parasite growth

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    Ming Jang Chua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniases are among the most prevalent tropical parasitic diseases and each requires new innovative treatments. Targeting essential parasite pathways, such as those that regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression, is a key strategy for discovering new drug leads. In this study, four clinically approved anti-cancer drugs (Vorinostat, Belinostat, Panobinostat and Romidepsin that target histone/lysine deacetylase enzymes were examined for in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani parasites and two for in vivo activity in a mouse malaria model. All four compounds were potent inhibitors of P. knowlesi malaria parasites (IC50 9–370 nM, with belinostat, panobinostat and vorinostat having 8–45 fold selectivity for the parasite over human neonatal foreskin fibroblast (NFF or human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells, while romidepsin was not selective. Each of the HDAC inhibitor drugs caused hyperacetylation of P. knowlesi histone H4. None of the drugs was active against Leishmania amastigote or promastigote parasites (IC50 > 20 μM or S. mansoni schistosomula (IC50 > 10 μM, however romidepsin inhibited S. mansoni adult worm parings and egg production (IC50 ∼10 μM. Modest in vivo activity was observed in P. berghei infected mice dosed orally with vorinostat or panobinostat (25 mg/kg twice daily for four days, with a significant reduction in parasitemia observed on days 4–7 and 4–10 after infection (P < 0.05, respectively.

  19. Protective Effects of Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, against Hyperoxic Lung Injury in a Neonatal Rat Model.

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    Merih Cetinkaya

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation and deacetylation may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases. We evaluated the preventive effect of valproic acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, on neonatal hyperoxic lung injury.Forty newborn rat pups were randomized in normoxia, normoxia+VPA, hyperoxia and hyperoxia+VPA groups. Pups in the normoxia and normoxia+VPA groups were kept in room air and received daily saline and VPA (30 mg/kg injections, respectively, while those in hyperoxia and hyperoxia+VPA groups were exposed to 95% O2 and received daily saline and VPA (30 mg/kg injections for 10 days, respectively. Growth, histopathological, biochemical and molecular biological indicators of lung injury, apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and histone acetylation were evaluated.VPA treatment during hyperoxia significantly improved weight gain, histopathologic grade, radial alveolar count and lamellar body membrane protein expression, while it decreased number of TUNEL(+ cells and active Caspase-3 expression. Expressions of TGFβ3 and phospho-SMAD2 proteins and levels of tissue proinflammatory cytokines as well as lipid peroxidation biomarkers were reduced, while anti-oxidative enzyme activities were enhanced by VPA treatment. VPA administration also reduced HDAC activity while increasing acetylated H3 and H4 protein expressions.The present study shows for the first time that VPA treatment ameliorates lung damage in a neonatal rat model of hyperoxic lung injury. The preventive effect of VPA involves HDAC inhibition.

  20. Phase I study of the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat in advanced renal cell carcinoma and other solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibelman, Matthew; Wong, Yu-Ning; Devarajan, Karthik; Malizzia, Lois; Corrigan, Alycia; Olszanski, Anthony J; Denlinger, Crystal S; Roethke, Susan K; Tetzlaff, Colleen H; Plimack, Elizabeth R

    2015-10-01

    Drugs inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are approved in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but resistance inevitably emerges. Proposed escape pathways include increased phosphorylation of Akt, which can be down regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. We hypothesized that co-treatment with the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus and the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat may abrogate resistance in RCC. This phase 1 study evaluated the co-administration of ridaforolimus and vorinostat in patients with advanced solid tumors. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in RCC patients. Although all solid tumors were allowed, prior cytotoxic chemotherapy was limited to 1 regimen. Using a modified 3 + 3 dose escalation design, various dose combinations were tested concurrently in separate cohorts. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Fifteen patients were treated at one of three dose levels, thirteen with RCC (10 clear cell, 3 papillary). Dosing was limited by thrombocytopenia. The MTD was determined to be ridaforolimus 20 mg daily days 1-5 with vorinostat 100 mg BID days 1-3 weekly, however late onset thrombocytopenia led to a lower recommended phase II dose: ridaforolimus 20 mg daily days 1-5 with vorinostat 100 mg daily days 1-3 weekly. Two patients, both with papillary RCC, maintained disease control for 54 and 80 weeks, respectively. The combination of ridaforolimus and vorinostat was tolerable at the recommended phase II dose. Two patients with papillary RCC experienced prolonged disease stabilization, thus further study of combined HDAC and mTOR inhibition in this population is warranted.

  1. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahal, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.mahal@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Kahlen, Philip, E-mail: philip.kahlen@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Biersack, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.biersack@yahoo.com [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Schobert, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schobert@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  2. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahal, Katharina; Kahlen, Philip; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  3. A Novel Dual HDAC6 and Tubulin Inhibitor, MPT0B451, Displays Anti-tumor Ability in Human Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Yi-Wen Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination cancer therapy is a new strategy to circumvent drug resistance for the treatment of high metastasis and advanced malignancies. Herein, we developed a synthesized compound MPT0B451 that display inhibitory effect against histone deacetylase (HDAC 6 and tubulin assembly. Our data demonstrated that MPT0B451 significantly inhibited cancer cell growths in HL-60 and PC-3 cells due to inhibition of HDAC activity. MPT0B451 also markedly increased caspase-mediated apoptosis in these cells. The cell cycle analysis showed mitotic arrest induced by MPT0B451 with enhanced expression of G2/M transition proteins. Moreover, molecular docking analysis supported MPT0B451 as a dual HDAC6 and tubulin inhibitor. Finally, MPT0B451 led to tumor growth inhibition (TGI in HL-60 and PC-3 xenograft models. These findings indicated that MPT0B451 has dual inhibition effects for HDAC6 and tubulin, and also contributed to G2/M arrest followed by apoptotic induction. Together, our results suggested that MPT0B451 may serve as a potent anti-cancer treatment regimen in human prostate cancer and acute myeloid leukemia.

  4. Imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities in the PBMCs of patients with ankylosing spondylitis or rheumatoid arthritis and influence of HDAC inhibitors on TNF alpha production.

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    Eric Toussirot

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acetylation or deacetylation of histone proteins may modulate cytokine gene transcription such as TNF alpha (TNF. We evaluated the balance between histone deacetytlase (HDAC and histone acetyltransferase (HAT in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or ankylosing spondylitis (AS compared to healthy controls (HC and determined the influence of HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A -TSA- or Sirtinol -Sirt- on these enzymatic activities and on the PBMC production of TNF. METHODS: 52 patients with RA, 21 with AS and 38 HC were evaluated. HAT and HDAC activities were measured on nuclear extracts from PBMC using colorimetric assays. Enzymatic activities were determined prior to and after ex vivo treatment of PBMC by TSA or Sirt. TNF levels were evaluated in PBMC culture supernatants in the absence or presence of TSA or Sirt. RESULTS: HAT and HDAC activities were significantly reduced in AS, while these activities reached similar levels in RA and HC. Ex vivo treatment of PBMC by HDACi tended to decrease HDAC expression in HC, but Sirt significantly reduced HAT in RA. TNF production by PBMC was significantly down-regulated by Sirt in HC and AS patients. CONCLUSION: HAT and HDAC were disturbed in AS while no major changes were found in RA. HDACi may modulate HDAC and HAT PBMC expression, especially Sirt in RA. Sirtinol was able to down regulate TNF production by PBMC in HC and AS. An imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities might provide the rationale for the development of HDACi in the therapeutic approach to inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  5. Molecular regulation of MICA expression after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Pedersen, Marianne T.

    be induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. However, nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 was not observed after HDAC-inhibitor treatment of Jurkat T cells, and even though we could effectively inhibit p65 expression by siRNA, it did not modify MICA/B expression. To identify important elements in MICA regulation......, we made a promoter construct consisting of ~3kb of the proximal MICA promoter in front of GFP. Deletion analysis showed that a GC-box containing a putative Sp1 site from position -113 to -93 relative to the mRNA start site, was important for HDAC-inhibitor induced promoter activity. Sp1...... was subsequently shown to be important, as targeted mutation of the Sp1 binding sequence or siRNA mediated down modulation of Sp1 inhibited MICA promoter activity and surface-expression....

  6. Gene profile analysis of osteoblast genes differentially regulated by histone deacetylase inhibitors

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    Lamblin Anne-Francoise

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoblast differentiation requires the coordinated stepwise expression of multiple genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by blocking the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs, which alter gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. We previously demonstrated that HDIs and HDAC3 shRNAs accelerate matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblast maturation genes (e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin. Identifying other genes that are differentially regulated by HDIs might identify new pathways that contribute to osteoblast differentiation. Results To identify other osteoblast genes that are altered early by HDIs, we incubated MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts with HDIs (trichostatin A, MS-275, or valproic acid for 18 hours in osteogenic conditions. The promotion of osteoblast differentiation by HDIs in this experiment was confirmed by osteogenic assays. Gene expression profiles relative to vehicle-treated cells were assessed by microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip 430 2.0 arrays. The regulation of several genes by HDIs in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Nine genes were differentially regulated by at least two-fold after exposure to each of the three HDIs and six were verified by PCR in osteoblasts. Four of the verified genes (solute carrier family 9 isoform 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1, sorbitol dehydrogenase 1, a kinase anchor protein, and glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 were induced. Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1 were suppressed. We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusion This study identifies osteoblast genes that are regulated early by HDIs and indicates pathways that

  7. HDAC6 inhibition effectively reverses chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Karen; Ma, Jiacheng; Golonzhka, Olga; Laumet, Geoffroy O; Gutti, Tanuja; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Jarpe, Matthew B; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2017-06-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common dose-limiting side effects of cancer treatment. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment available. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase whose function includes regulation of α-tubulin-dependent intracellular mitochondrial transport. Here, we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibition on established cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. We used a novel HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1083, which shows 260-fold selectivity towards HDAC6 vs other HDACs. Our results show that HDAC6 inhibition prevented cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, and also completely reversed already existing cisplatin-induced mechanical allodynia, spontaneous pain, and numbness. These findings were confirmed using the established HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 (Ricolinostat), which is currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment. Mechanistically, treatment with the HDAC6 inhibitor increased α-tubulin acetylation in the peripheral nerve. In addition, HDAC6 inhibition restored the cisplatin-induced reduction in mitochondrial bioenergetics and mitochondrial content in the tibial nerve, indicating increased mitochondrial transport. At a later time point, dorsal root ganglion mitochondrial bioenergetics also improved. HDAC6 inhibition restored the loss of intraepidermal nerve fiber density in cisplatin-treated mice. Our results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 completely reverses all the hallmarks of established cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy by normalization of mitochondrial function in dorsal root ganglia and nerve, and restoration of intraepidermal innervation. These results are especially promising because one of the HDAC6 inhibitors tested here is currently in clinical trials as an add-on cancer therapy, highlighting the potential for a fast clinical translation of our findings.

  8. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra

    2015-01-01

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1

  9. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Petrini, Stefania [Research Laboratories, Confocal Microscopy Core Facility, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Zanni, Ginevra, E-mail: ginevra.zanni@opbg.net [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  10. Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat suppresses regulatory T cells and enhances immunotherapies in renal and prostate cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Ciesielski, Michael; Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Miles, Kiersten M; Ellis, Leigh; Sotomayor, Paula; Shrikant, Protul; Fenstermaker, Robert; Pili, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM) in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CR Myc-CaP) model. RENCA or CR Myc-CaP tumors were implanted orthotopically or subcutaneously, respectively. Inoculated mice were randomized into four treatment groups: vehicle, entinostat, cytokine or vaccine, and combination. Tregs in the blood were assessed by FACS analysis. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of isolated T cell subpopulations from spleen were performed to determine Foxp3 gene and protein expression. The suppressive function of Tregs was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Low dose (5 mg/kg) entinostat reduced Foxp3 levels in Tregs and this was associated with enhanced tumor growth inhibition in combination with either IL-2 or a SurVaxM vaccine. Entinostat down-regulated Foxp3 expression transcriptionally and blocked Tregs suppressive function without affecting T effector cells (Teffs). In vitro low dose entinostat (0.5 µM) induced STAT3 acetylation and a specific inhibitor of STAT3 partially rescued entinostat-induced down-regulation of Foxp3, suggesting that STAT3 signaling is involved in Foxp3 down-regulation by entinostat. These results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory effect of class I HDAC inhibition and provide a rationale for the clinical testing of entinostat to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat suppresses regulatory T cells and enhances immunotherapies in renal and prostate cancer models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive factors such as regulatory T cells (Tregs limit the efficacy of immunotherapies. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have antitumor activity in different malignancies and immunomodulatory effects. Herein, we report the Tregs-targeting and immune-promoting effect of a class I specific HDAC inhibitor, entinostat, in combination with either IL-2 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA model or a survivin-based vaccine therapy (SurVaxM in a castration resistant prostate cancer (CR Myc-CaP model.RENCA or CR Myc-CaP tumors were implanted orthotopically or subcutaneously, respectively. Inoculated mice were randomized into four treatment groups: vehicle, entinostat, cytokine or vaccine, and combination. Tregs in the blood were assessed by FACS analysis. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis of isolated T cell subpopulations from spleen were performed to determine Foxp3 gene and protein expression. The suppressive function of Tregs was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Low dose (5 mg/kg entinostat reduced Foxp3 levels in Tregs and this was associated with enhanced tumor growth inhibition in combination with either IL-2 or a SurVaxM vaccine. Entinostat down-regulated Foxp3 expression transcriptionally and blocked Tregs suppressive function without affecting T effector cells (Teffs. In vitro low dose entinostat (0.5 µM induced STAT3 acetylation and a specific inhibitor of STAT3 partially rescued entinostat-induced down-regulation of Foxp3, suggesting that STAT3 signaling is involved in Foxp3 down-regulation by entinostat.These results demonstrate a novel immunomodulatory effect of class I HDAC inhibition and provide a rationale for the clinical testing of entinostat to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Methyl Effect in Azumamides Provides Insight Into Histone Deacetylase Inhibition by Macrocycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex; Villadsen, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2014-01-01

    Natural, nonribosomal cyclotetrapeptides have traditionally been a rich source of inspiration for design of potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. We recently disclosed the total synthesis and full HDAC pro fi ling of the naturally occurring azumamides ( J. Med. Chem. 2013 , 56 , 6512...

  13. HDAC Inhibitor-Mediated Beta-Cell Protection Against Cytokine-Induced Toxicity Is STAT1 Tyr701 Phosphorylation Independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahllöf, Mattias Salling; Christensen, Dan P; Harving, Mette

    2015-01-01

    inhibition using either IL-1β or IFN-γ alone. Whereas HDAC inhibition has been shown to regulate NFκB-activity, related primarily to IL-1β signaling, it is unknown whether the inhibition of HDACs affect IFN-γ signaling in beta-cells. Further, in non-beta-cells, there is a dispute whether HDAC inhibition...... regulates IFN-γ signaling at the level of STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation. Using different small molecule HDAC inhibitors with varying class selectivity, INS-1E wild type and stable HDAC1-3 knockdown pancreatic INS-1 cell lines, we show that IFN-γ-induced Cxcl9 and iNos expression as well as Cxcl9 and GAS...... reporter activity were decreased by HDAC inhibition in a STAT1 Tyr701 phosphorylation-independent fashion. In fact, knockdown of HDAC1 increased IFN-γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation....

  14. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Jie, E-mail: tongrensj163@163.com [Department of Administrative, Tongren Hospital, No. 786 Yuyuan Road, Changning District, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-07

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  15. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  16. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Ballestas, Mary E; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia R; Malamas, Anthony S; Tsang, Kwong Y; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W

    2016-02-16

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  18. Activation of mPTP-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by a novel pan HDAC inhibitor resminostat in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Meili [Department of Infectious Disease, Linyi People’s Hospital, Linyi (China); Shi, Wenhong [Department of Radiotherapy, Linyi Tumor Hospital, Linyi (China); Li, Zhengling [Department of Nursing, Tengzhou Central People’s Hospital, Tengzhou (China); Liu, Haiyan, E-mail: liuhaiyanlinyi5@sina.com [Department of Nursing, Linyi People’s Hospital, No. 27 Jiefang Road, Linyi 276000, Shandong (China)

    2016-09-02

    Over-expression and aberrant activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are often associated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we evaluated the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by resminostat, a novel pan HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). We demonstrated that resminostat induced potent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, resminostat treatment in HCC cells activated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP)-dependent apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by physical association of cyclophilin-D and adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT-1), mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release and caspase-9 activation. Intriguingly, the mPTP blockers (sanglifehrin A and cyclosporine A), shRNA knockdown of cyclophilin-D or the caspase-9 inhibitor dramatically attenuated resminostat-induced HCC cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Reversely, HCC cells with exogenous cyclophilin-D over-expression were hyper-sensitive to resminostat. Intriguingly, a low concentration of resminostat remarkably potentiated sorafenib-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway activation, leading to a profound cytotoxicity in HCC cells. The results of this preclinical study indicate that resminostat (or plus sorafenib) could be further investigated as a valuable anti-HCC strategy. - Highlights: • Resminostat inhibits human HCC cell survival and proliferation. • Resminostat activates mPTP-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • Resminostat potentiates sorafenib-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway activation. • mPTP or caspase-9 inhibition attenuates apoptosis by resminostat or plus sorafenib.

  19. Molecular modeling study on tunnel behavior in different histone deacetylase isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundarapandian Thangapandian

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs have emerged as effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of various diseases including cancers as these enzymes directly involved in the epigenetic regulation of genes. However the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors has been a challenge till date since all HDAC enzymes possess conserved tunnel-like active site. In this study, using molecular dynamics simulation we have analyzed the behavior of tunnels present in HDAC8, 10, and 11 enzymes of class I, II, and IV, respectively. We have identified the equivalent tunnel forming amino acids in these three isoforms and found that they are very much conserved with subtle differences to be utilized in selective inhibitor development. One amino acid, methionine of HDAC8, among six tunnel forming residues is different in isoforms of other classes (glutamic acid (E in HDAC10 and leucine (L in HDAC 11 based on which mutations were introduced in HDAC11, the less studied HDAC isoform, to observe the effects of this change. The HDAC8-like (L268M mutation in the tunnel forming residues has almost maintained the deep and narrow tunnel as present in HDAC8 whereas HDAC10-like (L268E mutation has changed the tunnel wider and shallow as observed in HDAC10. These results explained the importance of the single change in the tunnel formation in different isoforms. The observations from this study can be utilized in the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors.

  20. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on regenerative cell responses in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z; Wang, Z; He, X; Liu, N; Liu, B; Sun, L; Wang, J; Ma, F; Duncan, H; He, W; Cooper, P

    2017-04-04

    To investigate the growth, migratory and adhesive effects of trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA), two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To verify that TSA or VPA functions as an HDAC inhibitor, the expressions of histones H3 and H4 were examined using Western blotting analysis. hDPSC growth and metabolic activity was evaluated by MTT viability analysis at different time-points and by cell count experiments. The expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins was examined by Western blot analysis. Migration effects were investigated using wound healing and transwell migration assays. An adhesion assay was also performed in the presence and absence of HDACis. The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules relevant to repair in hDPSCs were also assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The data were analysed, where appropriate, using Student's t-test or one-way anova followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test using SPSS software. Trichostatin A and VPA enhanced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 (P  0.05). At the same time, the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A was upregulated by 2 nmol L -1 TSA and 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Higher TSA or VPA concentrations induced apoptosis in hDPSCs in the cell count and apoptosis experiments (P < 0.05). Moreover, TSA and VPA significantly depressed the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A (P < 0.05), whilst it significantly improved the level of p21 (P < 0.05). TSA and VPA promoted migration and adhesion of hDPSCs (P < 0.05). The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules were significantly upregulated after exposure of hDPSCs to 20 nmol L -1 TSA or 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Histone deacetylase inhibitors at specific concentrations promoted proliferation, migration and adhesion of hDPSCs, which may contribute to novel regenerative therapies for pulpal disease treatment. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published

  1. Deep brain stimulation, histone deacetylase inhibitors and glutamatergic drugs rescue resistance to fear extinction in a genetic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Gunduz Cinar, Ozge; Hauschild, Markus; Ferraguti, Francesco; Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by persistent, excessive fear. Therapeutic interventions that reverse deficits in fear extinction represent a tractable approach to treating these disorders. We previously reported that 129S1/SvImJ (S1) mice show no extinction learning following normal fear conditioning. We now demonstrate that weak fear conditioning does permit fear reduction during massed extinction training in S1 mice, but reveals specific deficiency in extinction memory consolidation/retrieval. Rescue of this impaired extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with d-cycloserine (N-methly-d-aspartate partial agonist) or MS-275 (histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor), applied after extinction training. We next examined the ability of different drugs and non-pharmacological manipulations to rescue the extreme fear extinction deficit in S1 following normal fear conditioning with the ultimate aim to produce low fear levels in extinction retrieval tests. Results showed that deep brain stimulation (DBS) by applying high frequency stimulation to the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) during extinction training, indeed significantly reduced fear during extinction retrieval compared to sham stimulation controls. Rescue of both impaired extinction acquisition and deficient extinction consolidation/retrieval was achieved with prior extinction training administration of valproic acid (a GABAergic enhancer and HDAC inhibitor) or AMN082 [metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) agonist], while MS-275 or PEPA (AMPA receptor potentiator) failed to affect extinction acquisition in S1 mice. Collectively, these data identify potential beneficial effects of DBS and various drug treatments, including those with HDAC inhibiting or mGlu7 agonism properties, as adjuncts to overcome treatment resistance in exposure-based therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’. PMID:22722028

  2. Medicinal Chemistry Insights into Novel HDAC Inhibitors: An Updated Patent Review (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Xueshun; Liu, Xinyong; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Many laboratories have made intensive efforts to develop potent, selective, and orally bioavailable HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs). Novel HDACIs are being developed with the objective of improving potency and selectivity against specific types of cancers or non-cancer diseases. This updated patent review is an attempt to compile the work of various researchers of HDACIs from 2012 to mid 2016, and to enlighten and surprise both newcomers in this field and devoted medicinal chemists. According to the literature research and the writers' own research experience in the discovery of HDAC inhibitors. The inhibitors possessing new chemical scaffolds have attracted immense interest because they have the ability to improve HDAC isoform specificity and pharmaceutical properties. Focus is given to emerging medicinal chemistry principles and insights into the discovery and development of HDAC inhibitors. The development of effective HDACIs is shifting from trial-and-error approaches to sophisticated strategies. Effective profiling technologies will continue to have important utility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates deoxyribonucleotide pools and enhances the antitumor effects of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor 3'-C-methyladenosine in leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria; Tolomeo, Manlio; Grifantini, Mario; Mai, Antonello; Cappellacci, Loredana; Petrelli, Riccardo; Rotili, Dante; Ferro, Arianna; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Dusonchet, Luisa

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of epigenetic agents that were reported to enhance the cytotoxic effects of classical anticancer drugs through multiple mechanisms. However, which of the possible drug combinations would be the most effective and clinically useful are to be determined. We treated the HL60 and NB4 promyelocytic leukaemia cells with a combination of the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor 3'-C-methyladenosine (3'-Me-Ado) and several hydroxamic acid-derived HDAC inhibitors, including two recently synthesized molecules, MC1864 and MC1879, and the reference compound trichostatin A (TSA). The results showed significant growth inhibitory and apoptotic synergistic effects with the combinations. Hence, we evaluated the effects of the combinations on cell cycle distribution and on the level of several proteins involved in the apoptotic process (p21, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AIF). Since HDAC inhibitors increased the G1-S transition block induced by 3'-Me-Ado, an effect on RR activity was hypothesized. Indeed, the HPLC evaluation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools showed that both TSA and MC1864 induced a decrease in dNTPs, even if with a somewhat different pattern, suggesting that RR inhibition contributes to the observed synergism. Furthermore, while TSA was shown to activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, MC1864 induced a dose-dependent increase in ROS and AIF levels. Moreover, the treatment with the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine determined a significant inhibition of MC1864- but not TSA-mediated synergistic effects. Hence, our findings are consistent with a possible role of HDAC inhibitor mediated-ROS induction in RR inhibition and in the potentiation of RR inhibitor-mediated apoptosis.

  4. A Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Attenuates Chemoresistance in Biliary Tract Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is involved in the characteristics of malignancy, such as invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. In biliary tract cancer (BTC, EMT is induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1. The EMT is reversible; therefore, it is conceivable that it could be related to some epigenetic changes. We focused on histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors as regulators of TGF-β1 signaling, and investigated their effect on EMT and chemoresistance. We employed four BTC cell lines (MzChA-1, gemcitabine-resistant MzChA-1, TFK-1, and gemcitabine-resistant TFK-1 and used vorinostat as the HDAC inhibitor. The relative mRNA expression of an epithelial marker (CDH1 and mesenchymal markers (CDH2, vimentin, SNAI1 were measured by qRT-PCR to evaluate factors associated with EMT. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to evaluate the chemoresistance of each cell line. In addition, NOD/SCID mice were used to evaluate the effect of vorinostat in vivo. In the parent MzChA-1 and TFK-1 cell lines, TGF-β1 induced EMT and chemoresistance; while vorinostat inhibited the EMT and chemoresistance induced by TGF-β1. In gemcitabine-resistant cell lines that highly expressed TGF-β1, vorinostat inhibited EMT and attenuated chemoresistance. We showed that vorinostat inhibits nuclear translocation of SMAD4 which is a signaling factor of TGF-β1, and this is one of the mechanisms by which vorinostat regulates EMT. We also showed that vorinostat attenuates the binding affinity of SMAD4 to the CDH1-related transcription factors SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, and TWIST. Furthermore, combination therapy with vorinostat and gemcitabine improved survival time in the mice xenografted with gemcitabine resistant MzChA-1 cells. In conclusion, vorinostat regulated TGF-β1-induced EMT and chemoresistance through inhibition of SMAD4 nuclear translocation.

  5. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 along with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFb receptor II...

  6. Restoration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qian, Zheng D

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the current grant is to investigate the potential antitumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 a with the activation of TGFb signaling pathway with the restoration of TGFbeta receptor II...

  7. A phase I-II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat plus sequential weekly paclitaxel and doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yifan; Hershman, Dawn L; Bhalla, Kapil; Fiskus, Warren; Pellegrino, Christine M; Andreopoulou, Eleni; Makower, Della; Kalinsky, Kevin; Fehn, Karen; Fineberg, Susan; Negassa, Abdissa; Montgomery, Leslie L; Wiechmann, Lisa S; Alpaugh, R Katherine; Huang, Min; Sparano, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that regulate chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Vorinostat is a panHDAC inhibitor that sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxanes and trastuzumab by suppressing HDAC6 and Hsp90 client proteins. Fifty-five patients with clinical stage IIA-IIIC breast cancer received 12 weekly doses of paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) plus vorinostat (200-300 mg PO BID) on days 1-3 of each paclitaxel dose plus trastuzumab (for Her2/neu positive disease only), followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (60/600 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks plus pegfilgrastim). The primary study endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). pCR occurred in 13 of 24 evaluable patients with Her2-positive disease (54, 95 % confidence intervals [CI] 35-72 %), which met the prespecified study endpoint. pCR occurred in 4 of 15 patients with triple negative disease (27, 95 % CI 11-52 %) and none of 12 patients with ER-positive, Her2/neu negative disease (0, 95 % CI 0-24 %), which did not meet the prespecified endpoint. ER-positive tumors exhibited lower Ki67 and higher Hsp70 expression, and HDAC6, Hsp70, p21, and p27 expression were not predictive of response. Vorinostat increased acetylation of Hsp90 and alpha tubulin, and reduced expression of Hsp90 client proteins and HDAC6 in the primary tumor. Combination of vorinostat with weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide is associated with a high pCR rate in locally advanced Her2/neu positive breast cancer. Consistent with cell line and xenograft data, vorinostat increased acetylation of Hsp90 and alpha tubulin, and decreased Hsp90 client protein and HDAC6 expression in human breast cancers in vivo.

  8. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice:implications for Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing αtubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling.

  9. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  10. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  11. Blocking NF-κB sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitor induced extrinsic apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Selvaraju; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Anusha, Chidambaram; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-02-01

    NF-κB signalling is one of the main cell survival pathways that attenuate the anticancer efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Previous studies demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor induces apoptosis in some malignancies through multiple mechanisms including up-regulation of death receptors, disruption of Hsp90 function and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, HDAC inhibitor also induces a cell survival signal through NF-κB activation. In this report, we found that romidepsin, a class I HDAC inhibitor, induces NF-κB activation in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We also found that inhibition of A549 cells with bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor) has blocked IκB degradation that leads to the loss of NF-κB activation and translocation which enhanced the romidepsin induced mitochondrial injury and sensitizes NSCLC cells to apoptosis. Romidepsin significantly enhances NF-κB reporter gene transcription and these effects were inhibited by bortezomib as determined by reporter gene assay. Consistently, the combined exposure of romidepsin and bortezomib reversed the effects on IκB degradation as evident with IL-8, p50 and p65 (NF-κB) expression. Apoptosis was markedly sensitized with greater ROS generation and more cell death in A549 cell lines. These events are most closely related in that bortezomib prevents the romidepsin mediated RelA acetylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in caspase activation. A strategy of blocking NF-κB activation to enhance HDAC inhibitor activity warrants further attention in NSCLC cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors restore IL-10 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced cell inflammation and reduce IL-1β and IL-6 production in breast silicone implant in C57BL/6J wild-type murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Valente, Sergio; Taurone, Samanta; Zwergel, Clemens; Marrocco, Biagina; Turchetta, Rosaria; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Scarpa, Carlotta; Bertalot, Thomas; Schrenk, Sandra; Mai, Antonello; Artico, Marco

    2016-01-20

    Among epigenetic enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for regulating the expression of an extensive array of genes by reversible deacetylation of nuclear histones as well as a large number of non-histone proteins. Initially proposed for cancer therapy, recently the interest for HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as orally active, safe, and anti-inflammatory agents is rising due to their ability in reducing the severity of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In particular, selective HDAC3, HDAC6, and HDAC8 inhibitors have been described to downregulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1β, and IL-6). Herein, using KB31, C2C12, and 3T3-J2 cell lines, we demonstrated that, under lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro inflammation, HDAC3/6/8 inhibitor MC2625 and HDAC6-selective inhibitor MC2780 were effective at a concentration of 30 ng/mL to downregulate mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and to promote the transcription of IL-10 gene, without affecting the cell viability. Afterwards, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the activity of MC2625 and MC2780 at a concentration of 60 ng/kg animal weight to regulate silicone-triggered immune response in C57BL/6J female mice. Our findings evidenced the ability of such inhibitors to reduce host inflammation in silicone implants promoting a thickness reduction of peri-implant fibrous capsule, upregulating IL-10 expression, and reducing the production of both IL-1β and IL-6. These results underline the potential application of MC2625 and MC2780 in inflammation-related diseases.

  13. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Odor Preference Memory Extension and Maintains Enhanced AMPA Receptor Expression in the Rat Pup Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sriya; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Doré, Jules J. E.; Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays a role in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. We hypothesized that trichostatin-A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, would promote long-term odor preference memory and maintain enhanced GluA1 receptor levels that have been hypothesized to support memory. We used an early odor preference learning model in…

  14. Histone deacetylases 1 and 3 but not 2 mediate cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis in INS-1 cells and dispersed primary islets from rats and are differentially regulated in the islets of type 1 diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Damgaard Nielsen, M

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising pharmacological targets in cancer and autoimmune diseases. All 11 classical HDACs (HDAC1-11) are found in the pancreatic beta cell, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) protect beta cells from inflammatory insults. We investigated which HDACs...... mediate inflammatory beta cell damage and how the islet content of these HDACs is regulated in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The rat beta cell line INS-1 and dispersed primary islets from rats, either wild type or HDAC1-3 deficient, were exposed to cytokines and HDACi. Molecular mechanisms were...... of HDAC1, -2 and -3 rescued INS-1 cells from inflammatory damage. Small hairpin RNAs against HDAC1 and -3, but not HDAC2, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis in INS-1 and primary rat islets. The protective properties of specific HDAC knock-down correlated with attenuated cytokine...

  15. Chemical Editing of Macrocyclic Natural Products and Kinetic Profiling Reveal Slow, Tight-Binding Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Picomolar Affinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitir, Betül; Maolanon, Alex R.; Ohm, Ragnhild G.

    2017-01-01

    medicines. Therefore, detailed mechanistic information and precise characterization of the chemical probes used to investigate the effects of HDAC enzymes are vital. We interrogated Nature's arsenal of macrocyclic nonribosomal peptide HDAC inhibitors by chemical synthesis and evaluation of more than 30...... natural products and analogues. This furnished surprising trends in binding affinities for the various macrocycles, which were then exploited for the design of highly potent class I and IIb HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, thorough kinetic investigation revealed unexpected inhibitory mechanisms of important...

  16. EZH2 and histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells by differentially increasing H3 Lys27 acetylation in the BIM gene promoter and enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julia P; Ling, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, is a histone methyl-transferase and is considered to work cooperatively with histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the same protein complex to mediate gene transcription repression by increasing histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), in particular in the nucleosome (s). EZH2 is overexpressed in numerous types of cancer, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of breast cancer, which there are no effective treatment options for. Thus, inhibition of EZH2 may be harnessed for targeted therapy of this disease. The present study demonstrated that co-treatment with an EZH2 inhibitor and a HDAC inhibitor additively induced apoptosis in two TNBC cell lines, namely MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. The increased rate of cell death was associated with an elevation of B cell lymphoma-2 like 11 (BIM) expression level, a pro-apoptotic protein at the protein and mRNA expression levels in these two cell lines. The expression of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), a known upstream transcriptional activator of BIM , was upregulated in both cell lines by the HDAC inhibitor, and the effect was more pronounced in MDA-MB-436 cells with higher phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B, a negative regulator of FOXO1, compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, FOXO1 expression was inhibited following treatment with the EZH2 inhibitor, suggesting that EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors induced BIM expression via a FOXO1-independent mechanism. The present study further revealed that the EZH2 inhibitor, but not the HDAC inhibitor, induced high levels of H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) in the BIM promoter. By contrast, compared with the effect of the EZH2 inhibitor, HDAC inhibitor treatment resulted in an increase in H3K27ac at two BIM enhancers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicated that EZH2 and HDACs act differentially on H3K27ac levels in the nucleosome at the promoter and enhancer regions of the BIM

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates histone deacetylase 8 expression to repress tumor suppressive activity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hsi, Edward; Wang, Shen-Nien; Huang, Shau-Ku; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2017-01-31

    Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a unique member of class I histone deacetylases, shows remarkable correlation with advanced disease stage and multiple malignant tumors However, little is known about the contribution of HDAC8 to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the expression of HDAC8 regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in HCC cell lines and tissues, and the roles of HDAC8 overexpression in cell proliferation, including potentially underlying mechanisms. We assessed the correlation between the clinic-pathological parameters and the expression of AHR and HDAC8. Further, we analyzed the AHR siRNA transfection and HDAC8 inhibitors to explore the functions of HDAC8 in HCC progression in vitro and in vivo. In a panel of 289 HCC patients, HDAC8 was shown to be highly correlated with AHR expression at both mRNA and protein levels. HCC patients with high AHR expression showed a shorter survival time than that with low AHR expression. We then found that the expression of both AHR and HDAC8 was significantly upregulated in both HCC cell lines and tumor tissues compared to human normal hepatocytes and matched non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, HDAC8 inhibition remarkably inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and transformation activity via upregulation of RB1 in vitro and in vivo. Our data revealed an important role of the AHR-HDAC8 axis in promoting HCC tumorigenesis, thus identifying HDAC8 as a potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment.

  18. Autophagy induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibits HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grant R; Bruckman, Rachel S; Chu, Yen-Lin; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-02-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being evaluated in a "shock-and-kill" therapeutic approach to reverse human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) latency from CD4(+) T cells. Using this approach, HDACi have induced HIV RNA synthesis in latently infected cells from some patients. The hope is that the increase in viral production will lead to killing of the infected cell either by the virus itself or by the patient's immune system, a "sterilizing cure." Although administered within the context of combination antiretroviral therapy, the infection of bystander cells remains a concern. In this study, we investigated the effect of HDACi (belinostat, givinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin, and vorinostat) on the productive infection of macrophages. We demonstrate that the HDACi tested do not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, we demonstrate that HDACi decrease HIV release from macrophages in a dose-dependent manner (belinostat the canonical autophagy pathway. This mechanism involves unc-51-like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and requires the formation of autophagosomes and their maturation into autolysosomes in the absence of increased cell death. These data provide further evidence in support of a role for autophagy in the control of HIV infection and suggest that careful consideration of off-target effects will be essential if HDACi are to be a component of a multipronged approach to eliminate latently infected cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Current evidence for histone deacetylase inhibitors in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Giaginis, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2013-02-14

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with more than 200 000 deaths worldwide every year. Despite recent efforts, conventional treatment approaches, such as surgery and classic chemotherapy, have only slightly improved patient outcomes. More effective and well-tolerated therapies are required to reverse the current poor prognosis of this type of neoplasm. Among new agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are now being tested. HDACIs have multiple biological effects related to acetylation of histones and many non-histone proteins that are involved in regulation of gene expression, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and angiogenesis. HDACIs induce cell cycle arrest and can activate the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. In the present review, the main mechanisms by which HDACIs act in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, as well as their antiproliferative effects in animal models are presented. HDACIs constitute a promising treatment for pancreatic cancer with encouraging anti-tumor effects, at well-tolerated doses.

  20. Clinical pharmacology profile of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Marian; Friedman, Evan J; Sandhu, Punam; Agrawal, Nancy G B; Rubin, Eric H; Wagner, John A

    2013-09-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has demonstrated preclinical activity in numerous cancer models. Clinical activity has been demonstrated in patients with a variety of malignancies. Vorinostat is presently indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical investigation is ongoing for therapy of other solid tumors and hematological malignancies either as monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic properties of vorinostat. Monotherapy pharmacokinetic data across a number of pharmacokinetic studies were reviewed, and data are presented. In addition, literature review was performed to obtain published Phase I and II pharmacokinetic combination therapy data to identify and characterize potential drug interactions with vorinostat. Pharmacokinetic data in special populations were also reviewed. The clinical pharmacology profile of vorinostat is favorable, exhibiting dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and modest food effect. There appear to be no major differences in the pharmacokinetics of vorinostat in special populations, including varying demographics and hepatic dysfunction. Combination therapy pharmacokinetic data indicate that vorinostat has a low propensity for drug interactions. Vorinostat's favorable clinical pharmacology and drug interaction profile aid in the ease of administration of vorinostat for the treatment of advanced CTCL and will be beneficial in continued assessment for other oncologic indications. Although a number of studies have been conducted to elucidate the detailed pharmacokinetic profile of vorinostat, more rigorous assessment of vorinostat pharmacokinetics, including clinical drug interaction studies, will be informative.

  1. Histone deacetylase 1, 2, 6 and acetylated histone H4 in B- and T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, L.; Poulsen, C.B.; Gjerdrum, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim was to det......AIMS: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are novel therapeutics in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where, for unknown reasons, T-cell malignancies appear to be more sensitive than B-cell malignancies. The aim...... was to determine HDAC expression in DLBCL and PTCL which has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6 and acetylated histone H4 was examined immunohistochemically in 31 DLBCL and 45 PTCL. All four markers showed high expression in both DLBCL and PTCL compared...

  2. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 exhibits antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer cells by affecting multiple biochemical pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jin Chen

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~5%. Histone deacetylases (HDACs participate in many cellular processes, including carcinogenesis, and pharmacological inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we explored antitumor activity of the novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42 in pancreatic cancer.Human pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were used in this study. Real-time PCR, RT-PCR, and western blotting were employed to investigate expression of specific genes and proteins, respectively. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor was investigated by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. The number of apoptotic cells, cell cycle stages, and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation levels were determined by flow cytometry. Cell invasiveness was examined by the Matrigel invasion assay. Efficacy of AR-42 in vivo was evaluated by utilizing BxPC-3 xenograft mouse model.AR-42 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest via regulating expression levels of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle. AR-42 also induced ROS generation and DNA damage, triggering apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via both caspase-3-dependent and caspase-3-independent pathways. In addition, AR-42 increased expression levels of negative regulators of p53 (miR-125b, miR-30d, and miR33, which could contribute to lower expression level of mutant p53 in pancreatic cancer cells. Cell invasion assay showed that AR-42 reduced cancer cell aggressiveness and significantly diminished BxPC-3 xenograft tumor growth in vivo.AR-42, a novel HDAC inhibitor, inhibited pancreatic cancer cells by regulating p53 expression, inducing cell cycle arrest, particularly at the G2/M stage, and activating multiple apoptosis pathways. Additionally, AR-42 inhibited cell invasiveness and potently suppressed pancreatic cancer tumors in vivo. We conclude that by

  3. Human HDAC isoform selectivity achieved via exploitation of the acetate release channel with structurally unique small molecule inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Lewis; Dobler, Markus R.; Radetich, Branko; Zhu, Yanyi; Atadja, Peter W.; Claiborne, Tavina; Grob, Jonathan E.; McRiner, Andrew; Pancost, Margaret R.; Patnaik, Anup; Shao, Wenlin; Shultz, Michael; Tichkule, Ritesh; Tommasi, Ruben A.; Vash, Brian; Wang, Ping; Stams, Travis (Novartis)

    2013-11-20

    Herein we report the discovery of a family of novel yet simple, amino-acid derived class I HDAC inhibitors that demonstrate isoform selectivity via access to the internal acetate release channel. Isoform selectivity criteria is discussed on the basis of X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling of these novel inhibitors bound to HDAC8, potentially revealing insights into the mechanism of enzymatic function through novel structural features revealed at the atomic level.

  4. Histone deacetylase 10 structure and molecular function as a polyamine deacetylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Yang; Shinsky, Stephen A.; Porter, Nicholas J.; Christianson, David W.

    2017-05-01

    Cationic polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are critical in all forms of life, as they regulate the function of biological macromolecules. Intracellular polyamine metabolism is regulated by reversible acetylation and dysregulated polyamine metabolism is associated with neoplastic diseases such as colon cancer, prostate cancer and neuroblastoma. Here we report that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) is a robust polyamine deacetylase, using recombinant enzymes from Homo sapiens (human) and Danio rerio (zebrafish). The 2.85 Å-resolution crystal structure of zebrafish HDAC10 complexed with a transition-state analogue inhibitor reveals that a glutamate gatekeeper and a sterically constricted active site confer specificity for N8-acetylspermidine hydrolysis and disfavour acetyllysine hydrolysis. Both HDAC10 and spermidine are known to promote cellular survival through autophagy. Accordingly, this work sets a foundation for studying the chemical biology of autophagy through the structure-based design of inhibitors that may also serve as new leads for cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Histone deacetylases and their roles in mineralized tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Cong-Nhat Huynh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that controls expression of certain genes. It includes non-sequence-based changes of chromosomal regional structure that can alter the expression of genes. Acetylation of histones is controlled by the activity of two groups of enzymes: the histone acetyltransferases (HATs and histone deacetylases (HDACs. HDACs remove acetyl groups from the histone tail, which alters its charge and thus promotes compaction of DNA in the nucleosome. HDACs render the chromatin structure into a more compact form of heterochromatin, which makes the genes inaccessible for transcription. By altering the transcriptional activity of bone-associated genes, HDACs control both osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. This review presents an overview of the function of HDACs in the modulation of bone formation. Special attention is paid to the use of HDAC inhibitors in mineralized tissue regeneration from cells of dental origin.

  6. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, Elsa M.

    2016-03-09

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1‒/‒ mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Pujol, Aurora; Baarine, Mauhamad; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) (1 and 3) in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2) proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid) leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh

    Full Text Available In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1 and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs (1 and 3 in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2 proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  9. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development, and craniofacial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Zachary J; Lawson, Grace; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2017-12-01

    Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch. Mechanistically, loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn1c, Cdkn2b, Cdkn2c, and Tp53 within the first pharyngeal arch. Our results show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 function redundantly within the neural crest to regulate proliferation and the development of the pharyngeal arches by means of repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Developmental Dynamics 246:1015-1026, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Synergistic cytotoxicity effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor combined with paclitaxel on lung cancer cell lines and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Chang-Ting; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can inhibit cell signal network function through decreasing expression of multiple genes and proteins, thus affect cell proliferation, survival and chemosensitivity. HDAC inhibitors combined with paclitaxel may enhance the inhibitory effect of drugs on lung cancer cells. This study was to observe the synergistic anti-proliferative effect of HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) combined with paclitaxel on lung cancer cell lines H322 and H1299, and to investigate its mechanism. H322 and H1299 cells were divided into control group, paclitaxel (TAX) group, TSA group, and combination group (TF group, TSA followed by paclitaxel). Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels of survivin, ERK, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. When combined with TSA, the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of paclitaxel decreased from (48.07+/-26.12) nmol/L to (6.34+/-5.72) nmol/L in H322 cells and from (110.6+/-38.7) nmol/L to (63.7+/-11.8) nmol/L in H1299 cells, with significant differences (Phigher in the the TF group than in the TAX group(PTAX group of H322 cell line. Expression of Survivin was up-regulated in the TAX group of two cells. Expressions of Survivin and pERK were down-regulated in the TSA and TF groups of two cell lines. Cleaved PARP was detected in the TAX and the TF groups of H322 cells, and its expression was significantly higher in the the TF group than in the TAX group. Cleaved PARP was not detected in each group of H1299 cells. TSA combined with paclitaxel has a synergistic cytotoxicity effect on lung cancer cell lines H322 and H1299 when the cells were treated with TSA followed by paclitaxel. The mechanism may be that TSA down-regulates the survivin high-expression induced by paclitaxel, and blocks pERK protein expression.

  11. Mechanism for neurotropic action of vorinostat, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we investigated the effect of vorinostat (suberanilohydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells. NS-1 cell is a subclone of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12). PC12 cells on treatment with nerve growth fac...

  12. HDAC inhibitors induce transcriptional repression of high copy number genes in breast cancer through elongation blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Greer, Celeste B.; Cecchini, Katharine R.; Harris, Lyndsay N.; Tuck, David P.; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) results in potent cytotoxicity of a variety of cancer cell types, and these drugs are used clinically to treat hematological tumors. They are known to repress the transcription of ERBB2 and many other oncogenes, but little is known about this mechanism. Using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to measure nascent transcription, we find that HDACI cause transcriptional repression by blocking RNA polymerase II elongation. Our data show that H...

  13. New clinical developments in histone deacetylase inhibitors for epigenetic therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yuehua

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA methylation and histone acetylation are two well known epigenetic chromatin modifications. Epigenetic agents leading to DNA hypomethylation and histone hyperacetylation have been approved for treatment of hematological disorders. The first histone deacetylase inhibitor, vorinostat, has been licensed for cutaneous T cell lymphoma treatment. More than 11 new epigenetic agents are in various stages of clinical development for therapy of multiple cancer types. In this review we summarize novel histone deacetylase inhibitors and new regimens from clinical trials for epigenetic therapy of cancer.

  14. Histone deacetylase as a new target for cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Furumai, R; Nishiyama, M; Komatsu, Y; Nishino, N; Horinouchi, S

    2001-08-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and trapoxin (TPX), inhibitors of the eukaryotic cell cycle and inducers of morphological reversion of transformed cells, inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) at nanomolar concentrations. Recently, FK228 (also known as FR901228 and depsipeptide) and MS-275. antitumor agents structurally unrelated to TSA, have been shown to be potent HDAC inhibitors. These inhibitors activate the expression of p21Waf1 in a p53-independent manner. Changes in the expression of regulators of the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis with increased histone acetylation may be responsible for the cell cycle arrest and antitumor activity of HDAC inhibitors. TSA has been suggested to block the catalytic reaction by chelating a zinc ion in the active site pocket through its hydroxamic acid group. On the other hand, an epoxyketone has been suggested to be the functional group of TPX capable of alkylating the enzyme. We synthesized a novel TPX analogue containing a hydroxamic acid instead of the epoxyketone. The hybrid compound, called cyclic hydroxamic-acid-containing peptide 1 (CHAP1) inhibited HDAC at low nanomolar concentrations. The HDAC1 inhibition by CHAPI was reversible, as is that by TSA, in contrast to irreversible inhibition by TPX. Interestingly, HDAC6, but not HDAC1 or HDAC4, was resistant to TPX and CHAP1, while TSA inhibited these HDACs to a similar degree. CHAP31, the strongest HDAC inhibitor obtained from a variety of CHAP derivatives, exhibited antitumor activity in BDF1 mice bearing B16/BL6 tumor cells. These results suggest that CHAP31 is promising as a novel therapeutic agent for cancer treatment, and that CHAP may serve as a basis for new HDAC inhibitors and be useful for combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening.

  15. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, Laura M., E-mail: beaverl@onid.orst.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yu, Tian-Wei, E-mail: david.yu@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sokolowski, Elizabeth I., E-mail: sokolowe@onid.orst.edu [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H., E-mail: rod.dashwood@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Ho, Emily, E-mail: Emily.Ho@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  16. Suppression of Tumor Growth and Muscle Wasting in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer by the Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sally E; Ding, Li-Yun; Mo, Xiaokui; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; Huang, Po-Hsien

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of AR-42 (formerly OSU-HDAC42), a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in clinical trials, in suppressing tumor growth and/or cancer-induced muscle wasting in murine models of PDAC. The in vitro antiproliferative activity of AR-42 was evaluated in six human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, COLO-357, PANC-1, MiaPaCa-2, BxPC-3, SW1990). AsPC-1 subcutaneous xenograft and transgenic KP fl/fl C (LSL-Kras G12D ;Trp53 flox/flox ;Pdx-1-Cre) mouse models of pancreatic cancer were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of AR-42 in suppressing tumor growth and/or muscle wasting. Growth suppression in AR-42-treated cells was observed in all six human pancreatic cancer cell lines with dose-dependent modulation of proliferation and apoptotic markers, which was associated with the hallmark features of HDAC inhibition, including p21 upregulation and histone H3 hyperacetylation. Oral administration of AR-42 at 50 mg/kg every other day resulted in suppression of tumor burden in the AsPC-1 xenograft and KP fl/fl C models by 78% and 55%, respectively, at the end of treatment. Tumor suppression was associated with HDAC inhibition, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of proliferation. Additionally, AR-42 as a single agent preserved muscle size and increased grip strength in KP fl/fl C mice. Finally, the combination of AR-42 and gemcitabine in transgenic mice demonstrated a significant increase in survival than either agent alone. These results suggest that AR-42 represents a therapeutically promising strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lysine deacetylases are produced in pancreatic beta cells and are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Rasmussen, D N

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced beta cell toxicity is abrogated by non-selective inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). The KDAC family consists of 11 members, namely histone deacetylases HDAC1 to HDAC11, but it is not known which KDAC members play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death. The aim...... of the present study was to examine the KDAC gene expression profile of the beta cell and to investigate whether KDAC expression is regulated by cytokines. In addition, the protective effect of the non-selective KDAC inhibitor ITF2357 and interdependent regulation of four selected KDACs were investigated....

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  19. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A modulates CD4+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Scheipers, Peter; Sørensen, Poul

    2003-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) induce hyperacetylation of core histones modulating chromatin structure and affecting gene expression. These compounds are also able to induce growth arrest, cell differentiation, and apoptotic cell death of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Even...

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and sodium butyrate block G1-to-S cell cycle progression in neurosphere formation by adult subventricular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Martin L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes that modulate gene expression and cellular processes by deacetylating histones and non-histone proteins. While small molecule inhibitors of HDAC activity (HDACi are used clinically in the treatment of cancer, pre-clinical treatment models suggest they also exert neuroprotective effects and stimulate neurogenesis in neuropathological conditions. However, the direct effects of HDACi on cell cycle progression and proliferation, two properties required for continued neurogenesis, have not been fully characterized in adult neural stem cells (NSCs. In this study, we examined the effects of two broad class I and class II HDACi on adult mouse NSCs, the hydroxamate-based HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (vorinostat, SAHA and the short chain fatty acid HDACi sodium butyrate. Results We show that both HDACi suppress the formation of neurospheres by adult mouse NSCs grown in proliferation culture conditions in vitro. DNA synthesis is significantly inhibited in adult mouse NSCs exposed to either SAHA or sodium butyrate and inhibition is associated with an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. HDACi exposure also resulted in transcriptional changes in adult mouse NSCs. Cdk inhibitor genes p21 and p27 transcript levels are increased and associated with elevated H3K9 acetylation levels at proximal promoter regions of p21 and p27. mRNA levels for notch effector Hes genes and Spry-box stem cell transcription factors are downregulated, whereas pro-neural transcription factors Neurog1 and Neurod1 are upregulated. Lastly, we show HDAC inhibition under proliferation culture conditions leads to long-term changes in cell fate in adult mouse NSCs induced to differentiate in vitro. Conclusion SAHA and sodium butyrate directly regulate cdk inhibitor transcription to control cell cycle progression in adult mouse NSCs. HDAC inhibition results in G1 arrest in adult mouse NSCs and transcriptional changes

  1. Regulation of NKG2D-ligand cell surface expression by intracellular calcium after HDAC-inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2013-01-01

    cell surface expression on melanoma cells and Jurkat T-cells. A NKG2D-dependent cytolytic assay and staining with a recombinant NKG2D-Fc fusion protein showed that calcium chelation impaired the functional ability of NKG2D-ligands induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. The HDAC-inhibitor induced cell...... surface expression of ULBP2, but not MICA/B, was sensitive to treatment calmidazolium and trifluoperazine, two agents known to block calcium signaling. siRNA-mediated knock-down of the calcium-regulated proteins calmodulin or calpain did however not affect NKG2D-ligand cell surface expression on Jurkat T...

  2. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paller, C.J.; Wissing, M.D.; Mendonca, J.; Sharma, A.; Kim, E.; Kim, H.S.; Kortenhorst, M.S.Q.; Gerber, S.; Rosen, M.; Shaikh, F.; Zahurak, M.L.; Rudek, M.A.; Hammers, H.; Rudin, C.M.; Carducci, M.A.; Kachhap, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination

  3. Unexpected Biotransformation of the HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Yields Aniline-Containing Fungal Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adpressa, Donovon A; Stalheim, Kayla J; Proteau, Philip J; Loesgen, Sandra

    2017-07-21

    The diversity of genetically encoded small molecules produced by filamentous fungi remains largely unexplored, which makes these fungi an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. However, accessing their full chemical repertoire under common laboratory culture conditions is a challenge. Epigenetic manipulation of gene expression has become a well-established tool for overcoming this obstacle. Here, we report that perturbation of the endophytic ascomycete Chalara sp. 6661, producer of the isofusidienol class of antibiotics, with the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat resulted in the production of four new modified xanthones. The structures of chalanilines A (1) and B (2) and adenosine-coupled xanthones A (3) and B (4) were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the bioactivities of 1-4 were tested in antibiotic and cytotoxicity assays. Incorporation studies with deuterium-labeled vorinostat indicate that the aniline moiety in chalalanine A is derived from vorinostat itself. Our study shows that Chalara sp. is able to metabolize the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat to release aniline. This is a rare report of fungal biotransformation of the popular epigenetic modifier vorinostat into aniline-containing polyketides.

  4. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Selective Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors in Melanoma Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tavares, M. T.; Shen, S.; Knox, T.; Hadley, M.; Kutil, Zsofia; Bařinka, Cyril; Villagra, A.; Kozikowski, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), s. 1031-1036 ISSN 1948-5875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19640S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : HDAC6 inhibitors * nexturastat A * melanoma Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2016

  5. Insights into structural features of HDAC1 and its selectivity inhibition elucidated by Molecular dynamic simulation and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixto-López, Yudibeth; Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, José

    2018-03-06

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of proteins whose main function is the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues located on histone and non-histone substrates, which regulates gene transcription and other activities in cells. HDAC1 dysfunction has been implicated in cancer development and progression; thus, its inhibition has emerged as a new therapeutic strategy. Two additional metal binding sites (Site 1 and Site 2) in HDACs have been described that are primarily occupied by potassium ions, suggesting a possible structural role that affects HDAC activity. In this work, we explored the structural role of potassium ions in Site 1 and Site 2 and how they affect the interactions of compounds with high affinities for HDAC1 (AC1OCG0B, Chlamydocin, Dacinostat and Quisinostat) and SAHA (a pan-inhibitor) using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in concert with a Molecular-Mechanics-Generalized-Born-Surface-Area (MMGBSA) approach. Four models were generated: one with a potassium ion (K + ) in both sites (HDAC1 k ), a second with K + only at site 1 (HDAC1 ks1 ), a third with K + only at site 2 (HDAC1 ks2 ) and a fourth with no K + (HDAC1 wk ). We found that the presence or absence of K + not only impacted the structural flexibility of HDAC1, but also its molecular recognition, consistent with experimental findings. These results could therefore be useful for further structure-based drug design studies addressing new HDAC1 inhibitors.

  6. Differential effect of HDAC3 on cytoplasmic and nuclear huntingtin aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Mano

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs are potential therapeutic targets of polyglutamine (pQ diseases including Huntington's disease (HD that may function to correct aberrant transcriptional deactivation caused by mutant pQ proteins. HDAC3 is a unique class 1 HDAC found in both the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. However, the precise functions of HDAC3 in the two cellular compartments are only vaguely known. HDAC3 directly binds to huntingtin (Htt with short pQ and this interaction is important for suppressing neurotoxicity induced by HDAC3. With long pQ Htt, the interaction with HDAC3 is inhibited, and this supposedly promotes neuronal death, indicating that HDAC3 would be a good therapeutic target for HD. However, the knockout of one HDAC3 allele did not show any efficacy in reducing neurodegenerative symptoms in a mouse model of HD. Therefore, the role of HDAC3 in the pathogenesis of HD has yet to be fully elucidated. We attempted to resolve this issue by focusing on the different roles of HDAC3 on cytoplasmic and nuclear Htt aggregates. In addition to supporting the previous findings, we found that HDAC3 preferentially binds to nuclear Htt over cytoplasmic ones. Specific HDAC3 inhibitors increased the total amount of Htt aggregates by increasing the amount of nuclear aggregates. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear Htt aggregates were able to suppress endogenous HDAC3 activity, which led to decreased nuclear proteasome activity. Therefore, we concluded that Htt aggregates impair nuclear proteasome activity through the inhibition of HDAC3. Our findings provide new insights regarding cross-compartment proteasome regulation.

  7. HDAC1 localizes to the mitochondria of cardiac myocytes and contributes to early cardiac reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Daniel J; Baarine, Mauhamad; Aune, Sverre E; Li, Xiaoyang; Ball, Lauren E; Lemasters, John J; Beeson, Craig C; Chou, James C; Menick, Donald R

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) contribute to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, and pan-HDAC inhibitors have been shown to be cardioprotective when administered either before an ischemic insult or during reperfusion. We have shown previously that selective inhibition of class I HDACs provides superior cardioprotection when compared to pan-HDAC inhibition in a pretreatment model, but selective class I HDAC inhibition has not been tested during reperfusion, and specific targets of class I HDACs in I/R injury have not been identified. We hypothesized that selective inhibition of class I HDACs with the drug MS-275 (entinostat) during reperfusion would improve recovery from I/R injury in the first hour of reperfusion. Hearts from male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ex vivo I/R injury±MS-275 class I HDAC inhibition during reperfusion alone. MS-275 significantly attenuated I/R injury, as indicated by improved LV function and tissue viability at the end of reperfusion. Unexpectedly, we observed that HDAC1 is present in the mitochondria of cardiac myocytes, but not fibroblasts or endothelial cells. We then designed mitochondria-restricted and mitochondria-excluded HDAC inhibitors, and tested both in our ex vivo I/R model. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial HDAC1 attenuated I/R injury to the same extent as MS-275, whereas the mitochondrial-excluded inhibitor did not. Further assays demonstrated that these effects are attributable to a decrease in SDHA activity and subsequent metabolic ROS production in reperfusion. We demonstrate for the first time that HDAC1 is present within the mitochondria of cardiac myocytes, and mitochondrial HDAC1 contributes significantly to I/R injury within the first hour of reperfusion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib interacts synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minjie; Gao, Lu; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaosong; Xu, Hongwei; Tompkins, Van S; Han, Ying; Wu, Huiqun; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the interactions between proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells. Coexposure of cells to minimally lethal concentrations of CFZ with very low concentration of vorinostat resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects and enhanced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, accompanied with the sharply increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), the striking decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the increased release of cytochrome c, the enhanced activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of PARP. The combined treatment of Jurkat cells pre-treated with ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly blocked the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that ROS generation was a former event of the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, NAC also resulted in a marked reduction in apoptotic cells, indicating a critical role for increased ROS generation by combined treatment. In addition, combined treatment arrested the cell cycle in G2-M phase. These results imply that CFZ interacted synergistically with vorinostat in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, which raised the possibility that the combination of carfilzomib with vorinostat may represent a novel strategy in treating T-cell Leukemia. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response by regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomie Turgeon

    Full Text Available Acetylation and deacetylation of histones and other proteins depends on histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs activities, leading to either positive or negative gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have uncovered a role for HDACs in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, little is known of the roles of specific HDACs in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC. We investigated the consequences of ablating both HDAC1 and HDAC2 in murine IECs. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 homozygous mice were crossed with villin-Cre mice. Mice deficient in both IEC HDAC1 and HDAC2 weighed less and survived more than a year. Colon and small intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff for goblet cell identification. Tissue sections from mice injected with BrdU for 2 h, 14 h and 48 h were stained with anti-BrdU. To determine intestinal permeability, 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran was given by gavage for 3 h. Microarray analysis was performed on total colon RNAs. Inflammatory and IEC-specific gene expression was assessed by Western blot or semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qPCR with respectively total colon protein and total colon RNAs. HDAC1 and HDAC2-deficient mice displayed: 1 increased migration and proliferation, with elevated cyclin D1 expression and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream mTOR target; 2 tissue architecture defects with cell differentiation alterations, correlating with reduction of secretory Paneth and goblet cells in jejunum and goblet cells in colon, increased expression of enterocytic markers such as sucrase-isomaltase in the colon, increased expression of cleaved Notch1 and augmented intestinal permeability; 3 loss of tissue homeostasis, as evidenced by modifications of claudin 3 expression, caspase-3 cleavage and Stat3 phosphorylation; 4 chronic inflammation, as determined by inflammatory molecular expression signatures and altered inflammatory gene expression

  10. Cross metathesis with hydroxamate and benzamide BOC-protected alkenes to access HDAC inhibitors and their biological evaluation highlighted intrinsic activity of BOC-protected dihydroxamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Vincent; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia; Bouchet, Samuel; Martinet, Nadine; Lehotzky, Attila; Ovadi, Judit; Cuendet, Muriel; Blanquart, Christophe; Bertrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Conditions for the metathesis of alkenes in the convergent synthesis of HDAC inhibitors have been improved by continuous catalyst flow injection in the reaction media. Intermediate and target compounds obtained were tested for their ability to induce HDAC inhibition and tubulin acetylation, revealing the key role of the tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) group for more HDAC6 selectivity. Molecular modelling added rationale for this BOC effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genes are often sheltered from the global histone hyperacetylation induced by HDAC inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Halsall

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are increasingly used as therapeutic agents, but the mechanisms by which they alter cell behaviour remain unclear. Here we use microarray expression analysis to show that only a small proportion of genes (∼9% have altered transcript levels after treating HL60 cells with different HDACi (valproic acid, Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Different gene populations respond to each inhibitor, with as many genes down- as up-regulated. Surprisingly, HDACi rarely induced increased histone acetylation at gene promoters, with most genes examined showing minimal change, irrespective of whether genes were up- or down-regulated. Many genes seem to be sheltered from the global histone hyperacetyation induced by HDACi.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces HIV expression in CD4 T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy at concentrations achieved by clinical dosing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsen George Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD, a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM and other histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM. The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.

  13. Synergy of Histone-Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42 with Cisplatin in Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David R; Zhang, Hanwei; Peek, Elizabeth; Wang, Song; Du, Lin; Li, Gang; Chin, Arnold I

    2015-08-01

    Cisplatin based chemotherapy regimens form the basis of systemic bladder cancer treatment, although they show limited response rates and efficacy. Recent molecular analysis of bladder cancer revealed a high incidence of mutations in chromatin regulatory genes, suggesting a therapeutic avenue for histone deacetylase inhibitors. We investigated the ability of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 to synergize with cisplatin in preclinical models of bladder cancer. We assessed the ability of the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 with and without cisplatin to destroy bladder cancer cells by survival and apoptosis assays in vitro, and by growth and differentiation in an in vivo xenograft model. We also assessed the response to the bladder cancer stem cell population by examining the effect of AR-42 on the CD44(+)CD49f(+) population with and without cisplatin. Synergy was calculated using combination indexes. The AR-42 and cisplatin combination synergistically destroyed bladder cancer cells via apoptosis and it influenced tumor growth and differentiation in vivo. When tested in the CD44(+)CD49f(+) bladder cancer stem cell population, AR-42 showed greater efficacy with and without cisplatin. AR-42 may be an attractive novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with activity against bladder cancer. Its efficacy in bladder cancer stem cells and synergy with cisplatin warrant further clinical investigation. Our in vitro and animal model studies provide preclinical evidence that AR-42 may be administered in conjunction with cisplatin based chemotherapy to improve the treatment of bladder cancer in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. HDAC7 Ubiquitination by the E3 Ligase CBX4 Is Involved in Contextual Fear Conditioning Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Sui, Wen-Hai; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Xu-Feng; Yuan, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Ma, Hui-Xian; Zhu, Ying-Xiao; Sun, Jin-Kai; Yi, Fan; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wang, Yue

    2017-04-05

    Histone acetylation, an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that they may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4-24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation. We also showed that HDAC7 decreased via ubiquitin-dependent degradation. CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases involved in this process. Nur77, as one of the target genes of HDAC7, increased 6-24 h after CFC training and, accordingly, modulated the formation of CFC memory. Finally, HDAC7 was involved in the formation of other hippocampal-dependent memories, including the Morris water maze and object location test. The current findings facilitate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of HDAC7 in the regulation of hippocampal-dependent memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current findings demonstrated the effects of histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on hippocampal-dependent memories. Moreover, we determined the mechanism of decreased HDAC7 in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) through ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We also verified that CBX4 was one of the HDAC7 E3 ligases. Finally, we demonstrated that Nur77, as one of the important targets for HDAC7, was involved in CFC memory formation. All of these proteins, including HDAC7, CBX4, and Nur77, could be potential therapeutic targets for preventing memory deficits in aging and neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373848-16$15.00/0.

  15. Context-selective death of acute myeloid leukemia cells triggered by the novel hybrid retinoid-HDAC inhibitor MC2392.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Floriana; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; Rotili, Dante; Petraglia, Francesca; Matarese, Filomena; Françoijs, Kees-Jan; Ablain, Julien; Valente, Sergio; Castellano, Rèmy; Goubard, Armelle; Collette, Yves; Mandoli, Amit; Martens, Joost H A; de Thé, Hugues; Nebbioso, Angela; Mai, Antonello; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Altucci, Lucia

    2014-04-15

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are widely used in the clinic to sensitize tumorigenic cells for treatment with other anticancer compounds. The major drawback of HDACi is the broad inhibition of the plethora of HDAC-containing complexes. In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), repression by the PML-RARα oncofusion protein is mediated by an HDAC-containing complex that can be dissociated by pharmacologic doses of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inducing differentiation and cell death at the expense of side effects and recurrence. We hypothesized that the context-specific close physical proximity of a retinoid and HDACi-binding protein in the repressive PML-RARα-HDAC complex may permit selective targeting by a hybrid molecule of ATRA with a 2-aminoanilide tail of the HDAC inhibitor MS-275, yielding MC2392. We show that MC2392 elicits weak ATRA and essentially no HDACi activity in vitro or in vivo. Genome-wide epigenetic analyses revealed that in NB4 cells expressing PML-RARα, MC2392 induces changes in H3 acetylation at a small subset of PML-RARα-binding sites. RNA-seq reveals that MC2392 alters expression of a number of stress-responsive and apoptotic genes. Concordantly, MC2392 induced rapid and massive, caspase-8-dependent cell death accompanied by RIP1 induction and ROS production. Solid and leukemic tumors are not affected by MC2392, but expression of PML-RARα conveys efficient MC2392-induced cell death. Our data suggest a model in which MC2392 binds to the RARα moiety and selectively inhibits the HDACs resident in the repressive complex responsible for the transcriptional impairment in APLs. Our findings provide proof-of-principle of the concept of a context-dependent targeted therapy. ©2014 AACR.

  16. 2-Benzazolyl-4-Piperazin-1-Ylsulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic Acids as Novel Selective Histone Deacetylase-6 Inhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available We have screened our compound collection in an established cell based assay that measures the derepression of an epigenetically silenced transgene, the locus derepression assay. The screen led to the identification of 4-[4-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl]sulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic acid (9b as an active which was found to inhibit HDAC1. In initial structure activity relationships study, the 1-methylbenzimidazole ring was replaced by the isosteric heterocycles benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole and the position of the hydroxamic acid substituent on the phenyl ring was varied. Whereas compounds bearing a para substituted hydroxamic acid (9a-d were active HDAC inhibitors, the meta substituted analogues (8a-d were appreciably inactive. Compounds 9a-d selectively inhibited HDAC6 (IC50 = 0.1-1.0 μM over HDAC1 (IC50 = 0.9-6 μM and moreover, also selectively inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells vs. patient matched normal cells. The compounds induce a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase while induction of apoptosis is neglible as compared to controls. Molecular modeling studies uncovered that the MM-GBSA energy for interaction of 9a-d with HDAC6 was higher than for HDAC1 providing structural rationale for the HDAC6 selectivity.

  17. NAD+-dependent HDAC inhibitor stimulates Monascus pigment production but inhibit citrinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhou, Youxiang; Mao, Zejing; Li, Huihui; Chen, Fusheng; Shao, Yanchun

    2017-08-23

    Monascus species are edible fungi due to the production of food colorant and other beneficial compounds. Hence, it has been an attractive thesis to improve their productivities. Increasing numbers of investigations revealed that regulating the activities of histone deacetylases can significantly perturb secondary metabolites (SM) production at a global level. In this study, dihydrocoumarin (DHC, an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent deacetylases) was used to treat Monascus ruber for evaluating its effects on organism growth and SM production. The results revealed that the variation trends of colonial sizes, biomass and mycotoxin were in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, they decreased with the increased DHC concentrations in the designed range. But the variation trend of pigment was different. Comparison of SM profile, three new peaks occurred to the mycelia extractions from DHC-treated strain corresponding to molecular weights 402, 416 and 444, respectively. These three compounds were identified as Monasfluol B, Monascus azaphilone C and acetyl-monasfluol B (a new Monascus chemical pigment structure). In short, DHC can stimulate M. ruber strain to produce more pigment-like polyketides but inhibition of mycotoxin (citrinin).

  18. Role of 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R; Siddiqui, Saad; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8-3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4-1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in αSMA mRNA by 31%-45% and protein

  19. Histone deacetylases in memory and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Jay; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2014-12-09

    Over the past 30 years, lysine acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins has become established as a key modulator of gene expression regulating numerous aspects of cell biology. Neuronal growth and plasticity are no exception; roles for lysine acetylation and deacetylation in brain function and dysfunction continue to be uncovered. Transcriptional programs coupling synaptic activity to changes in gene expression are critical to the plasticity mechanisms underlying higher brain functions. These transcriptional programs can be modulated by changes in histone acetylation, and in many cases, transcription factors and histone-modifying enzymes are recruited together to plasticity-associated genes. Lysine acetylation, catalyzed by lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), generally promotes cognitive performance, whereas the opposing process, catalyzed by histone lysine deacetylases (HDACs), appears to negatively regulate cognition in multiple brain regions. Consistently, mutation or deregulation of different KATs or HDACs contributes to neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration. HDAC inhibitors have shown promise as a treatment to combat the cognitive decline associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease, as well as to ameliorate the symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, among others. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the roles of HDACs in cognitive function as well as in neurological disorders and disease. In particular, we focus on HDAC2, which plays a central role in coupling lysine acetylation to synaptic plasticity and mediates many of the effects of HDAC inhibition in cognition and disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. HDAC1 activates FoxO and is both sufficient and required for skeletal muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Adam W.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Roberts, Brandon M.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are activated, and necessary for the muscle atrophy, in several pathophysiological conditions, including muscle disuse and cancer cachexia. However, the mechanisms that lead to FoxO activation are not well defined. Recent data from our laboratory and others indicate that the activity of FoxO is repressed under basal conditions via reversible lysine acetylation, which becomes compromised during catabolic conditions. Therefore, we aimed to determine how histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins contribute to activation of FoxO and induction of the muscle atrophy program. Through the use of various pharmacological inhibitors to block HDAC activity, we demonstrate that class I HDACs are key regulators of FoxO and the muscle-atrophy program during both nutrient deprivation and skeletal muscle disuse. Furthermore, we demonstrate, through the use of wild-type and dominant-negative HDAC1 expression plasmids, that HDAC1 is sufficient to activate FoxO and induce muscle fiber atrophy in vivo and is necessary for the atrophy of muscle fibers that is associated with muscle disuse. The ability of HDAC1 to cause muscle atrophy required its deacetylase activity and was linked to the induction of several atrophy genes by HDAC1, including atrogin-1, which required deacetylation of FoxO3a. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of class I HDACs during muscle disuse, using MS-275, significantly attenuated both disuse muscle fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Together, these data solidify the importance of class I HDACs in the muscle atrophy program and indicate that class I HDAC inhibitors are feasible countermeasures to impede muscle atrophy and weakness. PMID:24463822

  1. Largazole, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin, E-mail: Salah.Ahmed@utoledo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Riegsecker, Sharayah; Beamer, Maria; Rahman, Ayesha; Bellini, Joseph V. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States); Bhansali, Pravin; Tillekeratne, L.M. Viranga [Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1–5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5–5 μM) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0–30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ∼ 220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30–58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 μM), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-α-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-α + LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-α in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA. - Highlights: • Largazole enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. • Largazole upregulates class II HDAC (HDAC6) in RA synovial fibroblasts. • Largazole also induces the expression of phospho-p38

  2. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibition improves glycaemia and insulin secretion in obese diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Morten; Galbo, Thomas; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2015-01-01

    Failure of pancreatic β cells to compensate for insulin resistance is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes. Sustained elevated circulating levels of free fatty acids and glucose contribute to β-cell failure. Selective inhibition of Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-3 protects pancreatic β...... cells against inflammatory and metabolic insults in vitro. Here we tested the ability of a selective HDAC3 inhibitor, BRD3308, to reduce hyperglycemia and increase insulin secretion in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. At diabetes onset, an ambulatory hyperglycemic clamp was performed. HDAC3......3 as a key therapeutic target for β-cell protection in type 2 diabetes....

  3. Clinical developments in the treatment of relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: impact of panobinostat, the first-in-class histone deacetylase inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redic KA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly A Redic,1 Shannon M Hough,2 Erika M Price11College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Services, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USABackground: Panobinostat is a new agent for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM as part of a combination regimen. This article presents an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, patient care strategies, and role of the agent in treating rrMM patients.Results: Panobinostat belongs to the class of drugs known as histone deacetylase inhibitors, and has high activity against Class I, II, and IV nonhistone deacetylases and histone deacetylases. It represents the first of its class to receive approval for use in MM, and received priority review and orphan drug status in both US and Europe, when used in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in the treatment of rrMM. Approval of panobinostat was based on subgroup analysis of Phase III data obtained in the PANORAMA trial program for evaluation of the combination of panobinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone. Additional clinical trials have continued to explore optimal dosing regimens and novel combination regimens to further clarify the optimal role of panobinostat in the arsenal of drugs for rrMM. Panobinostat has shown a manageable safety profile characterized primarily by hematologic toxicities (thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, and anemia, gastrointestinal toxicities, notably diarrhea and nausea, as well as fatigue/asthenia, electrolyte abnormalities, and less commonly cardiac toxicities.Conclusion: Panobinostat represents an important addition to the treatment armamentarium for patients with rrMM, and studies are underway evaluating its optimal dosing strategy and role in combination with other drugs used to treat this patient population. Keywords: panobinostat, multiple myeloma, LBH589, relapsed-refractory, Farydak, HDAC

  4. A potent trifluoromethyl ketone histone deacetylase inhibitor exhibits class-dependent mechanism of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Olsen, Christian Adam

    2016-01-01

    determination, which may vary significantly depending on assay conditions. In this work, we therefore performed detailed kinetic evaluation of inhibitors containing two fundamentally different zinc-binding chemotypes, hydroxamic acid or trifluoromethyl ketone. For the hydroxamic acids, a fast......-on–fast-off mechanism was observed, but the trifluoromethyl ketone compound exhibited differential mechanisms depending on the enzyme isoform. The trifluoromethyl ketone compound displayed a fast-on–fast-off mechanism against class-IIa HDACs 4 and 7, but slow-binding mechanisms against class-I and class-IIb enzymes...

  5. HDAC2 attenuates TRAIL-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saur Dieter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most malignant tumors with a dismal prognosis and no effective conservative therapeutic strategies. Although it is demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs, especially the class I HDACs HDAC1, 2 and 3 are highly expressed in this disease, little is known about HDAC isoenzyme specific functions. Results Depletion of HDAC2, but not HDAC1, in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa2 and Panc1 resulted in a marked sensitization towards the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Correspondingly, the more class I selective HDAC inhibitor (HDACI valproic acid (VPA synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis of MiaPaCa2 and Panc1 cells. At the molecular level, an increased expression of the TRAIL receptor 1 (DR5, accelerated processing of caspase 8, pronounced cleavage of the BH3-only protein Bid, and increased effector caspase activation was observed in HDAC2-depleted and TRAIL-treated MiaPaCa2 cells. Conclusions Our data characterize a novel HDAC2 function in PDAC cells and point to a strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance of PDAC cells, a prerequisite to succeed with a TRAIL targeted therapy in clinical settings.

  6. Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells with the histone-deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat: cooperative effects with cis-platin and radiotherapy on patient-derived xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Gressette

    Full Text Available EBV-related nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs still raise serious therapeutic problems. The therapeutic potential of the histone-deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor Abexinostat was investigated using 5 preclinical NPC models including 2 patient-derived xenografts (C15 and C17. The cytotoxicity of Abexinostat used either alone or in combination with cis-platin or irradiation was assessed in vitro by MTT and clonogenic assays using 2 EBV-negative (CNE1 and HONE1 and 3 EBV-positive NPC models (C15, C17 and C666-1. Subsequently, the 3 EBV-positive models were used under the form of xenografts to assess the impact of systemic treatments by Abexinostat or combinations of Abexinostat with cis-platin or irradiation. Several cell proteins known to be affected by HDAC inhibitors and the small viral non-coding RNA EBER1 were investigated in the treated tumors. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of Abexinostat combined with cis-platin or irradiation were demonstrated in vitro for each NPC model. When using xenografts, Abexinostat by itself (12.5 mg/kg, BID, 4 days a week for 3 weeks had significant anti-tumor effects against C17. Cooperative effects with cis-platin (2 mg/kg, IP, at days 3, 10 and 17 and irradiation (1 Gy were observed for the C15 and C17 xenografts. Simultaneously two types of biological alterations were induced in the tumor tissue, especially in the C17 model: a depletion of the DNA-repair protein RAD51 and a stronger in situ detection of the small viral RNA EBER1. Overall, these results support implementation of phase I/II clinical trials of Abexinostat for the treatment of NPC. A depletion of RAD51 is likely to contribute to the cooperation of Abexinostat with DNA damaging agents. Reduction of RAD51 combined to enhanced detection of EBER 1 might be helpful for early assessment of tumor response.

  7. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Histone Deacetylase 2 Is a Component of Influenza A Virus-Induced Host Antiviral Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, Prashanth T; Hussain, Mazhar; Galvin, Henry D; Husain, Matloob

    2017-01-01

    Host cells produce variety of antiviral factors that create an antiviral state and target various stages of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle to inhibit infection. However, IAV has evolved various strategies to antagonize those antiviral factors. Recently, we reported that a member of class I host histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDAC1 possesses an anti-IAV function. Herein, we provide evidence that HDAC2, another class I member and closely related to HDAC1 in structure and function, also possesses anti-IAV properties. In turn, IAV, like HDAC1, dysregulates HDAC2, mainly at the polypeptide level through proteasomal degradation to potentially minimize its antiviral effect. We found that IAV downregulated the HDAC2 polypeptide level in A549 cells in an H1N1 strain-independent manner by up to 47%, which was recovered to almost 100% level in the presence of proteasome-inhibitor MG132. A further knockdown in HDAC2 expression by up to 90% via RNA interference augmented the growth kinetics of IAV in A549 cells by more than four-fold after 24 h of infection. Furthermore, the knockdown of HDAC2 expression decreased the IAV-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription I (STAT1) and the expression of interferon-stimulated gene, viperin in infected cells by 41 and 53%, respectively. The role of HDAC2 in viperin expression was analogous to that of HDAC1, but it was not in the phosphorylation of STAT1. This indicated that, like HDAC1, HDAC2 is a component of IAV-induced host innate antiviral response and performs both redundant and non-redundant functions vis-a-vis HDAC1; however, IAV dysregulates them both in a redundant manner.

  9. Histone Deacetylase 2 Is a Component of Influenza A Virus-Induced Host Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth T. Nagesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Host cells produce variety of antiviral factors that create an antiviral state and target various stages of influenza A virus (IAV life cycle to inhibit infection. However, IAV has evolved various strategies to antagonize those antiviral factors. Recently, we reported that a member of class I host histone deacetylases (HDACs, HDAC1 possesses an anti-IAV function. Herein, we provide evidence that HDAC2, another class I member and closely related to HDAC1 in structure and function, also possesses anti-IAV properties. In turn, IAV, like HDAC1, dysregulates HDAC2, mainly at the polypeptide level through proteasomal degradation to potentially minimize its antiviral effect. We found that IAV downregulated the HDAC2 polypeptide level in A549 cells in an H1N1 strain-independent manner by up to 47%, which was recovered to almost 100% level in the presence of proteasome-inhibitor MG132. A further knockdown in HDAC2 expression by up to 90% via RNA interference augmented the growth kinetics of IAV in A549 cells by more than four-fold after 24 h of infection. Furthermore, the knockdown of HDAC2 expression decreased the IAV-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription I (STAT1 and the expression of interferon-stimulated gene, viperin in infected cells by 41 and 53%, respectively. The role of HDAC2 in viperin expression was analogous to that of HDAC1, but it was not in the phosphorylation of STAT1. This indicated that, like HDAC1, HDAC2 is a component of IAV-induced host innate antiviral response and performs both redundant and non-redundant functions vis-a-vis HDAC1; however, IAV dysregulates them both in a redundant manner.

  10. The Transcription Factor Sp3 Cooperates with HDAC2 to Regulate Synaptic Function and Plasticity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hidekuni; Cheng, Jemmie; Penney, Jay; Gao, Fan; Rueda, Richard; Wang, Jun; Yamakawa, Satoko; Kritskiy, Oleg; Gjoneska, Elizabeta; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2017-08-08

    The histone deacetylase HDAC2, which negatively regulates synaptic gene expression and neuronal plasticity, is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and mouse models. Therapeutics targeting HDAC2 hold promise for ameliorating AD-related cognitive impairment; however, attempts to generate HDAC2-specific inhibitors have failed. Here, we take an integrative genomics approach to identify proteins that mediate HDAC2 recruitment to synaptic plasticity genes. Functional screening revealed that knockdown of the transcription factor Sp3 phenocopied HDAC2 knockdown and that Sp3 facilitated recruitment of HDAC2 to synaptic genes. Importantly, like HDAC2, Sp3 expression was elevated in AD patients and mouse models, where Sp3 knockdown ameliorated synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, exogenous expression of an HDAC2 fragment containing the Sp3-binding domain restored synaptic plasticity and memory in a mouse model with severe neurodegeneration. Our findings indicate that targeting the HDAC2-Sp3 complex could enhance cognitive function without affecting HDAC2 function in other processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T; Senanayake, Dinindu S; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J; Ory, Daniel S; Maue, Robert A; Chen, Fannie W; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ioannou, Yiannis A; Sturley, Stephen L

    2017-03-17

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1 nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null ( Npc1 -/- ) and missense ( Npc1 nmf164 ) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T.; Senanayake, Dinindu S.; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J.; Ory, Daniel S.; Maue, Robert A.; Chen, Fannie W.; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Ioannou, Yiannis A.; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null (Npc1−/−) and missense (Npc1nmf164) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. PMID:28031458

  13. HDAC up-regulation in early colon field carcinogenesis is involved in cell tumorigenicity through regulation of chromatin structure.

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    Yolanda Stypula-Cyrus

    Full Text Available Normal cell function is dependent on the proper maintenance of chromatin structure. Regulation of chromatin structure is controlled by histone modifications that directly influence chromatin architecture and genome function. Specifically, the histone deacetylase (HDAC family of proteins modulate chromatin compaction and are commonly dysregulated in many tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the role of HDAC proteins in early colorectal carcinogenesis has not been previously reported. We found HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC5, and HDAC7 all to be up-regulated in the field of human CRC. Furthermore, we observed that HDAC2 up-regulation is one of the earliest events in CRC carcinogenesis and observed this in human field carcinogenesis, the azoxymethane-treated rat model, and in more aggressive colon cancer cell lines. The universality of HDAC2 up-regulation suggests that HDAC2 up-regulation is a novel and important early event in CRC, which may serve as a biomarker. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs interfere with tumorigenic HDAC activity; however, the precise mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. We confirmed that HDAC inhibition by valproic acid (VPA targeted the more aggressive cell line. Using nuclease digestion assays and transmission electron microscopy imaging, we observed that VPA treatment induced greater changes in chromatin structure in the more aggressive cell line. Furthermore, we used the novel imaging technique partial wave spectroscopy (PWS to quantify nanoscale alterations in chromatin. We noted that the PWS results are consistent with the biological assays, indicating a greater effect of VPA treatment in the more aggressive cell type. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of HDAC activity in early carcinogenic events and the unique role of higher-order chromatin structure in determining cell tumorigenicity.

  14. L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor selectively inhibiting cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

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    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available L-carnitine (LC is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1 LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2 LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21(cip1 gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27(kip1; (4 LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5 LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6 LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21(cip1 gene but not p27(kip1 detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.

  15. L-carnitine is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor selectively inhibiting cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongbiao; Liu, Ningning; Guo, Haiping; Liao, Siyan; Li, Xiaofen; Yang, Changshan; Liu, Shouting; Song, Wenbin; Liu, Chunjiao; Guan, Lixia; Li, Bing; Xu, Li; Zhang, Change; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q Ping; Liu, Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine (LC) is generally believed to transport long-chain acyl groups from fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP generation via the citric acid cycle. Based on Warburg's theory that most cancer cells mainly depend on glycolysis for ATP generation, we hypothesize that, LC treatment would lead to disturbance of cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, Human hepatoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 cell lines, primary cultured thymocytes and mice bearing HepG2 tumor were used. ATP content was detected by HPLC assay. Cell cycle, cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein level were detected by gene microarray, Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. HDAC activities and histone acetylation were detected both in test tube and in cultured cells. A molecular docking study was carried out with CDOCKER protocol of Discovery Studio 2.0 to predict the molecular interaction between L-carnitine and HDAC. Here we found that (1) LC treatment selectively inhibited cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro; (2) LC treatment selectively induces the expression of p21(cip1) gene, mRNA and protein in cancer cells but not p27(kip1); (4) LC increases histone acetylation and induces accumulation of acetylated histones both in normal thymocytes and cancer cells; (5) LC directly inhibits HDAC I/II activities via binding to the active sites of HDAC and induces histone acetylation and lysine-acetylation accumulation in vitro; (6) LC treatment induces accumulation of acetylated histones in chromatin associated with the p21(cip1) gene but not p27(kip1) detected by ChIP assay. These data support that LC, besides transporting acyl group, works as an endogenous HDAC inhibitor in the cell, which would be of physiological and pathological importance.

  16. Opening a New Time Window for Treatment of Stroke by Targeting HDAC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hui; Dong, Jian; Tang, Ying; Ni, Huan-Yu; Zhang, Yu; Su, Ping; Liang, Hai-Ying; Yao, Meng-Cheng; Yuan, Hong-Jin; Wang, Dong-Liang; Chang, Lei; Wu, Hai-Yin; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2017-07-12

    Narrow therapeutic window limits treatments with thrombolysis and neuroprotection for most stroke patients. Widening therapeutic window remains a critical challenge. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological events in the peri-infarct area where secondary injury coexists with neuroplasticity over days to weeks may offer an opportunity for expanding the therapeutic window. Here we show that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke plays a crucial role. In this window phase, suppressing HDAC2 in the peri-infarct cortex of rodents by HDAC inhibitors, knockdown or knock-out of Hdac2 promoted recovery of motor function from stroke via epigenetically enhancing cells survival and neuroplasticity of surviving neurons as well as reducing neuroinflammation, whereas overexpressing HDAC2 worsened stroke-induced functional impairment of both WT and Hdac2 conditional knock-out mice. More importantly, inhibiting other isoforms of HDACs had no effect. Thus, the intervention by precisely targeting HDAC2 in this window phase is a novel strategy for the functional recovery of stroke survivors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Narrow time window phase impedes current therapies for stroke patients. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying secondary injury may open a new window for pharmacological interventions to promote recovery from stroke. Our study indicates that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke mediates the secondary functional loss by reducing survival and neuroplasticity of peri-infarct neurons as well as augmenting neuroinflammation. Thus, precisely targeting histone deacetylase 2 in the window phase provides a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke recovery. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376712-17$15.00/0.

  17. E-cadherin gene re-expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by HDAC inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordaan, Gwen; Liao, Wei; Sharma, Sanjai

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin gene is frequently silenced in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and results in wnt-pathway activation. We analyzed the role of histone epigenetic modifications in E-cadherin gene silencing. CLL specimens were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) MS-275 and analyzed for E-cadherin expression with western blot and RT-PCR analysis. The downstream effects of HDACi treated leukemic cells were studied by analyzing the effect on wnt-pathway signaling. HDACi induced alterations in E-cadherin splicing were investigated by transcript specific real time PCR analysis. Treatment of CLL specimens with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) treatment resulted in an increase of the E-cadherin RNA transcript (5 to 119 fold increase, n=10) in eight out of ten CLL specimens indicating that this gene is down regulated by histone hypoacetylation in a majority of CLL specimens. The E-cadherin re-expression in CLL specimens was noted by western blot analysis as well. Besides epigenetic silencing another mechanism of E-cadherin inactivation is aberrant exon 11 splicing resulting in an alternatively spliced transcript that lacks exon 11 and is degraded by the non-sense mediated decay (NMD) pathway. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that HDACi increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the E-cadherin promoter region. This also affected the E-cadherin exon 11 splicing pattern as HDACi treated CLL specimens preferentially expressed the correctly spliced transcript and not the exon 11 skipped aberrant transcript. The re-expressed E- cadherin binds to β-catenin with inhibition of the active wnt-beta-catenin pathway in these cells. This resulted in a down regulation of two wnt target genes, LEF and cyclinD1 and the wnt pathway reporter. The E-cadherin gene is epigenetically modified and hypoacetylated in CLL leukemic cells. Treatment of CLL specimens with HDACi MS-275 activates transcription from this silent

  18. Comparative effects of histone deacetylases inhibitors and resveratrol on Trypanosoma cruzi replication, differentiation, infectivity and gene expression

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    Vanina A. Campo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone post-translational modification, mediated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, is one of the most studied factors affecting gene expression. Recent data showing differential histone acetylation states during the Trypanosoma cruzi cell cycle suggest a role for epigenetics in the control of this process. As a starting point to study the role of histone deacetylases in the control of gene expression and the consequences of their inhibition and activation in the biology of T. cruzi, two inhibitors for different histone deacetylases: trichostatin A for class I/II and sirtinol for class III and the activator resveratrol for class III, were tested on proliferative and infective forms of this parasite. The two inhibitors tested caused histone hyperacetylation whereas resveratrol showed the opposite effect on both parasite forms, indicating that a biologically active in vivo level of these compounds was achieved. Histone deacetylase inhibitors caused life stage-specific effects, increasing trypomastigotes infectivity and blocking metacyclogenesis. Moreover, these inhibitors affected specific transcript levels, with sirtinol causing the most pronounced change. On the other hand, resveratrol showed strong anti-parasitic effects. This compound diminished epimastigotes growth, promoted metacyclogenesis, reduced in vitro infection and blocked differentiation and/or replication of intracellular amastigotes. In conclusion, the data presented here supports the notion that these compounds can modulate T. cruzi gene expression, differentiation, infection and histones deacetylase activity. Furthermore, among the compounds tested in this study, the results point to Resveratrol as promising trypanocidal drug candidate.

  19. Synergistic antitumor effects of novel HDAC inhibitors and paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo.

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    Valentina Zuco

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies support the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi in combination with taxanes. The efficacy of combination has been mainly ascribed to a cooperative effect on microtubule stabilization following tubulin acetylation. In the present study we investigated the effect of paclitaxel in combination with two novel HDACi, ST2782 or ST3595, able to induce p53 and tubulin hyperacetylation. A synergistic effect of the paclitaxel/ST2782 (or ST3595 combination was found in wild-type p53 ovarian carcinoma cells, but not in a p53 mutant subline, in spite of a marked tubulin acetylation. Such a synergistic interaction was confirmed in additional human solid tumor cell lines harboring wild-type p53 but not in those expressing mutant or null p53. In addition, a synergistic cytotoxic effect was found when ST2782 was combined with the depolymerising agent vinorelbine. In contrast to SAHA, which was substantially less effective in sensitizing cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, ST2782 prevented up-regulation of p21(WAF1/Cip1 by paclitaxel, which has a protective role in response to taxanes, and caused p53 down-regulation, acetylation and mitochondrial localization of acetylated p53. The synergistic antitumor effects of the paclitaxel/ST3595 combination were confirmed in two tumor xenograft models. Our results support the relevance of p53 modulation as a major determinant of the synergistic interaction observed between paclitaxel and novel HDACi and emphasize the therapeutic interest of this combination.

  20. HDAC inhibitors induce transcriptional repression of high copy number genes in breast cancer through elongation blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Greer, C B; Cecchini, K R; Harris, L N; Tuck, D P; Kim, T H

    2013-06-06

    Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) results in potent cytotoxicity of a variety of cancer cell types, and these drugs are used clinically to treat hematological tumors. They are known to repress the transcription of ERBB2 and many other oncogenes, but little is known about this mechanism. Using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to measure nascent transcription, we find that HDACI cause transcriptional repression by blocking RNA polymerase II elongation. Our data show that HDACI preferentially repress the transcription of highly expressed genes as well as high copy number genes in HER2+ breast cancer genomes. In contrast, genes that are activated by HDACI are moderately expressed. We analyzed gene copy number in combination with microarray and GRO-seq analysis of expression level, in normal and breast cancer cells to show that high copy number genes are more likely to be repressed by HDACI than non-amplified genes. The inhibition of transcription of amplified oncogenes, which promote survival and proliferation of cancer cells, might explain the cancer-specific lethality of HDACI, and may represent a general therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  1. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA does not rescue CFTR membrane expression in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Petit, Aurélie; Knabe, Lucie; Bribes, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; De Sario, Albertina; Claustres, Mireille; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Taulan-Cadars, Magali; Bourdin, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The development of suitable Cystic Fibrosis (CF) models for preclinical bench tests of therapeutic candidates is challenging. Indeed, the validation of molecules to rescue the p.Phe508del-CFTR channel (encoded by the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator gene carrying the p.Phe508del mutation) requires taking into account their overall effects on the epithelium. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), was previously shown to be a CFTR corrector via proteostasis modulation in CFTR-deficient immortalized cells. Here, we tested SAHA effects on goblet cell metaplasia using an ex vivo model based on the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of differentiated airway epithelial cells obtained by nasal scraping from CF patients and healthy controls. Ex vivo epithelium grew successfully in ALI cultures with significant rise in the expression of CFTR and of markers of airway epithelial differentiation compared to monolayer cell culture. SAHA decreased CFTR transcript and protein levels in CF and non-CF epithelia. Whereas SAHA induced lysine hyperacetylation, it did not change histone modifications at the CFTR promoter. SAHA reduced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression and inhibited goblet epithelial cell differentiation. Similar effects were obtained in CF and non-CF epithelia. All the effects were fully reversible within five days from SAHA withdrawal. We conclude that, ex vivo, SAHA modulate the structure of airway epithelia without specific effect on CFTR gene and protein suggesting that HDACi cannot be useful for CF treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Yan; Camarillo, Cynthia; Yao, Yue; Zhang, Yina; Xu, Chun; Jiang, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  3. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    Full Text Available With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD, an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA, may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  4. Class IIa histone deacetylases are hormone-activated regulators of FOXO and mammalian glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, Maria M; Vasquez, Debbie S; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Yu, Ruth T; Alvarez, Jacqueline G; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M; Montminy, Marc; Shaw, Reuben J

    2011-05-13

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via deacetylation and activation of FOXO family transcription factors. Loss of class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of class IIa HDACs in mouse models of type 2 diabetes ameliorates hyperglycemia, suggesting that inhibitors of class I/II HDACs may be potential therapeutics for metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Strategies to Enhance the Anticancer Efficacy of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

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    Claudia P. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is a posttranslational modification that plays a role in regulating gene expression. More recently, other nonhistone proteins have been identified to be acetylated which can regulate their function, stability, localization, or interaction with other molecules. Modulating acetylation with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi has been validated to have anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical cancer models. This has led to development and approval of the first HDACi, vorinostat, for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. However, to date, targeting acetylation with HDACi as a monotherapy has shown modest activity against other cancers. To improve their efficacy, HDACi have been paired with other antitumor agents. Here, we discuss several combination therapies, highlighting various epigenetic drugs, ROS-generating agents, proteasome inhibitors, and DNA-damaging compounds that together may provide a therapeutic advantage over single-agent strategies.

  6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: “To Be or Not to Be Acetylated”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Sebastian; Kemmerling, Ralf; Kiesslich, Tobias; Alinger, Beate; Ocker, Matthias; Neureiter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) represents a heterogeneous group of diseases with clonal proliferation, bone marrow failure and increasing risk of transformation into an acute myeloid leukaemia. Structured guidelines are developed for selective therapy based on prognostic subgroups, age, and performance status. Although many driving forces of disease phenotype and biology are described, the complete and possibly interacting pathogenetic pathways still remain unclear. Epigenetic investigations of cancer and haematologic diseases like MDS give new insights into the pathogenesis of this complex disease. Modifications of DNA or histones via methylation or acetylation lead to gene silencing and altered physiology relevant for MDS. First clinical trials give evidence that patients with MDS could benefit from epigenetic treatment with, for example, DNA methyl transferase inhibitors (DNMTi) or histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). Nevertheless, many issues of HDACi remain incompletely understood and pose clinical and translational challenges. In this paper, major aspects of MDS, MDS-associated epigenetics and the potential use of HDACi are discussed. PMID:21629744

  7. Aggresome formation is regulated by RanBPM through an interaction with HDAC6

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    Louisa M. Salemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of proteasomal impairment, the build-up of damaged or misfolded proteins activates a cellular response leading to the recruitment of damaged proteins into perinuclear aggregates called aggresomes. Aggresome formation involves the retrograde transport of cargo proteins along the microtubule network and is dependent on the histone deacetylase HDAC6. Here we show that ionizing radiation (IR promotes Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM relocalization into discrete perinuclear foci where it co-localizes with aggresome components ubiquitin, dynein and HDAC6, suggesting that the RanBPM perinuclear clusters correspond to aggresomes. RanBPM was also recruited to aggresomes following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the DNA-damaging agent etoposide. Strikingly, aggresome formation by HDAC6 was markedly impaired in RanBPM shRNA cells, but was restored by re-expression of RanBPM. RanBPM was found to interact with HDAC6 and to inhibit its deacetylase activity. This interaction was abrogated by a RanBPM deletion of its LisH/CTLH domain, which also prevented aggresome formation, suggesting that RanBPM promotes aggresome formation through an association with HDAC6. Our results suggest that RanBPM regulates HDAC6 activity and is a central regulator of aggresome formation.

  8. Insights into the activation mechanism of class I HDAC complexes by inositol phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peter J.; Millard, Christopher J.; Riley, Andrew M.; Robertson, Naomi S.; Wright, Lyndsey C.; Godage, Himali Y.; Cowley, Shaun M.; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Schwabe, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1, 2 and 3 form the catalytic subunit of several large transcriptional repression complexes. Unexpectedly, the enzymatic activity of HDACs in these complexes has been shown to be regulated by inositol phosphates, which bind in a pocket sandwiched between the HDAC and co-repressor proteins. However, the actual mechanism of activation remains poorly understood. Here we have elucidated the stereochemical requirements for binding and activation by inositol phosphates, demonstrating that activation requires three adjacent phosphate groups and that other positions on the inositol ring can tolerate bulky substituents. We also demonstrate that there is allosteric communication between the inositol-binding site and the active site. The crystal structure of the HDAC1:MTA1 complex bound to a novel peptide-based inhibitor and to inositol hexaphosphate suggests a molecular basis of substrate recognition, and an entropically driven allosteric mechanism of activation. PMID:27109927

  9. HDAC6 inhibition enhances 17-AAG--mediated abrogation of hsp90 chaperone function in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rekha; Fiskus, Warren; Yang, Yonghua; Lee, Pearl; Joshi, Rajeshree; Fernandez, Pravina; Mandawat, Aditya; Atadja, Peter; Bradner, James E; Bhalla, Kapil

    2008-09-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) deacetylase. Treatment with pan-HDAC inhibitors or depletion of HDAC6 by siRNA induces hyperacetylation and inhibits ATP binding and chaperone function of hsp90. Treatment with 17-allylamino-demothoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) also inhibits ATP binding and chaperone function of hsp90, resulting in polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of hsp90 client proteins. In this study, we determined the effect of hsp90 hyperacetylation on the anti-hsp90 and antileukemia activity of 17-AAG. Hyperacetylation of hsp90 increased its binding to 17-AAG, as well as enhanced 17-AAG-mediated attenuation of ATP and the cochaperone p23 binding to hsp90. Notably, treatment with 17-AAG alone also reduced HDAC6 binding to hsp90 and induced hyperacetylation of hsp90. This promoted the proteasomal degradation of HDAC6. Cotreatment with 17-AAG and siRNA to HDAC6 induced more inhibition of hsp90 chaperone function and depletion of BCR-ABL and c-Raf than treatment with either agent alone. In addition, cotreatment with 17-AAG and tubacin augmented the loss of survival of K562 cells and viability of primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) samples. These findings demonstrate that HDAC6 is an hsp90 client protein and hyperacetylation of hsp90 augments the anti-hsp90 and antileukemia effects of 17-AAG.

  10. MSH3 mismatch repair protein regulates sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs and a histone deacetylase inhibitor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Myung Park

    Full Text Available MSH3 is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR gene that undergoes frequent somatic mutation in colorectal cancers (CRCs with MMR deficiency. MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutSβ heteroduplex that interacts with interstrand cross-links induced by drugs such as cisplatin. To date, the impact of MSH3 on chemosensitivity is unknown.We utilized isogenic HCT116 (MLH1-/MSH3- cells where MLH1 is restored by transfer of chromosome 3 (HCT116+ch3 and also MSH3 by chromosome 5 (HCT116+3+5. We generated HCT116+3+5, SW480 (MLH1+/MSH3+ and SW48 (MLH1-/MSH3+ cells with shRNA knockdown of MSH3. Cells were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, SN-38, oxaliplatin, or the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor PCI-24781 and cell viability, clonogenic survival, DNA damage and apoptosis were analyzed.MSH3-deficient vs proficient CRC cells showed increased sensitivity to the irinotecan metabolite SN-38 and to oxaliplatin, but not 5-FU, as shown in assays for apoptosis and clonogenic survival. In contrast, suppression of MLH1 attenuated the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, but did not alter sensitivity to SN-38 or oxaliplatin. The impact of MSH3 knockdown on chemosensitivity to SN-38 and oxaliplatin was maintained independent of MLH1 status. In MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells, SN-38 and oxaliplatin induced higher levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX and Chk2, and similar results were found in MLH1-proficient SW480 cells. MSH3-deficient vs proficient cells showed increased 53BP1 nuclear foci after irradiation, suggesting that MSH3 can regulate DNA double strand break (DSB repair. We then utilized PCI-24781 that interferes with homologous recombination (HR indicated by a reduction in Rad51 expression. The addition of PCI-24781 to oxaliplatin enhanced cytotoxicity to a greater extent compared to either drug alone.MSH3 status can regulate the DNA damage response and extent of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. The ability of MSH3 to regulate chemosensitivity was independent of MLH1

  11. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34 + transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34 − long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34 + HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34 − HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity

  12. Murine hematopoietic stem cell dormancy controlled by induction of a novel short form of PSF1 by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yinglu; Gong, Zhi-Yuan [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takakura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ntakaku@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Signal Transduction, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science Technology Agency, CREST, K' s Gobancho, 7, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-06-10

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can survive long-term in a state of dormancy. Little is known about how histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect HSC kinetics. Here, we use trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to enforce histone acetylation and show that this suppresses cell cycle entry by dormant HSCs. Previously, we found that haploinsufficiency of PSF1, a DNA replication factor, led to attenuation of the bone marrow (BM) HSC pool size and lack of acute proliferation after 5-FU ablation. Because PSF1 protein is present in CD34{sup +} transiently amplifying HSCs but not in CD34{sup −} long-term reconstituting-HSCs which are resting in a dormant state, we analyzed the relationship between dormancy and PSF1 expression, and how a histone deacetylase inhibitor affects this. We found that CD34{sup +} HSCs produce long functional PSF1 (PSF1a) but CD34{sup −} HSCs produce a shorter possibly non-functional PSF1 (PSF1b, c, dominantly PSF1c). Using PSF1a-overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells in which the endogenous PSF1 promoter is suppressed, we found that TSA treatment promotes production of the shorter form of PSF1 possibly by inducing recruitment of E2F family factors upstream of the PSF1 transcription start site. Our data document one mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect the dormancy of HSCs by regulating the DNA replication factor PSF1. - Highlights: • Hematopoetic stem cell dormancy is controlled by histone deacetylation inhibitors. • Dormancy of HSCs is associated with a shorter form of non-functional PSF1. • Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress PSF1 promoter activity.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, safety and inducible cytokine responses during a phase 1 trial of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 (givinostat).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furlan, A.; Monzani, V.; Reznikov, L.L.; Leoni, F.; Fossati, G.; Modena, D.; Mascagni, P.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    ITF2357 (givinostat) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties at low nanomolar concentrations. We report here a phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trial in healthy males administered 50, 100, 200, 400 or 600 mg orally. After 50 mg, mean maximal plasma concentrations

  14. Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy Response Requires Janus Kinase 2-Histone Deacetylase 2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ying

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure overload induces cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Janus kinase 2 (Jak2, however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the current study, we tested whether histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 was involved in the process. We found that angiotensin II (Ang-II-induced re-expression of fetal genes (Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in cultured cardiomyocytes was prevented by the Jak2 inhibitor AG-490 and HDAC2 inhibitor Trichostatin-A (TSA, or by Jak2/HDAC2 siRNA knockdown. On the other hand, myocardial cells with Jak2 or HDAC2 over-expression were hyper-sensitive to Ang-II. In vivo, pressure overload by transverse aorta binding (AB induced a significant cardiac hypertrophic response as well as re-expression of ANP and BNP in mice heart, which were markedly reduced by AG-490 and TSA. Significantly, AG-490, the Jak2 inhibitor, largely suppressed pressure overload-/Ang-II-induced HDAC2 nuclear exportation in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, TSA or HDAC2 siRNA knockdown reduced Ang-II-induced ANP/BNP expression in Jak2 over-expressed H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Together, these results suggest that HDAC2 might be a downstream effector of Jak2 to mediate cardiac hypertrophic response by pressure overload or Ang-II.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-21

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors MS-275 and SAHA Suppress the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway and Chemotaxis in Rheumatoid Arthritic Synovial Fibroblastic E11 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shu Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MS-275 (entinostat and SAHA (vorinostat, two histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors currently in oncological trials, have displayed potent anti-rheumatic activities in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To further elucidate their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, the impact of MS-275 and SAHA on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis was assessed in human rheumatoid arthritic synovial fibroblastic E11 cells. MS-275 and SAHA significantly suppressed the expression of p38α  MAPK, but induced the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, an endogenous suppressor of p38α  in E11 cells. At the same time, the association between p38α and MKP-1 was up-regulated and consequently, the activation (phosphorylation of p38α  was inhibited. Moreover, MS-275 and SAHA suppressed granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in E11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, E11-driven migration of THP-1 and U937 monocytes was inhibited. In summary, suppression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis appear to be important anti-rheumatic mechanisms of action of these HDAC inhibitors.

  17. Effect of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song; De Veirman, Kim; Evans, Holly; Santini, Gaia Cecilia; Vande Broek, Isabelle; Leleu, Xavier; De Becker, Ann; Van Camp, Ben; Croucher, Peter; Vanderkerken, Karin; Van Riet, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor currently in a clinical phase III trial for multiple myeloma (MM) patients, has been reported to cause bone loss. The purpose of this study was to test whether, and to what extent, vorinostat influences the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were prepared from both normal donors and MM patients. The MSCs were cultured in an osteogenic differentiation induction medium to induce osteogenic differentiation, which was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red S staining and the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers. Naïve mice were administered vorinostat (100 mg/kg, ip) every other day for 3 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, bone formation was assessed based on serum osteocalcin level and histomorphometric analysis. Vorinostat inhibited the viability of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner (the IC50 value was 15.57 μmol/L). The low concentration of vorinostat (1 μmol/L) did not significantly increase apoptosis in hMSCs, whereas pronounced apoptosis was observed following exposure to higher concentrations of vorinostat (10 and 50 μmol/L). In bone marrow-derived hMSCs from both normal donors and MM patients, vorinostat (1 μmol/L) significantly increased ALP activity, mRNA expression of osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization. These effects were associated with upregulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor Runx2 and with the epigenetic alterations during normal hMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, the mice treated with vorinostat did not show any bone loss in response to the optimized treatment regimen. Vorinostat, known as a potent anti-myeloma drug, stimulates MSC osteogenesis in vitro. With the optimized treatment regimen, any decrease in bone formation was not observed in vivo.

  18. Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Class I HDAC Inhibitor, Mocetinostat Is Associated with IL-6/Stat3 Signaling in Ischemic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Nural-Guvener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have linked histone deacetylases (HDAC to remodeling of the heart and cardiac fibrosis in heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms linking chromatin remodeling events with observed anti-fibrotic effects are unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular players involved in anti-fibrotic effects of HDAC inhibition in congestive heart failure (CHF myocardium and cardiac fibroblasts in vivo. Methods and Results: MI was created by coronary artery occlusion. Class I HDACs were inhibited in three-week post MI rats by intraperitoneal injection of Mocetinostat (20 mg/kg/day for duration of three weeks. Cardiac function and heart tissue were analyzed at six week post-MI. CD90+ cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from ventricles through enzymatic digestion of heart. In vivo treatment of CHF animals with Mocetinostat reduced CHF-dependent up-regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in CHF myocardium, improved cardiac function and decreased scar size and total collagen amount. Moreover, expression of pro-fibrotic markers, collagen-1, fibronectin and Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF were reduced in the left ventricle (LV of Mocetinostat-treated CHF hearts. Cardiac fibroblasts isolated from Mocetinostat-treated CHF ventricles showed a decrease in expression of collagen I and III, fibronectin and Timp1. In addition, Mocetinostat attenuated CHF-induced elevation of IL-6 levels in CHF myocardium and cardiac fibroblasts. In parallel, levels of pSTAT3 were reduced via Mocetinostat in CHF myocardium. Conclusions: Anti-fibrotic effects of Mocetinostat in CHF are associated with the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, our study demonstrates in vivo regulation of cardiac fibroblasts via HDAC inhibition.

  19. Nanoparticle formulations of histone deacetylase inhibitors for effective chemoradiotherapy in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edina C; Min, Yuanzeng; Palm, Robert C; Fiordalisi, James J; Wagner, Kyle T; Hyder, Nabeel; Cox, Adrienne D; Caster, Joseph M; Tian, Xi; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-05-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a class of promising agents that can improve radiotherapy in cancer treatment. However, the full therapeutic potential of HDACIs as radiosensitizers has been restricted by limited efficacy in solid malignancies. In this study, we report the development of nanoparticle (NP) formulations of HDACIs that overcome these limitations, illustrating their utility to improve the therapeutic ratio of the clinically established first generation HDACI vorinostat and a novel second generation HDACI quisinostat. We demonstrate that NP HDACIs are potent radiosensitizers in vitro and are more effective as radiosensitizers than small molecule HDACIs in vivo using mouse xenograft models of colorectal and prostate carcinomas. We found that NP HDACIs enhance the response of tumor cells to radiation through the prolongation of γ-H2AX foci. Our work illustrates an effective method for improving cancer radiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafygiotis, Patroklos; Giaginis, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2013-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent one of the most promising, recently developed classes of anticancer agents already approved by the U.S. FDA. The effectiveness of these new drugs has currently being explored in a variety of cancer cell lines, in vitro, animal models, in vivo, as well as in clinical trials. Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare aggressive malignancy with a median overall survival of 12 months when the current chemotherapy regimen, cisplatin-pemetrexed, is applied. This disappointing overall survival has encouraged the experimental use of novel pharmaceutical agents, including HDACIs. In this aspect, the present review is aimed to summarize the existing data regarding the potential utility of HDACIs as therapeutic targets for the treatment of MM. Taking into consideration the research investigations so far, both in vitro and in vivo studies have documented encouraging results. Promising results are also being expected by ongoing clinical trials that concern combination of chemotherapy with HDACIs against MM.

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  2. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, belinostat (PXD101), in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, K.E.; McCully, C.; Dvinge, H.

    2008-01-01

    is a novel, potent, pan-HDAC inhibitor with antiproliferative activity on a wide variety of tumor cell lines. We studied the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of intravenous (IV) belinostat in a non-human primate model as a surrogate for blood:brain barrier penetration. DESIGN: Five adult rhesus monkeys....... CSF drug exposure was drug exposure and drug exposure. CONCLUSION: IV belinostat is rapidly cleared from plasma and has limited penetration into the CSF Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  3. Comparative effects of histone deacetylases inhibitors and resveratrol on Trypanosoma cruzi replication, differentiation, infectivity and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Vanina A

    2017-04-01

    Histone post-translational modification, mediated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, is one of the most studied factors affecting gene expression. Recent data showing differential histone acetylation states during the Trypanosoma cruzi cell cycle suggest a role for epigenetics in the control of this process. As a starting point to study the role of histone deacetylases in the control of gene expression and the consequences of their inhibition and activation in the biology of T. cruzi, two inhibitors for different histone deacetylases: trichostatin A for class I/II and sirtinol for class III and the activator resveratrol for class III, were tested on proliferative and infective forms of this parasite. The two inhibitors tested caused histone hyperacetylation whereas resveratrol showed the opposite effect on both parasite forms, indicating that a biologically active in vivo level of these compounds was achieved. Histone deacetylase inhibitors caused life stage-specific effects, increasing trypomastigotes infectivity and blocking metacyclogenesis. Moreover, these inhibitors affected specific transcript levels, with sirtinol causing the most pronounced change. On the other hand, resveratrol showed strong anti-parasitic effects. This compound diminished epimastigotes growth, promoted metacyclogenesis, reduced in vitro infection and blocked differentiation and/or replication of intracellular amastigotes. In conclusion, the data presented here supports the notion that these compounds can modulate T. cruzi gene expression, differentiation, infection and histones deacetylase activity. Furthermore, among the compounds tested in this study, the results point to Resveratrol as promising trypanocidal drug candidate. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in the Development of PET Ligands Targeting Histone Deacetylases for the Assessment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Tetsuro Tago

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations of gene expression have emerged as a key factor in several neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, inhibitors targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs, which are enzymes responsible for deacetylation of histones and other proteins, show therapeutic effects in animal neurodegenerative disease models. However, the details of the interaction between changes in HDAC levels in the brain and disease progression remain unknown. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of radioligands for HDAC imaging in the brain with positron emission tomography (PET. We summarize the results of radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the HDAC ligands to identify their successful results and challenges. Since 2006, several small molecules that are radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as carbon-11 or fluorine-18 have been developed and evaluated using various assays including in vitro HDAC binding assays and PET imaging in rodents and non-human primates. Although most compounds do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, adamantane-conjugated radioligands tend to show good brain uptake. Until now, only one HDAC radioligand has been tested clinically in a brain PET study. Further PET imaging studies to clarify age-related and disease-related changes in HDACs in disease models and humans will increase our understanding of the roles of HDACs in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Class I HDAC activity is required for renal protection and regeneration after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Yanli; Zhao, Ting C; Gong, Rujun; Bayliss, George; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2014-08-01

    Activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is required for renal epithelial cell proliferation and kidney development. However, their role in renal tubular cell survival and regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that all class I HDAC isoforms (1, 2, 3, and 8) were expressed in the renal epithelial cells of the mouse kidney. Inhibition of class I HDACs with MS-275, a highly selective inhibitor, resulted in more severe tubular injury in the mouse model of AKI induced by folic acid or rhabdomyolysis, as indicated by worsening renal dysfunction, increased neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, and enhanced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Blocking class I HDAC activity also impaired renal regeneration as evidenced by decreased expression of renal Pax-2, vimentin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Injury to the kidney is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Akt. Inhibition of class I HDACs suppressed EGFR phosphorylation as well as reduced its expression. MS-275 was also effective in inhibiting STAT3 and Akt phosphorylation, but this treatment did not affect their expression levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the class I HDAC activity contributes to renal protection and functional recovery and is required for renal regeneration after AKI. Furthermore, renal EGFR signaling is subject to regulation by this class of HDACs. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Phase 1 clinical trial of the novel proteasome inhibitor marizomib with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with melanoma, pancreatic and lung cancer based on in vitro assessments of the combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Michael; Price, Timothy; Townsend, Amanda; Sweeney, Christopher; Spencer, Andrew; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Longenecker, Angie; Lee, Lonnie; Lay, Ana; Sharma, Girish; Gemmill, Robert M; Drabkin, Harry A; Lloyd, G Kenneth; Neuteboom, Saskia T C; McConkey, David J; Palladino, Michael A; Spear, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    Combining proteasome and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has been seen to provide synergistic anti-tumor activity, with complementary effects on a number of signaling pathways. The novel bi-cyclic structure of marizomib with its unique proteasome inhibition, toxicology and efficacy profiles, suggested utility in combining it with an HDAC inhibitor such as vorinostat. Thus, in this study in vitro studies assessed the potential utility of combining marizomib and vorinostat, followed by a clinical trial with the objectives of assessing the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), safety and preliminary anti-tumor activity of the combination in patients. Combinations of marizomib and vorinostat were assessed in vitro. Subsequently, in a Phase 1 clinical trial patients with melanoma, pancreatic carcinoma or Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) were given escalating doses of weekly marizomib in combination with vorinostat 300 mg daily for 16 days in 28 day cycles. In addition to standard safety studies, proteasome inhibition and pharmacokinetics were assayed. Marked synergy of marizomib and vorinostat was seen in tumor cell lines derived from patients with NSCLC, melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma. In the clinical trial, 22 patients were enrolled. Increased toxicity was not seen with the combination. Co-administration did not appear to affect the PK or PD of either drug in comparison to historical data. Although no responses were demonstrated using RECIST criteria, 61% of evaluable patients demonstrated stable disease with 39% having decreases in tumor measurements. Treatment of multiple tumor cell lines with marizomib and vorinostat resulted in a highly synergistic antitumor activity. The combination of full dose marizomib with vorinostat is tolerable in patients with safety findings consistent with either drug alone.

  7. Histone deacetylase-1 and -2 expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Stamatios; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Giaginis, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Jose; Jouffroy, Thomas; Girod, Angelique; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2011-10-01

     Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been associated with tumor development and progression in several types of human malignancy and HDAC inhibitors are currently being explored as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of HDAC-1 and -2 protein expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HDAC-1 and -2 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on 49 mobile tongue SCC tissue samples and was analyzed in relation with clinicopathological characteristics, overall and disease-free patients' survival.  HDAC-1 overexpression was significantly associated with younger patients' age (P = 0.0381) and male gender (P = 0.0345), poor histopathological grade of differentiation (P = 0.0236) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.0104). Intense HDAC-1 staining intensity was significantly associated with male gender (P = 0.0127), increased stromal infiltration reaction (P = 0.0125) and well-defined shape of tumor invasion (P = 0.0396). HDAC-2 overexpression did not show significant correlations with any clinicopathological parameters, whereas intense HDAC-2 staining intensity was significantly associated with the presence of muscular invasion (P = 0.0466) and advanced depth of invasion (P = 0.0251). Mobile tongue SCC patients with HDAC-1 overexpression presented shorter overall and disease-free survival compared to those with no evidence of HDAC-1 overexpression (log-rank test, P = 0.0651 and 0.0247, respectively).  The present study supported evidence that HDACs may participate in the formation and progression of mobile tongue SCC, reinforcing their possible use as biomarkers as also the therapeutic utility of HDAC inhibitors in mobile tongue SCC chemoprevention and treatment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Role of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Relapsed Refractory Multiple Myeloma: A Focus on Vorinostat and Panobinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Salma; Michael, Angela; Azimi, Mahshid; Rodriguez, Mabel; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Landgren, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder that is characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, monoclonal protein in the blood and/or urine, and associated organ dysfunction and biomarkers. There have been multiple recent advances in the relapsed and refractory setting. Major steps forward include the introduction of proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide) in various combinations. These drugs have changed the management of multiple myeloma and have extended overall survival in the past decade. Established curative therapy is not yet available for patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma, supporting the development of new treatment targets. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have multiple proposed mechanisms of action in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Both vorinostat and panobinostat have demonstrated some activity against multiple myeloma, and due to the benefits reported with panobinostat, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the drug for the treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. In this article, we describe the pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicity profile of vorinostat and panobinostat and their possible place in therapy. PMID:26684557

  9. Role of hTERT in apoptosis of cervical cancer induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Peng; Meng, Li; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Gang; Wang, Shixuan; Xi, Ling; Chen, Gang; Wang, Beibei; Zhu, Tao; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding

    2005-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase holoenzyme as well as the rate-limiting component of the telomerase enzyme complex. However, the role of the hTERT in apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor has only been marginally addressed. For the first time, our study demonstrated that trichostatin A (TSA) briefly activated the proliferation of cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, within 12 h, but then inhibited cell growth after that time point. In response to TSA, hTERT expression, telomerase activity, and telomere length also underwent similar changes during the same time frame. Furthermore, the data in our study showed that cells transfected with dominant negative hTERT were more likely to undergo apoptosis induced by TSA than cells transfected with wild-type hTERT. The cyclin/cdk inhibitor p21 waf1 was down-regulated by hTERT without changing the expression of p53. Results from this study suggest that the hTERT might be a primary target of TSA and the anti-apoptosis effect of hTERT might be carried out through a p21 waf1 -dependent and p53-independent pathway

  10. The sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines to histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced apoptosis is modulated by BCL-2 family protein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease and this variation can often be used to explain the response of individual patients to chemotherapy. One cancer therapeutic approach currently in clinical trials uses histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a variety of cell-based and molecular/biochemical assays to show that two pan-HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and vorinostat, induce apoptosis in seven of eight human DLBCL cell lines. Consistent with previous reports implicating the BCL-2 family in regulating HDACi-induced apoptosis, ectopic over-expression of anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-XL or pro-apoptotic protein BIM in these cell lines conferred further resistance or sensitivity, respectively, to HDACi treatment. Additionally, BCL-2 family antgonist ABT-737 increased the sensitivity of several DLBCL cell lines to vorinostat-induced apoptosis, including one cell line (SUDHL6 that is resistant to vorinostat alone. Moreover, two variants of the HDACi-sensitive SUDHL4 cell line that have decreased sensitivity to vorinostat showed up-regulation of BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-XL and MCL-1, as well as decreased sensitivity to ABT-737. These results suggest that the regulation and overall balance of anti- to pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein expression is important in defining the sensitivity of DLBCL to HDACi-induced apoptosis. However, the sensitivity of DLBCL cell lines to HDACi treatment does not correlate with expression of any individual BCL-2 family member. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies indicate that the sensitivity of DLBCL to treatment with HDACi's is dependent on the complex regulation of BCL-2 family members and that BCL-2 antagonists may enhance the response of a subset of DLBCL patients to HDACi treatment.

  11. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Are Weak Activators of the FMR1 Gene in Fragile X Syndrome Cell Lines

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    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in humans. It is a result of CGG repeat expansion in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR of the FMR1 gene. This gene encodes the FMRP protein that is involved in neuronal development. Repeat expansion leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter, gene silencing, and the subsequent absence of FMRP. To date, there is no specific therapy for the syndrome. All treatments in clinic practice provide symptomatic therapy. The development of drug therapy for Fragile X syndrome treatment is connected with the search for inhibitors of enzymes that are responsible for heterochromatinization. Here, we report a weak transcriptional activity of the FMR1 gene and the absence of FMRP protein after Fragile X syndrome cell lines treatment with two FDA approved inhibitors of histone deacetylases, romidepsin and vorinostat. We demonstrate that romidepsin, an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases, does not activate FMR1 expression in patient cell cultures, whereas vorinostat, an inhibitor of classes I and II histone deacetylases, activates a low level of FMR1 expression in some patient cell lines.

  13. Selective HDAC inhibition by ACY-241 enhances the activity of paclitaxel in solid tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengyu; Almeciga-Pinto, Ingrid; Jarpe, Matthew; van Duzer, John H; Mazitschek, Ralph; Yang, Min; Jones, Simon S; Quayle, Steven N

    2017-01-10

    ACY-241 is a novel, orally available and selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 inhibitor in Phase 1b clinical development in multiple myeloma (NCT 02400242). Like the structurally related drug ACY-1215 (ricolinostat), ACY-241 has the potential for a substantially reduced side effect profile versus current nonselective HDAC inhibitor drug candidates due to reduced potency against Class I HDACs while retaining the potential for anticancer effectiveness. We now show that combination treatment of xenograft models with paclitaxel and either ricolinostat or ACY-241 significantly suppresses solid tumor growth. In cell lines from multiple solid tumor lineages, combination treatment with ACY-241 and paclitaxel enhanced inhibition of proliferation and increased cell death relative to either single agent alone. Combination treatment with ACY-241 and paclitaxel also resulted in more frequent occurrence of mitotic cells with abnormal multipolar spindles and aberrant mitoses, consistent with the observed increase of aneuploid cells. At the molecular level, multipolar mitotic spindle formation was observed to be NuMA-dependent and γ-tubulin independent, suggesting that treatment-induced multipolar spindle formation does not depend on centrosomal amplification. The significantly enhanced efficacy of ACY-241 plus paclitaxel observed here, in addition to the anticipated superior safety profile of a selective HDAC6 inhibitor versus pan-HDAC inhibitors, provides a strong rationale for clinical development of this combination in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  14. The Existing Drug Vorinostat as a New Lead Against Cryptosporidiosis by Targeting the Parasite Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; McNair, Nina N; Mead, Jan R; Zhu, Guan

    2018-03-13

    Cryptosporidiosis affects all human populations, but can be much more severe or life-threatening in children and individuals with weak or weakened immune systems. However, current options to treat cryptosporidiosis are limited. An in vitro phenotypic screening assay was employed to screen 1200 existing drugs for their anticryptosporidial activity and to determine the inhibitory kinetics of top hits. Selected top hits were further evaluated in mice. The action of the lead compound vorinostat on the parasite histone deacetylase (HDAC) was biochemically validated. Fifteen compounds exhibited anticryptosporidial activity at nanomolar level in vitro. Among them, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat retained outstanding efficacy in vitro (half maximal effective concentration, EC50 = 203 nM) and in an interleukin 12 knockout mouse model (50% inhibition dose = 7.5 mg/kg). Vorinostat was effective on various parasite developmental stages and could irreversibly kill the parasite. Vorinostat was highly effective against the parasite native HDAC enzymes (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 90.0 nM) and a recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum HDAC (the inhibitor constant, Ki = 123.0 nM). These findings suggest the potential for repurposing of vorinostat to treat cryptosporidiosis, and imply that the parasite HDAC can be explored for developing more selective anticryptosporidial therapeutics.

  15. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candelaria Myrna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazine showed no growth inhibitory effect on cervical, colon, breast, sarcoma, glioma, and head & neck cancer cell lines when used alone. On the contrary, valproic acid showed a strong growth inhibitory effect that is potentiated by hydralazine in some cell lines. Individually, hydralazine and valproic acid displayed distinctive effects upon global gene over-expression but the number of genes over-expressed increased when cells were treated with the combination. Treatment of HeLa cells with hydralazine and valproic acid lead to an increase in the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin and adriamycin. A higher antitumor effect of adriamycin was observed in mice xenografted with human fibrosarcoma cells when the animals were co-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Conclusion Hydralazine and valproic acid, two widely used drugs for cardiovascular and neurological conditions respectively have promising antineoplastic effects when used concurrently and may increase the antitumor efficacy of current cytotoxic agents.

  16. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia; Rangel-Lopez, Edgar; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Candelaria, Myrna; Cabrera, Gustavo; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazine showed no growth inhibitory effect on cervical, colon, breast, sarcoma, glioma, and head & neck cancer cell lines when used alone. On the contrary, valproic acid showed a strong growth inhibitory effect that is potentiated by hydralazine in some cell lines. Individually, hydralazine and valproic acid displayed distinctive effects upon global gene over-expression but the number of genes over-expressed increased when cells were treated with the combination. Treatment of HeLa cells with hydralazine and valproic acid lead to an increase in the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin and adriamycin. A higher antitumor effect of adriamycin was observed in mice xenografted with human fibrosarcoma cells when the animals were co-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Conclusion Hydralazine and valproic acid, two widely used drugs for cardiovascular and neurological conditions respectively have promising antineoplastic effects when used concurrently and may increase the antitumor efficacy of current cytotoxic agents. PMID:16448574

  17. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  18. Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation as HDAC inhibitors of cyclopeptide mimetics by a tandem three-component reaction and intramolecular [3+2] cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, Tracey; Faccio, Valeria; Mossetti, Riccardo; Grolla, Ambra A; Di Micco, Simone; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Genazzani, Armando A; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2010-02-01

    Novel macrocyclic peptide mimetics have been synthesized by exploiting a three-component reaction and an azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. The prepared compounds were screened as HDAC inhibitors allowing us to identify a new compound with promising biological activity. In order to rationalize the biological results, computational studies have also been performed.

  19. Structures of the Peptidoglycan N-Acetylglucosamine Deacetylase Bc1974 and Its Complexes with Zinc Metalloenzyme Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giastas, Petros; Andreou, Athena; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Koutsioulis, Dimitris; Balomenou, Stavroula; Tzartos, Socrates J; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Eliopoulos, Elias E

    2018-02-06

    The cell wall peptidoglycan is recognized as a primary target of the innate immune system, and usually its disintegration results in bacterial lysis. Bacillus cereus, a close relative of the highly virulent Bacillus anthracis, contains 10 polysaccharide deacetylases. Among these, the peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase Bc1974 is the highest homologue to the Bacillus anthracis Ba1977 that is required for full virulence and is involved in resistance to the host's lysozyme. These metalloenzymes belong to the carbohydrate esterase family 4 (CE4) and are attractive targets for the development of new anti-infective agents. Herein we report the first X-ray crystal structures of the NodB domain of Bc1974, the conserved catalytic core of CE4s, in the unliganded form and in complex with four known metalloenzyme inhibitors and two amino acid hydroxamates that target the active site metal. These structures revealed the presence of two conformational states of a catalytic loop known as motif-4 (MT4), which were not observed previously for peptidoglycan deacetylases, but were recently shown in the structure of a Vibrio clolerae chitin deacetylase. By employing molecular docking of a substrate model, we describe a catalytic mechanism that probably involves initial binding of the substrate in a receptive, more open state of MT4 and optimal catalytic activity in the closed state of MT4, consistent with the previous observations. The ligand-bound structures presented here, in addition to the five Bc1974 inhibitors identified, provide a valuable basis for the design of antibacterial agents that target the peptidoglycan deacetylase Ba1977.

  20. The gene signature in CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha dysfunctional acute myeloid leukemia predicts responsiveness to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liss, A.; Ooi, C.; Zjablovskaja, Polina; Benoukraf, T.; Radomska, H.S.; Ju, C.; Wu, M.C.; Balaštík, Martin; Delwel, R.; Brdička, Tomáš; Tan, P.; Tenen, D.G.; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2014), s. 697-705 ISSN 0390-6078 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21307; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11213 Grant - others:NIH(US) CA66996; NIH(US) CA118316 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : C/EBPa * histone deacetylase inhibitor * acute myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.814, year: 2014

  1. HDAC6 deficiency or inhibition blocks FGFR3 accumulation and improves bone growth in a model of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Sara; Zhou, Zi-Qiang; Romero, Megan P; Yang, Guang; Hurlin, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    Mutations that cause increased and/or inappropriate activation of FGFR3 are responsible for a collection of short-limbed chondrodysplasias. These mutations can alter receptor trafficking and enhance receptor stability, leading to increased receptor accumulation and activity. Here, we show that wildtype and mutant activated forms of FGFR3 increase expression of the cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6 (Histone Deacetylase 6) and that FGFR3 accumulation is compromised in cells lacking HDAC6 or following treatment of fibroblasts or chondrocytes with small molecule inhibitors of HDAC6. The reduced accumulation of FGFR3 was linked to increased FGFR3 degradation that occurred through a lysosome-dependent mechanism. Using a mouse model of Thanatophoric Dysplasia Type II (TDII) we show that both HDAC6 deletion and treatment with the small molecule HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin reduced FGFR3 accumulation in the growth plate and improved endochondral bone growth. Defective endochondral growth in TDII is associated with reduced proliferation and poor hypertrophic differentiation and the improved bone growth was associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and expansion of the differentiation compartment within the growth plate. These findings further define the mechanisms that control FGFR3 accumulation and contribute to skeletal pathology caused by mutations in FGFR3. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Plant Isoquinoline Alkaloid Berberine Exhibits Chromatin Remodeling by Modulation of Histone Deacetylase To Induce Growth Arrest and Apoptosis in the A549 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiarasi, Arunachalam; Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Rajasekaran, Subbiah; John Marshal, Jayaraj; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2016-12-21

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of epigenetic enzymes that control gene expression through their repressive influence on histone deacetylation transcription. HDACs are probable therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, spurring the progress of different types of HDAC inhibitors. Further, natural-source-based derived bioactive compounds possess HDAC inhibitor property. In this way, we hypothesized that plant isoquinoline alkaloid berberine (BBR) could be a HDAC inhibitor in the human lung cancer A549 cell line. BBR represses total HDAC and also class I, II, and IV HDAC activity through hyperacetylation of histones. Furthermore, BBR triggers positive regulation of the sub-G 0 /G 1 cell cycle progression phase in A549 cells. Moreover, BBR-induced A549 cell growth arrest and morphological changes were confirmed using different fluorescence-dye-based microscope techniques. Additionally, BBR downregulates oncogenes (TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9) and upregulates tumor suppressor genes (p21 and p53) mRNA and protein expressions. Besides, BBR actively regulates Bcl-2/Bax family proteins and also triggered the caspase cascade apoptotic pathway in A549 cells. Our finding suggests that BBR mediates epigenetic reprogramming by HDAC inhibition, which may be the key mechanism for its antineoplastic activity.

  3. Synergistic Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Bryostatin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Clemente, Maria Isabel; Serramía, Maria Jesús; Muñoz, Eduardo; Moreno, Santiago; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-13

    Viral reactivation from latently infected cells has become a promising therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV. Due to the complexity of the viral latency, combinations of efficient and available drugs targeting different pathways of latency are needed. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various combinations of bryostatin-1 (BRY) and novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on HIV-reactivation and on cellular phenotype. The lymphocyte (J89GFP) or monocyte/macrophage (THP89GFP) latently infected cell lines were treated with BRY, panobinostat (PNB) and romidepsin (RMD) either alone or in combination. Thus, the effect on the viral reactivation was evaluated. We calculated the combination index for each drug combination; the BRY/HDACIs showed a synergistic HIV-reactivation profile in the majority of the combinations tested, whereas non-synergistic effects were observed when PNB was mixed with RMD. Indeed, the 75% effective concentrations of BRY, PNB and RMD were reduced in these combinations. Moreover, primary CD4 T cells treated with such drug combinations presented similar activation and proliferation profiles in comparison with single drug treated cells. Summing up, combinations between BRY, PNB and/or RMD presented a synergistic profile by inducing virus expression in HIV-latently infected cells, rendering these combinations an attractive novel and safe option for future clinical trials.

  4. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelen, Marie Grøn; Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristian, Alexandr; Fleten, Karianne Giller; Furre, Torbjørn; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials

  5. Sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Sook; Baek, Jin Hyen; Chakravarty, Devulapalli; Sidransky, David; Carrier, France

    2005-01-01

    UV-induced apoptosis is a protective mechanism that is primarily caused by DNA damage. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts are the main DNA adducts triggered by UV radiation. Because the formation of DNA lesions in the chromatin is modulated by the structure of the nucleosomes, we postulated that modification of chromatin compaction could affect the formation of the lesions and consequently apoptosis. To verify this possibility we treated human colon carcinoma RKO cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) prior to exposure to UV radiation. Our data show that pre-treatment with TSA increased UV killing efficiency by more than threefold. This effect correlated with increased formation of CPDs and consequently apoptosis. On the other hand, TSA treatment after UV exposure rather than before had no more effect than UV radiation alone. This suggests that a primed (opened) chromatin status is required to sensitize the cells. Moreover, TSA sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis is p53 dependent. p53 and acetylation of the core histones may thus contribute to UV-induced apoptosis by modulating the formation of DNA lesions on chromatin

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejuan Kong

    Full Text Available Clinical experience of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs in patients with solid tumors has been disappointing; however, the molecular mechanism of treatment failure is not known. Therefore, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanism of treatment failure of HDACIs in the present study. We found that HDACIs Trichostatin A (TSA and Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA could induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT phenotype in prostate cancer (PCa cells, which was associated with changes in cellular morphology consistent with increased expression of transcription factors ZEB1, ZEB2 and Slug, and mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, N-cadherin and Fibronectin. CHIP assay showed acetylation of histone 3 on proximal promoters of selected genes, which was in part responsible for increased expression of EMT markers. Moreover, TSA treatment led to further increase in the expression of Sox2 and Nanog in PCa cells with EMT phenotype, which was associated with cancer stem-like cell (CSLC characteristics consistent with increased cell motility. Our results suggest that HDACIs alone would lead to tumor aggressiveness, and thus strategies for reverting EMT-phenotype to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET phenotype or the reversal of CSLC characteristics prior to the use of HDACIs would be beneficial to realize the value of HDACIs for the treatment of solid tumors especially PCa.

  7. The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashioka Sadayuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Increasing evidence shows that the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is tempting to evaluate the potential of SAHA as a therapeutic agent in various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Methods We examined the effects of SAHA on interferon (IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes and on IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 in human astrocytes. We also studied the effects of SAHA on the astrocytic production of two representative IFN-γ-inducible inflammatory molecules, namely IFN-γ-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Results SAHA significantly attenuated the toxicity of astrocytes activated by IFN-γ towards SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells. In the IFN-γ-activated astrocytes, SAHA reduced the STAT3 phosphorylation. SAHA also inhibited the IFN-γ-induced astrocytic production of I-TAC, but not ICAM-1. These results indicate that SAHA suppresses IFN-γ-induced neurotoxicity of human astrocytes through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusion Due to its anti-neurotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties, SAHA appears to have the therapeutic or preventive potential for a wide range of neuroinflammatory disorders associated with activated astrocytes.

  8. Experimental treatment of pancreatic cancer with two novel histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Martin; Bluethner, Thilo; Niederhagen, Manuel; Moebius, Christian; Wittekind, Christian; Mossner, Joachim; Caca, Karel; Wiedmann, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in vitro and in vivo treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Cell-growth inhibition by NVP-LAQ824 and NVP-LBH589 was studied in vitro in 8 human pancreatic cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, the anti-tumoral effect of NVP-LBH589 was studied in a chimeric mouse model. Anti-tumoral activity of the drugs was assessed by immunoblotting for p21WAF-1, acH4, cell cycle analysis, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry for MIB-1. RESULTS: In vitro treatment with both compounds significantly suppressed the growth of all cancer cell lines and was associated with hyperacetylation of nucleosomal histone H4, increased expression of p21WAF-1, cell cycle arrest at G2/M-checkpoint, and increased apoptosis. In vivo, NVP-LBH589 alone significantly reduced tumor mass and potentiated the efficacy of gemcitabine. Further analysis of the tumor specimens revealed slightly increased apoptosis and no significant reduction of cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that NVP-LBH589 and NVP-LAQ824 are active against human pancreatic cancer, although the precise mechanism of in vivo drug action is not yet completely understood. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are recommended. PMID:18595135

  9. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelen, Marie Grøn; Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristian, Alexandr; Fleten, Karianne Giller; Furre, Torbjørn; Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-09-27

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials.

  10. Radiosensitization by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat under hypoxia and with capecitabine in experimental colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelen Marie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat is a candidate radiosensitizer in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC. Radiosensitivity is critically influenced by hypoxia; hence, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of potential radiosensitizers under variable tissue oxygenation. Since fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT is the only clinically validated regimen in LARC, efficacy in combination with this established regimen should be assessed in preclinical models before a candidate drug enters clinical trials. Methods Radiosensitization by vorinostat under hypoxia was studied in four colorectal carcinoma cell lines and in one colorectal carcinoma xenograft model by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Radiosensitizing effects of vorinostat in combination with capecitabine were assessed by evaluation of tumor growth delay in two colorectal carcinoma xenografts models. Results Under hypoxia, radiosensitization by vorinostat was demonstrated in vitro in terms of decreased clonogenicity and in vivo as inhibition of tumor growth. Adding vorinostat to capecitabine-based CRT increased radiosensitivity of xenografts in terms of inhibited tumor growth. Conclusions Vorinostat sensitized colorectal carcinoma cells to radiation under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo and improved therapeutic efficacy in combination with capecitabine-based CRT in vivo. The results encourage implementation of vorinostat into CRT in LARC trials.

  11. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses dendritic cell function and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenzhen; Da, Yurong; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Kai; Zhuang, Hao; Peng, Meiyu; Li, Yan; Li, Wen; Simard, Alain; Hao, Junwei; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2013-03-01

    Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used clinically as an anticancer drug and also has immunosuppressive properties. However, the underlying mechanisms of effects of vorinostat on central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases remain incomplete. Here, this study investigates the effects of vorinostat on human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and mouse immature DC in vitro. Furthermore, we explore the therapeutic effects and cellular mechanisms of vorinostat on animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that vorinostat inhibited human CD14(+) monocyte-derived DCs differentiation, maturation, endocytosis, and further inhibited mDCs' stimulation of allogeneic T-cell proliferation. In addition, vorinostat inhibited DC-directed Th1- (Type 1T helper) and Th17-polarizing cytokine production. Furthermore, vorinostat ameliorated Th1- and Th17-mediated EAE by reducing CNS inflammation and demyelination. What's more, Th1 and Th17 cell functions were suppressed in vorinostat-treated EAE mice. Finally, vorinostat suppressed expression of costimulatory molecules of DC in EAE mice. These suggest therapeutic effects of vorinostat on EAE which may by suppress DCs and DCs-mediated Th1 and Th17 cell functions. Our findings warrant further investigation in the potential of vorinostat for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Complex molecular mechanisms cooperate to mediate histone deacetylase inhibitors anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma cells

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    Nardou Katya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi are a new class of promising anti-tumour agent inhibiting cell proliferation and survival in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Neuroblastoma (NB is the second most common solid tumour in children still associated with poor outcome in higher stages and, thus NB strongly requires novel treatment modalities. Results We show here that the HDACi Sodium Butyrate (NaB, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA and Trichostatin A (TSA strongly reduce NB cells viability. The anti-tumour activity of these HDACi involved the induction of cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, followed by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, via the activation of the caspases cascade. Moreover, HDACi mediated the activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and BimEL and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-xL, RIP and survivin, that further enhanced the apoptotic signal. Interestingly, the activity of these apoptosis regulators was modulated by several different mechanisms, either by caspases dependent proteolytic cleavage or by degradation via the proteasome pathway. In addition, HDACi strongly impaired the hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF by NB cells. Conclusion HDACi are therefore interesting new anti-tumour agents for targeting highly malignant tumours such as NB, as these agents display a strong toxicity toward aggressive NB cells and they may possibly reduce angiogenesis by decreasing VEGF production by NB cells.

  13. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  14. Suppression of monosodium urate crystal-induced cytokine production by butyrate is mediated by the inhibition of class I histone deacetylases.

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    Cleophas, Maartje C P; Crişan, Tania O; Lemmers, Heidi; Toenhake-Dijkstra, Helga; Fossati, Gianluca; Jansen, Tim L; Dinarello, Charles A; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-03-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is caused by endogenously formed monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which are potent activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome. However, to induce the release of active interleukin (IL)-1β, an additional stimulus is needed. Saturated long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) can provide such a signal and stimulate transcription of pro-IL-1β. In contrast, the short-chain fatty acid butyrate possesses anti-inflammatory effects. One of the mechanisms involved is inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we explored the effects of butyrate on MSU+FFA-induced cytokine production and its inhibition of specific HDACs. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were stimulated with MSU and palmitic acid (C16.0) in the presence or absence of butyrate or a synthetic HDAC inhibitor. Cytokine responses were measured with ELISA and quantitative PCR. HDAC activity was measured with fluorimetric assays. Butyrate decreased C16.0+MSU-induced production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA in PBMCs from healthy donors. Similar results were obtained in PBMCs isolated from patients with gout. Butyrate specifically inhibited class I HDACs. The HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat and the potent HDAC inhibitor, ITF-B, also decreased ex vivo C16.0+MSU-induced IL-1β production. In agreement with the reported low inhibitory potency of butyrate, a high concentration was needed for cytokine suppression, whereas synthetic HDAC inhibitors showed potent anti-inflammatory effects at nanomolar concentrations. These novel HDAC inhibitors could be effective in the treatment of acute gout. Moreover, the use of specific HDAC inhibitors could even improve the efficacy and reduce any potential adverse effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Thiophene-derivatized Fluorescent Benzamides as Possible Probes for Histone Deacetylases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Jun

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized a series of novel fluorescent benzamides inhibitors possessing intrinsic fluorescence properties. Most of these benzamide fluorophores exhibit high quantum yields, making them suitable for use in imaging studies, with colors ranging from blue to green; a couple of them were also water-soluble. Notably, TB1 and TB2 display a high quantum yield and TB1 exhibits high binding affinity to HDAC enzymes. We believe that these new fluorescent benzamide inhibitors might be useful diagnostic tools for in vitro studies of HDACs. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are crucial gene regulating enzymes that control the expression of histones-epigenetic targets in research related to developing new therapies for cancer, central nervous system disorders, and heart disease. The deacetylation of histones is a vital repression process in transcriptional gene expression; it also affects apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and angiogenesis

  16. Thiophene-derivatized Fluorescent Benzamides as Possible Probes for Histone Deacetylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Jun [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    We have synthesized a series of novel fluorescent benzamides inhibitors possessing intrinsic fluorescence properties. Most of these benzamide fluorophores exhibit high quantum yields, making them suitable for use in imaging studies, with colors ranging from blue to green; a couple of them were also water-soluble. Notably, TB1 and TB2 display a high quantum yield and TB1 exhibits high binding affinity to HDAC enzymes. We believe that these new fluorescent benzamide inhibitors might be useful diagnostic tools for in vitro studies of HDACs. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are crucial gene regulating enzymes that control the expression of histones-epigenetic targets in research related to developing new therapies for cancer, central nervous system disorders, and heart disease. The deacetylation of histones is a vital repression process in transcriptional gene expression; it also affects apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and angiogenesis.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 augments expression of a subset of IFN-γ-regulated genes in Toxoplasma gondii-infected macrophages but does not improve parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpf, Kristina; Nast, Roswitha; Downie, Bryan; Salinas, Gabriela; Lüder, Carsten G K

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with MS-275 indeed increased MHC class II surface expression in infected and non-infected cells and largely abolished the inhibition of IFN-γ-regulated MHC class II expression exerted by T. gondii. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that MS-275 increased mean mRNA levels of IFN-γ-regulated genes particularly in non-infected macrophages. Transcript levels of 33% of IFN-γ secondary response genes but only those of a few primary response genes were also increased by MS-275 in T. gondii-infected cells. Importantly, the unresponsiveness of parasite-infected cells to IFN-γ was however not abolished by MS-275. Furthermore, MS-275 also up-regulated several anti-inflammatory cytokines or signaling molecules in T. gondii-infected macrophages. It additionally regulated expression of more than 2500 genes in non-infected macrophages expression of which was surprisingly counteracted by prior infection with T. gondii. FACS analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MS-275 did not considerably diminish the number of parasite-positive cells or the intracellular replication in macrophages stimulated or not with IFN-γ. Thus, a supportive therapy using MS-275 appears inappropriate for treatment of toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, enhances radiosensitivity and suppresses lung metastasis in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Chiu

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, defined by the absence of an estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, is associated with an early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Furthermore, the majority of deaths in breast cancer patients are from metastases instead of from primary tumors. In this study, MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 (a human TNBC cell line and 4T1 (a mouse TNBC cell line were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR combined with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC and to determine the underlying mechanisms of these effects in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the ability of SAHA to inhibit the metastasis of 4T1 cells. We found that IR combined with SAHA showed increased therapeutic efficacy when compared with either treatment alone in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Moreover, the combined treatment enhanced DNA damage through the inhibition of DNA repair proteins. The combined treatment was induced primarily through autophagy and ER stress. In an orthotopic breast cancer mouse model, the combination treatment showed a greater inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, SAHA inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of 4T1 cells and inhibited breast cancer cell migration by inhibiting the activity of MMP-9. In an in vivo experimental metastasis mouse model, SAHA significantly inhibited lung metastasis. SAHA not only enhances radiosensitivity but also suppresses lung metastasis in breast cancer. These novel findings suggest that SAHA alone or combined with IR could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  19. NBM-HD-1: A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity

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    Wei-Jan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HDAC inhibitors (HDACis have been developed as promising anticancer agents in recent years. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel HDACi, termed NBM-HD-1. This agent was derived from the semisynthesis of propolin G, isolated from Taiwanese green propolis (TGP, and was shown to be a potent suppressor of tumor cell growth in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and rat glioma cells (C6, with an IC50 ranging from 8.5 to 10.3 μM. Western blot demonstrated that levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1, gelsolin, Ac-histone 4, and Ac-tubulin markedly increased after treatment of cancer cells with NBM-HD-1. After NBM-HD-1 treatment for 1–4 h, p-PTEN and p-AKT levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, we also found the anticancer activities of NBM-HD-1 in regulating cell cycle regulators. Treatment with NBM-HD-1, p21(Waf1/Cip1 gene expression had markedly increased while cyclin B1 and D1 gene expressions had markedly decreased. On the other hand, we found that NBM-HD-1 increased the expressions of tumor-suppressor gene p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that NBM-HD-1 exhibited potent antitumor activity in a xenograft model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that this compound, NBM-HD-1, is a novel and potent HDACi with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Inhibition of HDAC6 protects against rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingfeng; Xu, Liuqing; Tang, Jinhua; Fang, Lu; Ma, Shuchen; Ma, Xiaoyan; Nie, Jing; Pi, Xiaoling; Qiu, Andong; Zhuang, Shougang; Liu, Na

    2017-03-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibition has been reported to protect against ischemic stroke and prolong survival after sepsis in animal models. However, it remains unknown whether HDAC6 inhibition offers a renoprotective effect after acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we examined the effect of tubastatin A (TA), a highly selective inhibitor of HDAC6, on AKI in a murine model of glycerol (GL) injection-induced rhabdomyolysis. Following GL injection, the mice developed severe acute tubular injury as indicated by renal dysfunction; expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an injury marker of renal tubules; and an increase of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells. These changes were companied by increased HDAC6 expression in the cytoplasm of renal tubular cells. Administration of TA significantly reduced serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels as well as attenuated renal tubular damage in injured kidneys. HDAC6 inhibition also resulted in decreased expression of NGAL, reduced apoptotic cell, and inactivated caspase-3 in the kidney after acute injury. Moreover, injury to the kidney increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and expression of multiple cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as macrophage infiltration. Treatment with TA attenuated all those responses. Finally, HDAC6 inhibition reduced the level of oxidative stress by suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) and preserving expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the injured kidney. Collectively, these data indicate that HDAC6 contributes to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI and suggest that HDAC6 inhibitors have therapeutic potential for AKI treatment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Histone deacetylases control neurogenesis in embryonic brain by inhibition of BMP2/4 signaling.

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    Maya Shakèd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone-modifying enzymes are essential for a wide variety of cellular processes dependent upon changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs lead to the compaction of chromatin and subsequent silencing of gene transcription, and they have recently been implicated in a diversity of functions and dysfunctions in the postnatal and adult brain including ocular dominance plasticity, memory consolidation, drug addiction, and depression. Here we investigate the role of HDACs in the generation of neurons and astrocytes in the embryonic brain. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a variety of HDACs are expressed in differentiating neural progenitor cells, we have taken a pharmacological approach to inhibit multiple family members. Inhibition of class I and II HDACs in developing mouse embryos with trichostatin A resulted in a dramatic reduction in neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and a modest increase in neurogenesis in the cortex. An identical effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of HDACs in in vitro-differentiating neural precursors derived from the same brain regions. A reduction in neurogenesis in ganglionic eminence-derived neural precursors was accompanied by an increase in the production of immature astrocytes. We show that HDACs control neurogenesis by inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/4 signaling pathway in radial glial cells. HDACs function at the transcriptional level by inhibiting and promoting, respectively, the expression of Bmp2 and Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of BMP signaling. Inhibition of the BMP2/4 signaling pathway restored normal levels of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis to both ganglionic eminence- and cortex-derived cultures in which HDACs were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a transcriptionally-based regulation of BMP2/4 signaling by HDACs both in vivo and in vitro that is critical for neurogenesis in the ganglionic eminences and that modulates cortical

  2. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, Nicolas; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Biswal, Shyam; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. → HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. → HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. → HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H 2 O 2 -induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  3. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Nicolas [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Thimmulappa, Rajesh [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E. [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ito, Kazuhiro [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom); Barnes, Peter J., E-mail: p.j.barnes@imperial.ac.uk [Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  4. Mechanistic Insights into the Binding of Class IIa HDAC Inhibitors toward Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type-2: A 3D-QSAR and Pharmacophore Modeling Approach.

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    Sinha, Siddharth; Goyal, Sukriti; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Grover, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA-2) type-2 is a rare neurological disorder among the nine polyglutamine disorders, mainly caused by polyQ (CAG) trinucleotide repeats expansion within gene coding ataxin-2 protein. The expanded trinucleotide repeats within the ataxin-2 protein sequesters transcriptional cofactors i.e., CREB-binding protein (CBP), Ataxin-2 binding protein 1 (A2BP1) leading to a state of hypo-acetylation and transcriptional repression. Histone de-acetylases inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported to restore transcriptional balance through inhibition of class IIa HDAC's, that leads to an increased acetylation and transcription as demonstrated through in-vivo studies on mouse models of Huntington's. In this study, 61 di-aryl cyclo-propanehydroxamic acid derivatives were used for developing three dimensional (3D) QSAR and pharmacophore models. These models were then employed for screening and selection of anti-ataxia compounds. The chosen QSAR model was observed to be statistically robust with correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) value of 0.6774, cross-validated correlation coefficient ( q 2 ) of 0.6157 and co-relation coefficient for external test set ( pred _ r 2 ) of 0.7570. A high F -test value of 77.7093 signified the robustness of the model. Two potential drug leads ZINC 00608101 (SEI) and ZINC 00329110 (ACI) were selected after a coalesce procedure of pharmacophore based screening using the pharmacophore model ADDRR.20 and structural analysis using molecular docking and dynamics simulations. The pharmacophore and the 3D-QSAR model generated were further validated for their screening and prediction ability using the enrichment factor (EF), goodness of hit (GH), and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. The compounds SEI and ACI exhibited a docking score of -10.097 and -9.182 kcal/mol, respectively. An evaluation of binding conformation of ligand-bound protein complexes was performed with MD simulations for a time period of 30 ns along with

  5. Role of 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R.; Siddiqui, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Methods Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Results Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8–3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4–1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in

  6. HDACs class II-selective inhibition alters nuclear receptor-dependent differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Angela; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Bugge, Anne; Sarno, Roberta; Valente, Sergio; Rotili, Dante; Manzo, Fabio; Teti, Diana; Mandrup, Susanne; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana; Mai, Antonello; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Altucci, Lucia

    2010-10-01

    Epigenetic deregulation contributes to diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, osteodystrophy, cardiovascular defects, and obesity. For this reason, several inhibitors for histone deacetylases (HDACs) are being validated as novel anti-cancer drugs in clinical studies and display important anti-proliferative activities. While most inhibitors act on both class I, II, and IV HDACs, evidence is accumulating that class I is directly involved in regulation of cell growth and death, whereas class II members regulate differentiation processes, such as muscle and neuronal differentiation. Here, we show that the novel class II-selective inhibitor MC1568 interferes with the RAR- and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-mediated differentiation-inducing signaling pathways. In F9 cells, this inhibitor specifically blocks endodermal differentiation despite not affecting retinoic acid-induced maturation of promyelocytic NB4 cells. In 3T3-L1 cells, MC1568 attenuates PPARγ-induced adipogenesis, while the class I-selective MS275 blocked adipogenesis completely thus revealing a different mode of action and/or target profile of the two classes of HDACs. Using in vivo reporting PPRE-Luc mice, we find that MC1568 impairs PPARγ signaling mostly in the heart and adipose tissues. These results illustrate how HDAC functions can be dissected by selective inhibitors.

  7. Targeting Histone Deacetylases: A Novel Approach in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of movement disorders is increasing day by day. Parkinson’s disease (PD is the most common movement disorder. In general, the clinical manifestations of PD result from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although the exact underlying mechanisms leading to neural cell death in this disease remains unknown, the genetic causes are often established. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the neurological disease conditions. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins are carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs and histone deacetylases (HDACs, respectively. In the recent past, studies with HDAC inhibitors result in beneficial effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Various clinical trials have also been initiated to investigate the possible therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in patients suffering from PD. The possible mechanisms assigned for these neuroprotective actions of HDAC inhibitors involve transcriptional activation of neuronal survival genes and maintenance of histone acetylation homeostasis, both of which have been shown to be dysregulated in PD. In this review, the authors have discussed the putative role of HDAC inhibitors in PD and associated abnormalities and suggest new directions for future research in PD.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair the elimination of HIV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Brad; O'Connor, Rachel; Mueller, Stefanie; Foley, Maria; Szeto, Gregory L; Karel, Dan; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Kovacs, Colin; Ostrowski, Mario A; Trocha, Alicja; Irvine, Darrell J; Walker, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    Resting memory CD4+ T-cells harboring latent HIV proviruses represent a critical barrier to viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), such as suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), romidepsin, and panobinostat have been shown to induce HIV expression in these resting cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate HDACi may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we study the impact of three HDACis in clinical development on T-cell effector functions. We report two modes of HDACi-induced functional impairment: i) the rapid suppression of cytokine production from viable T-cells induced by all three HDACis ii) the selective death of activated T-cells occurring at later time-points following transient exposures to romidepsin or, to a lesser extent, panobinostat. As a net result of these factors, HDACis impaired CTL-mediated IFN-γ production, as well as the elimination of HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed target cells, both in liquid culture and in collagen matrices. Romidepsin exerted greater inhibition of antiviral function than SAHA or panobinostat over the dose ranges tested. These data suggest that treatment with HDACis to mobilize the latent reservoir could have unintended negative impacts on the effector functions of CTL. This could influence the effectiveness of HDACi-based eradication strategies, by impairing elimination of infected cells, and is a critical consideration for trials where therapeutic interruptions are being contemplated, given the importance of CTL in containing rebound viremia.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair the elimination of HIV-infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brad Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting memory CD4+ T-cells harboring latent HIV proviruses represent a critical barrier to viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis, such as suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, romidepsin, and panobinostat have been shown to induce HIV expression in these resting cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate HDACi may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL. Here, we study the impact of three HDACis in clinical development on T-cell effector functions. We report two modes of HDACi-induced functional impairment: i the rapid suppression of cytokine production from viable T-cells induced by all three HDACis ii the selective death of activated T-cells occurring at later time-points following transient exposures to romidepsin or, to a lesser extent, panobinostat. As a net result of these factors, HDACis impaired CTL-mediated IFN-γ production, as well as the elimination of HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed target cells, both in liquid culture and in collagen matrices. Romidepsin exerted greater inhibition of antiviral function than SAHA or panobinostat over the dose ranges tested. These data suggest that treatment with HDACis to mobilize the latent reservoir could have unintended negative impacts on the effector functions of CTL. This could influence the effectiveness of HDACi-based eradication strategies, by impairing elimination of infected cells, and is a critical consideration for trials where therapeutic interruptions are being contemplated, given the importance of CTL in containing rebound viremia.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Henry F., E-mail: Hal.Duncan@dental.tcd.ie [Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fleming, Garry J.P. [Material Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cooper, Paul R. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhances myogenesis by coordinating muscle regulatory factors and myogenic repressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Hiroki [Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Department of Medical Science, Teikyo University of Science, 2-2-1 Senjusakuragi, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-0045 (Japan); Saito, Fumiaki, E-mail: f-saito@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Masaki, Toshihiro [Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Department of Medical Science, Teikyo University of Science, 2-2-1 Senjusakuragi, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-0045 (Japan); Ikeda, Miki; Nakamura-Ohkuma, Ayami; Shimizu, Teruo; Matsumura, Kiichiro [Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of TSA, one of most potent HDACIs, on myogenesis using the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, and suppresses the late MRF, myogenin, after 24 h treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the myogenic repressors, Ids, which inhibit myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA promotes myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors. -- Abstract: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote skeletal muscle formation. However, their mechanisms that include effects on the expression of major muscle components such as the dystrophin-associated proteins complex (DAPC) or myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HDACIs on skeletal muscle formation using the C2C12 cell culture system. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to trichostatin A (TSA), one of the most potent HDACIs, and differentiation was subsequently induced. We found that TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. In addition, TSA increases the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, whereas it suppresses the expression of the late MRF, myogenin. Interestingly, TSA also enhances the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 (Ids). Ids are myogenic repressors that inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that TSA promotes gene expression in proliferation and suppresses it in the differentiation stage of muscle formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TSA enhances myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors.

  12. Biomarkers of histone deacetylase inhibitor activity in a phase 1 combined-modality study with radiotherapy.

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    Anne Hansen Ree

    Full Text Available Following the demonstration that histone deacetylase inhibitors enhanced experimental radiation-induced clonogenic suppression, the Pelvic Radiation and Vorinostat (PRAVO phase 1 study, combining fractionated radiotherapy with daily vorinostat for pelvic carcinoma, was designed to evaluate both clinical and novel biomarker endpoints, the latter relating to pharmacodynamic indicators of vorinostat action in clinical radiotherapy.Potential biomarkers of vorinostat radiosensitizing action, not simultaneously manifesting molecular perturbations elicited by the radiation itself, were explored by gene expression array analysis of study patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, sampled at baseline (T0 and on-treatment two and 24 hours (T2 and T24 after the patients had received vorinostat.This strategy revealed 1,600 array probes that were common for the comparisons T2 versus T0 and T24 versus T2 across all of the patients, and furthermore, that no significantly differential expression was observed between the T0 and T24 groups. Functional annotation analysis of the array data showed that a significant number of identified genes were implicated in gene regulation, the cell cycle, and chromatin biology. Gene expression was validated both in patients' PBMC and in vorinostat-treated human carcinoma xenograft models, and transient repression of MYC was consistently observed.Within the design of the PRAVO study, all of the identified genes showed rapid and transient induction or repression and therefore, in principle, fulfilled the requirement of being pharmacodynamic biomarkers of vorinostat action in fractionated radiotherapy, possibly underscoring the role of MYC in this therapeutic setting.

  13. Design and synthesis of novel HDAC8 inhibitory 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles containing glycine and alanine hybrids with anti cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidugu, Vijaya Rao; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Pedada, Srinivasa Rao; Kalle, Arunasree M; Satya, A Krishna

    2016-11-01

    Oxadiazole is a heterocyclic compound containing an oxygen atom and two nitrogen atoms in a five-membered ring. Of the four oxadiazoles known, 1,3,4-oxadiazole has become an important structural motif for the development of new drugs and the compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole cores have a broad spectrum of biological activity. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles (10a-10j) as class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The compounds were designed and evaluated for HDAC8 selectivity using in silico docking software (Glide) and the top 10 compounds with high dock score and obeying Lipinski's rule were synthesized organically. Further the biological HDAC inhibitory and selectivity assays and anti-proliferative assays were carried out. In in silico and in vitro studies, all compounds (10a-10j) showed significant HDAC inhibition and exhibited HDAC8 selectivity. Among all tested compounds, 10b showed substantial HDAC8 inhibitory activity and better anticancer activity which is comparable to the positive control, a FDA approved drug, vorinostat (SAHA). Structural activity relation is discussed with various substitutions in the benzene ring connected on 1,3,4-oxadizole and glycine/alanine. The study warranted further investigations to develop HDAC8-selective inhibitory molecule as a drug for neoplastic diseases. Novel 1,3,4-oxadizole substituted with glycine/alanine showed HDAC8 inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Co-Expression Pattern of p63 and HDAC1: A Potential Way to Disclose Stem Cells in Interfollicular Epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Won; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Nam, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Sung-Ae; Joe, Hyun-Jae; Kazumi, Toyama; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2017-06-26

    Stem cell markers of interfollicular epidermis (IEF) have not been established thus far. The aim of this study is to suggest a new way to disclose IFE-stem cells by combining the expression of histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and p63. Immunohistochemical staining of HDAC1 and p63 was performed in six normal human samples. Moreover, a skin equivalent (SE) model was treated with suberoylanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA, an HDAC inhibitor) to elucidate the role of HDAC1. Finally, rapidly adhering (RA) keratinocytes to a type IV collagen, which have been identified to represent epidermal stem cells, were subjected to Western blot analysis with antibodies against HDAC1. In normal samples, there was a minor subpopulation comprised of p63-positive and HDAC1-negative cells in the basal layers. The proportion of this subpopulation was decreased with age. In the SE model, SAHA treatment increased the epidermal thickness and number of p63-positive cells in a dose dependent manner. After SAHA treatment, the expression of differentiation markers was decreased, while that of basement membrane markers was increased. In a Western blot analysis, HDAC1 was not expressed in RA cells. In conclusion, the combination of p63-positive and HDAC1-negative expressions can be a potential new way for distinguishing epidermal stem cells.

  15. Combinations of Novel Histone Deacetylase and Bcr-Abl Inhibitors in the Therapy of Imatinib Mesylate-Sensitive and -Refractory Bcr-Abl Expressing Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Cancer Research, a biochemist with a research focus on tumor suppressor and cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways. For more information about...the treatment of cancer. Cell Cycle . 2004;3:779-788. 12. Nimmanapalli R, Fuino L, Stobaugh C, Richon V, Bhalla K. Cotreatment with the histone...deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. Cell Cycle . 2004;3:779-788. 26. Guo F, Sigua C, Tao J, et al. Cotreatment with histone deacetylase

  16. Identification of novel potential scaffold for class I HDACs inhibition: An in-silico protocol based on virtual screening, molecular dynamics, mathematical analysis and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cong; Huang, Yanxin

    2017-09-23

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) family has been widely reported as an important class of enzyme targets for cancer therapy. Much effort has been made in discovery of novel scaffolds for HDACs inhibition besides existing hydroxamic acids, cyclic peptides, benzamides, and short-chain fatty acids. Herein we set up an in-silico protocol which not only could detect potential Zn 2+ chelation bonds but also still adopted non-bonded model to be effective in discovery of Class I HDACs inhibitors, with little human's subjective visual judgment involved. We applied the protocol to screening of Chembridge database and selected out 7 scaffolds, 3 with probability of more than 99%. Biological assay results demonstrated that two of them exhibited HDAC-inhibitory activity and are thus considerable for structure modification to further improve their bio-activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Platinum(IV) prodrugs multiply targeting genomic DNA, histone deacetylases and PARP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zichen; Hu, Weiwei; Wang, Zhimei; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-12-01

    Several Pt(IV) prodrugs containing SAA, a histone deacetylases inhibitor, were designed and prepared for multiply targeting genomic DNA, histone deacetylases and PARP-1. The resulting Pt(IV) prodrug had significantly strong antiproliferative activity against the tested cancer cell lines, especially SAA1, derived from the conjugation of cisplatin and SAA, had potent ability to overcome cisplatin resistance. Under the combined action of DNA platination and inhibition of HDACs and PARP-1 activity, the cytotoxic activity of SAA1 was 174-fold higher than cisplatin against cisplatin-resistant SGC7901/CDDP cancer cells. The mechanism of action of SAA1 was preliminarily investigated, in which cellular uptake, cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as western blot analysis were made by treating SAA1 with SGC7901/CDDP cells. Besides, HDACs inhibition activity and PARP-1 enzyme inhibition of SAA1 were also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Genistein cooperates with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat to induce cell death in prostate cancer cells

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    Phillip Cornel J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among American men, prostate cancer is the most common, non-cutaneous malignancy that accounted for an estimated 241,000 new cases and 34,000 deaths in 2011. Previous studies have suggested that Wnt pathway inhibitory genes are silenced by CpG hypermethylation, and other studies have suggested that genistein can demethylate hypermethylated DNA. Genistein is a soy isoflavone with diverse effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and gene expression that suggest it could be a potential therapeutic agent for prostate cancer. We undertook the present study to investigate the effects of genistein on the epigenome of prostate cancer cells and to discover novel combination approaches of other compounds with genistein that might be of translational utility. Here, we have investigated the effects of genistein on several prostate cancer cell lines, including the ARCaP-E/ARCaP-M model of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, to analyze effects on their epigenetic state. In addition, we investigated the effects of combined treatment of genistein with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat on survival in prostate cancer cells. Methods Using whole genome expression profiling and whole genome methylation profiling, we have determined the genome-wide differences in genetic and epigenetic responses to genistein in prostate cancer cells before and after undergoing the EMT. Also, cells were treated with genistein, vorinostat, and combination treatment, where cell death and cell proliferation was determined. Results Contrary to earlier reports, genistein did not have an effect on CpG methylation at 20 μM, but it did affect histone H3K9 acetylation and induced increased expression of histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1. In addition, genistein also had differential effects on survival and cooperated with the histone deacteylase inhibitor vorinostat to induce cell death and inhibit proliferation. Conclusion Our results suggest that

  19. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

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    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  20. The anti-tumor effect of HDAC inhibition in a human pancreas cancer model is significantly improved by the simultaneous inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2.

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    Olivier Peulen

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with no satisfactory treatment to date. In this study, we tested whether the combined inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and class I histone deacetylase (HDAC may results in a better control of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The impact of the concomitant HDAC and COX-2 inhibition on cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle was assessed first in vitro on human pancreas BxPC-3, PANC-1 or CFPAC-1 cells treated with chemical inhibitors (SAHA, MS-275 and celecoxib or HDAC1/2/3/7 siRNA. To test the potential antitumoral activity of this combination in vivo, we have developed and characterized, a refined chick chorioallantoic membrane tumor model that histologically and proteomically mimics human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The combination of HDAC1/3 and COX-2 inhibition significantly impaired proliferation of BxPC-3 cells in vitro and stalled entirely the BxPC-3 cells tumor growth onto the chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The combination was more effective than either drug used alone. Consistently, we showed that both HDAC1 and HDAC3 inhibition induced the expression of COX-2 via the NF-kB pathway. Our data demonstrate, for the first time in a Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC model, a significant action of HDAC and COX-2 inhibitors on cancer cell growth, which sets the basis for the development of potentially effective new combinatory therapies for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.

  1. Rational design, synthesis and preliminary antitumor activity evaluation of a chlorambucil derivative with potent DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Li, Yan; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2017-09-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role not only in gene expression but also in DNA repair. Herein, we report the successful design, synthesis and evaluation of a chlorambucil derivative named vorambucil with a hydroxamic acid tail as a DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitor. Vorambucil obtained both potent DNA and HDACs inhibitory activities. Molecular docking results supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and rationalized the potent inhibitory activity of vorambucil against HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6. Vorambucil showed potent antiproliferative activity against all the test four cancer cell lines with IC 50 values of as low as 3.2-6.2μM and exhibited 5.0-18.3-fold enhanced antiproliferative activity than chlorambucil. Vorambucil also significantly inhibits colony formation of A375 cancer cells. Further investigation showed that vorambucil remarkably induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle of A375 cells at G2/M phase. Vorambucil could be a promising candidate and a useful tool to elucidate the role of those DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitors for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Fibroadipogenic progenitors mediate the ability of HDAC inhibitors to promote regeneration in dystrophic muscles of young, but not old Mdx mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mozzetta , Chiara; Consalvi , Silvia; Sacco , Valentina; Tierney , Matthew; Diamantini , Adamo; Mitchell , Kathryn J.; Marazzi , Giovanna; Borsellino , Giovanna; Battistini , Luca; Sassoon , David; Sacco , Alessandra; Puri , Pier Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    International audience; HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exert beneficial effects in mdx mice, by promoting endogenous regeneration; however, the cellular determinants of HDACi activity on dystrophic muscles have not been determined. We show that fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAP) influence the regeneration potential of satellite cells during disease progression in mdx mice and mediate HDACi ability to selectively promote regeneration at early stages of disease. FAPs from young mdx mice promote, while ...

  3. Radiosensitization of colorectal carcinoma cell lines by histone deacetylase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatmark, Kjersti; Nome, Ragnhild V; Folkvord, Sigurd; Bratland, Åse; Rasmussen, Heidi; Ellefsen, Mali Strand; Fodstad, Øystein; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2006-01-01

    The tumor response to preoperative radiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer varies greatly, warranting the use of experimental models to assay the efficacy of molecular targeting agents in rectal cancer radiosensitization. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and thereby remodeling of chromatin structure, may override cell cycle checkpoint responses to DNA damage and amplify radiation-induced tumor cell death. Human colorectal carcinoma cell lines were exposed to ionizing radiation and HDAC inhibitors, and cell cycle profiles and regulatory factors, as well as clonogenicity, were analyzed. In addition to G 2 /M phase arrest following irradiation, the cell lines displayed cell cycle responses typical for either intact or defective p53 function (the presence or absence, respectively, of radiation-induced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and subsequent accumulation of G 1 phase cells). In contrast, histone acetylation was associated with complete depletion of the G 1 population of cells with functional p53 but accumulation of both G 1 and G 2 /M populations of cells with defective p53. The cellular phenotypes upon HDAC inhibition were consistent with the observed repression of Polo-like kinase-1, a regulatory G 2 /M phase kinase. Following pre-treatment with HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical investigation, the inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on clonogenicity was significantly amplified. In these experimental models, HDAC inhibition sensitized the tumor cells to ionizing radiation, which is in accordance with the concept of increased probability of tumor cell death when chromatin structure is modified

  4. HDAC6 Inhibitors Rescued the Defective Axonal Mitochondrial Movement in Motor Neurons Derived from the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with HSPB1 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2F (CMT2F and distal hereditary motor neuropathy 2B (dHMN2B are caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations of the heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1 gene and there are no specific therapies available yet. Here, we assessed the potential therapeutic effect of HDAC6 inhibitors on peripheral neuropathy with HSPB1 mutation using in vitro model of motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs of CMT2F and dHMN2B patients. The absolute velocity of mitochondrial movements and the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons were lower both in CMT2F-motor neurons and in dHMN2B-motor neurons than those in controls, and the severity of the defective mitochondrial movement was different between the two disease models. CMT2F-motor neurons and dHMN2B-motor neurons also showed reduced α-tubulin acetylation compared with controls. The newly developed HDAC6 inhibitors, CHEMICAL X4 and CHEMICAL X9, increased acetylation of α-tubulin and reversed axonal movement defects of mitochondria in CMT2F-motor neurons and dHMN2B-motor neurons. Our results suggest that the neurons derived from patient-specific iPSCs can be used in drug screening including HDAC6 inhibitors targeting peripheral neuropathy.

  5. SAHA decreases HDAC 2 and 4 levels in vivo and improves molecular phenotypes in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

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    Michal Mielcarek

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurological disorder for which there are no disease-modifying treatments. Transcriptional dysregulation is a major molecular feature of HD, which significantly contributes to disease progression. Therefore, the development of histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors as therapeutics for HD has been energetically pursued. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA - a class I HDAC as well an HDAC6 inhibitor, improved motor impairment in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Recently it has been found that SAHA can also promote the degradation of HDAC4 and possibly other class IIa HDACs at the protein level in various cancer cell lines. To elucidate whether SAHA is a potent modifier of HDAC protein levels in vivo, we performed two independent mouse trials. Both WT and R6/2 mice were chronically treated with SAHA and vehicle. We found that prolonged SAHA treatment causes the degradation of HDAC4 in cortex and brain stem, but not hippocampus, without affecting its transcript levels in vivo. Similarly, SAHA also decreased HDAC2 levels without modifying the expression of its mRNA. Consistent with our previous data, SAHA treatment diminishes Hdac7 transcript levels in both wild type and R6/2 brains and unexpectedly was found to decrease Hdac11 in R6/2 but not wild type. We investigated the effects of SAHA administration on well-characterised molecular readouts of disease progression. We found that SAHA reduces SDS-insoluble aggregate load in the cortex and brain stem but not in the hippocampus of the R6/2 brains, and that this was accompanied by restoration of Bdnf cortical transcript levels.

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 enhances E7-specific CD8⁺ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity induced by therapeutic HPV DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Yong; Huang, Zhuomin; Kang, Tae Heung; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Knoff, Jayne; Axenfeld, Ellen; Wang, Chenguang; Alvarez, Ronald D; Chen, Ching-Shih; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2013-10-01

    We have previously created a potent DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin linked to the human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic protein E7 (CRT/E7). While treatment with the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine generates significant tumor-specific immune responses in vaccinated mice, the potency with the DNA vaccine could potentially be improved by co-administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) as HDACi has been shown to increase the expression of MHC class I and II molecules. Thus, we aimed to determine whether co-administration of a novel HDACi, AR-42, with therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines could improve the activation of HPV antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, resulting in potent therapeutic antitumor effects. To do so, HPV-16 E7-expressing murine TC-1 tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with AR-42 and/or CRT/E7 DNA vaccine via gene gun. Mice were monitored for E7-specific CD8(+) T cell immune responses and antitumor effects. TC-1 tumor-bearing mice treated with AR-42 and CRT/E7 DNA vaccine experienced longer survival, decreased tumor growth, and enhanced E7-specific immune response compared to mice treated with AR-42 or CRT/E7 DNA vaccine alone. Additionally, treatment of TC-1 cells with AR-42 increased the surface expression of MHC class I molecules and increased the susceptibility of tumor cells to the cytotoxicity of E7-specific T cells. This study indicates the ability of AR-42 to significantly enhance the potency of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine by improving tumor-specific immune responses and antitumor effects. Both AR-42 and CRT/E7 DNA vaccines have been used in independent clinical trials; the current study serves as foundation for future clinical trials combining both treatments in cervical cancer therapy. AR-42, a novel HDAC inhibitor, enhances potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines AR-42 treatment leads to strong E7-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses AR-42 improves tumor-specific immunity and antitumor effects elicited by HPV DNA vaccine AR-42 is more potent than

  7. Quiescence Promotes Latent HIV Infection and Resistance to Reactivation from Latency with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Mark M; Zaikos, Thomas D; Collins, Kathleen L

    2017-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes transcriptionally silent latent infections in resting memory T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allows the virus to persist in infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. Developing in vitro models of HIV-1 latency that recapitulate the characteristics of latently infected cells in vivo is crucial to identifying and developing effective latency-reversing therapies. HSPCs exist in a quiescent state in vivo , and quiescence is correlated with latent infections in T cells. However, current models for culturing HSPCs and for infecting T cells in vitro require that the cells be maintained in an actively proliferating state. Here we describe a novel culture system in which primary human HSPCs cultured under hypothermic conditions are maintained in a quiescent state. We show that these quiescent HSPCs are susceptible to predominantly latent infection with HIV-1, while actively proliferating and differentiating HSPCs obtain predominantly active infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the most primitive quiescent HSPCs are more resistant to spontaneous reactivation from latency than more differentiated HSPCs and that quiescent HSPCs are resistant to reactivation by histone deacetylase inhibitors or P-TEFb activation but are susceptible to reactivation by protein kinase C (PKC) agonists. We also demonstrate that inhibition of HSP90, a known regulator of HIV transcription, recapitulates the quiescence and latency phenotypes of hypothermia, suggesting that hypothermia and HSP90 inhibition may regulate these processes by similar mechanisms. In summary, these studies describe a novel model for studying HIV-1 latency in human primary cells maintained in a quiescent state. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a persistent infection for which there remains no feasible cure. Current approaches are unable to clear the virus despite decades of therapy due

  8. [Study on the immune functions of dendritic cells regulated by histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W H; Mao, H; Chen, W R; Yue, X T; Wei, X X; Li, D P; Xu, K L; Huang, Y H

    2018-01-14

    Objective: To explore effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat on the immunologic function of dendritic cells (DC) and its possible mechanism. Methods: Cultured mouse bone marrow-derived DC from C57BL/6 mouse in vitro . The experiments were divided into 0, 50, 100 nmol/L Belinostat + immature DC (imDC) group, and 0, 50, 100 nmol/L Belinostat mature DC (mDC). The changes of the ultrastructure of DC were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immunophenotype and CCR7 expression rate were detected by FCM, and the migration rate was observed by chemotaxis assay. The proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated by different DC was detected by mixed lymphocyte culture reaction. The cytokines in the culture supernatant, including TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-10, were examined by ELISA. RQ-PCR was used to examine the relative expression of mRNA in RelB. Results: Successful cultured and identified the qualified imDC and mDC. Belinostat decreased the expression of CCR7 on imDC [(25.82±7.25)% vs (50.44±5.61)% and (18.71±2.00)% vs (50.44±5.61)%], meanwhile increased the rate on mDC [(71.14±1.96)% vs (64.90±1.47)%]. Chemotaxis assay showed that the migration rate of Belinostat+imDC and Belinostat+mDC group were both decreased, but the difference in imDC was not significant. T lymphocyte proliferation rate stimulated by 100 nmol/L Belinostat+imDC group was lower than imDC group in condition irritation cell∶reaction cell=1∶2 [(227.09±13.49)% vs (309.49±53.69)%]. Belinostat significantly suppressed the secretion of cytokines TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-10 (all P <0.01). The relative expression of mRNA in RelB was slightly decreased in Belinostat+imDC and Belinostat+mDC group (all P <0.05). Conclusion: Belinostat could effectly suppress DC maturation and regulate immune tolerance of DC, which may be due to the down-regulation of mRNA level of RelB in DC.

  9. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Cui

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA and sodium butyrate (NaB to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces hypothyroidism-induced neurodevelopmental defects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Chagtoo, Megha; Godbole, Madan M

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) through its receptor (TRα/β) influences spatio-temporal regulation of its target gene repertoire during brain development. Though hypothyroidism in WT rodent models of perinatal hypothyroidism severely impairs neurodevelopment, its effect on TRα/β knockout mice is less severe. An explanation to this paradox is attributed to a possible repressive action of unliganded TRs during development. Since unliganded TRs suppress gene expression through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDACs) via co-repressor complexes, we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of HDACs may prevent the effects of hypothyroidism on brain development. Using valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, we show that HDAC inhibition significantly blocks the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on rat cerebellum, evident by recovery of TH target genes like Bdnf, Pcp2 and Mbp as well as improved dendritic structure of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Together with this, HDAC inhibition also rescues hypothyroidism-induced motor and cognitive defects. This study therefore provides an insight into the role of HDACs in TH insufficiency during neurodevelopment and their inhibition as a possible therapeutics for treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor α = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor β = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations

  12. Sonic hedgehog-induced histone deacetylase activation is required for cerebellar granule precursor hyperplasia in medulloblastoma.

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    Seung Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease.

  13. Characterization of cells resistant to the potent histone deacetylase inhibitor spiruchostatin B (SP-B) and effect of overexpressed p21waf1/cip1 on the SP-B resistance or susceptibility of human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Tomizawa, Ayako; Yomogida, Shin; Katoh, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    2012-09-01

    We previously showed that the B cell leukemia cell line NALM-6 had the highest susceptibility among a number of leukemia cell lines to spiruchostatin B (SP-B), a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. We also showed that SP-B-induced cytotoxicity depended on induction of apoptosis that was mediated by p21waf1/cip1 expression. In the present study, we generated and characterized a stable, SP-B-resistant NALM-6 cell line (NALM-6/SP-B) by continuous exposure to SP-B, starting with a low SP-B concentration. NALM-6/SP-B cells were also more resistant to FK228, which has a similar chemical structure to SP-B, and were slightly more resistant to the P-gp substrates doxorubicin and vincristine than parental cells, but displayed similar susceptibility to other HDAC inhibitors and to paclitaxel as the parental cells. There was little change in the basal mRNA expression of HDAC1, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, Fas, caspase-3, c-Myc and MDR1 in NALM-6/SP-B compared to parental cells, but the mRNA expression of p21waf1/cip1 was decreased. The introduction of an exogenous p21waf1/cip1 expression vector restored SP-B induction of NALM-6/SP-B cell apoptosis. Moreover, overexpressed p21waf1/cip1 enhanced SP-B induction of the apoptosis of the human erythroleukemia leukemia cell line K562 which is less susceptible to SP-B than NALM-6 cells. These results suggest that downregulation of p21waf1/cip1, which is a characteristic feature of NALM-6/SP-B cells, was important for their resistance to SP-B, and that this SP-B resistance could be overcome by the introduction of exogenous p21waf1/cip1. Furthermore, introduction of p21waf1/cip1 to other leukemia cells such as K562 may enhance their susceptibility to SP-B. This is the first report of the characterization of SP-B-resistant cells and of the effect of overexpressed p21waf1/cip1 on the resistance or susceptibility of human leukemia cells to SP-B.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

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    Zhai, Yingying; Chen, Xi; Yu, Dehai [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Tao [Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Hu, Ji-Fan, E-mail: jifan@stanford.edu [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Wei, E-mail: jdyylw@163.com [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming.

  15. Design and Synthesis of Mercaptoacetamides as Potent, Selective, and Brain Permeable Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lv, W.; Zhang, G.; Bařinka, Cyril; Eubanks, J. H.; Kozikowski, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2017), s. 510-515 ISSN 1948-5875 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA15-19640S Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : CANCER * HDAC6 * DISEASES * TARGET Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2016

  16. HDAC6 Inhibition Promotes Transcription Factor EB Activation and Is Protective in Experimental Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Brijmohan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To contend with the deleterious effects of accumulating misfolded protein aggregates or damaged organelles cells rely on a system of quality control processes, among them the autophagy-lysosome pathway. This pathway is itself controlled by a master regulator transcription factor termed transcription factor EB (TFEB. When TFEB localizes to the cell nucleus it promotes the expression of a number of genes involved in protein clearance. Here, we set out to determine (1 whether TFEB expression is altered in chronic kidney disease (CKD; (2 whether inhibition of the cytosolic deacetylase histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 affects TFEB acetylation and nuclear localization; and (3 whether HDAC6 inhibition, in turn, alters the natural history of experimental CKD. TFEB mRNA and protein levels were observed to be diminished in the kidneys of humans with diabetic kidney disease, accompanied by accumulation of the protein aggregate adaptor protein p62 in tubule epithelial cells. In cultured NRK-52E cells, HDAC6 inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Tubastatin A acetylated TFEB, increasing TFEB localization to the nucleus and attenuating cell death. In a rat model of CKD, Tubastatin A prevented the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates in tubule epithelial cells, attenuated proteinuria progression, limited tubule cell death and diminished tubulointerstitial collagenous matrix deposition. These findings point to the common occurrence of dysregulated quality control processes in CKD and they suggest that TFEB downregulation may contribute to tubule injury in CKD. They also identify a regulatory relationship between HDAC6 and TFEB. HDAC6 inhibitors and TFEB activators both warrant further investigation as treatments for CKD.

  17. Histone deacetylase 1 phosphorylation at S421 and S423 is constitutive in vivo, but dispensable in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwowska-Desaulniers, Paulina; Ketko, Anastasia; Kamath, Nayana; Pflum, Mary Kay H.

    2007-01-01

    Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is a transcriptional regulator associated with proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis, although its precise cellular role is unclear. HDAC1 was previously characterized as a phosphoprotein where mutation of phosphorylated S421 and S423 resulted in a loss of deacetylase activity and protein association. Here, the role of phosphorylation in regulating HDAC1 function was examined using phospho-specific antibodies. The antibody studies revealed that phosphorylation at S421 and S423 is constant during the cell cycle, under stress conditions, or in the presence of kinase or phosphatase inhibitors. Further, phosphorylation is dispensable for catalysis or protein association in vitro, as revealed by phosphatase studies. Truncation mutants of HDAC1 demonstrated that binding to Sin3A is promoted by S421 and S423 phosphorylation, while interaction with RbAp48 is not. Taken together, the data are consistent with constitutive phosphorylation of HDAC1 at S421 and S423 in vivo, which is dispensable for activity in vitro

  18. Mechanism and stereoselectivity of HDAC I inhibition by (R)-9-hydroxystearic acid in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Carola; Calonghi, Natalia; Presta, Enrica; Boga, Carla; Caruana, Paolo; Naldi, Marina; Andrisano, Vincenza; Masotti, Lanfranco; Sartor, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    9-Hydroxystearic acid (9-HSA) belongs to the endogenous lipid peroxidation by-products that decrease in tumors, causing as a consequence the loss of one of the control mechanisms on cell division. It acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC, E.C 3.5.1.98) inhibitor, and the interaction of the two enantiomers of 9-HSA with the catalytic site of the enzyme, investigated by using a molecular modelling approach, has been reported to be different. In this work we tested out this prediction by synthesizing the two enantiomers (R)-9-HSA (R-9) and (S)-9-HSA (S-9) starting from the natural source methyl dimorphecolate obtained from Dimorphotheca sinuata seeds and investigating their biological activity in HT29 cells. Both enantiomers inhibit the enzymatic activity of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3, R-9 being more active; R-9 and S-9 inhibitory effect induces an increase in histone H4 acetylation. We also demonstrate that the antiproliferative effect brought about by R-9 is more pronounced as well as we observe increase of p21 transcription and protein content, while the expression of cyclin D1 is decreased. Starting from these observations it can be hypothesized that the interaction of R-9 with HDAC1 induce conformational changes in the enzyme causing loss of its interaction with other proteins, like cyclin D1 itself. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the HDAC1 complex that regulates the sensitivity of cancer cells to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takuya; Shimono, Yohei; Hasegawa, Masaki; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Masahide

    2009-04-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are involved in carcinogenesis through their regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The inhibitors of HDAC exhibit profound synergistic effects in cancer treatment when combined with other anticancer drugs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this synergy are not fully understood. Here, we show that HDAC1 increases the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative stress by negatively regulating the expression of thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2). We found that the recruitment of HDAC1 to the TBP-2 promoter is mediated by a protein complex consisting of RET finger protein (RFP; also called TRIM27) and the trimeric transcription factor NF-Y. Accordingly, RNA interference-mediated depletion of RFP led to the disruption of the protein complex and a marked increase in the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin, a potent inducer of oxidative stress. Furthermore, high levels of RFP expression correlated with down-regulation of TBP-2 in human colon cancers and were associated with poor clinical outcome. These findings reveal the diverse cancer-promoting activities of HDAC1 and identify RFP as a key regulator that provides cancer cells with resistance to anticancer drugs.

  20. Beta-adrenergic signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis and prostate cancer progression through HDAC2-mediated suppression of thrombospondin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsurkar, M; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; Li, X; Zheng, D; Li, W

    2017-03-01

    Chronic behavioral stress and beta-adrenergic signaling have been shown to promote cancer progression, whose underlying mechanisms are largely unclear, especially the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), an epigenetic regulator, is critical for stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy. It is unknown whether it is necessary for beta-adrenergic signaling-promoted cancer progression. Using xenograft models, we showed that chronic behavioral stress and beta-adrenergic signaling promote angiogenesis and prostate cancer progression. HDAC2 was induced by beta-adrenergic signaling in vitro and in mouse xenografts. We next uncovered that HDAC2 is a direct target of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) that is activated by beta-adrenergic signaling. Notably, HDAC2 is necessary for beta-adrenergic signaling to induce angiogenesis. We further demonstrated that, upon CREB activation, HDAC2 represses thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, through epigenetic regulation. Together, these data establish a novel pathway that HDAC2 and TSP1 act downstream of CREB activation in beta-adrenergic signaling to promote cancer progression.

  1. The HDAC inhibitor SB939 overcomes resistance to BCR-ABL kinase Inhibitors conferred by the BIM deletion polymorphism in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzan, Muhammad; Chuah, Charles T H; Ko, Tun Kiat; Ong, S Tiong

    2017-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment has been improved by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate (IM) but various factors can cause TKI resistance in patients with CML. One factor which contributes to TKI resistance is a germline intronic deletion polymorphism in the BCL2-like 11 (BIM) gene which impairs the expression of pro-apoptotic splice isoforms of BIM. SB939 (pracinostat) is a hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitor with favorable pharmacokinetic, physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties, and we investigated if this drug could overcome BIM deletion polymorphism-induced TKI resistance. We found that SB939 corrects BIM pre-mRNA splicing in CML cells with the BIM deletion polymorphism, and induces apoptotic cell death in CML cell lines and primary cells with the BIM deletion polymorphism. More importantly, SB939 both decreases the viability of CML cell lines and primary CML progenitors with the BIM deletion and restores TKI-sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that SB939 overcomes BIM deletion polymorphism-induced TKI resistance, and suggest that SB939 may be useful in treating CML patients with BIM deletion-associated TKI resistance.

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by valproic acid blocks adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace, Diane C; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2004-04-30

    Adipogenesis is dependent on the sequential activation of transcription factors including the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). We show that the mood stabilizing drug valproic acid (VPA; 0.5-2 mm) inhibits mouse 3T3 L1 and human preadipocyte differentiation, likely through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory properties. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also inhibited adipogenesis, whereas the VPA analog valpromide, which does not possess HDAC inhibitory effects, did not prevent adipogenesis. Acute or chronic VPA treatment inhibited differentiation yet did not affect mitotic clonal expansion. VPA (1 mm) inhibited PPARgamma induced differentiation but does not activate a PPARgamma reporter gene, suggesting that it is not a PPARgamma ligand. VPA or TSA treatment reduced mRNA and protein levels of PPARgamma and SREBP1a. TSA reduced C/EBPalpha mRNA and protein levels, whereas VPA only produced a decrease in C/EBPalpha protein expression. Overall our results highlight a role for HDAC activity in adipogenesis that can be blocked by treatment with VPA.

  3. Synergistic interaction between the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor ST2782 and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in platinum-sensitive and resistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Corna, Elisabetta; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Zunino, Franco; Perego, Paola

    2012-08-01

    The ability of histone deacetylase inhibitors to modulate the expression of genes relevant for growth or apoptotis regulation supports their interest in combination treatments of resistant tumors. We explored the effect of the combination of the histone deacetylase inhibitor ST2782 and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in ovarian carcinoma cell lines, including the IGROV-1 cell line and two p53 mutant platinum-resistant sublines (IGROV-1/OHP and IGROV-1/Pt1). We found a synergistic interaction between the two drugs, more evident in the p53-mutant resistant sublines, which was associated with increa sed apoptosis. The treatment with ST2782 resulted in early induction of Bax as well as in cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase only in the resistant cell lines. The inhibition of p53-transcriptional transactivation by pifithrin alpha in IGROV-1 cells enhanced the synergism. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 in IGROV-1 cells determined synergism reduction. These opposite effects support the relevance of the transactivation-deficient mutant p53 as a synergism determinant. Moreover, in vivo studies indicated that tumor growth inhibition tended to be more evident in mice receiving the drug combination than in those treated with bortezomib alone. Overall, our study supports the potential effectiveness of the combination in platinum drug-resistant ovarian cancer carrying mutant p53. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unlocking the chromatin of adenoid cystic carcinomas using HDAC inhibitors sensitize cancer stem cells to cisplatin and induces tumor senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana O. Almeida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an uncommon malignancy of the salivary glands that is characterized by local recurrence and distant metastasis due to its resistance to conventional therapy. Platinum-based therapies have been extensively explored as a treatment for ACC, but they show little effectiveness. Studies have shown that a specific group of tumor cells, harboring characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, are involved in chemoresistance of myeloid leukemias, breast, colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas. Therapeutic strategies that target CSCs improve the survival of patients by decreasing the rates of tumor relapse, and epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, have shown promising results in targeting CSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of the HDACi Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, and cisplatin, alone or in combination, on CSCs and non-CSCs from ACC. We used CSCs as a biological marker for tumor resistance to therapy in patient-derived xenograft (PDX samples and ACC primary cells. We found that cisplatin reduced tumor viability, but enriched the population of CSCs. Systemic administration of Vorinostat reduced the number of detectable CSCs in vivo and in vitro, and a low dose of Vorinostat decreased tumor cell viability. However, the combination of Vorinostat and cisplatin was extremely effective in depleting CSCs and reducing tumor viability in all ACC primary cells by activating cellular senescence. These observations suggest that HDACi and intercalating agents act more efficiently in combination to destroy tumor cells and their stem cells.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  6. Synergistic reactivation of latent HIV-1 provirus by PKA activator dibutyryl-cAMP in combination with an HDAC inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoyong; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Son, Junseock; Shin, Younghyun; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Kang, Chun; Choi, Byeong-Sun

    2017-01-02

    HIV-1 reservoirs remain a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can successfully reduce viral replication, it cannot reactivate HIV-1 provirus in this reservoir. Therefore, HIV-1 provirus reactivation strategies by cell activation or epigenetic modification are proposed for the eradication of HIV-1 reservoirs. Although treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) activator cyclic AMP (cAMP) or epigenetic modifying agents such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) alone can induce HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected cells, the synergism of these agents has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we observed that treatment with 500μM of dibutyryl-cAMP, 1μM of vorinostat, or 1μM of trichostatin A alone effectively reactivated HIV-1 in both ACH2 and NCHA1 cells latently infected with HIV-1 without cytotoxicity. In addition, treatment with the PKA inhibitor KT5720 reduced the increased HIV-1 p24 level in the supernatant of these cells. After dibutyryl-cAMP treatment, we found an increased level of the PKA substrate phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. When we treated cells with a combination of dibutyryl-cAMP and vorinostat or trichostatin A, the levels of HIV-1 p24 in the supernatant and levels of intracellular HIV-1 p24 were dramatically increased in both ACH2 and NCHA1 cells compared with those treated with a single agent. These results suggest that combined treatment with a PKA activator and an HDACi is effective for reactivating HIV-1 in latently infected cells, and may be an important approach to eradicate HIV-1 reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcription-dependent association of HDAC2 with active chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sanzida; Sun, Jian-Min; He, Shihua; Davie, James R

    2018-02-01

    Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) catalyzes deacetylation of histones at the promoter and coding regions of transcribed genes and regulates chromatin structure and transcription. To explore the role of HDAC2 and phosphorylated HDAC2 in gene regulation, we studied the location along transcribed genes, the mode of recruitment and the associated proteins with HDAC2 and HDAC2S394ph in chicken polychromatic erythrocytes. We show that HDAC2 and HDAC2S394ph are associated with transcriptionally active chromatin and located in the interchromatin channels. HDAC2S394ph was present primarly at the upstream promoter region of the transcribed CA2 and GAS41 genes, while total HDAC2 was also found within the coding region of the CA2 gene. Recruitment of HDAC2 to these genes was partially dependent upon on-going transcription. Unmodified HDAC2 was associated with RNA binding proteins and interacted with RNA bound to the initiating and elongating forms of RNA polymerase II. HDAC2S394ph was not associated with RNA polymerase II. These results highlight the differential properties of unmodified and phosphorylated HDAC2 and the organization of acetylated transcriptionally active chromatin in the chicken polychromatic erythrocyte. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors sensitize lung cancer cells to hyperthermia: involvement of Ku70/SirT-1 in thermo-protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K Hassan

    Full Text Available This study describes the sensitization mechanism to thermal stress by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs in lung cancer cells and shows that Ku70, based on its acetylation status, mediates the protection of lung cancer from hyperthermia (42.5°C, 1-6 hrs. Ku70 regulates apoptosis by sequestering pro-apoptotic Bax. However, its role in thermal stress is not fully understood. The findings showed that, pre-treating lung cancer cells with HDACIs, nicotinamide (NM or Trichostatin A (TsA or both significantly enhanced hyperthermia-induced Bax-dependent apoptosis in PC-10 cells. We found that hyperthermia induces SirT-1, Sirtuin, upregulation but not HDAC6 or SirT-3, therefore transfection with dominant negative SirT-1 (Y/H also eliminated the protection and resulted in more cell death by hyperthermia, in H1299 cells through Bax activation. Hyperthermia alone primed lung cancer cells to apoptosis without prominent death. After hyperthermia Bax was upregulated, Bcl-2 was downregulated, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was inversed and Bax/Bcl-2 heterodimer was dissociated. Although hyperthermia did not affect total Ku70 expression level, it stimulated Ku70 deacetylation, which in turn could bind more Bax in the PC-10 cells. These findings suggest an escape mechanism from hyperthermia-induced Bax activation. To verify the role of Ku70 in this protection mechanism, Ku70 was silenced by siRNA. Ku70 silencing significantly sensitized the lung cancer cells to hyperthermia. The Ku70 KD cells underwent cytotoxic G1 arrest and caspase-dependant apoptosis when compared to scrambled transfectants which showed only G2/M cytostatic arrest in the cell lines investigated, suggesting an additional cell cycle-dependent, novel, role of Ku70 in protection from hyperthermia. Taken together, our data show a Ku70-dependent protection mechanism from hyperthermia. Targeting Ku70 and/or its acetylation during hyperthermia may represent a promising therapeutic approach for lung cancer.

  9. DNA microarray profiling of genes differentially regulated by the histone deacetylase inhibitors vorinostat and LBH589 in colon cancer cell lines

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    Lenz Heinz-Josef

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the significant progress made in colon cancer chemotherapy, advanced disease remains largely incurable and novel efficacious chemotherapies are urgently needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi represent a novel class of agents which have demonstrated promising preclinical activity and are undergoing clinical evaluation in colon cancer. The goal of this study was to identify genes in colon cancer cells that are differentially regulated by two clinically advanced hydroxamic acid HDACi, vorinostat and LBH589 to provide rationale for novel drug combination partners and identify a core set of HDACi-regulated genes. Methods HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with LBH589 or vorinostat and growth inhibition, acetylation status and apoptosis were analyzed in response to treatment using MTS, Western blotting and flow cytometric analyses. In addition, gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina Human-6 V2 BeadChip array and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis. Results Treatment with either vorinostat or LBH589 rapidly induced histone acetylation, cell cycle arrest and inhibited the growth of both HCT116 and HT29 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of the microarray profiling revealed significant similarity in the genes altered in expression following treatment with the two HDACi tested within each cell line. However, analysis of genes that were altered in expression in the HCT116 and HT29 cells revealed cell-line-specific responses to HDACi treatment. In addition a core cassette of 11 genes modulated by both vorinostat and LBH589 were identified in both colon cancer cell lines analyzed. Conclusion This study identified HDACi-induced alterations in critical genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell survival which may represent potential intervention points for novel therapeutic combinations in colon cancer. This information will assist in the identification of novel pathways and targets

  10. Chromatin changes induced by lamin A/C deficiency and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Bártová, Eva; Raška, Ivan; Kroupová, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2008), s. 291-303 ISSN 0171-9335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5004306; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC084; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : lamin A/C * chromatin * HDAC inhibition Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2008

  11. Combined PDGFR and HDAC Inhibition Overcomes PTEN Disruption in Chordoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    Full Text Available The majority of chordomas show activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. Based on in vitro intertumoral variation in response to recombinant PDGF protein and PDGFR inhibition, and variable tumor response to imatinib, we hypothesized that chordomas resistant to PDGFR inhibition may possess downstream activation of the pathway.Molecular profiling was performed on 23 consecutive chordoma primary tissue specimens. Primary cultures established from 20 of the 23 specimens, and chordoma cell lines, UCH-1 and UCH-2, were used for in vitro experiments.Loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN locus was observed in 6 specimens (26%. PTEN disruption statistically correlated with increased Ki-67 proliferation index, an established marker of poor outcome for chordoma. Compared to wild type, PTEN deficient chordomas displayed increased proliferative rate, and responded less favorably to PDGFR inhibition. PTEN gene restoration abrogated this growth advantage. Chordomas are characterized by intratumoral hypoxia and local invasion, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are capable of attenuating both hypoxic signaling and cell migration. The combination of PDGFR and HDAC inhibition effectively disrupted growth and invasion of PTEN deficient chordoma cells.Loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN gene seen in a subset of chordomas is associated with aggressive in vitro behavior and strongly correlates with increased Ki-67 proliferative index. Combined inhibition of PDGFR and HDAC attenuates proliferation and invasion in chordoma cells deficient for PTEN.

  12. Combined PDGFR and HDAC Inhibition Overcomes PTEN Disruption in Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Zhang, Ying; Kassam, Amin B; Park, Myung-Jin; Gardner, Paul; Prevedello, Daniel; Henry, Stephanie; Horbinski, Craig; Beumer, Jan H; Tawbi, Hussein; Williams, Brian J; Shaffrey, Mark E; Egorin, Merrill J; Abounader, Roger; Park, Deric M

    2015-01-01

    The majority of chordomas show activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Based on in vitro intertumoral variation in response to recombinant PDGF protein and PDGFR inhibition, and variable tumor response to imatinib, we hypothesized that chordomas resistant to PDGFR inhibition may possess downstream activation of the pathway. Molecular profiling was performed on 23 consecutive chordoma primary tissue specimens. Primary cultures established from 20 of the 23 specimens, and chordoma cell lines, UCH-1 and UCH-2, were used for in vitro experiments. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) locus was observed in 6 specimens (26%). PTEN disruption statistically correlated with increased Ki-67 proliferation index, an established marker of poor outcome for chordoma. Compared to wild type, PTEN deficient chordomas displayed increased proliferative rate, and responded less favorably to PDGFR inhibition. PTEN gene restoration abrogated this growth advantage. Chordomas are characterized by intratumoral hypoxia and local invasion, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are capable of attenuating both hypoxic signaling and cell migration. The combination of PDGFR and HDAC inhibition effectively disrupted growth and invasion of PTEN deficient chordoma cells. Loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN gene seen in a subset of chordomas is associated with aggressive in vitro behavior and strongly correlates with increased Ki-67 proliferative index. Combined inhibition of PDGFR and HDAC attenuates proliferation and invasion in chordoma cells deficient for PTEN.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 induces a G1-phase arrest in neuroblastoma cells through altered expression of cell cycle proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Krista; de Ruijter, Annemieke J. M.; van Bree, Chris; Caron, Huib N.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.

    2005-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been discovered as potential drugs for cancer treatment. The effect of BL1521, a novel HDACi, on the cell cycle distribution and the induction of apoptosis was investigated in a panel of MYCN single copy and MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. BL1521

  14. Docking and QSAR Studies of Aryl-valproic Acid Derivatives to Identify Antiproliferative Agents Targeting the HDAC8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pacheco, Heidy; Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Vergara-Arias, Midalia; Gertsch, Jurg; Fragoso-Vazquez, Jonathan Manuel; Mendez-Luna, David; Abujamra, A L; Cristina, Cabrera-Perez Laura; Cecilia, Rosales-Hernandez Martha; Mendoza-Lujambio, I; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a plausible target for the development of novel anticancer drugs using a metal-chelating group and hydrophobic moieties as pharmacophores. It is known that valproic acid (administered as its salt, sodium valproate; VPANa+) is an HDAC8 inhibitor characterized by its hydrophobic chains. Nevertheless, VPA is hepatotoxic and VPA analogues might be explored for less hepatotoxic antiproliferative compounds. In this work, docking and QSAR studies of 500 aryl-VPA derivatives as possible HDAC8 inhibitors were performed in order to explore and select potential anti-proliferative compounds. Docking results identified π-π, hydrogen bonds as the most important noncovalent interactions between HDAC8 (PDB: 3F07) and the ligands tested, whereas Belm4 was the best QSAR descriptor and classified as a 2D-BCUT descriptor. Based on theoretical studies, compound DAVP042 was synthesized and evaluated in vitro for its antiproliferative activities on several cancer cell lines (A549-lung, MCF-7-breast, HCT116-colon and U937- lymphoid tissue) in comparison to VPA, as well as for its inhibitory activity on HDAC8 using in vitro models. DAVP042 demonstrated to have antiproliferative activity on all cancer cell lines employed, not only suggesting that this compound should be further studied, but also demonstrating that the methodology herein employed is appropriated to identify new therapeutic candidates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. A phase I clinical trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat in patients with advanced hematological neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Peter; Hansen, Mads; Knudsen, Lene M

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the safety, dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the novel hydroxamate histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat (PXD101) in patients with advanced hematological neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sequential dose-escalating cohorts of three to six patients...... with hematological malignancies received belinostat administered as a 30-min i.v. infusion on days 1-5 of a 21-d cycle. Experience from a parallel dose-finding study in patients with solid tumors influenced the selection of the final dose. RESULTS: Sixteen patients received belinostat at one of three dose levels......%), vomiting (31%), fatigue (31%) and flushing (31%). No grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity compared with baseline occurred except one case of grade 3 lymphopenia. There were two related grade 4 adverse events of renal failure observed. Both events occurred in patients with multiple myeloma and had similar...

  16. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Zilli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs, such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  17. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs) in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassadonia, Antonino [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Cioffi, Pasquale; Simiele, Felice [Hospital Pharmacy, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Iezzi, Laura; Zilli, Marinella [Oncology Department, “SS. Annunziata” Hospital, I-66013 Chieti (Italy); Natoli, Clara, E-mail: natoli@unich.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University ’G. d’Annunzio’, I-66013 Chieti (Italy)

    2013-07-25

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs), such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms.

  18. Role of Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs) in the Treatment of Solid Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassadonia, Antonino; Cioffi, Pasquale; Simiele, Felice; Iezzi, Laura; Zilli, Marinella; Natoli, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (Hb-HDACIs), such as vorinostat, belinostat and panobinostat, have been previously shown to have a wide range of activity in hematologic malignancies such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Recent data show that they synergize with a variety of cytotoxic and molecular targeted agents in many different solid tumors, including breast, prostate, pancreatic, lung and ovarian cancer. Hb-HDACIs have a quite good toxicity profile and are now being tested in phase I and II clinical trials in solid tumors with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as hepatocarcinoma. This review will focus on their clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced solid neoplasms

  19. Experience Modulates the Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Gene and Protein Expression in the Hippocampus: Impaired Plasticity in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Angila S.; Patzke, Holger; Perez, Evelyn J.; Park, Pul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Fletcher, Bonnie R.; Long, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment has attracted considerable attention in the emerging area of cognitive neuroepigenetics. The possibility that ongoing cognitive experience importantly regulates the cell biological effects of HDACi administration, however, has not been systematically examined. In an initial experiment addressing this issue, we tested whether water maze training influences the gene expression response to acute systemic HDACi administration in the young adult rat hippocampus. Training powerfully modulated the response to HDACi treatment, increasing the total number of genes regulated to nearly 3000, including many not typically linked to neural plasticity, compared with experience was provided together with HDACi administration. Next, we tested whether the synaptic protein response to HDACi treatment is similarly dependent on recent cognitive experience, and whether this plasticity is altered in aged rats with memory impairment. Whereas synaptic protein labeling in the young hippocampus was selectively increased when HDACi administration was provided in conjunction with water maze training, combined treatment had no effect on synaptic proteins in the aged hippocampus. Our findings indicate that ongoing experience potently regulates the molecular consequences of HDACi treatment and that the interaction of recent cognitive experience with histone acetylation dynamics is disrupted in the aged hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The possibility that interventions targeting epigenetic regulation could be effective in treating a range of neurodegenerative disorders has attracted considerable interest. Here we demonstrate in the rat hippocampus that ongoing experience powerfully modifies the molecular response to one such intervention, histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration. A single learning episode dramatically shifts the gene expression profile induced by acute HDACi treatment, yielding a

  20. HDAC6 is a therapeutic target in mutant GARS-induced Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Veronick; Van Helleputte, Lawrence; Prior, Robert; d'Ydewalle, Constantin; Haeck, Wanda; Geens, Natasja; Scheveneels, Wendy; Schevenels, Begga; Cader, M Zameel; Talbot, Kevin; Kozikowski, Alan P; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Van Damme, Philip; Robberecht, Wim; Van Den Bosch, Ludo

    2018-02-05

    Peripheral nerve axons require a well-organized axonal microtubule network for efficient transport to ensure the constant crosstalk between soma and synapse. Mutations in more than 80 different genes cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which is the most common inherited disorder affecting peripheral nerves. This genetic heterogeneity has hampered the development of therapeutics for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a therapeutic target focusing on the mutant glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS/GARS)-induced peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglia from the C201R mutant Gars mouse model showed reduced acetylated α-tubulin levels. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, mutant GlyRS affected neurite length and disrupted normal mitochondrial transport. We demonstrated that GlyRS co-immunoprecipitated with HDAC6 and that this interaction was blocked by tubastatin A, a selective inhibitor of the deacetylating function of HDAC6. Moreover, HDAC6 inhibition restored mitochondrial axonal transport in mutant GlyRS-expressing neurons. Systemic delivery of a specific HDAC6 inhibitor increased α-tubulin acetylation in peripheral nerves and partially restored nerve conduction and motor behaviour in mutant Gars mice. Our study demonstrates that α-tubulin deacetylation and disrupted axonal transport may represent a common pathogenic mechanism underlying Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and it broadens the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6 inhibition to other genetic forms of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  1. The thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) HDAC inhibitor ST7612AA1 as HIV-1 latency reactivation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Roger; Grau, Judith; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Ballana, Ester; Giannini, Giuseppe; Esté, José A

    2015-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to cure HIV infection. The ability of HIV to establish a subset of latent infected CD4(+) T cells, which remain undetectable to the immune system, becomes a major roadblock to achieve viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to potently induce the reactivation of latent HIV. Here, we show that a new thiol-based HDACi, the thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) derivative ST7612AA1, is a potent inducer of HIV reactivation. We evaluated HIV reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 compared to panobinostat (PNB), romidepsin (RMD) and vorinostat (VOR) in cell culture models of HIV-1 latency, in latently infected primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes and in PBMCs from HIV(+) patients. ST7612AA1 potently induced HIV-1 reactivation at submicromolar concentrations with comparable potency to panobinostat or superior to vorinostat. The presence of known antiretrovirals did not affect ST7612AA1-induced reactivation and their activity was not affected by ST7612AA1. Cell proliferation and cell activation were not affected by ST7612AA1, or any other HDACi used. In conclusion, our results indicate that ST7612AA1 is a potent activator of latent HIV and that reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 is exerted without activation or proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. ST7612AA1 is a suitable candidate for further studies of HIV reactivation strategies and potential new therapies to eradicate the viral reservoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productiveVDJrecombination and B-cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Kristy R; Barnett, Kelly R; Wang, Jing; Liu, Qi; Hodges, Emily; Hiebert, Scott W; Bhaskara, Srividya

    2017-08-08

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed Hdac3 conditional knockout mice with Mb1-Cre knockin animals to delete Hdac3 in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of Hdac3 F/- Mb1-Cre +/- mice were virtually devoid of mature B cells, and B220 + CD43 + B-cell progenitors accumulated within the bone marrow. Quantitative deep sequencing of the Ig heavy chain locus from B220 + CD43 + populations identified a defect in V H DJ H recombination with a severe reduction in productive rearrangements, which directly corresponded to the loss of pre-B cells from Hdac3 Δ /- bone marrow. For Hdac3 Δ /- B cells that did show productive VDJ rearrangement, there was significant skewing toward the incorporation of proximal V H gene segments and a corresponding reduction in distal V H gene segment use. Although transcriptional effects within these loci were modest, Hdac3 Δ /- progenitor cells displayed global changes in chromatin structure that likely hindered effective distal V-DJ recombination. Reintroduction of wild-type Hdac3 restored normal B-cell development, whereas an Hdac3 point mutant lacking deacetylase activity failed to complement this defect. Thus, the deacetylase activity of Hdac3 is required for the generation of mature B cells.

  3. Deacetylase activity of histone deacetylase 3 is required for productive VDJ recombination and B-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Kristy R.; Barnett, Kelly R.; Wang, Jing; Liu, Qi; Hodges, Emily; Hiebert, Scott W.; Bhaskara, Srividya

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is the catalytic component of NCoR/SMRT corepressor complexes that mediate the actions of transcription factors implicated in the regulation of B-cell development and function. We crossed Hdac3 conditional knockout mice with Mb1-Cre knockin animals to delete Hdac3 in early progenitor B cells. The spleens of Hdac3F/−Mb1-Cre+/− mice were virtually devoid of mature B cells, and B220+CD43+ B-cell progenitors accumulated within the bone marrow. Quantitative deep sequencing of the Ig heavy chain locus from B220+CD43+ populations identified a defect in VHDJH recombination with a severe reduction in productive rearrangements, which directly corresponded to the loss of pre-B cells from Hdac3Δ/− bone marrow. For Hdac3Δ/− B cells that did show productive VDJ rearrangement, there was significant skewing toward the incorporation of proximal VH gene segments and a corresponding reduction in distal VH gene segment use. Although transcriptional effects within these loci were modest, Hdac3Δ/− progenitor cells displayed global changes in chromatin structure that likely hindered effective distal V-DJ recombination. Reintroduction of wild-type Hdac3 restored normal B-cell development, whereas an Hdac3 point mutant lacking deacetylase activity failed to complement this defect. Thus, the deacetylase activity of Hdac3 is required for the generation of mature B cells. PMID:28739911

  4. HDAC inhibitor SAHA normalizes the levels of VLCFAs in human skin fibroblasts from X-ALD patients and downregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Abcd1/2-silenced mouse astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2011-11-01

    X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). The consistent metabolic abnormality in all forms of X-ALD is an inherited defect in the peroxisomal β-oxidation of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs >C22:0) and the resultant pathognomic accumulation of VLCFA. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)], and normalizing the peroxisomal β-oxidation, as well as the saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and monounsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by SAHA treatment. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes, we also examined the effects of SAHA in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. SAHA treatment decreased the inflammatory response as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-κB in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. These observations indicate that SAHA corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be an ideal drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans.

  5. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  6. Epigenetic Control of Macrophage Shape Transition towards an Atypical Elongated Phenotype by Histone Deacetylase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabanel

    Full Text Available Inflammatory chronic pathologies are complex processes characterized by an imbalance between the resolution of the inflammatory phase and the establishment of tissue repair. The main players in these inflammatory pathologies are bone marrow derived monocytes (BMDMs. However, how monocyte differentiation is modulated to give rise to specific macrophage subpopulations (M1 or M2 that may either maintain the chronic inflammatory process or lead to wound healing is still unclear. Considering that inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC have an anti-inflammatory activity, we asked whether this enzyme would play a role on monocyte differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotype and in the cell shape transition that follows. We then induced murine bone marrow progenitors into monocyte/macrophage differentiation pathway using media containing GM-CSF and the HDAC blocker, Trichostatin A (TSA. We found that the pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity led to a shape transition from the typical macrophage pancake-like shape into an elongated morphology, which was correlated to a mixed M1/M2 profile of cytokine and chemokine secretion. Our results present, for the first time, that HDAC activity acts as a regulator of macrophage differentiation in the absence of lymphocyte stimuli. We propose that HDAC activity down regulates macrophage plasticity favoring the pro-inflammatory phenotype.

  7. Epigenetic Control of Macrophage Shape Transition towards an Atypical Elongated Phenotype by Histone Deacetylase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, Mariana; Brand, Camila; Oliveira-Nunes, Maria Cecilia; Cabral-Piccin, Mariela Pires; Lopes, Marcela Freitas; Brito, Jose Marques; de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; El-Cheikh, Marcia Cury; Carneiro, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory chronic pathologies are complex processes characterized by an imbalance between the resolution of the inflammatory phase and the establishment of tissue repair. The main players in these inflammatory pathologies are bone marrow derived monocytes (BMDMs). However, how monocyte differentiation is modulated to give rise to specific macrophage subpopulations (M1 or M2) that may either maintain the chronic inflammatory process or lead to wound healing is still unclear. Considering that inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) have an anti-inflammatory activity, we asked whether this enzyme would play a role on monocyte differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotype and in the cell shape transition that follows. We then induced murine bone marrow progenitors into monocyte/macrophage differentiation pathway using media containing GM-CSF and the HDAC blocker, Trichostatin A (TSA). We found that the pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity led to a shape transition from the typical macrophage pancake-like shape into an elongated morphology, which was correlated to a mixed M1/M2 profile of cytokine and chemokine secretion. Our results present, for the first time, that HDAC activity acts as a regulator of macrophage differentiation in the absence of lymphocyte stimuli. We propose that HDAC activity down regulates macrophage plasticity favoring the pro-inflammatory phenotype.

  8. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabra, Dhiraj G; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake and...

  9. Distinct Roles for Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the Regulation of Murine Intestinal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Alexis; Turgeon, Naomie; Boudreau, François; Perreault, Nathalie; Rivard, Nathalie; Asselin, Claude

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium responds to and transmits signals from the microbiota and the mucosal immune system to insure intestinal homeostasis. These interactions are in part conveyed by epigenetic modifications, which respond to environmental changes. Protein acetylation is an epigenetic signal regulated by histone deacetylases, including Hdac1 and Hdac2. We have previously shown that villin-Cre-inducible intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions disturb intestinal homeostasis. To determine the role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the regulation of IEC function and the establishment of the dual knockout phenotype, we have generated villin-Cre murine models expressing one Hdac1 allele without Hdac2, or one Hdac2 allele without Hdac1. We have also investigated the effect of short-term deletion of both genes in naphtoflavone-inducible Ah-Cre and tamoxifen-inducible villin-Cre(ER) mice. Mice with one Hdac1 allele displayed normal tissue architecture, but increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In contrast, mice with one Hdac2 allele displayed intestinal architecture defects, increased proliferation, decreased goblet cell numbers as opposed to Paneth cells, increased immune cell infiltration associated with fibrosis, and increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In comparison to dual knockout mice, intermediary activation of Notch, mTOR, and Stat3 signaling pathways was observed. While villin-Cre(ER) Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions led to an impaired epithelium and differentiation defects, Ah-Cre-mediated deletion resulted in blunted proliferation associated with the induction of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that IEC determination and intestinal homeostasis are highly dependent on Hdac1 and Hdac2 activity levels, and that changes in the IEC acetylome may alter the mucosal environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Histone deacetylase-mediated regulation of endolysosomal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Hari; Rao, Rajini

    2018-03-22

    The pH of the endolysosomal system is tightly regulated by a balance of proton pump and leak mechanisms that are critical for storage, recycling, turnover, and signaling functions in the cell. Dysregulation of endolysosomal pH has been linked to aging, amyloidogenesis, synaptic dysfunction, and various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate luminal pH may be key to identifying new targets for managing these disorders. Metaanalysis of yeast microarray databases revealed that nutrient limiting conditions inhibited the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Rpd3 and thereby upregulated transcription of the endosomal Na + /H + exchanger Nhx1, resulting in vacuolar alkalinization. Consistent with these findings, Rpd3 inhibition by the HDAC inhibitor and antifungal drug trichostatin A induced Nhx1 expression and vacuolar alkalinization. Bioinformatics analysis of Drosophila and mouse databases revealed that caloric control of the Nhx1 orthologs DmNHE3 and NHE6 respectively, is also mediated by HDACs. We show that NHE6 is a target of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding (CREB) protein, a known regulator of cellular responses to low nutrient conditions, providing a molecular mechanism for nutrient and HDAC dependent regulation of endosomal pH. Of note, pharmacological targeting of the CREB pathway to increase NHE6 expression helped regulate endosomal pH and correct defective clearance of amyloid Aβ in an ApoE4 astrocyte model of Alzheimer's disease. These observations from yeast, fly, mouse and cell culture models point to an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for HDAC-mediated regulation of endosomal NHE expression. Our insights offer new therapeutic strategies for modulation of endolysosomal pH in fungal infection and human disease. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Histone acetylation and histone deacetylase activity of magnesium valproate in tumor and peripheral blood of patients with cervical cancer. A phase I study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Cetina, Lucely; Candelaria, Myrna; Cantu, David; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Garcia-Lopez, Patricia; Zambrano, Pilar; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos; Cabrera, Gustavo; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Angeles, Enrique; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Background The development of cancer has been associated with epigenetic alterations such as aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. It was recently reported that valproic acid is an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases and as such induces tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, or growth arrest. Methods Twelve newly diagnosed patients with cervical cancer were treated with magnesium valproate after a baseline tumor biopsy and blood sampling at the following dose levels (four patients each): 20 mg/kg; 30 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg for 5 days via oral route. At day 6, tumor and blood sampling were repeated and the study protocol ended. Tumor acetylation of H3 and H4 histones and HDAC activity were evaluated by Western blot and colorimetric HDAC assay respectively. Blood levels of valproic acid were determined at day 6 once the steady-state was reached. Toxicity of treatment was evaluated at the end of study period. Results All patients completed the study medication. Mean daily dose for all patients was 1,890 mg. Corresponding means for the doses 20-, 30-, and 40-mg/kg were 1245, 2000, and 2425 mg, respectively. Depressed level of consciousness grade 2 was registered in nine patients. Ten patients were evaluated for H3 and H4 acetylation and HDAC activity. After treatment, we observed hyperacetylation of H3 and H4 in the tumors of nine and seven patients, respectively, whereas six patients demonstrated hyperacetylation of both histones. Serum levels of valproic acid ranged from 73.6–170.49 μg/mL. Tumor deacetylase activity decreased in eight patients (80%), whereas two had either no change or a mild increase. There was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-treatment values of HDAC activity (mean, 0.36 vs. 0.21, two-tailed t test p valproate at a dose between 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibits deacetylase activity and hyperacetylates histones in tumor tissues. PMID:16001982

  12. Aberrant GlyRS-HDAC6 interaction linked to axonal transport deficits in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhongying; Zhao, Xiaobei; Liu, Huaqing; Hu, Qinghua; Chen, Xu-Qiao; Pham, Jessica; Wei, Na; Liu, Ze; Zhou, Jiadong; Burgess, Robert W; Pfaff, Samuel L; Caskey, C Thomas; Wu, Chengbiao; Bai, Ge; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2018-03-08

    Dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) cause a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT2D). Although previous studies have shown that GlyRS mutants aberrantly interact with Nrp1, giving insight into the disease's specific effects on motor neurons, these cannot explain length-dependent axonal degeneration. Here, we report that GlyRS mutants interact aberrantly with HDAC6 and stimulate its deacetylase activity on α-tubulin. A decrease in α-tubulin acetylation and deficits in axonal transport are observed in mice peripheral nerves prior to disease onset. An HDAC6 inhibitor used to restore α-tubulin acetylation rescues axonal transport deficits and improves motor functions of CMT2D mice. These results link the aberrant GlyRS-HDAC6 interaction to CMT2D pathology and suggest HDAC6 as an effective therapeutic target. Moreover, the HDAC6 interaction differs from Nrp1 interaction among GlyRS mutants and correlates with divergent clinical presentations, indicating the existence of multiple and different mechanisms in CMT2D.

  13. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Increase p27Kip1 by Affecting Its Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation through Skp2 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Borriello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs represent an intriguing class of pharmacologically active compounds. Currently, some HDACIs are FDA approved for cancer therapy and many others are in clinical trials, showing important clinical activities at well tolerated doses. HDACIs also interfere with the aging process and are involved in the control of inflammation and oxidative stress. In vitro, HDACIs induce different cellular responses including growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we evaluated the effects of HDACIs on p27Kip1, a key cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI. We observed that HDACI-dependent antiproliferative activity is associated with p27Kip1 accumulation due to a reduced protein degradation. p27Kip1 removal requires a preliminary ubiquitination step due to the Skp2-SCF E3 ligase complex. We demonstrated that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 stability through downregulation of Skp2 protein levels. Skp2 decline is only partially due to a reduced Skp2 gene expression. Conversely, the protein decrease is more profound and enduring compared to the changes of Skp2 transcript. This argues for HDACIs effects on Skp2 protein posttranslational modifications and/or on its removal. In summary, we demonstrate that HDACIs increase p27Kip1 by hampering its nuclear ubiquitination/degradation. The findings might be of relevance in the phenotypic effects of these compounds, including their anticancer and aging-modulating activities.

  14. Short Communication: The Broad-Spectrum Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Vorinostat and Panobinostat Activate Latent HIV in CD4(+) T Cells In Part Through Phosphorylation of the T-Loop of the CDK9 Subunit of P-TEFb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Md Saha; Hu, Pei-Wen; Jan, Yih; Siwak, Edward B; Rice, Andrew P

    2016-02-01

    Cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individual leads to a rebound of viral replication due to reactivation of a viral reservoir composed largely of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells. Efforts to deplete this reservoir have focused on reactivation of transcriptionally silent latent proviruses. HIV provirus transcription depends critically on the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), whose core components are cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and cyclin T1. In resting CD4(+) cells, the functional levels of P-TEFb are extremely low. Cellular activation upregulates cyclin T1 protein levels and CDK9 T-loop (T186) phosphorylation. The broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) vorinostat and panobinostat have been shown to reactivate latent virus in vivo in HAART-treated individuals. In this study, we have found that vorinostat and panobinostat activate P-TEFb in resting primary CD4(+) T cells through induction of CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation. In contrast, tacedinaline and romidepsin, HDAC 1 and 2 inhibitors, were unable to activate CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation. We used a CCL19 primary CD4(+) T-cell model HIV latency to assess the correlation between induction of CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation and reactivation of latent HIV virus by HDACis. Vorinostat and panobinostat treatment of cells harboring latent HIV increased CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation and reactivation of latent virus, whereas tacedinaline and romidepsin failed to induce T-loop phosphorylation or reactivate latent virus. We conclude that the ability of vorinostat and panobinostat to induce latent HIV is, in part, likely due to the ability of the broad-spectrum HDACis to upregulate P-TEFb through increased CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation.

  15. Attenuation of a phosphorylation-dependent activator by an HDAC-PP1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canettieri, Gianluca; Morantte, Ianessa; Guzmán, Ernesto; Asahara, Hiroshi; Herzig, Stephan; Anderson, Scott D; Yates, John R; Montminy, Marc

    2003-03-01

    The second messenger cAMP stimulates transcription with burst-attenuation kinetics that mirror the PKA-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) at Ser133. Phosphorylation of Ser133 promotes recruitment of the co-activator histone acetylase (HAT) paralogs CBP and P300, which in turn stimulate acetylation of promoter-bound histones during the burst phase. Remarkably, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors seem to potentiate CREB activity by prolonging Ser133 phosphorylation in response to cAMP stimulus, suggesting a potential role for HDAC complexes in silencing CREB activity. Here we show that HDAC1 associates with and blocks Ser133 phosphorylation of CREB during pre-stimulus and attenuation phases of the cAMP response. HDAC1 promotes Ser133 dephosphorylation via a stable interaction with PP1, which we detected in co-immunoprecipitation and co-purification studies. These results illustrate a novel mechanism by which signaling and chromatin-modifying activities act coordinately to repress the activity of a phosphorylation-dependent activator.

  16. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Shearstone

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2, elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB. Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene.

  17. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Golonzhka, Olga; Chonkar, Apurva; Tamang, David; van Duzer, John H; Jones, Simon S; Jarpe, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF) is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG) and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB). Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene.

  18. HLA ligandomics identifies histone deacetylase 1 as target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Janet Kerstin; Bösmüller, Hans-Christian; Schuster, Heiko; Gückel, Brigitte; Hörzer, Helen; Roehle, Kevin; Schäfer, Richard; Wagner, Philipp; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan; Fend, Falko; Staebler, Annette

    2016-05-01

    The recent approval of clincially effective immune checkpoint inhibitors illustrates the potential of cancer immunotherapy. A challenging task remains the identification of specific targets guiding immunotherapy. Facilitated by technical advances, the direct identification of physiologically relevant targets is enabled by analyzing the HLA ligandome of cancer cells. Since recent publications demonstrate the immunogenicity of ovarian cancer (OvCa), immunotherapies, including peptide-based cancer vaccines, represent a promising treatment approach. To identify vaccine peptides, we employed a combined strategy of HLA ligandomics in high-grade serous OvCa samples and immunogenicity analysis. Only few proteins were naturally presented as HLA ligands on all samples analyzed, including histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and 2. In vitro priming of CD8(+) T cells demonstrated that two HDAC1/2-derived HLA ligands can induce T-cell responses, capable of killing HLA-matched tumor cells. High HDAC1 expression shown by immunohistochemistry in 136 high-grade serous OvCa patients associated with significantly reduced overall survival (OS), whereas patients with high numbers of CD3(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor epithelium and CD8(+) TILs in the tumor stroma showed improved OS. However, correlating HDAC1 expression with TILs, high levels of TILs abrogated the impact of HDAC1 on OS. This study strengthens the role of HDAC1/2 as an important tumor antigen in OvCa, demonstrating its impact on OS in a large cohort of OvCa patients. We further identified two immunogenic HDAC1-derived peptides, which frequently induce multi-functional T-cell responses in many donors, suitable for future multi-peptide vaccine trials in OvCa patients.

  19. Intracellular vorinostat accumulation and its relationship to histone deacetylase activity in soft tissue sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenne, Jürgen; Liu, Lu; Heilig, Christoph E; Meid, Andreas D; Leisen, Margarete; Schmitt, Thomas; Kasper, Bernd; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2017-08-01

    In the regulation of chromatin-structure and histone function, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key enzymes and thus modulators of epigenetic regulation and gene expression. Accesses of the HDAC inhibitor vorinostat to intracellular compartments are essential to exert epigenetic effects. In ten sarcoma patients receiving oral Zolinza (400 mg qd) vorinostat concentrations in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were quantified using validated LC/MS/MS assays to determine intracellular and extracellular pharmacokinetic data. Cellular HDAC activity was evaluated using a fluorogenic assay. Concentration-response relationships were established between intracellular and extracellular vorinostat concentrations and HDAC inhibition in PBMCs. Pharmacokinetics of vorinostat and its two main inactive metabolites were determined over 8 h in plasma and PBMCs. Steady state AUCs (±SD) and T 1/2 (±SD) were calculated to 4.61 ± 0.87 h µM and 1.73 ± 0.69 h (plasma) and 15.2 ± 9.03 h µM and 5.30 ± 4.27 h (PBMCs). Intracellular accumulation of vorinostat was determined together with prolonged vorinostat elimination in PBMCs. Cellular HDAC inhibition increased parallel with vorinostat concentrations in plasma and PBMCs. For effective inhibition of cellular HDACs (IC 50 ) vorinostat concentrations of 0.05 µM in plasma and 0.17 µM in PBMCs were necessary. HDAC inhibition closely followed intracellular vorinostat concentrations and was short-lasting, which may contribute to the limited efficacy seen with vorinostat in solid tumors so far.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  1. Valuable insight into the anticancer activity of the platinum-histone deacetylase inhibitor conjugate, cis-[Pt(NH3)2malSAHA-2H)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Viktor; Griffith, D.M.; Kisová, Anna; Kostrhunová, Hana; Zerzánková, Lenka; Marmion, C.J.; Kašpárková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2012), s. 1990-1999 ISSN 1543-8384 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0598; GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/11/P047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : histone deacetylase inhibitor * platinum * DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.570, year: 2012

  2. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Benjamin; Berchtold, Susanne; Venturelli, Sascha; Burkard, Markus; Smirnow, Irina; Prenzel, Tanja; Henning, Stefan W; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV) with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res), being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compare...

  3. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, μCT, histological an...

  4. Butyrate and propionate induced activated or non-activated neutrophil apoptosis via HDAC inhibitor activity but without activating GPR-41/GPR-43 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michiko; Kotani, Joji; Usami, Makoto

    2010-06-01

    Decreased neutrophil apoptosis is implicated in persistent inflammation resulting in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunctions syndromes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) may be a candidate to control neutrophil apoptosis because SCFAs are normally produced in the gut and related products have been approved for human use. We investigated the effects of SCFAs on apoptosis of activated and non-activated neutrophils and their mechanisms. Purified neutrophils obtained from healthy volunteers were preincubated for 1 h with or without the G-protein receptor (GPR) inhibitor pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) or U-73122 (50 ng/mL), extracellular signal-related protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 (10 microM), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitor SB203580 (25 microM), Jun kinase inhibitor-I (2 microM), caspase-3 and -7 inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (100 microM), caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK (50 microM), or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK (50 microM). The cells were then cultured with or without SCFAs or trichostatin A, a typical histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (1 microg/mL) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (100 ng/mL). Neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by annexin V staining using flow cytometry. The GPR-41 and -43 and apoptosis-related proteins (bax, mcl-1, a1) mRNA were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the expression of acetylated histone H3 was determined by western blot. The caspase inhibitors inhibited butyrate- and propionate-induced neutrophil apoptosis treated or untreated with lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas GPR and MAPK inhibitors had no effect. The mRNA expressions of GPR-43 and a1 protein were reduced by butyrate and propionate. The expressions of acetylated histone H3 were induced by butyrate and propionate. These results suggest that butyrate and propionate increase apoptosis of neutrophils irrespective of their activation state, by

  5. Selective HDAC6 inhibition prevents TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinyan; Ma, Zhongsen; Shetty, Sreerama; Ma, Mengshi; Fu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Lung endothelial damage contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. New strategies against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction may provide therapeutic benefits against lung vascular injury. Cell-cell junctions and microtubule cytoskeleton are basic components in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. HDAC6, a deacetylase primarily localized in the cytoplasm, has been reported to modulate nonnuclear protein function through deacetylation. Both α-tubulin and β-catenin are substrates for HDAC6. Here, we examined the effects of tubastatin A, a highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor, on TNF-α induced lung endothelial cell barrier disruption and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A blocked TNF-α-induced lung endothelial cell hyperpermeability, which was associated with increased α-tubulin acetylation and microtubule stability. Tubastatin A pretreatment inhibited TNF-α-induced endothelial cell contraction and actin stress fiber formation with reduced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A also induced β-catenin acetylation in human lung endothelial cells, which was associated with increased membrane localization of β-catenin and stabilization of adherens junctions. HDAC6 knockdown by small interfering RNA also prevented TNF-α-induced barrier dysfunction and increased α-tubulin and β-catenin acetylation in endothelial cells. Furthermore, in a mouse model of endotoxemia, tubastatin A was able to prevent endotoxin-induced deacetylation of α-tubulin and β-catenin in lung tissues, which was associated with reduced pulmonary edema. Collectively, our data indicate that selective HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A is a potent approach against lung endothelial barrier dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Sp3 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), determining neuronal death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Galgani, Mario; Santopaolo, Marianna [Laboratorio di Immunologia, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IEOS-CNR), Napoli (Italy); Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria [Department of Preventive Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Renzo, Gianfranco [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Canzoniero, Lorella M.T., E-mail: canzon@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy); Formisano, Luigi, E-mail: cformisa@unisannio.it [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, School of Medicine, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples (Italy); Division of Pharmacology, Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, Via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Phthalates, phthalic acid esters, are widely used as plasticizers to produce polymeric materials in industrial production of plastics and daily consumable products. Animal studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause toxic effects in the rat brain. In the present study, chronic exposure to DEHP (0.1–100 μM) caused dose-dependent cell death via the activation of caspase-3 in neuroblastoma cells. Intriguingly, this harmful effect was prevented by the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A, by the class II HDAC inhibitor MC-1568, but not by the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Furthermore, DEHP reduced specificity protein 3 (Sp3) gene expression, but not Sp3 mRNA, after 24 and 48 h exposures. However, Sp3 protein reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with MC-1568, suggesting the involvement of class II HDACs in causing this effect. Then, we investigated the possible relationship between DEHP-induced neuronal death and the post-translational mechanisms responsible for the down-regulation of Sp3. Interestingly, DEHP-induced Sp3 reduction was associated to its deacetylation and polyubiquitination. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Sp3 physically interacted with HDAC4 after DEHP exposure, while HDAC4 inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide reverted the DEHP-induced degradation of Sp3. Notably, Sp3 overexpression was able to counteract the detrimental effect induced by DEHP. Taken together, these results suggest that DEHP exerts its toxic effect by inducing deacetylation of Sp3 via HDAC4, and afterwards, Sp3-polyubiquitination. - Highlights: • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. • DEHP-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by apoptosis. • DEHP-induced apoptotic cell death is inhibited by class II HDAC MC-1568. • DEHP neurotoxicity is caused by HDAC4-mediated Sp3 degradation by ubiquitin.

  7. A phase I–II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid plus chemoimmunotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, A; Minucci, S; Tosti, G; Croci, D; Contegno, F; Ballarini, M; Nolè, F; Munzone, E; Salmaggi, A; Goldhirsch, A; Pelicci, P G; Testori, A

    2009-01-01

    We explored in a phase I/II clinical trial the combination of valproic acid (VPA), a clinically available histone deacetylase inhibitor, with standard chemoimmunotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma, to evaluate its clinical activity, to correlate the clinical response with the biological activity of VPA and to assess toxicity. Patients were treated initially with VPA alone for 6 weeks. The inhibition of the target in non-tumour peripheral blood cells (taken as a potential surrogate marker) was measured periodically, and valproate dosing adjusted with the attempt to reach a measurable inhibition. After the treatment with valproate alone, dacarbazine plus interferon-α was started in combination with valproate. Twenty-nine eligible patients started taking valproate and 18 received chemoimmunotherapy and are assessable for response. We observed one complete response, two partial remissions and three disease stabilisations lasting longer than 24 weeks. With the higher valproate dosages needed to reach a measurable inhibition of the target, we observed an increase of side effects in those patients who received chemoimmunotherapy. The combination of VPA and chemoimmunotherapy did not produce results overtly superior to standard therapy in patients with advanced melanoma and toxicity was not negligible, casting some doubts on the clinical use of VPA in this setting (at least in the administration schedule adopted). PMID:19127265

  8. Short- and long-term effects of nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate on novel object recognition in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, M P; Pisera-Fuster, A; Medrano, M P; Bejarano, A C; Bernabeu, R O

    2017-03-01

    Zebrafish have a sophisticated color- and shape-sensitive visual system, so we examined color cue-based novel object recognition in zebrafish. We evaluated preference in the absence or presence of drugs that affect attention and memory retention in rodents: nicotine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) phenylbutyrate (PhB). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether nicotine and PhB affect innate preferences of zebrafish for familiar and novel objects after short- and long-retention intervals. We developed modified object recognition (OR) tasks using neutral novel and familiar objects in different colors. We also tested objects which differed with respect to the exploratory behavior they elicited from naïve zebrafish. Zebrafish showed an innate preference for exploring red or green objects rather than yellow or blue objects. Zebrafish were better at discriminating color changes than changes in object shape or size. Nicotine significantly enhanced or changed short-term innate novel object preference whereas PhB had similar effects when preference was assessed 24 h after training. Analysis of other zebrafish behaviors corroborated these results. Zebrafish were innately reluctant or prone to explore colored novel objects, so drug effects on innate preference for objects can be evaluated changing the color of objects with a simple geometry. Zebrafish exhibited recognition memory for novel objects with similar innate significance. Interestingly, nicotine and PhB significantly modified innate object preference.

  9. Novel epi-virotherapeutic treatment of pancreatic cancer combining the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerhoff, Tim Patrick; Berchtold, Susanne; Venturelli, Sascha; Burkard, Markus; Smirnow, Irina; Wulff, Tanja; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2016-11-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) constitute highly promising innovative biological anticancer agents. However, like every other antitumoral compound, OV are also faced with both primary and secondary mechanisms of resistance. To overcome those barriers and moreover amplify the therapeutic potential of OV, we evaluated a novel combined approach composed of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat and an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV) for a future epi‑virotherapy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that combined epi-virotherapeutic treatment of four well-characterized human pancreatic cancer cell lines resulted in a beneficial tumor cell killing as compared to either monotherapeutic approach. Notably, epi-virotherapeutic treatment of MIA PaCa-2 and partly also of PANC‑1 pancreatic cancer cells resulted in a tumor cell mass reduction being significantly more pronounced than it would be expected in case of an additive effect only, indicating a synergistic mode of action when combining resminostat with MeV. We further found that the epigenetic compound resminostat neither impaired MeV growth kinetics nor prevented the activation of the interferon signaling pathway which plays an important role in mediating primary and secondary resistances to OV. Moreover, we yielded information that the pharma-codynamic function of resminostat was presumably not altered in the course of pancreatic cancer cell infections with MeV. Taken together, these promising results favor the onset of epi-viro-thera-peutic clinical trials in patients suffering from advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  10. Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors during Pavlovian conditioning enhances subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploense, Kyle L; Kerstetter, Kerry A; Wade, Matthew A; Woodward, Nicholas C; Maliniak, Dan; Reyes, Michael; Uchizono, Russell S; Bredy, Timothy W; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) strengthen memory following fear conditioning and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Here, we examined the effects of two nonspecific HDACIs, valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on appetitive learning measured by conditioned stimulus (CS)-induced reinstatement of operant responding. Rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcement and then injected with VPA (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.), NaB (250-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline vehicle (1.0 ml/kg), 2 h before receiving pairings of noncontingent presentation of food pellets preceded by a tone+light cue CS. Rats next underwent extinction of operant responding followed by response-contingent re-exposure to the CS. Rats receiving VPA (100 mg/kg) or NaB (1000 mg/kg) before conditioning displayed significantly higher cue-induced reinstatement than did saline controls. Rats that received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) before a conditioning session with a randomized relation between presentation of food pellets and the CS failed to show subsequent cue-induced reinstatement with no difference between the two groups. These findings indicate that, under certain contexts, HDACIs strengthen memory formation by specifically increasing the associative strength of the CS, not through an increasing motivation to seek reinforcement. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  11. Viability of D283 medulloblastoma cells treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor combined with bombesin receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mariane; Ghisleni, Eduarda C; Fratini, Lívia; Brunetto, Algemir L; Gregianin, Lauro José; Brunetto, André T; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises four distinct molecular subgroups, and survival remains particularly poor in patients with Group 3 tumors. Mutations and copy number variations result in altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression in Group 3 MB. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) reduce proliferation, promote cell death and neuronal differentiation, and increase sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy in experimental MB. Bombesin receptor antagonists potentiate the antiproliferative effects of HDACi in lung cancer cells and show promise as experimental therapies for several human cancers. Here, we examined the viability of D283 cells, which belong to Group 3 MB, treated with an HDACi alone or combined with bombesin receptor antagonists. D283 MB cells were treated with different doses of the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB), the neuromedin B receptor (NMBR) antagonist BIM-23127, the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095, or combinations of NaB with each receptor antagonist. Cell viability was examined by cell counting. NaB alone or combined with receptor antagonists reduced cell viability at all doses tested. BIM-23127 alone did not affect cell viability, whereas RC-3095 at an intermediate dose significantly increased cell number. Although HDACi are promising agents to inhibit MB growth, the present results provide preliminary evidence that combining HDACi with bombesin receptor antagonists is not an effective strategy to improve the effects of HDACi against MB cells.

  12. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Induced Radiation Sensitization Effects on Human Cancer Cells after Photon and Hadron Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariungerel Gerelchuluun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, which has been widely utilized throughout the cancer research field. SAHA-induced radiosensitization in normal human fibroblasts AG1522 and lung carcinoma cells A549 were evaluated with a combination of γ-rays, proton, and carbon ion exposure. Growth delay was observed in both cell lines during SAHA treatment; 2 μM SAHA treatment decreased clonogenicity and induced cell cycle block in G1 phase but 0.2 μM SAHA treatment did not show either of them. Low LET (Linear Energy Transfer irradiated A549 cells showed radiosensitization effects on cell killing in cycling and G1 phase with 0.2 or 2 μM SAHA pretreatment. In contrast, minimal sensitization was observed in normal human cells after low and high LET radiation exposure. The potentially lethal damage repair was not affected by SAHA treatment. SAHA treatment reduced the rate of γ-H2AX foci disappearance and suppressed RAD51 and RPA (Replication Protein A focus formation. Suppression of DNA double strand break repair by SAHA did not result in the differences of SAHA-induced radiosensitization between human cancer cells and normal cells. In conclusion, our results suggest SAHA treatment will sensitize cancer cells to low and high LET radiation with minimum effects to normal cells.

  13. Novel culture technique involving an histone deacetylase inhibitor reduces the marginal islet mass to correct streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Lim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Keun; Han, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Islet transplantation is limited by the difficulties in isolating the pancreatic islets from the cadaveric donor and maintaining them in culture. To increase islet viability and function after isolation, here we present a novel culture technique involving an histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to rejuvenate the isolated islets. Pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and one group (FIs; freshly isolated islets) was used after overnight culture and the other group (RIs; rejuvena