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Sample records for de-oiled rice bran

  1. Biobutanol production from rice bran and de-oiled rice bran by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2012-06-01

    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.

  2. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India); Narasu, M. Lakshmi [Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India)

    2010-07-01

    The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C) and acidophilic conditions (pH 6) with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW) as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS) through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h) coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C) to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB) prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861 +- 14ml/L-WW/d) compared to 370C (651 +- 30ml/L-ww/d). The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  3. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sivaramakrishna, D.Sreekanth, V.Himabindu, M.Lakshmi Narasu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C and acidophilic conditions (pH 6 with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861±14ml/L-WW/d compared to 370C (651±30ml/L-ww/d. The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  4. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

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    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  5. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  6. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  7. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

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    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  8. Studies on Rice Bran and its benefits- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling industry is rich in micronutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fibers. The high nutritional profile of rice bran has not been utilized due to problems associated with lipase enzyme, which reduces the quality of rice bran and makes it unfit for human consumption. After the stabilization of lipase enzyme, it is possible to derive highly nutritious value-added products of rice bran. Due to the presence of antioxidants, it helps in lowering plasma cholesterol, decreasing serum cholesterol, decreasing cholesterol absorption and decreasing platelet aggregation. It has also been used to cure hyperlipidemia, menopause disorders and to increase the muscle mass. The most widely accepted product of rice bran is its oil that has exceptional properties as compared to other vegetable oils. This review paper describes the distinct properties of rice bran as well as its health benefits.

  9. Antioxidant properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is relatively rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds thought to co...

  10. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios.

  11. Hydrolysis of wheat bran, rice bran and jute powder by immobilized enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P K; Roy, U; Vora, V C

    1993-03-01

    The stability of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina improved on immobilization and was 1.5 to 2-fold more active against pre-treated wheat bran, rice bran or jute powder. The hydrolysis efficiency of the catalyst increased with a decrease in its particle size. About 80% (w/v) of the sugar obtained from wheat bran was assimilated by Saccharomyces sp., whereas the corresponding values for rice bran and jute powder were about 70 and 50% (w/v), respectively.

  12. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars

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    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.

  13. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  15. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

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    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil.

  16. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies support that the bran fraction of rice contains bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of colonic tumors. Screening bran extracts from diverse rice varieties represents a novel approach to assessing the colon cancer chemopreventive properties of rice bran. We analyzed a pane...

  17. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  18. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Rice Bran Oil -the Technology, Manufacture, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran is a good source of nutrients that have large amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidants. Conventional rice bran oil production requires many processes that may deteriorate and degrade these valuable substances. Supercritical CO2 extraction is a green alternative method for producing rice bran oil. This work reviews production of rice bran oil by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. In addition, the usefulness and advantages of SC-CO2 extracted rice bran oil for edible oil and health purpose is also described.

  19. Purifioation and identifioation of r -oryzanol from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yuansheng; Yao Huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    A physiological active factor - γ-oryzanol in rice bran was studied. The γ-oryzanol was separated and identified by thin layer chromatograghy(TLC), reverse-phase HPLC, semipreparative HPLC and electrospray ionization/mass speotrometry(ESI/MS). Its individual components, cycloartenol ferulate and 24- methylene cycloartenol ferulate were obtained. An effective method to purify and separate the γ-oryzanol is provided. Which is useful for further research on the fucttional claracteristies of γ-oryzanol and for the development of new rice bran products.

  20. In vitro fermentation patterns of rice bran components by human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a rich source of bioactive components that can promote gastrointestinal health. However, bran is removed during polishing. Among those, feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and rice bran polyphenolics (RBPP) are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota ...

  1. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

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    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of fermented rice bran biomass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, M. dos S; Feddern, V; Kupski, L; Cipolatti, E. P; Badiale-Furlong, E; de Souza-Soares, L. A

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation effect with Rhizopus oryzae in the composition of whole rice bran, which was used as substratum for the fermentative procedure in tray bioreactors at 30 °C for 120 h...

  3. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective potential of rice bran water extract (RBE) from Khao Dawk Mali ... regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), .... standard chow (13 % energy as fat) based on a.

  4. Biodiesel production from rice bran by a two-step in-situ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Pei-Jing; Gunawan, Setiyo; Hsieh, Wen-Hao; Kasim, Novy S; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2010-02-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by a two-step in-situ transesterification from two kinds of rice bran was investigated in this study. The method included an in-situ acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification. Free fatty acids (FFAs) level was reduced to less than 1% for both rice bran A (initial FFAs content=3%) and rice bran B (initial FFAs content=30%) in the first step under the following conditions: 10 g rice bran, methanol to rice bran ratio 15 mL/g, H(2)SO(4) to rice bran mass ratio 0.18, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 600 rpm stirring rate, 15 min reaction time. The organic phase of the first step product was collected and subjected to a second step reaction by adding 8 mL of 5N NaOH solution and allowing to react for 60 and 30 min for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively. FAMEs yields of 96.8% and 97.4% were obtained for rice bran A and rice bran B, respectively, after this two-step in-situ reaction.

  5. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  6. Bioactive compounds in pigmented rice bran inhibit growth of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Our previous studies have shown that pigmented rice cultivars contained several-fold higher total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant capacities than non-pigmented cultivars. We investigated three rice brans (purple, red and light-...

  7. Biodiesel production from rice bran oil and supercritical methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Novy Srihartati; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Gunawan, Setiyo; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2009-04-01

    In this study, production of biodiesel from low cost raw materials, such as rice bran and dewaxed-degummed rice bran oil (DDRBO), under supercritical condition was carried out. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was employed as co-solvent to decrease the supercritical temperature and pressure of methanol. The effects of different raw materials on the yield of biodiesel production were investigated. In situ transesterification of rice bran with supercritical methanol at 30MPa and 300 degrees C for 5 min was not a promising way to produce biodiesel because the purity and yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained were 52.52% and 51.28%, respectively. When DDRBO was reacted, the purity and yield were 89.25% and 94.84%, respectively. Trans-FAMEs, which constituted about 16% of biodiesel, were found. They were identified as methyl elaidate [trans-9], methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, trans-12], methyl linoleaidate [cis-9, trans-12], and methyl linoleaidate [trans-9, cis-12]. Hydrocarbons, which constituted about 3% of the reaction product, were also detected.

  8. Purification and identification of ,y-Oryzanol from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GongYansheng

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: A physiological active factor - r-oryzanol in rice bran was studied.The r-oryzanol was separated and identified by thin layer chromatograghy(TLC),reverse-phase HPLC, semipreparative HPLC and electrospray ionization/massspectrometry(ESI/MS). Its individual components, cycloartenol ferulate and 24-methylene cycloartenol ferulate were obtained. An effective method to purify andseparate the r-oryzanol is provided. Which is useful for further research on thefuctional claracteristies of r-oryzanol and for the development of new rice branproducts.

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

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    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  10. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

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    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  11. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

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    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  12. Antioxidant and sensory properties of rice bran oil-based extraction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil has many properties that make it an attractive functional food ingredient. Compared with other oils, rice bran oil is rich in tocopherols, tocotrienols, and y-oryzanol, all of which have been shown to have numerous desirable health effects. The same compounds that confer health benef...

  13. Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control die...

  14. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  15. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran.

  16. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  17. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  18. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses

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    Rossi Ivan Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.

  19. Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice

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    Kumar Ajay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.

  20. Characteristics of esterified rice bran oil converted by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Roh, Myong-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Uk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, esterified rice bran oil (ERBO) was characterized using enzymatic esterification to improve stability, prevent acidification, enhance health-promoting biological activity and generate ω-3 PUFA-rich rice bran oil (RBO). Esterification reactions using RBO and ethanol were performed at 50°C under 200 bar with 3% lipozyme TL-IM (Thermomuces lanuginosa immobilized on silica gel) or RM-IM (Rhizomucor miehei immobilized on ion exchange resin) for 3 hr under supercritical CO2. The molar ratios of ethanol to RBO were 3, 6, 9 and 12, respectively. Total lipid contents and acid values decreased (maximum 83.75%),but γ-oryzanol content increased (maximum 41.33%) in esterified RBO (ERBO) prepared using TL-IM or RM-IM. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activity of ERBO prepared by RM-IM atan ethanol to RBO molar ratio of 3 was 0.02 µg µl(-1), which was 63-fold higher than that of α-tocopherol (IC50 =1.25 µg µl(-1)). The anti-inflammatory effect of RM-IM 1:3 hydrolysate of RBO was verified showing its suppressive effect towards iNOS and Cox-2mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, ERBO is a promising source of functional food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Hydrolysis of rice bran oil using an immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa in isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, V Ramachandra; Bhat, Jayadev; Muniswaran, P K A

    2004-04-01

    The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil in isooctane by immobilized Candida rugosa lipase in a batch reactor showed competitive inhibition by isooctane with a dissociation constant, K1, of 0.92 M. Continuous hydrolysis of rice bran oil was performed in recycling, packed bed reactor with 4352 U of immobilized lipase; the optimum recycle ratio was 9 and the operational half-life was 360 h without isooctane but 288 h with 25% (v/v) isooctane in rice bran oil.

  2. Degradability of mulberry (Morus alba and rice bran in the rumen of sheep fed different diets

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    Dwi Yulistiani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate degradation of dry matter (DM and protein of mulberry and rice bran when incubated in nylon bag in the rumen at different incubation times and different rumen environments of rumen-cannulated adult sheep. Three different rumen conditions were created by feeding the three rumen-cannulated sheep with urea-treated rice straw as basal diet and offered with three supplemental treatment diets on different source of energy and nitrogen. Mulberry, urea and rice bran were used as source of fermentable energy and protein. Treatments consisted of control diet mulberry and molasses (T0; 50% mulberry was replaced by rice bran and urea (T1; and 100% of mulberry was replaced with rice bran and urea (T2. The diets were formulated in iso protein and iso energy. Supplemental diets were offered at 1.2% BW. The study was conducted in three periods. For each period, the sheep was offered with one of three supplemental treatment diets. The nylon bags each, contains sample of either mulberrry or rice bran were incubated in the rumen of sheep at different incubation times in reverse order (48, 24, 12, 9, 6, and 3h. Degradation characteristic data were obtained by analyzing degradability data with the equation of p = a+b(1-e-ct using Neway computer package. Data of degradation characteristic, degradability of DM and CP, DMI, rumen NH3-N and pH were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using a SAS software package. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI and rumen pH were not significantly different between diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than that of T0. However, the rumen ammonia concentration was higher than that of critical value for rumen microbial synthesis (>5mg/100ml. The rate (c value of DM degradability of mulberry and rice bran was affected by diet treaments, where T2 diet resulted in lower c of mulberry and rice bran. Only CP degradability of mulberry on

  3. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  4. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

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    Gerson Luis FACCIN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  5. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN; Leila do Nascimento VIEIRA; Letícia Adélia MIOTTo; Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Edna Regina AMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  6. Parboiled rice whole bran in laying diets for Japanese quails

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    Ivan Bezerra Quevedo Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of parboiled rice whole bran (PRWB inclusion in laying diets for Japanese quails, on their performance, egg quality, and economic viability. A total of 448 17-week-old quails were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and eight replicates of eight birds each. A control diet (no PRWB and six diets, containing 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% of PRWB, were tested. The increasing levels of PRWB did not affected nutrient digestibility coefficient, dietary energy use, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the economic viability indices. However, there was a linear decrease in egg shell percentage, specific weight, and yolk color. The inclusion of up to 30% PRWB in the diet allows nutrient utilization and performance similar to those obtained by the control group, and it is economically viable.

  7. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Malekian; Margarita Khachaturyan; Sebhatu Gebrelul; Henson, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concent...

  8. A review on rice bran protein: its properties and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Cynthia; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran protein has been found to be of high quality and of importance for food and pharmaceutical applications. It is a plant protein that can be derived from rice bran, an abundant and cheap agricultural byproduct. The protein content in rice bran is about 10-15% and it consists of 37% water-soluble, 31% salt-soluble, 2% alcohol-soluble, and 27% alkali-soluble storage proteins. Its unique property as being hypoallergenic and having anti-cancer activity makes it a superior cereal protein that may find a wide range of applications. There were already reports on the extraction of rice bran protein several decades ago. However, as of now, commercial rice bran protein is still unavailable in the market. This review is aimed at providing valuable discussions on rice bran protein, that is, storage protein, its various properties, and extraction methods for the development of an effective processing scheme. Also, an update on the current processing methods is also included.

  9. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  10. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

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    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  11. Assessment of irradiated rice bran as iron source.; Avaliacao do farelo de arroz irradiado como fonte de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Heden Katsue

    2002-07-01

    Rice is the largest cereal crop in Brazil. To obtain the polish grain, its external peel is extracted after abrasive process. As a result, rice bran is obtained. It has low cost and high nutritional level, which has been include into malnourished children feeding. There is a considerable controversy related to the rice bran effect on the prevention and control of undernutrition and iron deficiency. The aim os this study was to assess the availability of in vitro iron of in natura and treated rice brans, after different levels of irradiation were applied. Both sorts of bran had their composition analyzed emphasizing the iron and phytate contents. The microbiological quality of the rice bran was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganisms were destroyed only in the in natura rice bran. As the irradiation level applied on the stabilized bran increased, its lipidic fraction reduced an the progressive destruction of the phytates occurred. The high iron content follow its availability in the rice bran, despite of the irradiation level applied, on the rice bran products and its dietetic preparations. (author)

  12. Rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste-based diets for fryer rabbits

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    S Prawirodigdo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of rice bran inclusion in the fruit and vegetable waste (FVW-based diets on the growth performance of fryer rabbits. Thirty-six growing rabbits (New Zealand x Flemish Giant of about 1070.8 g initial body-weight were housed individually in the wire mesh cages and assigned to either one of a FVW-based diet containing 20% rice bran (RB 20%, 10% rice bran (RB 10% or zero rice bran (RB 0%. Thus, each treatment consists of 12 replicates. Data were collected for 28 days. Results showed that inclusion of rice bran in the diet significantly decreased (P<0.05 dry matter intake (2888, 2830 and 3095 g, for Diets RB 20%, RB 10%, and RB 0%, respectively. Average daily weight gain of the rabbits consuming RB 20% (23 g, RB 10% (25 g and RB 0% (33 g was significantly different (P<0.05. Inclusion of rice bran in the FVW-based diet significantly (P<0.05 affected the feed conversion ratio of the diets (3.4 versus 4.4 and 4.1, for RB 0% versus RB 20% and RB 10%, respectively. Consistently, the average carcass weight of rabbits consuming RB 0% (1140g was superior (P<0.05 to the carcass weight of rabbits fed RB 20% (1022 g or RB 10% (1046 g. Overall, inclusion of rice bran in the FVW based diet is not necessary. Simultaneously, use of FVW for rabbit is promising to avoid the accumulated fermenting FVW problem and produce healthy meat instantly for food.

  13. Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures

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    Simone Aparecida dos Santos Conceição Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to inactivate enzymatic deterioration, whole rice bran samples were subjected to two stabilization methods. Changes in nutritional value in terms of, concerning chemical composition, minerals and fatty acid content, were evaluated to supplement existing data and promote the utilization of rice bran in the human diet. The following homemade heat treatments were applied: roasting on a conventional stove or heating in a microwave oven. Based on the results, the different heating methods affected sample composition, since the levels of some nutrients of treated samples showed significant changes (pA fim de inativar a deterioração enzimática, as amostras de farelo de arroz foram submetidas a dois métodos de estabilização. As mudanças do valor nutricional, no que se refere a composição química, os minerais e o conteúdo de ácidos graxos, foram avaliadas para adicionar mais informações aos dados existentes e promover a utilização de farelo de arroz na dieta humana. Os seguintes tratamentos caseiros por calor foram aplicados: torra em forno convencional ou de aquecimento em forno de micro-ondas. Com base nos resultados, os diferentes métodos de aquecimento afetaram a composição das amostras, já que os níveis de alguns nutrientes mostraram alterações significativas (p <0,05, comparado com as amostras cruas correspondentes. O farelo de arroz tratado em fogão convencional forneceu produtos com menos umidade (5,14 ± 0,10 g/100 g e nutrientes, tais como: de sódio 11,8%; ácido palmítico 9,9% e ácido esteárico 8,1%. O procedimento de forno de micro-ondas resultou em melhor preservação dos nutrientes, com teor de umidade um pouco maior (6,28 ± 0,10 g/100 g, o que parece ser uma ferramenta prática e rápida no tratamento térmico caseiro para o farelo de arroz.

  14. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

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    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  15. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

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    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  16. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

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    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  17. In-situ biodiesel and sugar production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Rahkadima, Yulia Tri

    2015-12-01

    An integrated method of producing biodiesel and sugar using subcritical water and methanol has been employed as a potential way to reduce the high cost of single biofuel production from rice bran. The effects of temperature, methanol to water ratio and reaction time on the biodiesel yield and purity, and the concentration of sugar in hydrolysate were investigated systematically. Biodiesel with yield and purity of 65.21%and 73.53%, respectively, was obtained from rice bran with initial free fatty acid (FFA) content of 37.64% under the following conditions: T= 200 oC, P= 4.0 MPa (using CO2 as pressurizing gas), ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/2/6 (g/mL/mL), and 3 h of reaction time. FFAs level was reduced to 10.00% with crude biodiesel recovery of 88.69%. However, the highest biodiesel yield (67.39%) and crude biodiesel recovery (100.00%) were obtained by decreasing the amount of methanol so that the ratio of rice bran/water/methanol became 1/4/4, g/mL/mL. In addition, the highest sugar concentration of 0.98 g/L was obtained at 180 oC and 4.0 MPa with ratio of rice bran/water/methanol of 1/4/4 (g/mL/mL) and reaction time of 3 h. Since no catalyst was employed and the biodiesel and reducing sugar were produced directly from rice bran with high water and FFA contents, the process was simple and environmentally friendly, which would make the production of biofuel more economical and sustainable.

  18. Preparation of rice bran bread%米糠营养面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 蒋作明; 徐学万; 张萍

    2001-01-01

    The processing technique of rice bran bread is introduced, the effect of rice bran on the rhological propetries of the dough and the baking quality of bread were studied, and the proportion of bread amendment is analyzed in detail.%介绍了米糠营养面包的制作工艺,研究了米糠对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并对面包改良剂各组分的配比进行了分析探讨。

  19. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  20. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2015-08-01

    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  1. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

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    Yana Sukaryana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conducted at temperature 28 oC as long as 9 days. Determining the best of the mixtures be based on the crude protein increased and the crude fibre decreased. The results showed that the combination of product mix is the best fermentation inoculums doses 0.3% in mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran ; 80%: 20%, which produces dry matter of 88,12%, crude protein 17.34%, ether extract 5,35%, crude fibre 23.67%, and ash 6.43%. When compared with a mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran; 80%: 20% without of fermentation is crude protein increase 29.58% and crude fibre decreased 22.53%.

  2. Evaluation of Physarum polycephalum plasmodial growth and lipid production using rice bran as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh; Stephenson, Steven; Pollock, Erik

    2015-08-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum appears to have remarkable potential as a lipid source for biodiesel production. The present study evaluated the use of rice bran as a carbon source and determined the medium components for optimum growth and lipid production for this organism. Optimization of medium components by response surface methodology showed that rice bran and yeast extract had significant influences on lipid and biomass production. The optimum medium consisted of 37.5 g/L rice bran, 0.79 g/L yeast extract and 12.5 g/L agar, and this yielded 7.5 g/L dry biomass and 0.9 g/L lipid after 5 days. The biomass and lipid production profiles revealed that these parameters increased over time and reached their maximum values (10.5 and 1.26 g/L, respectively) after 7 days. Physarum polycephalum growth decreased on the spent medium but using the latter increased total biomass and lipid concentrations to 14.3 and 1.72 g/L, respectively. An effective method for inoculum preparation was developed for biomass and lipid production by P. polycephalum on a low-cost medium using rice bran as the main carbon source. These results also demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up and reusing the medium for additional biomass and lipid production.

  3. In situ ruminal degradation of phytic acid in formaldehyde treated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Laar, van H.; Burbara, C.; Pedrosa, M.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran has a very high content of phytic acid (IP6), which is a nutritional antagonist of Ca. Microbial phytase degrades IP6, but ruminal degradation of nutrients can be reduced by formaldehyde treatment. Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by reducing available dietary Ca to stimulate Ca

  4. Development of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  5. In situ ruminal degradation of phytic acid in formaldehyde treated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Laar, van H.; Burbara, C.; Pedrosa, M.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran has a very high content of phytic acid (IP6), which is a nutritional antagonist of Ca. Microbial phytase degrades IP6, but ruminal degradation of nutrients can be reduced by formaldehyde treatment. Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by reducing available dietary Ca to stimulate Ca h

  6. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions

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    Adam Mariod, Abdalbasit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the antioxidant activity against the synthetic 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and β-carotene–linoleic acid assay of the methanolic extracts of defatted rice bran from stabilized and unstabilized rice bran. The effects of the extracts (0.1 and 0.25% w/w on the oxidative stability of refined-bleached rice bran oil were determined and compared with those of BHA (synthetic antioxidant. The study was carried out over a 168 hr period at 70°C and the progression of oxidation was measured by peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. The relative % of residual α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol of the rice bran oil containing methanolic extracts of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran during storage at 70°C were studied.

    La presente investigación evalúa la actividad antioxidante mediante el radical sintético 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil y el ensayo β-caroteno–ácido linoleico de extractos metanólicos de salvado de arroz desengrasado procedente de salvado de arroz estabilizado y no-estabilizado. El efecto de los extractos (0.1 y 0.25% w/w sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de salvado de arroz fue determinado y comparado con el del BHA (antioxidante sintético. El estudio fue llevado a cabo durante un periodo de 168 hr a 70°C y la progresión de la oxidación fue medida mediante el valor de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidine y substancias reactivas del ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. El porcentaje relativo del α-tocoferol y γ-orizanol residual en el aceite de germen de arroz conteniendo extracto metanólico de germen de arroz desengrasado estabilizado y no estabilizado durante el almacenamiento a 70°C fueron estudiados.

  7. The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic extracts from Njavara rice bran

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    Babu Phanithi P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free radical-induced oxidative stress is the root cause for many human diseases. Naturally occurring antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to counter the oxidative damage in cells. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of rice bran extracted from an important Indian rice variety, Njavara and to compare the same with two commercially available basmati rice varieties: Vasumathi, Yamini and a non medicinal variety, Jyothi. Methods Methanolic extracts of rice bran from four varieties; Vasumathi, Yamini, Jyothi and Njavara were used to study their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, in vitro antioxidant activities including total antioxidant activity, scavenging of nitric oxide and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, reducing power and cytotoxic activity in C6 glioma cells. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done by using Sigmastat version 3.1 and Stata statistical package respectively. Results Rice bran methanolic extract from Njavara showed the highest antioxidant and cell cytotoxic properties compared to the other three rice varieties. IC50 values for scavenging DPPH and nitric oxide were in the range of 30.85-87.72 μg/ml and 52.25-107.18 μg/ml respectively. Total antioxidant activity and reducing power were increased with increasing amounts of the extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were in the range of 3.2-12.4 mg gallic acid-equivalent (GAE/g bran and 1.68-8.5 mg quercetin-equivalent (QEE/g bran respectively. IC50 values of cytotoxic assay (MTT assay were 17.53-57.78 μg/ml. Correlation coefficient and regression analysis of phenolic content with DPPH and NO scavenging, MTT (-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, total antioxidant assay and reducing power showed a highly significant correlation coefficient values (96-99% and regression values (91-98%. Conclusion The results of

  8. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

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    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  9. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

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    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  10. Kinetic Study on Rice Bran Oil Extraction%米糠油的萃取动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志慧; 李志凯; 赵思明

    2011-01-01

    为了解米糠油萃取的过程,采用球形模型建立动力学方程,研究温度,米糠/溶剂比对米糠油萃取特性的影响,为米糠油浸出工艺设计及浸出操作条件的选择提供理论依据.结果表明,随着米糠/溶剂比的减小,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,在温度为50℃、米糠/溶剂比为1:6时,米糠油的萃取率为16.8%,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度降低;而随着温度的升高,米糠油的萃取率逐渐升高,扩散系数升高,平衡浓度升高;扩散能随米糠/溶剂比的减小而升高,当米糠/溶剂比为1:8时,扩散能达到1 776J/moL.%To understand the process of rice bran oil extraction,we used the spherical model to erect a kinetic equation to study the influence of temperature and rice bran/solvent ratio on the extraction properties of rice bran oil to provide a theoretical basis for the design and operation conditions of leaching of rice bran oil.The results showed that,as the rice bran/solvent ratio decreased, the rice bran oil extraction ratio increased gradually.Besides, when the temperature was 50℃ ,rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:6,the rice bran oil extraction rate was 16.8% ,diffusion coefficient rose and balanced concentration decreased.As the temperature rose, the rice bran oil extraction ratio, diffusion coefficient and equilibrium concentration increased.At the same time, diffusion energy increased with the decrease of the rice bran/solvent ratio.And the diffusion energy could reach 1 776 J/moL when the rice bran/solvent ratio was 1:8.

  11. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

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    Kimberly J. Krager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3 and γ-tocotrienol (GT3 have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR. However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  12. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  13. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein

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    Changyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w and purity (45–47% of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method.

  14. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran

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    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.

  15. Effect of low calorie diet with rice bran oil on cardiovascular risk factors in hyperlipidemic patients

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    Rosa Zavoshy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients received a low-calorie diet based on 1400 kcal energy, 17% protein, 26% fat, and 57% carbohydrate per day for four weeks. The treatment group received a low-calorie diet including rice bran oil (30 g / day. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight (12 hours fasting period before the study and on the last day of the intervention period. Anthropometric indices and levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after the intervention. Results: In both groups, weight, body mass index, waist, and hip circumferences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 after four weeks. In comparison with the control group, the results of treatment with rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, showed that at the end of the fourth week, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and atherogenic ratio of total cholesterol / high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results confirm that rice bran oil, when consumed as part of a healthy diet, is effective in improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Influence of the use of rice bran extract as a source of nutrients on xylitol production

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    Ernesto Acosta Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion using 2.5 or 10% (v/v rice bran extract was performed to verify the influence of this source of nutrients on Candida guilliermondii metabolism. Semisynthetic medium (SM and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate detoxified with ion-exchange resins (HIE or with alteration in pH combined with adsorption onto activated charcoal (HAC were fermented in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30 ºC and 200 rpm for 72 hours. Activated charcoal supplemented with 2.5% (v/v rice bran extract was fermented by C. guilliermondii in a MULTIGEN stirred tank reactor using pH 5.0 and 22.9/hour oxygen transfer volumetric coefficient. Higher values of xylitol productivity (0.70, 0.71, and 0.62 g.Lh-1 and xylose-to-xylitol conversion yield (0.71, 0.69, and 0.63 g.g-1 were obtained with 2.5% (v/v rice bran in semisynthetic medium, ion-exchange resins, and activated charcoal, respectively. Moreover, during batch fermentation, the xylitol volumetric productivity and fermentation efficiency values obtained were 0.53 g.Lh-1 and 61.1%, respectively.

  17. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

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    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  18. Optimization of Rice bran biodiesel blends on CI engine and investigating its effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Dey, Biraj; Dey, Krishanu; Hareesh, Batchu; Anish, M.

    2017-05-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from various plant oils like soybean, sunflower or rice bran. Here the focus is on converting the rice bran oil into bio-diesel which is produced by transesterifying the rice bran oil with a low molecular weight alcohol (methanol) and a non-conventional catalyst (lipase). Using a lipase based catalyst brings down the cost of bio diesel production significantly by reducing the number of washing cycles and its ability to be reused further. Four different blends of B10, B20, B30, B40 and straight diesel are tested in a single cylinder, fourstroke, vertical air cooled Kirloskar Diesel Engine having ignition timing of 23° before Top Dead Centre (TDC). As compared to straight diesel the Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) value for all the blends are higher. The Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) values for most of the blends are less as compared to diesel. Emissions of CO, CO2 and HC for all the blends decreased quite significantly. As a summary, the blend B20 records better performance as well as emission characteristics as compared to diesel.

  19. Effect of saponification on composition of unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinisha Deepam, L S; Arumughan, C

    2012-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil contains a variety of Unsaponifiable Constituents (USC) that are presumed to contribute to the high value of Unsaponifable Matter (USM). The objectives of the present study were to identify and quantify the constituents in USM. The changes that the unsaponifiables undergo during saponification were also quantitatively investigated. While analyzing the percentage of all constituents, the percentage of sterol get increased from 22.46 to 23.77 in USM of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) and 33.42 to 36.79 in USM of refined rice bran oil (RRBO). Oryzanol that comprised 34% of the unsaponifiable in the crude oil by direct estimation was almost eliminated in USM and same in refined oil. The results also revealed the presence of four additional classes of compounds that were quantified in USM (policosanol, fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols). Among the four classes of compounds, policosanol contributed high percentage in USM, (43.39% in CRBO and 28.46% in RRBO). Fatty aldehydes, triterpene alcohols and potassium salt of oryzanols together contributed 27.68% and 25.13% of USM from CRBO and RRBO respectively. The HPTLC method employed here thus, accounted for 96.75% by wt of the USM of CRBO and 92.00% by wt of the USM of RRBO.

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Bajwa, Jawad -ur-

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the antioxidant activity of different solvent (100% methanol, 80% methanol, 100% acetone, 80% acetone extracts of rice bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays and using sunflower oil as oxidation substrate. The rice bran extracts were evaluated from the estimate of % inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, total phenolics content (TPC and loss of β-carotene in a linoleic acid system. Additionally, crude concentrated rice bran extracts were added into the sunflower oil samples and stored under ambient conditions. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated diene-, and triene- values. The general order of antioxidant efficacy of rice bran extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic  extract > 80% acetone extract > 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that rice bran extracts of the Super Kernel variety indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.Se evalúa la actividad antioxidante diferentes extractos (100% metanol, 80% metanol, 100% acetona and 80% acetona de salvado de arroz -var. Super Kernel- mediante diferentes ensayos y utilizando aceite de girasol como substrato. Los ensayos utilizados fueron la estimación del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en sistemas con ácido linoleico, el contenido total en compuestos fenólicos y la pérdida de β-caroteno en sistemas con ácido linoleico. Adicionalmente, los concentrados de extractos de salvado de arroz se añadieron a aceite de girasol y las muestras se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. La extensión de la oxidación se evaluó mediante el índice de peróxidos, el índice de p-anisidina, así como la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados. El orden de la eficacia antioxidante

  1. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  2. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (Poil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying.

  3. Certain investigation in a compression ignition engine using rice bran methyl ester fuel blends with ethanol additive

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    Krishnan Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study and analysis, the physical properties such as calorific value, viscosity, flash, and fire point temperatures of rice bran oil methyl ester were found. The rice bran oil biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification process from pure rice bran oil in the presence of methanol and NaOH. Moreover, property enhancement of rice bran oil methyl ester was also made by adding different additives such as ethanol in various proportions. Rice bran oil methyl ester with 1, 3, and 5% ethanol were analyzed for its fuel properties. The effects of diesel-B20ROME blends with ethanol additive of 1, 3, and 5% on a compression ignition engine were examined considering its emissions. It is found that the increase in biodiesel concentration in the fuel blend influences CO2 and NOx emissions. On the other hand CO and HC emissions are reduced. It is interesting to observe the emission as ethanol-B20ROME blends, reduces CO2 and NOx which are the major contributors to global warming. As the NOx and CO2 can be reduced drastically by the proposed blends, the global warming can be reduced considerably.

  4. 米糠健康食品的研究%Studies on Healthy Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正行; 姚惠源

    2001-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it. The paper researched preparation technology of two functional products with stabilized rice bran as a starting material, water-soluble rice nutrient and rice fiber concentrate. The result showed that the technology had realized whole utilization of rice bran with natural and no pollution production. The water-soluble rice nutrient was rich in superior protein, fat and polysaccharide with many physiologically active substances. The research provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.%以稳定化米糠为原料,研究了天然水溶性稻米营养素和稻米浓缩纤维的制取工艺.结果表明,该工艺具有全利用、全天然和清洁生产的特点,而且水溶性稻米营养素富含米糠的优质蛋白、脂肪、多糖以及众多生理活性物质.

  5. Enzymatic process of rice bran: a stabilized functional food with nutraceuticals and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Vallabha, Vishwanath; Indira, T N; Jyothi Lakshmi, A; Radha, C; Tiku, Purnima Kaul

    2015-12-01

    Rice bran (RB), a byproduct of rice milling industry, is a rich source of nutraceuticals and nutrients. However its utility is limited due to the presence of lipase and lipoxygenase which initiates rancidity on milling. The aim of this investigation is to prevent oxidation of free fatty acids by enzymatic approach for its effective utilization. The enzymatic treatment comprised of alcalase treatment for complete inactivation of lipase along with reduction in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and endoglucanase for improving the soluble fiber content. The enzyme treated rice bran was drum dried for further use. The nutraceutical molecules like γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and polyphenols were retained in the range of 68 to 110 % and the total antioxidant activity was improved. By the action of endoglucanase the complex carbohydrate was converted into glucose (72.28 %), cellobiose (18.36 %) and cellotriose (9.36 %). The prebiotic effect of enzyme treated rice bran was evaluated by the action of lactobacillus which was measured through the release of the short chain free fatty acids (SCFAs) analyzed by HPLC. The SCFAs; acetic acid and propionic acid increased by 1.72 folds and 2.12 folds respectively. B-complex vitamins showed maximum retention with vitamins like B1 (66.3 %), B2 (68.3 %) and B3 (55.0 %) after enzyme treatment. At different humidity levels, storage studies showed no change in LOX activity and also retained ubiquinol-10 in reduced state in enzyme treated RB for a period of 3 months. A stabilized RB has been developed enriched with short chain prebiotics and antioxidant molecules.

  6. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  7. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  8. Rice Bran Protein as a Potent Source of Antimelanogenic Peptides with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Seiya; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2016-10-28

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is consumed as a staple food globally, and rice bran, the byproduct, is an unused biomass that is ultimately discarded as waste. Thus, in the present study, a technique for producing tyrosinase inhibitory peptides from rice bran protein (RBP) was developed. Simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin produced numerous peptides. Subsequently, six tyrosinase inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate fractions in a multistep purification protocol, and their amino acid sequences were determined. Three of these peptides had a C-terminal tyrosine residue and exhibited significant inhibitory effects against tyrosinase-mediated monophenolase reactions. Furthermore, peptide CT-2 (Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-Tyr) potently inhibited melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells without causing cytotoxicity, suggesting the potential of CT-2 as an agent for melanin-related skin disorder treatment. The present data indicate that RBP is a potent source of tyrosinase inhibitory peptides and that simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin efficiently produces these peptides.

  9. Adsorption and desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) on Ca- alginate immobilized activated rice bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, A.; Kamalia, N. Z.; Kusumawati, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran has been used for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of the pH, kinetics model, adsorption isotherm and desorption on the adsorption performance was investigated. Activated rice bran was immobilized by the entrapment in alginate beads. The adsorption strength of Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran was compared to Ca-alginate and non-immobilized activated rice bran. The concentrations of adsorbed ions were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that pH of 4.0 and the contact time of 120 min are the optimum condition for adsorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II). The adsorption kinetic of Zn(II) and Cu(II) followed the pseudo-second-order model with adsorption rate constant 4.9 x 10-2 and 3.14 g.mg-1.min-1, respectively. The both adsorption processes obeyed Langmuir isotherm with adsorption capacity of 2.03 and 2.42 mg.g-1 of adsorbent, respectively. The strength of Zn adsorption on Ca-alginate immobilized activated rice bran (86.63%) was more effective compared to Ca-alginate beads (60.96%) and activated rice bran (43.85%). The strength of Cu adsorption was 80.00%, 61.50% and 22.10%, respectively. The desorption of Zn(II) and Cu(II) showed that recovery percentage of the adsorption was 76.56% and 57.80% with the condition of using HCl 0.1 M as desorption agent for 1 hour.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed modification of rice bran oil to incorporate capric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B H; Akoh, C C

    2000-09-01

    Capric acid (C10:0) was incorporated into rice bran oil with an immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei as the biocatalyst. Effects of incubation time, substrate mole ratio, enzyme load, and water addition on mole percent incorporation of C10:0 were studied. Transesterification was performed in an organic solvent, hexane, and under solvent-free condition. Pancreatic lipase-catalyzed sn-2 positional analysis and tocopherol analysis were performed before and after enzymatic modification. Products were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) for fatty acid composition. After 24 h of incubation in hexane, there was an average of 26.5 +/- 1.8 mol % incorporation of C10:0 into rice bran oil. The solvent-free reaction produced an average of 24.5 +/- 3.7 mol % capric acid. In general, as the enzyme load, substrate mole ratio, and incubation time increased, the mole percent of capric acid incorporation also increased. Time course reaction indicated C10:0 incorporation increased up to 27.0 mol % at 72 h, for the reaction in hexane, and up to 29.6 mol % at 12 h, for the solvent-free reaction. The highest C10:0 incorporations (53.1 and 43.2 mol %) for the mole ratio experiment occurred at a mole ratio of 1:8 for solvent and solvent-free reactions, respectively. The highest C10:0 incorporation (27.9 mol %) for the reaction in hexane occurred at 10% enzyme load, and the highest incorporation (34.4 mol %) for the solvent-free reaction occurred at 20% enzyme load. Incorporation of C10:0 into rice bran oil declined with the addition of increasing amounts of water after reaching 30.3 mol % at 2% water addition in hexane, and in the solvent-free reaction after reaching 35.9 mol %.

  11. Effect of fibre hydrolytic enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius P Ketaren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.

  12. Utility of Rice Bran Mixed with Fermentation Extract of Vegetable Waste Unconditioned as Probiotics from Vegetable Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of the study was to enhance utilization of Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces sp. as starter for fermentation of waste cabbage and green mustard to enhance the utility of rice bran as an ingredient of poultry feed. The first stage of the study was to characterize the extract of fermented wasted vegetable with difference concentration of glucose and different period of time for incubation. Completely randomized design using 3 x 3 factorial with three replications was used for the first stage of the study. The second stage of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the extract of fermented wasted vegetable to improve the quality and utility of rice bran. Completely randomized design with four treatments and 4 replications. The third stage of the study was to obtain the value of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention, as well as metabolic energy of rice bran after fermentation in broiler hatching. The third stage analysis was conducted by t-test analysis. The results of the study showed that the microbial characteristics on the extract of fermented wasted vegetable in two days incubation time and 2% concentration of glucose was able to produce pH of 3.80, log of total lactic acid bacteria 7.38 and types of microbes that grow predominantly were Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces Sp. The effectiveness of the extract fermented wasted vegetable for the fermentation of rice bran were shown in additional concentration of extract wasted vegetable of 40% with a moisture content of  toluene 65.24%, 13.36% ash, 14.93% protein, 7.61% crude fat, 12.39% crude fiber, nitrogen free extract material (NFE 51.59% and 0.07% biomass. The biological value and the availability of fermented rice bran were higher than unfermented rice bran on the broiler chickens after hatching. The values were justified from nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention also metabolic energy. The study concluded that the benefits and utility of rice bran could

  13. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  14. THE PROCESSING OF RICE BRAN NUTRITIONAL BREAD%米糠营养面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳; 蒋作明; 徐学万; 张萍

    2001-01-01

    介绍了米糠营养面包的制作工艺,研究了米糠对面团流变学特性和面包烘焙品质的影响,并对面包改良剂各组分的配比进行了分析探讨。%The processing technique of rice bran bread is introduced ,the effect rice bran on the rhological properties of the dough and the baking quality of bread are studied ,and the proportion of bread amendment is analyzed in detail.

  15. Bacteriologica acteriological examinations of ducklings, duck's eggs, feed, and rice bran collected from Alibio market, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bakteriological examinations of samples consisted of ducklings, duck's eggs feed and rice bran collected from Alabio market, South Kalimantan were conducted in the laboratory during the year 1992 and 1993 . Result of the examinations showed that 22 isolates of Salmonella Hadar, were isolated from 180 internal organ of ducklings (12 .2%, while 1 isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium (0 .5%, and 1 isolate of Salmonella Virchow (0 .5% was isolated respectively from 180 duck's eggs. Besides, other bacteria were also isolated namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp ., Citrobacter sp . Enterobacter sp, Proteus sp., and Serratia sp . No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from feed as well as from rice bran .

  16. Comparative Studies between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Extraction for Rice Bran Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Himanshu S; Pratap, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The present work deals with comparison of microwave assisted extraction to that of conventional solvent extraction for the extraction of rice bran oil (RBO); focusing on extraction yield and oil composition. Microwave assisted extraction act as a green process over other method and proved that it is effective method for extraction of oil. The investigation also focuses on the study of functional group and component present in oil. Natural antioxidant component; its activity was confirmed by DPPH assay. The oryzanol content was also determined by measuring the optical density of the sample at 315 nm in n-heptane using UV visible spectrophotometer.

  17. Functional and physiological properties of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibres derived from defatted rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Cheickna; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    Enzymatic- gravimetric method was used to obtain three fractions of dietary from defatted rice bran. The functional and physiological properties such as viscosity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cholesterol and bile salt adsorption capacity of the resultant fractions were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) when compared showed that SDF exhibited significantly (p functional ingredients which can be added to various food products and dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties and health benefits.

  18. Rice Bran Oil Compared to Atorvastatin for Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Shakib

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of rice bran oil together with dietary modifications may have implications in lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose, suppressing serum lipid levels, reduce the TC/HDL-C ratio and therefore reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, RBO exerts a hypouricemic action and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings obtained from the current study reinforce the use of RBO as an alternative natural potent hypolipidemic agent safer than atorvastatin drug that may induce side effects in some cases in patients intolerant to statins.

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS...

  20. Effect Addition of Rice Bran on Fermentation Process to Increasing Lovastatin and Intensity of Red Pigment Angkak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Zubaidah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice, known as Angkak, is a natural dye product of rice fermented by mold Monascus purpureus. Red yeast rice contains lovastatin compounds as secondary metabolites that have been shown to lower triglycerides and cholesterol. Increase secondary metabolites can be done by the addition of a source of vitamin B1 and zinc. Rice bran is a good source of vitamin B1 and zinc. This study aims to increase levels of lovastatin and red pigments are produced during the fermentation of red yeast rice. The study uses a completely randomized design consisting of 6 treatments: the addition of rice bran on the fermentation medium (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15%, respectively. The best treatment obtained from treatment adding with 5% rice bran where has the following characteristics: intensity of red pigment 3.574, 102.040 ppm lovastatin levels, the level of redness (a+ 15.40. The best treatment resulting red pigment solubility at a temperature of 25, 60, 80 and 100°C range from 1,149 to 2,552.

  1. Parboiled rice bran in japanese quail diets at growing phase and residual effect at laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world and the by-products resulting from rice processing for human consumption are potential feedstuffs to compose poultry diets. In this sense, it was evaluated the influence of parboiled rice bran (PRB in diets for Japanese quails in growing phase on the performance and digestibility, besides of residual effects and characteristics of egg quality in laying phase. A total of 324 Japanese quails with 7 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 6 treatments and 6 replicates of 9 birds. The treatments consisted of 6 isonutritives diets, being a control diet without PRB and the others containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. At the end of growing phase the birds were allotted in cages and fed the same diet without PRB at laying phase. At growing phase, the inclusion of PRB up to 5% promoted linear reduction in dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of diet; however a linear increase in metabolizable energy was noted. Feed intake, weight gain and final weight were reduced but not altering feed:gain ratio and body composition. At laying phase, the inclusion of PRB increased the age at first egg production but no influence was verified at age to reach 50% of egg production. No effect was verified at laying percentage, feed intake, weight and egg mass and feed:gain ratio. In economical evaluation, the inclusion of up to 25% of parboiled rice bran provided best economical indexes. The inclusion of PRB Japanese quails diets at growing phase can be recommended in levels up to 25%, without incurring future losses at laying phase.

  2. Statistical media and process optimization for biotransformation of rice bran to vanillin using Pediococcus acidilactici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-11-01

    An isolate of P. acidilactici capable of producing vanillin from rice bran was isolated from a milk product. Response Surface Methodology was employed for statistical media and process optimization for production of biovanillin. Statistical medium optimization was done in two steps involving Placket Burman Design and Central Composite Response Designs. The RSM optimized vanillin production medium consisted of 15% (w/v) rice bran, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.1% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.005% (w/v) ferulic acid, 0.005% (w/v) magnesium sulphate, and 0.1% (v/v) tween-80, pH 5.6, at a temperature of 37 degrees C under shaking conditions at 180 rpm. 1.269 g/L vanillin was obtained within 24 h of incubation in optimized culture medium. This is the first report indicating such a high vanillin yield obtained during biotransformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a Pediococcal isolate.

  3. Rice bran oil prevents neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in rats: Possible antioxidant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Samad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD is one of the serious side effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Chronic treatment with neuroleptic leads to the development of abnormal oral movements called vacuous chewing movements (VCMs. The oxidative stress hypothesis of TD is one of the possible pathophysiologic models for TD. Preclinical and clinical studies of this hypothesis indicate that neurotoxic free radical production is likely to be a consequence of antipsychotic medication and is related to occurrence of TD. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of TD. Rats chronically treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased in a time-dependent manner as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Motor activity in an open field or home cage (activity box not altered. Administration of rice bran oil (antioxidant by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day prevented the induction of haloperidol-elicited VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The results are discussed in the context of a protective role of antioxidant of rice bran oil in the prevention of haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

  4. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn, G.A.R.; GonCalves, L.A.G.; Ming, C.C.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4), resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content. (Author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunpak, Apirak; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Monton, Chaowalit; Pathompak, Pathamaporn; Kraisintu, Krisana

    2014-02-01

    To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  6. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; Distefano, C; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2011-02-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice bran (RBF), defining three treatments: control (CRT), low dose (LD) and high dose (HD). In weeks 1 and 3, all animals received 3 kg of PF and in week 2: CRT received 3 kg of PF, LD received 1.5 kg of PF and 1.5 kg of RBF and HD received 3 kg of RBF. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (DMI). Feed intakes and growth rates indicated that all heifers had nutritional requirements that exceeded their Ca intakes. Serum Ca, urinary Ca, calcitriol or hydroxyproline remained unaffected. Urinary Ca was consistently low indicating high renal Ca reabsorption, which is indicative of insufficient Ca supply. Rice bran feed influenced P, Mg and Zn intakes and serum and urine presence of these minerals. Most heifers already presented an upregulated Ca metabolism, being inadequate to study adaptive changes in Ca homeostasis of multiparous dry cows. This metabolic difference can be explanatory to the very low susceptibility of heifers to milk fever, further supporting the induction of homeostatic adaptation before calving to prevent milk fever. Rice bran feed did not reduce DMI, and was not detrimental to P, Mg or Zn status.

  7. Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J H; Suh, H J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive.

  8. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  9. Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apirak Sakunpak; Jirapornchai Suksaeree; Chaowalit Monton; Pathamaporn Pathompak; Krisana Kraisintu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis ofγ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.Methods:TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test.Results:Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.

  10. Preparation of rice bran polypeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis%酶法制备米糠多肽的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 薛正莲; 钱森和

    2014-01-01

    The effects of enzyme types, enzyme dosage, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis time and pH on the yield of rice bran polypeptides were investigated,and the preparation condi-tions of rice bran polypeptides were optimized by response surface methodology. The relative molecular weight of the hydrolysate of rice bran protein by papain was also analyzed. The results showed that papain was the best enzyme for enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran protein. The optimal preparation conditions of rice bran polypeptides by papain were obtained as follows:enzyme dosage 1 . 5%, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 40. 5℃,pH 5. 6,enzymatic hydrolysis time 3. 4 h. Under the optimal conditions,the yield of rice bran polypeptides reached 79. 3%,and the relative molecular weight of rice bran polypeptides ranged from 500 to 700 .%研究了不同蛋白酶以及加酶量、酶解温度、酶解时间、pH对米糠多肽产率的影响,并利用响应面法对米糠多肽制备工艺条件进行了优化,同时分析了木瓜蛋白酶酶解米糠蛋白产物的相对分子质量。结果表明,木瓜蛋白酶是较好的米糠蛋白降解酶,木瓜蛋白酶酶解制备米糠多肽的最优工艺条件为:加酶量1.5%,酶解时间3.4 h,酶解温度40.5℃,pH 5.6;在最优工艺条件下,米糠多肽产率达到79.3%。米糠多肽的相对分子质量分布在500~700之间。

  11. Study on coloration of Monascus-nata complex using combination of rice flour, tofu solid waste, and rice bran extracts as the medium

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    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Monascus-nata complex was made up from fermented nata which was grown in the medium containing Monascus purpureus fungi, that could be used as coloration of nata. Rice flour usually used as medium to produce pigments by M. purpureus. Tofu solid waste and rice bran could be used to produce pigments although the colour intensity of M. purpureus pigment was lower than rice. The aims of these research were to study colour, pH medium and weight of miselium Monascus-nata complex from the combination of rice flour with tofu solid waste extracts and rice flour with rice bran extracts as the medium. In these research, 5% (b/v rice flour extracts, combination of rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extract in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and rice flour : rice bran extracts in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 were used as the medium. Ten nata de coco (1x1x1 cm3 were put in to the extracts of medium (100mL in bottle, then inoculated with 10% (v/v starter of M. purpureus containing 1.3x107 cfu/mL and incubated at room temperature on an orbital shaker at 100 rpm for 16 days. Parameters which were measured, i.e. colour intensity, preferable test, pH medium, weight of miselium Monascus-nata complex. Data were analyzed using analysis of variant and followed by DMRT in 5% significations except preferable test which were analyzed using hedonic test. Combination of rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 could be used to replace rice flour extracts on the making of Monascus-nata complex. Orange colour intensity from rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 was higher than from rice flour extracts. Orange colour intensity from rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 and rice flour were 0.156 and 0.123 respectively. Red colour intensity from medium rice flour extract : tofu solid waste extracts in the ratio of 1:1 approach the red colour intensity of rice flour. Red colour intensity from medium

  12. Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2017-07-01

    The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. Forty eight gestating sows (parity 2 to 6) were allotted to 3 diets and 2 levels of feed intake (i.e., 1.5 or 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME) in a randomized complete block design, with 4 blocks of 12 sows and 2 replicate sows per block for a total of 8 replicate sows per diet. Twenty four growing gilts (51.53 ± 3.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 diets, but all gilts were fed at 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal and 2 diets that consisted of 60% basal diet and 40% FFRB or DFRB were used. Results of the experiment indicated that there were no effects of level of feed intake of sows on ATTD of GE, DM, OM, or NDF, or on concentrations of DE and ME. However, concentrations of DE and ME were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. Concentrations of DE and ME in the diets were also greater ( sows than in growing gilts. The ATTD of GE and the concentrations of DE and ME of FFRB were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. In conclusion, the level of feed intake by gestating sows did not affect the digestibility of GE and nutrients or the concentrations of DE and ME in diets or in FFRB or DFRB, but the ATTD of GE and the concentration of DE and ME in diets and in FFRB and DFRB were greater in gestating sows than in growing gilts.

  13. Open fermentative production of L-lactic acid using white rice bran by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Di; He, Meiling; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-01

    To reduce raw material cost for lactic acid production, white rice bran as an important byproduct in rice milling, was used in l-lactic acid production by open simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Although one thermotolerant strain was used at a temperature as high as 50°C, the open fermentation was still inefficient due to the indigenous thermophilic bacteria from corn steep liquor powder. A stepwise controlled pH was proposed in open SSF process, and no complicated pretreatment or sterilization was needed before fermentation. In batch fermentation, 117 gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained, and the productivity and yield reached 2.79 gL(-1) h(-1) and 98.75%, respectively. These results showed an efficient way to develop high value-added products from white rice bran. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The effect of oil pulling with rice bran oil, sesame oil, and chlorhexidine mouth rinsing on halitosis among pregnant women: A comparative interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Rice bran oil when used in oil pulling was effective in reducing halitosis. It performed comparably and marginally superior to other agents tested in the study when change in halitosis postintervention was considered.

  15. Effects of rice bran oil on the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of isoflavones in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Hoshi, Chigusa; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Dietary RBO affects intestinal cholesterol absorption. Intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. We hypothesized that dietary RBO changes the metabolism of isoflavonoids and intestinal microbiota in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% RBO diet (RO group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 10% lard control diet (LO group) for 30 days. Urinary amounts of daidzein and dihydrodaidzein were significantly lower in the RO group than in the LO group. The ratio of equol/daidzein was significantly higher in the RO group (p microbiota differed between the RO and LO groups. The occupation ratios of Lactobacillales were significantly higher in the RO group (p intestinal microbiota.

  16. Extraction And Stability Of Natural Colorant From Red Glutinous Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa

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    Tirza Hanum

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g. HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

  17. Quality evaluation of rice bran protein isolate-based weaning food for preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saima H; Butt, Masood S; Anjum, Faqir M; Sameen, Ayesha

    2011-05-01

    Agro-industrial waste 'rice bran' was stabilized and the extracted protein isolates were used as ingredients to make nutritive complimentary food for the growing infants. The formulation processed through drum drying and the starchy ingredients were pregelatinized to reduce bulk in the prepared meal and facilitate spoon-feeding. The formulations had uniform texture, light golden color and good paste consistency. Nutrient composition was good enough to meet standards for supplementary infant foods. Caloric value remained up to 416 kcal/100 g with spoonable viscosity and 80.90-84.45% in vitro digestibility. A single meal could substantially contribute to the daily essential amino acid requirement. The formulation had good acceptability during a short-term infant-feeding trial. The present study can provide practical guideline for manufacturers as well as the nutritionist for the use of an economical and nutritive formulation for young children.

  18. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharides obtained from defatted rice bran and their antitumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Zhengxing

    2009-03-01

    Nine sulfated defatted rice bran polysaccharides (sRBPS), with various degrees of sulfation (DS) and carbohydrate content, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method according to orthogonal test. Nine sulfated derivatives sRBPS were obtained and their antitumor activities were compared by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that when DS within the scope of 0.81-1.29, carbohydrate content in the range of 41.41-78.56%, sulfated derivatives exhibit relatively strong antitumor activity in vitro. The optimum modification conditions were reaction temperature of 70 degrees C, the ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine of 1:4 and the reaction time of 2h.

  19. 芡实的营养价值及保健功能%Research Progress on Processing Technology of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军明

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil is a kind of nutrient-rich and high-quality edible oil which contains a variety of nutrients and has great potential and utilized value.This paper reviewed rice bran oil's preparation technologies and refining techniques and summaried its application prospect.%阐述了芡实营养成分以及对人体的保健功能。

  20. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  1. Enhanced carboxymethylcellulase production by a newly isolated marine bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14, using rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wa; Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Un; Li, Jianhong; Chung, Chung-Han; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to establish the optimal conditions for production of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) by a newly isolated marine bacterium using response surface methodology (RSM). A microorganism producing CMCase, isolated from seawater, was identified as Cellulophaga lytica based 16S rDNA sequencing and the neighborjoining method. The optimal conditions of rice bran, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium for cell growth were 100.0 g/l, 5.00 g/l, and 7.0, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 79.9 g/l, 8.52 g/l, and 6.1. The optimal concentrations of K2HPO4, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, and (NH4)2SO4 for cell growth were 6.25, 0.62, 0.28, and 0.42 g/l, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 3.72, 0.54, 0.70, and 0.34 g/l. The optimal temperature for cell growth and the CMCase production by C. lytica LBH-14 were 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The maximal production of CMCase under optimized condition for 3 days was 110.8 U/ml, which was 5.3 times higher than that before optimization. In this study, rice bran and ammonium chloride were developed as carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of CMCase by C. lytica LBH-14. The time for production of CMCase by a newly isolated marine bacterium with submerged fermentations reduced to 3 days, which resulted in enhanced productivity of CMCase and a decrease in its production cost.

  2. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  3. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  4. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  5. Deacidification of high free fatty acid-containing rice bran oil by non-conventional reesterification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sibban; Singh, R P

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil is known for containing higher amount of free fatty acid (FFA) generated by hydrolytic enzyme. This FFA causes heavy neutral oil losses due to saponification and emulsification since it produces large amount of soap in the conventional alkali refining process. In the present study the FFA of degummed rice bran oil (RBO) was significantly reduced by reesterifying it with glycerol. The reesterification process was carried out by varying the temperature and amount of excess glycerol using 0.2% catalyst (SnCl(2)). The maximum efficiency of the process could be attained at 200 degrees C using 70% excess glycerol and the maximum reduction in acid value (from 24.3 to 3.0) of RBO was observed within 4 h. The reesterified RBO was used to prepare stand oil and varnish and their performance characteristics were compared with those of the products obtained from dehydrated castor oil (DCO).

  6. Sleep-Promoting Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action Associated with a Standardized Rice Bran Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Um, Min Young; Lee, Jaekwang; Jung, Jonghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Yun-Tai; Kwon, Sangoh; Kim, Boknam; Cho, Suengmok

    2017-01-01

    Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran—a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS), we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Moreover, both RBS (1000 mg/kg) and doxepin hydrochloride (histamine H1 receptor antagonist, 30 mg/kg) counteracted a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. In terms of sleep phases, RBS (500 mg/kg) promoted non-rapid eye movement sleep for the first 3 h following its administration. Lastly, we unveiled a possible mechanism for RBS action as the hypnotic effect of RBS was blocked by a histamine H1 receptor agonist. The present study revealed sleep-promoting effects of RBS using various animal assays. Such effects seem to be mediated through the histaminergic system. Our findings suggest that RBS may be a promising natural aid for relieving sleep problems. PMID:28524102

  7. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  8. High protective efficacy of probiotics and rice bran against human norovirus infection and diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the major pathogens causing nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII.3 and GII.4, then the effects of LGG+EcN and rice bran on HuNoV infection and diarrhea were investigated using the gnotobiotic pig model. While LGG+EcN colonization inhibited HuNoV shedding, probiotic cocktail regimens in which rice bran feeding started 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized gnotobiotic pigs exhibited high protection against HuNoV diarrhea and shedding, characterized by significantly reduced incidence (89% versus 20% and shorter mean duration of diarrhea (2.2 versus 0.2 days, as well as shorter mean duration of virus shedding (3.2 versus 1.0 days. In both probiotic cocktail groups, the diarrhea reduction rates were 78% compared with the control group, and diarrhea severity was reduced as demonstrated by the significantly lower cumulative fecal scores. The high protective efficacy of the probiotic cocktail regimens was attributed to stimulation of IFN-γ+ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and maintenance of healthy intestinal morphology (manifested as longer villi compared with the control group. Therefore, probiotic cocktail regimens containing LGG+EcN and rice bran may represent highly efficacious strategies to prevent and treat HuNoV gastroenteritis, and potentially other human enteric pathogens.

  9. Nutritional Value of Rice Bran Fermented by and Humic Substances and Its Utilization as a Feed Ingredient for Broiler Chickens

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    Supriyati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to increase the quality of rice bran by fermentation using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and humic substances and its utilization as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out in two steps. First, the fermentation process was done using a completely randomized design in factorial with 16 treatments: i Dosage of B. amyloliquefaciens (2.108 cfu/g, 10 and 20 g/kg; ii Graded levels of humic substances, 0, 100, 200, and 400 ppm; iii Length of fermentation, three and five days. The results showed that the fermentation significantly (p<0.05 reduced crude fiber content. The recommended conditions for fermentation of rice bran: 20 g/kg dosage of inoculums B. amyloliquefaciens, 100 ppm level of humic substances and three days fermentation period. The second step was a feeding trial to evaluate the fermented rice bran (FRB as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Three hundred and seventy-five one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatment diets. Arrangement of the diets as follows: 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% level of FRB and the diets formulation based on equal amounts of energy and protein. The results showed that 15% inclusion of FRB in the diet provided the best bodyweight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR values. In conclusion, the nutrient content of rice bran improved after fermentation and the utilization of FRB as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens could be included up to 15% of the broiler diet.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  11. Efeito hipolipidêmico da dieta contendo farelo de arroz Hypolipidemic effect of rice bran diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    rice bran diet offered to the offspring of rats after weaning was investigated regarding their growth and development, as well as concentration of glucose and total and fractionated cholesterol. Materials and Methods: This study examined four different types of diets in 21-day-old Wistar rats, containing rice bran with or without lysine and with the addition of soybean protein, all diets compared with the standard diet. Blood levels were analyzed chemically for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, protein and albumin. It was also measured the body and liver weights, as well as quantified the liver protein and DNA. Results: Animals receiving rice bran diet with and without lysine had decreased plasma cholesterol (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01, respectively, when compared to the commercial standard. When soybeans were added to diets, there was a reduction in LDL cholesterol levels (p≤0.05 and soybeans with lysine led to a major reduction (p≤0.01. The blood glucose concentration was significantly lower only in the diet with rice bran without lysine (p≤0.01. Conclusions: From this study we could conclude that the consumption of a diet with rice bran containing or not lysine had a hypocholesterolemic effect, but it was observed that the diet without addition of lysine affected the rats growth and development.

  12. Rice bran fractions improve blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Ohinata, Kousaku; Hashizume, Katsumi; Komai, Michio

    2006-03-08

    Effect of dietary supplementation of two types of rice bran fraction on blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, and glucose metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats was studied. Male 4-week-old rats were divided into one group fed the AIN-93M-based control (C) diet and two groups fed diet supplemented with 60 g/kg of Driselase and ethanol fractions (DF and EF, respectively) of rice bran. After 8 weeks feeding, the BP decreased in the DF and EF groups in comparison with the C group (p < 0.01). Plasma ACE inhibitory activity, BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio, albumin, triglyceride, and glucose levels were lower in the DF and EF groups than in the C group (p < 0.01). Plasma nitric oxide and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels were lower in the DF and EF groups than in the C group (p < 0.01). Rice bran fractions appear to have a beneficial dietary component that improves hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia.

  13. A two-step acid-catalyzed process for the production of biodiesel from rice bran oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullaikah, S.; Lai, Chao Chin; Vali, S.R.; Ju, Yi Hsu [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of temperature, moisture and storage time on the accumulation of free fatty acid in the rice bran. Rice bran stored at room temperature showed that most triacylglyceride was hydrolyzed and free fatty acid (FFA) content was raised up to 76% in six months. A two-step acid-catalyzed methanolysis process was employed for the efficient conversion of rice bran oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The first step was carried out at 60 {sup o}C. Depending on the initial FFA content of oil, 55-90% FAME content in the reaction product was obtained. More than 98% FFA and less than 35% of TG were reacted in 2 h. The organic phase of the first step reaction product was used as the substrate for a second acid-catalyzed methanolysis at 100 {sup o}C. By this two-step methanolysis reaction, more than 98% FAME in the product can be obtained in less than 8 h. Distillation of reaction product gave 99.8% FAME (biodiesel) with recovery of more than 96%. The residue contains enriched nutraceuticals such as {gamma}-oryzanol (16-18%), mixture of phytosterol, tocol and steryl ester (19-21%). (author)

  14. Formation and stability of oil-in-water nanoemulsions containing rice bran oil: in vitro and in vivo assessments

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    Rocha-Filho Pedro A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoemulsions have practical application in a multitude of commercial areas, such as the chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cosmetic industries use rice bran oil in sunscreen formulations, anti ageing products and in treatments for skin diseases. The aim of this study was to create rice bran oil nanoemulsions using low energy emulsification methods and to evaluate their physical stability, irritation potential and moisturising activity on volunteers with normal and diseased skin types. Results The nanoemulsion developed by this phase diagram method was composed of 10% rice bran oil, 10% surfactants sorbitan oleate/PEG-30 castor oil, 0.05% antioxidant and 0.50% preservatives formulated in distilled water. The nanoemulsion was stable over the time course of this study. In vitro assays showed that this formulation has a low irritation potential, and when applied to human skin during in vivo studies, the nanoemulsion improved the skin's moisture and maintained normal skin pH values. Conclusion The results of irritation potential studies and in vivo assessments indicate that this nanoemulsion has potential to be a useful tool to treat skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of phytic acid purified from rice bran - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.16358

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    Cristiane Canan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a by-product of rice processing industry, with high levels of phytic acid or phytate. Considering phytic acid antioxidant activity, its various applications and its high concentration in rice bran, this study had the objective of evaluating the antioxidant capacity of purified phytic acid from rice bran using three different methods. Using of 2,4,6-tripyridil-s-triazine or method of FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, reducing Fe2+ activity was not detected for standard or purified phytic acid. With BPS (bathophenanthroline method, the Fe2+ chelator activity of standard phytic acid and rice bran phytic acid were dependent on the concentration and contact time and were observed IC50 values of 4.39 mg mL-1 and IC50 of 7.54 mg mL-1, respectively. By the deoxyribose method, the standard phytic acid inhibited the hydroxyl radical with an IC50 of 0.70 mg mL-1 while the rice bran phytic acid showed a maximum inhibitory activity of 40% associated to its chelating capacity and confirm this important antioxidant capacity.

  16. Anti-Tumor and Immune Enhancing Activities of Rice Bran Gramisterol on Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

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    Somsuda Somintara

    Full Text Available Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML is a cancer of the blood that most commonly affects human adults. The specific cause of AML is unclear, but it induces abnormality of white blood cells that grow rapidly and accumulate in bone marrow interfering with the production and functions of the normal blood cells. AML patients face poor prognosis and low quality of life during chemotherapy or transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells due to the progressive impairment of their immune system. The goal of this study is to find natural products that have the potential to delay growth or eliminate the abnormal leukemic cells but cause less harmful effect to the body's immune system.The unsaponified fraction of Riceberry rice bran (RBDS and the main pure compound, gramisterol, were studied for cytotoxicity and biological activities in WEHI-3 cells and in the leukemic mouse model induced by transplantation of WEHI-3 cells intraperitoneally. In the in vitro assay, RBDS and gramisterol exerted sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest with a potent induction of apoptosis. Both of them effectively decreased cell cycle controlling proteins (cyclin D1 and cyclin E, suppressed cellular DNA synthesis and mitotic division, and reduced anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 protein, but increased apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax and activated caspase-3 enzyme in the intrinsic cell death stimulation pathway. In leukemic mice, daily feeding of RBDS significantly increased the amount of immune function-related cells including CD3+, CD19+, and CD11b+, and elevated the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12β cytokines, but suppressed IL-10 level. At the tumor sites, CD11b+ cells were polarized and became active phagocytotic cells. Treatment of mice normal immune cells with gramisterol alone or a combination of gramisterol with cytokines released from RBDS-treated leukemic mice splenocytes culture synergistically increased pSTAT1 transcriptional factor that up-regulated the genes controlling

  17. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

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    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  18. Structural differences among alkali-soluble arabinoxylans from maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) brans influence human fecal fermentation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2010-01-13

    Human fecal fermentation profiles of maize, rice, and wheat bran and their dietary fiber fractions released by alkaline-hydrogen peroxide treatment (principally arabinoxylan) were obtained with the aim of identifying and characterizing fractions associated with high production of short chain fatty acids and a linear fermentation profile for possible application as a slowly fermentable dietary fiber. The alkali-soluble fraction from maize bran resulted in the highest short chain fatty acid production among all samples tested, and was linear over the 24 h fermentation period. Size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR suggested that higher molecular weight and uniquely substituted arabinose side chains may contribute to these properties. Monosaccharide disappearance data suggest that maize and rice bran arabinoxylans are fermented by a debranching mechanism, while wheat bran arabinoxylans likely contain large unsubstituted xylose regions that are fermented preferentially, followed by poor fermentation of the remaining, highly branched oligosaccharides.

  19. Self-Assembly of Rice Bran Globulin Fibrils in Electrostatic Screening: Nanostructure and Gels

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    Lihua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various ionic strengths and protein concentrations on the fibrils structure and gel properties of rice bran globulin (RBG at pH 2.0 were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM, rheometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. AFM images showed the morphology of assembling RBG fibrils from strand beads to becoming branch clustered, when electrostatic repulsive forces attenuated gradually with increasing ionic strength. NaCl seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibrils formation, resulting in a significant increase in Th T fluorescence intensity. The increased ionic strengths promote particle size increasing and zeta potential decreasing synchronously. The percolation model G'~C-Cpn be used to calculate theoretical RBG gels concentration at various ionic strengths (0–500 mM, which decreased from 15.17 ± 0.63 to 2.26 ± 0.27 wt%. SEM images exhibited a granular mesh-like gel structure. A more homogenous structure occurred in low ionic strength. This study elucidates properties of RBG fibrils and gels as a bioactive material.

  20. Pigmentation Effect of Rice Bran Extracted Minerals Comprising Soluble Silicic Acids

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    Hyun-Jun Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation focused on identifying melanogenesis effect of soluble minerals in rice bran ash extract (RBE which include orthosilicic acid (OSA. Melanocytes were apparently normal in terms of morphology. It was, however, shown that they were stressed a little in the RBE and OSA added media in aspect of LDH activity. Melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity were increased by treatment of RBE which is similar to that of OSA. The Western blotting results showed that TRP-1, tyrosinase, and MITF expression levels were 2-3 times higher in the OSA and RBE groups compared to the control group which promoted melanin synthesis through CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry were shown to have similar result to that of protein expression. As a result, minerals which comprise orthosilicic acid has the potential to promote melanogenesis and both RBE and OSA have similar cell viability, protein expression, and immunostaining results, suggesting that RBE comprises specific minerals which promote melanin synthesis through increasing of MITF and CREB phosphorylation. Therefore, RBE could be used as a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanin deficiency related diseases by stimulating melanocytes via its soluble Si and mineral components.

  1. Rice Bran Feruloylated Oligosaccharides Activate Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 Signaling

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    Chi Chen Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs of rice bran on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. We found that FOs induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of CD40, CD80/CD86 and MHC-I/II molecules. FOs efficiently induced maturation of DCs generated from C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mice with normal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or TLR-2 but not DCs from mice with mutated TLR4 or TLR2. The mechanism of action of FOs may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs and increased NF-kB activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. These data suggest that FOs induce DCs maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that FOs might have potential efficacy against tumor or virus infection or represent a candidate-adjuvant approach for application in immunotherapy and vaccination.

  2. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  3. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from rice bran using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasonic technology was applied for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants from the rice bran using ethanol as a food grade solvent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants. Three independent variables such as solvent percentage (%), temperature (°C) and time (min) were studied. Effect of ethanol concentration was found to be significant on all responses. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 2.37 to 6.35mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. FRAP and DPPH values varied from 31.74 to 57.23μmol Fe(2+)/g of dry sample and 16.88% to 55.61% inhibition, respectively. Extraction yields ranged from 11 to 20.2%. Optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions were identified as 65-67% ethanol, 51-54°C, 40-45min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted by SRM models, thus indicating suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

  4. Aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-rice bran microcapsules: enhancing survival of Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sudsai, Polin; Rodklongtan, Akkaratch

    2012-09-01

    This research aimed to enhance the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 from heat conditioning by using microencapsulation with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-rice bran (AlCMC-RB) composites of different weight ratios of 1:0, 1:1, and 1:1.5. The cell/polymer suspension was crosslinked with aluminum chloride at different agitation speeds of 1200, 1500, and 2100 rpm. The AlCMC microcapsules had significantly higher encapsulation efficiency, but lower microcapsule yield than the AlCMC-RB microcapsules (p≤0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the complexation between AlCMC and RB. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed hydrogen bondings between AlCMC, RB, and cells. The AlCMC-RB microcapsules had significantly lower aluminum ion and moisture contents than the AlCMC ones. After heat exposure, the viability of non-encapsulated and microencapsulated cells in the AlCMC matrix dramatically declined, while that of microencapsulated cells in the AlCMC-RB matrix was about 8 log CFU/g. The results showed the promising potential of the AlCMC-RB composite microcapsules for the protection of probiotics against heat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

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    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  6. Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-04-18

    Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively.

  7. Genotoxicity of rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae-Uk; Moon, Woi-Sook; Kim, Joo-Wan; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Rice bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction (RB-SCE) reportedly exhibits pharmacological activities such as antioxidant and in vivo hair growth-inducing effects. Such activities raise the possibility of the development of novel hair growth-inducing agents using RB-SCE. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of RB-SCE in three short-term mutagenicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus assay). RB-SCE showed no genotoxicity in the bacterial reverse mutation assay up to 5000 mg/plate and in the in vivo micronucleus test up to 600 mg/kg body weight. However, at 120 µg/mL with S9 mix and 200 µg/mL without S9 mix RB-SCE showed significantly different genotoxicity than the negative control in the in vitro chromosome aberration test. The induction of chromosomal aberrations under the present conditions may have no biological significance. We have herein demonstrated that RB-SCE can be regarded as a non-genotoxic material based on the available in vivo and in vitro results.

  8. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil with hydrogenated cottonseed oil to produce trans free fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeharika, T S V R; Rallabandi, Ramya; Ragini, Y; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rani, K N Prasanna; Prasad, R B N

    2015-08-01

    Lipase catalyzed interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO) was carried out for producing a low trans free fat. The interesterification reaction was performed by varying parameters such as weight proportions of RBO and HCSO, reaction temperatures, time period and lipase concentration. Both non specific and specific lipases namely Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM were employed for this study. Based on the data generated, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be: weight proportion of RBO and HCSO, 80:20; lipase concentration, 5 % (w/w) of substrates; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 4 h for Lipozyme TL IM and 5 h for Novozym 435. The degree of interesterification, calculated based on the results of solid fat characteristics was used for comparing the catalytic activity of Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. It was observed that the degree of interesterification (DI) reached a near 100 % at the 4th hour for reaction employing Lipozyme TL IM with a rate constant of 0.191 h(-1) while Novozym 435 catalyzed reaction reached a near 100 % degree of interesterification at the 5th hour with a rate constant of 0.187 h(-1), suggesting that Lipozyme TL IM has a faster catalytic activity.

  9. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-08-01

    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads.

  10. Microencapsulation of menhaden fish oil containing soluble rice bran fiber using spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuting; Bankston, Joseph David; Bechtel, Peter J; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-05-01

    Emulsion (EFMO) containing purified menhaden oil (PMO) and soluble rice bran fiber (SRBF) was dried in a pilot scale spray dryer and produced microencapsulated PMO with SRBF (MFMO). EFMO had well isolated spherical droplets with the size of 1 to 10 μm and showed pseudoplastic fluid and viscoelastic characteristics. EFMO had lower lipid oxidation than the emulsion containing PMO without SRBF when both emulsions were stored at 20 and 40 °C for 88 h, which indicated that the SRBF reduced the lipid oxidation in the EFMO. The estimated MFMO production rate (3.45 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s) was higher than the actual production rate (2.31 × 10(-5) kg dry solids/s). The energy required to spray dry the EFMO was 12232 kJ/kg of emulsion. EPA and DHA contents of MFMO were 11.52% and 4.51%, respectively. The particle size of 90% MFMO ranged from 8 to 62 μm, and the volume-length diameter of MFMO was 28.5 μm.

  11. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. I. The addition of food enzymes to target the non-starch polysaccharide fractions in diets of chickens and ducks gave no response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-09-01

    1. Three experiments were undertaken to test the efficacy of 2 enzymes targeting mainly the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in rice bran. 2. In experiment one, 400 g rice bran/kg depressed chick performance and there was a significant decline in growth rate and food intake with increasing inclusion of rice bran (0, 200, 400 g). Neither enzyme had any benefit. 3. In experiment two, rice bran (inclusion 200 and 400 g/kg), did not alter growth rate, food intake or food conversion ratio of duckling (3 to 17 d of age). Again enzyme addition gave no response. 4. In experiment three, 300 g rice bran/kg stimulated duck (19 to 35 d of age) growth while 600 g rice bran/kg depressed growth but not food intake. Enzymes gave no response. 5. Relative gut viscosity declined with increasing rice bran inclusion as did dry matter in ileal digesta. There were differences between ducklings and chickens. 6. It was concluded that NSPs were not a significant factor in altering the nutritive value of rice bran and the enzymes used were therefore unlikely to be of benefit.

  12. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  14. USING CORN DISTILLER’S GRAIN AND RICE BRAN IN THE NUTRITION OF LAYING HENS AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Layers feeding are a technological factor that could increase economic efficiency in egg production if it is scientifically managed. The increasing price of raw materials used for producing diet imposes as nutritionists to look for new cheaper feedstuff able to replace the traditional and more expensive ingredients like soybean meal. This study aimed to set up new diet formulae for layers feeding. These new formulae are replacing soybean meal with corn distiller’s grain and rice bran. The new formulae assure the same protein and calories content. The V1 formula contents 30 % corn distiller’s grain and V2 contains 20 % rice bran. The effects of these formulae on the technological parameters and economic efficiency in egg production have been watched in micro test using a sample of 216 layers belonging to Roso 2000 hybrid line. The main parameters taken into account have been the following ones: average egg production, egg laying capacity, egg weight, yolk weight, white weight, shell weight, feed consumption, food conversion, cost and income/layer, profit/layer and profit/egg. The results obtained in micro test by the two experimental groups differently fed with V1 and respectively V 2 have been compared to the ones recorded by M group, fed with the classical diet based on 23 % soybean meal. We have noticed that the layers fed with rations based on corn distiller’s grain and rice bran have registered high quantitative and qualitative performances in egg production, leading to substantial savings related to production costs and to a higher profit per layer and egg.

  15. Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Male Pelung Chicken Fed Rice Bran-Based Ration Supplemented with Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Juice

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    Istna Mangisah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rearing Pelung chicken in Indonesia, in general, uses a ration with a high proportion of rice bran, even up to 60%. Considering the high contents of fiber, lignin, and phytic acid, feeding a high portion of rice bran will decrease nutrient digestibility. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lime juice supplementation of a rice bran-based ration on the utilization of nutrients in male Pelung chicken. Sixty four of 12 weeks old male Pelung chickens were used in the present experiment and assigned into a completely randomized block design. The treatments were supplementation of the ration with lime juice at the levels of 0, 1, 2, and 3 mL/100 g. Parameters measured were feed and nutrients consumption, protein, fat, and fiber digestibilities, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, rate of passage, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and daily body weight gain. The results showed that  the supplementation of lime juice in the ration did not affect feed and nutrient consumption, but significantly (P<0.05 increased the digestibilities of protein, fat and fiber, AME, rate of passage, FCR and daily body weight gain. However, supplementation  of 2 or 3 mL lime juice in the ration resulted in similar values of AME, and protein, fat and fiber digestibilities, and both levels of supplementation produced better protein and fat digestibilities, and AME when compared to the other treatments. It could be concluded that supplementation of 3 mL lime juice in the ration increased the digestion processes in the gastrointestinal and increased daily weight gain of male Pelung chicken.

  16. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μ...

  17. Study on Technological of Extracting Phytin from Rice Bran%米糠中提取植酸钙

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春艳; 赵永华

    2011-01-01

    The degreased rice bran was used as the raw materials,calcium phytate was produced by acid and alkaline neutralization(precipitation).The effects of acid kinds,the ratio of rice bran to extractant,extraction concentration,temperature,time,pH in neutralization reaction with base were investigated on the yield of calcium phytate by single factors experiments.The extraction was optimized by orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the influential factors order is: extraction temperature pH in the process of alkaline neutralization the ratio of rice bran to extractant extraction time.By using 3% hydrochloric acid as the extracting agent,the best conditions of extraction phytin were as follows: the ratio of rice bran to extractant 1∶ 9,extraction temperature 35 ℃,extraction time 3 h,and pH in the process of alkaline neutralization 7.5.Under these conditions,the yield of calcium phytate was 1.5%.%以脱脂米糠为原料,采用稀酸萃取加碱中和法(即沉淀法)制取植酸钙,考察了单因素条件下提取剂的种类、料液比、提取剂浓度、提取温度、碱中和过程pH值等对植酸钙收率的影响,并通过正交实验进行了优化。实验表明:以3%HCl为提取剂,植酸钙提取影响因素为提取温度〉碱中和过程pH值〉料液比〉提取时间,提取植酸钙的最适条件为,提取温度为35℃,碱中和过程pH值为7.5,料液比为1∶9(g∶mL),提取时间为3 h。在此条件下,植酸钙收率可达1.5%左右。

  18. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehn, G. A.R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and polyethersulfone (PES polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solvent, with a 95.5% retention of the phosphorus concentration (by a factor of 1.4, resulting in a permeate with 29 mg·kg−1 of phosphorus and an average flow rate of 48.1 L·m−2·h−1. This technology can be used as a low-pollution, economical alternative for the de-gumming of crude rice bran oil, being effective in the removal of hydratable and non-hydratable phospholipids, resulting in oils with a low phosphorus content.La tecnología de membrana ha ido ganando impulso en los procesos industriales, especialmente en tecnología de los alimentos. Se piensa que simplifica los procesos, reduce el consumo de energía, y elimina contaminantes. El objetivo fué estudiar el rendimiento de las membranas poliméricas de fluoruro de polivinilo (PVDF y poliétersulfona (PES en el desgomado de miscelas de aceite de salvado de arroz crudo, mediante el uso de un módulo de filtración de escalado tangencial. Además, se compararon las técnicas de filtración de miscelas de aceite, utilizando como disolventes hexano y alcohol etílico anhidro. Todas las membranas mostraron retención de los fosfolípidos y altas tasas de flujo. Sin embargo, se observó un mejor rendimiento usando la membrana de PVDF de 50-kDa con hexano como disolvente, con una retención del 95

  19. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

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    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics of Composite Flour Made from Cassava, Sweet Potato, Corn and Rice Bran

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    Alvi Yani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lampung province is one of production center for food commodities such as cassava, maize and sweet potato. The development of these commodities into processed products has been done one of which is a composite flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of composite flour consisting of a mixture of cassava flour (CF, sweet potato flour (SPF and corn flour (NF. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Lampung Assessment Institute for  Agriculture  Technology (AIAT and Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI on May – July 2014. The design used was completely randomized by four treatments such as F1 (60% CF, 0% SPF, 35% NF, 5% Rice Bran/RB , F2 (50% CF, 10% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, F3 (40% CF, 20% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB and F4 (30% CF, 30% SPF, 35% NF, 5% RB, and the activities was repeated 4 times. The data were statistically analyzed and followed by Duncan Multiple range test. Physical characteristics observed were whiteness, water content, water absorption value (NPA and the water solubility value (NKA. While the chemical characteristics of proximate analysis consist of moisture content, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fiber and ash content by AOAC Methods. The results showed that the whiteness value of four composite flours were not different in the ranged between 57.97% (F4 and 60.37% (F1. While the carbohydrates content ranged from 81.17 to 83.3% (the highest in the F4, protein was from 3.70 to 4.47% (the highest in the F4, fat was from 1.41 to 1.50%, ash content was from 01.47 - 1.66%, 1.81 - 2.17% for crude fiber, 11.64 to 18.80% for amylose, while amylopectin content ranged from 36.68 to 43.98%.

  1. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  2. Efficient Degumming of Rice Bran Oil by Immobilized PLA1 from Thermomyces lanuginosus

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    Tripti Singhania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A1 (PLA1 immobilized in calcium alginate can effectively overcome the mass transfer resistance at the lipid-water interface making more room for the enzyme to separate itself from the products of reaction and to bind with the next available molecule at the interface. The reaction of an immobilized PLA1 hydrolase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was comparatively faster than of its free form. The rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA1 was studied in calcium-rich and calcium-depleted environments; and the extent of phosphorus removed from the crude rice bran oil as well as the amount of free fatty acids produced during the reaction were used as indices for analysing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis under standard conditions of pH, temperature, time of incubation and agitation. The immobilized PLA1 was found to be superior in removing phosphorus in the presencem of 10 mM bivalent calcium ions in a solution. As compared to a maximum of 72.52 % phosphorus removed by 0.01 kg of free enzyme per kg of oil, the same amount of immobilized PLA1 removed phosphorus from oil by 94.12 % under the same experimental conditions (pH=6, 60 °C, 1-hour incubation. Both the free PLA1 and its immobilized form had shown extended rates of hydrolysis in a calcium-rich environment. The mass fractions of free fatty acids produced by the free enzyme and by its immobilized form were 14.9 and 14.16 %, respectively, under the above experimental conditions. The removal of phosphorusfrom oil was accompanied by a signifi cant reduction in colour and restoration of iodine value to the desired level.

  3. Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazalina, S; Norhaizan, M E; Hairuszah, I; Norashareena, M S

    2010-05-01

    This study is carried out to determine the potential of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in the suppression of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 12 rats in each group. The intended rats for cancer treatment received two intraperitoneal injections of AOM in saline (15mg/kg bodyweight) over a 2-week period. The treatments of phytic acid were given in two concentrations: 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis phase via drinking water. The colons of the animals were analyzed for detection and quantification of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) after 8 weeks of treatment. The finding showed treatment with 0.2% (w/v) extract phytic acid (EPA) gave the greatest reduction in the formation of ACF. In addition, phytic acid significantly suppressed the number of ACF in the distal, middle and proximal colon as compared to AOM alone (pphytic acid (CPA) had the highest percentage (71%) of non-dysplastic ACF followed by treatment with 0.2% (w/v) EPA (61%). Administration of phytic acid also reduced the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors even though there were no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, this study found the potential value of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in reducing colon cancer risk in rats.

  4. Comparison of various extraction methods for policosanol from rice bran wax and establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of policosanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fei; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Mao, Li; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Gong, Hui-Juan; Qian, Bao-Yong; Fang, Yan; Li, Jie

    2007-07-11

    A capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the separation and determination of policosanol components extracted from rice bran wax. A Varian CP-sil 8 CB column was employed, and an oven temperature was programmed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the composition of policosanol. Quantitative analysis was carried out by means of hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) with dinonyl phthalate (DNP) as internal standard. The results indicated that the extract obtained by dry saponification has the highest contents of octacosanol and triacontanol among extracts by all used extraction methods including dry saponification, saponification in alcohol, saponification in water (neutralized and non-neutralized), and transesterification. Meanwhile, the GC-MS fingerprint of policosanol extracted by dry saponification has been established. Euclidean distance similarity calculation showed remarkable consistency of compositions and contents among 12 batches of policosanol from a rice bran wax variety. This protocol provided a rapid and feasible method for quality control of policosanol products.

  5. Pilot Dietary Intervention with Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Modulates Stool Microbiota and Metabolites in Healthy Adults

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    Amy M. Sheflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stabilized rice bran (SRB has been shown to regulate blood lipids and glucose, modulate gut mucosal immunity and inhibit colorectal cancer in animal and human studies. However, SRB’s effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism and the resulting implications for health remain largely unknown. A pilot, randomized-controlled trial was developed to investigate the effects of eating 30 g/day SRB on the stool microbiome and metabolome. Seven healthy participants consumed a study meal and snack daily for 28 days. The microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS at baseline, two and four weeks post-intervention. Increases in eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs, including three from Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus genera, were observed after two and four weeks of SRB consumption (p < 0.01. Branched chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and eleven other putative microbial metabolites were significantly elevated in the SRB group after four weeks. The largest metabolite change was a rice bran component, indole-2-carboxylic acid, which showed a mean 12% increase with SRB consumption. These data support the feasibility of dietary SRB intervention in adults and support that SRB consumption can affect gut microbial metabolism. These findings warrant future investigations of larger cohorts evaluating SRB’s effects on intestinal health.

  6. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  7. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  8. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control, 9 (OCT9, 18 (OCT18, and 27 (OCT27 mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p0.05 among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  9. Synthesis and surface active properties of cationic surface active agents from crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Dougdoug, W. I. A.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactants of 2-hidroxy-3-(2- alkylamidopolyethyl amino propane-1-triethylammonium hydroxides (ix-xuia-d were prepared from fatty acids (ia-d [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic acid] and mixed fatty acids of crude rice bran oil ie [RBO]. The reaction of these acids with ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine andletraethylenepentamine (iia-d produced (iii-viia-d. The produced amidopolyethylamine (iii-viia-d reacted with 2-epoxypropylenetriethylammonium chloride (viii to give the cationic surfactants (ix-xiiia-d . The produced derivatives were purified and characterized by microanalysis, molecular weight determination, infra-red (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties and inhibition efficiency of the prepared cationic surfactants were determined.

    Se han preparado tensioactivos catiónicos de hidróxidos de! 2-hidroxi-3-(2-alquilamidopolietilamino propano-1;trietilamonio (ix-xiiia-d a partir de los ácidos grasos (ia-d [ácido palmítico, esteárico, oleico y linoleico] y mezclas de ácidos grasos de aceite de germen de arroz crudo ie [RBO]. La reacción de estos ácidos con etilenodiamina, dietilenotriamina, trietilenotetramina y tetraetilenopentamina (iia-d produjo los compuestos (iv-viia-d . Los amidopolietilaminos producidos (iii-viia-d reaccionaron con el cloruro de 2-epoxipropilenotrietilamonio (viii para dar los tensioactivos catiónicos (ix-xiiia-d. Los derivados producidos se purificaron y caracterizaron por microanálisis, determinación del peso molecular, espectros de infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear de protón (1H NMR. Se determinaron las propiedades tensioactivas y la eficacia de inhibición de los tensioactivos cati

  10. The Influence of Industrial Processing on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid and Antioxidant Contents of Rice Bran; Influencia del procesado industrial sobre las caracteristicas quimico-fisicas y contenido en lipidos y antioxidantes del salvado de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, V. R.; Zambiazi, R.; Mendonca, C. R. B.; Bruscatto, M. H.; Ramis-Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study of the physico-chemical characteristics of rice bran during the successive steps of its industrial processing was carried out and included white and parboiled rice brans and pelletized and defatted rice brans. Moisture, acidity and peroxide index were determined. Using extracts in petroleum ether and gas chromatography, the total fat contents and the profiles of the fatty acids were established. The tocopherols and {gamma}-oryzanol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The bran of parboiled rice showed the largest fat content and the lowest acidity, indicating that parboiling is the most effective process for bran stabilization. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in all the samples. Pelletization did not produce a loss in lipids, tocopherols or {gamma}-oryzanol. All the samples showed higher contents of {alpha}-tocopherol, intermediate contents of {gamma}-tocopherol and much lower concentrations of {delta}-tocopherol. Nine components of {gamma}- oryzanol were detected, with a major proportion of the component that eluted in the fourth position, probably ferulate of 24-methylene cycloartenol. Pelletized rice bran showed the highest tocopherol content, whereas parboiled rice bran yielded the largest {gamma}-oryzanol content. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orachorn Boonla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.

  12. Application of roasted rice bran in cereal bars Aplicação de farelo de arroz torrado em barras de cereais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using microwave-roasted rice bran as an ingredient in high-fiber cereal bars to obtain a product with good acceptability. The influence of the rice flakes, corn flakes, and roasted rice bran levels on the physical and chemical characteristics of the cereal bars was studied. The overall acceptability of three selected formulations was also evaluated. An increase in the roasted rice bran level in the formulation reduced the force of rupture and water activity, resulted in intermediate density, and caused darkening of the bars. The contents of lipid and total dietary fiber were higher in the formulation with the highest rice bran content, which was therefore classified as functional food. The formulation containing 0.34; 0.32; and 0.34 roasted rice bran, rice flakes, and corn flakes, respectively, seemed to be the best outcome. Cereal bars with roasted rice bran levels between 10 and 20% were accepted by consumers.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da utilização do farelo de arroz torrado, em microondas, como ingrediente de barras de cereais ricas em fibras, para obtenção de um produto com boa aceitabilidade. A influência dos teores de flocos de arroz, flocos de milho e farelo de arroz torrado nas características físicas, químicas de barras de cereais foram estudados. A aceitabilidade global de três formulações selecionadas também foi avaliada. O aumento no teor de farelo de arroz torrado nas formulações reduziu a força de ruptura e atividade de água, a densidade foi intermediária e houve escurecimento das barras. O conteúdo de lipídeos e fibra alimentar total foram maiores nas formulações com maior teor de farelo de arroz, portanto, classificada como alimento funcional. A formulação com a proporção de 0,34/0,32/0,34 de farelo de arroz torrado/flocos de arroz/flocos de milho, se apresentou mais próxima do desejável. Barras de cereais formuladas com

  13. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  14. Production of trans-free margarine stock by enzymatic interesterification of rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prakash; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Akoh, Casimir C; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2010-03-15

    Trans-free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a spreadable margarine stock. Rice bran oil, palm stearin and coconut oil were used as substrates for lipase-catalyzed reaction. After interesterification, 137-150 g kg(-1) medium-chain fatty acid was incorporated into the triacylglycerol (TAG) of the interesterified fats. Solid fat contents at 25 degrees C were 15.5-34.2%, and slip melting point ranged from 27.5 to 34.3 degrees C. POP and PPP (beta-tending TAG) in palm stearin decreased after interesterification. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the interesterified fats contained mostly beta' polymorphic forms, which is a desirable property for margarines. The interesterified fats showed desirable physical properties and suitable crystal form (beta' polymorph) for possible use as a spreadable margarine stock. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans fatty acid could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  15. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (ppurchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  16. Pro-apoptotic effect of rice bran inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nurul Husna; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Saad, Norazalina; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-02

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).

  17. Optimisation of the acidulation process of soapstock from the neutralisation of rice bran oil

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    Barrera-Arellano, Daniela

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Soapstock from the neutralisation of rice bran oil was characterised through the most important parameters with direct influence on the acidulation process. A central composite rotational experimental design of two levels was used. The responses of the trials were γ -oryzanol concentration in the acid oil and process time necessary for total hydrolysis of the soaps present. The optimal process conditions were determined using the response surface methodology. Adjustments were made to second order mathematical models and validity was verified by analysis of variance using the STATISTICA program. The process variables studied were: molar ratio - sulphuric acid/soaps (0.55-0.95 and process temperature (70- 100 °C . The results indicated that the process temperature does not significantly interfere in the concentration of γ -oryzanol of the acid oil, but it does affect process time. In the different concentrations of sulphuric acid added, represented by the molar ratio of sulphuric acid/soaps, the concentration of γ -oryzanol varied between 3.13 and 3.74 %. Through the superposition of the areas of the response surface contour curves the optimal process parameters were determined: process temperature of 95 °C and molar ratio of sulphuric acid/soaps of 0.74, resulting in a γ -oryzanol concentration of 3.64 % and a process time of 90 minutes.La borra de neutralización de aceite de salvado de arroz se caracterizó por los parámetros más importantes con influencia directa sobre el proceso de acidulación. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico experimental compuesto rotacional central con dos niveles. Los resultados de los ensayos fueron la concentración de γ -orizanol en el aceite ácido y el tiempo de proceso necesario para la hidrólisis total de los jabones presentes. Se determinaron las condiciones óptimas del proceso utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta. Los ajustes se hicieron a modelos matemáticos de

  18. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  20. Screening of browning inhibitor in the extraction of rice bran protein%米糠蛋白提取中褐变抑制剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤; 刘颖; 窦博鑫

    2012-01-01

    米糠蛋白是一种低过敏性的优质植物性蛋白,但制备过程中常伴随褐变反应的发生,导致制备出的米糠蛋白成品颜色深,限制了米糠蛋白在食品及相关领域的广泛应用。本文以米糠为原料,分别采用碱法和复合法提取米糠蛋白,在提取米糠蛋白的过程中分别加入各种不同的抑制剂,以抑制褐变反应。碱法提取米糠蛋白过程中,最佳抑制剂为1.5%的次氯酸钠,色素抑制率为64.2%,蛋白提取率为53.7%;复合法中,以3.0%的抗坏血酸、1.0%的次氯酸钠和o.15%的L-半胱氨酸为最佳复配抑制剂的情况下,提取出的米糠蛋白颜色浅,此时色素抑制率为69.87%,蛋白提取率曲80.06%,褐变抑制效果显著,蛋白提取率高。%Rice bran protein is hypoallergenic and high-quality plant protein. Browning reactions often occur with extraction process of rice bran protein,and the color of protein production is dark that limits the applications of rice bran protein.Rice bran was used as the raw material and many kinds of inhibitors were added in the extraction process of rice bran protein to prevent the browning of rice bran.In the alkali extraction process,the best inhibitor was sodium hypochlorite,the protein extraction rate was 53.7% and inhibitory rate of pigment was 64.2%.1n the compounding extraction process, the best inhibitor was the mixture of 3.0% ascorbic acid, 1.0% Sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% L-Cysteine. Under this condition, inhibition rate of pigment was 69.87% and protein extraction rate was 80.06%.

  1. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  2. Present situations and prospects for the research on rice bran protein%米糠蛋白的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光

    2013-01-01

      Rice bran protein is a cheap plant protein, which can be easily obtained. It has the characte-ristics of high nutrition and hypoallergy. This article introduced the nutritional evaluation, functional proper-ties, extraction method, the development and utilization of rice bran protein.%  米糠蛋白是一种廉价易得的植物蛋白,其具有高营养、低过敏性的特点。本文主要介绍米糠蛋白的营养价值、功能性质、提取方法及其开发利用等方面的研究现状。

  3. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used. Seven additional diets that were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units/kg of microbial xylanase were also formulated. On the last day of the 23-d experiment, 2 blood samples were collected from 1 pig in each pen. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, and peptide YY (PYY) were measured in plasma samples and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein, and albumin were measured in serum samples. Initial and final BW were not affected by the inclusion level of FFRB or DFRB or by the addition of xylanase. The ADFI linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as inclusion of FFRB increased in diets and there was a tendency ( = 0.08) for reduced ADFI as DFRB was increased in the diets. Pigs fed diets containing DFRB had greater ADFI ( < 0.05) than pigs fed diets containing FFRB. The ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, < 0.05) with increasing level of FFRB or DFRB in the diets. The G:F linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB increased, and the G:F was greater ( < 0.05) in pigs fed diets containing FFRB than in pigs fed diets containing DFRB. The concentration of BUN linearly decreased ( < 0.05) when pigs were fed diets containing increasing levels of FFRB or DFRB. There was a tendency for the concentrations of TNF-α and PYY to linearly decrease ( = 0.09 and = 0

  4. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  5. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maznah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Abdullah, Rasedee; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE) were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC), bleeding time (BT), and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg). Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32 ± 4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91 ± 5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms. PMID:27800004

  6. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhance total phenolics and antioxidant activity of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Ruifen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Juan; Huang, Fei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-04-15

    In this study, rice bran was successively steamed with α-amylase, fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the corresponding aqueous solutions from three stages were investigated. Compared to the first stage, fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, total FRAP and ORAC values by 59.2%, 56.6%, 73.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Twelve individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed during the processing. Ferulic acid was released in the highest amount among different phenolics followed by protocatechuic acid. Moreover, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates. The results showed that fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhanced total phenolics and antioxidant activities of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase. This research could provide basis for the processing of rice bran beverage rich in phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunishige Onuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA. In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively than in the non-treated group (70%. We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions.

  8. Evaluation of the Upland Weed Control Potentiality of Green Tea Waste-Rice Bran Compost and Its Effect on Spinach Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. I. Khan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the upland weed control potentiality, germination inhibition ability and growth suppression efficiency of the five combinations of green tea waste rice bran compost (GRC. GRC was prepared by mixing green tea waste and rice bran at five ratios, and allowed to decompose for 5 mo. Application of GRC suppressed weed growth up to 93.4% in number and 95.4% in dry weight in 2004, and 80.7% in number and 73.4% in dry weight of weeds in 2005, as compared with the untreated control (only soil under the greenhouse condition. Among the five combinations of GRC, rice bran alone (RC showed the significantly highest and green tea waste alone (GC showed the lowest weed suppressing activity in both years. The weed control potentiality of GRC was increased by the increase of rice bran percentages in the mixture. The exudates of GRC inhibited the hypocotyl and radicle elongation of lettuce seedlings when examined by the sandwich method. The water extracts of GRC also inhibited the germination and radicle elongation of the test species in the seed germination tests. The growth inhibitory activity of RC was greater than that of GC, and radicle elongation was more sensitive than seed germination and hypocotyl elongation in all bioassays. The inhibitory activity of GRC water extract varied with the test species and was higher for the dicotyledonous species than monocotyledonous species. The inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth increased as the extract concentration increased. The concentration dependent responses of test species to the water extract of GRC indicated that it might contain phytotoxic substances that were responsible for growth inhibition. Moreover, GRC promoted spinach growth significantly compared with the untreated control. These results suggest that the use of 30% green tea waste + 70% rice bran mixture compost (GRC-3 might be useful to control the upland weeds and enhance spinach growth among the five

  9. Effects of Rice Bran Oil Rich in Oryzanol on Pentobarbital- Induced Sleeping Behaviors in Partial Sleep-Deprived Mice Through Modulation of Monoamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Gui CHEN; Cui-hong ZHU; Xiao-lin LUO; Bi-xia HUANG; Hui-lian ZHU

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate whether rice bran oil rich in oryzanol has effects on pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors and locomotor activities in partial sleep-deprived mice.Methods Sixty mice were randomly divided into five groups (12 for each). Control and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) model groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% soy-bean oil (oryzanol free). PSD-low oryzanol (PSD-lOZ), PSD-medium oryzanol (PSD-mOZ) and PSD-high oryzanol (PSD-hOZ) groups were fed basic rodent chow with 8% rice bran oil, containing 3000, 7000 and 15000 mg/kg of oryzanol, respectively for 25 d. The locomotor activities after PSD and the latency and duration of sleep induced by pentobarbital were determined. The contents of monoamines, as norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.Results Immediately after PSD, the locomotor activities in PSD model group were decreased compared with the control group (P< 0.05). The PSD-mOZ and PSD-hOZ groups had higher locomotor activities than the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). The latency of sleep in the PSD-mOZ group and PSD-hOZ group were both decreased when compared with the PSD model group (bothP< 0.05). Linear regression showed that the duration of sleep time increased in dose dependent manner with the contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil (P=0.05). The PSD model group had lower level of NE, DA and 5-HT when compared with the control group (allP<0.05). Supplementation of high contents of oryzanol in rice bran oil may prevent the decline in monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT) induced by PSD (allP<0.05).Conclusion Rice bran oil rich in oryzanol may alleviate fatigue and improve sleep in mice with PSD through modulation of monoamines (NE, DA, 5-HT).

  10. 米糠油氧化稳定性研究及货架期预测%Oxidation Stability and Shelf-life of Rice Bran Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 吴雪辉; 杨公明; 陈小龙

    2012-01-01

    以精炼米糠油为原料,通过分析其理化指标与脂肪酸组成,探讨贮藏条件对米糠油氧化稳定性的影响,建立氧化反应动力学方程,预测米糠油的货架期.结果表明,米糠油脂肪酸中不饱和脂肪酸含量为77.45%,主要有棕榈酸17.77%、油酸46.74%、亚油酸29.34%.米糠油的氧化稳定性受光照、温度和氧气含量的影响,空气中氧气的存在会加速米糠油氧化,温度越高,氧化速度越快;不同光照条件下的稳定性依次为:避光>紫外光>自然光>日光灯.米糠油氧化遵循一级化学反应,其动力学模型为k=0.3564e 796.36/RT,通过外推法得出米糠油20℃、25℃和30℃的货架期分别为1068 d、410d、206 d.%Physical and chemical indexes were analyzed to study the oxidation stability, oxidation kinetics and shelf-life of refined rice bran oil. The results showed that the percentage of unsaturated acid was 77.45%, including 17.77% palmitic acid, 46.74% oleic acid, and 29.34% linoleic acid. Light conditions, temperature and oxygen significantly affected the oxidation stability of rice bran oil. The stability of rice bran oil significantly decreased with increasing storage temperature. The stability of different light conditions was as follows: dark>UV-light>natural light> fluorescent light. The oxidation of rice bran oil followed first-oeder dynamic model shelif-life of rice bran oil at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 "C were 1068 days, 410 days and 206 days, repestively.

  11. ANALISIS SIFAT FISIOKIMIA PRODUK EKSTRUSI HASIL SAMPING PENGGILINGAN PADI (MENIR DAN BEKATUL PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON EXTRUDATES MADE FROM BY-PRODUCTS OF RICE MILLING INDUSTRY (BROKEN RICE AND BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Hermanianto 1

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Extrudates were produced by double screw extrusion cooking under four barrel temperatures (29- 33C, 29-33C, 34-39C, and 121-142 C., feeder speed of 16- 17 rpm speed of knife of 425-713 rpm and ten formulations of corn, broken rice and bran. The physichochemical characteristics of the products were examined. Ash content, protein content and lipid content increased by increasing the percentage of the bran in formulation. Degree of gelatinization (DG. Expansion of extrudates (EE, Stickiness, Water solubility and absorbition indexes (WSI and WAI, colour of extrudates product (L and b decreased with increase in bran concentration.

  12. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity. Variation in the proportion of oligomers and polymers existed, with monomers to trimers, 4-6mers, 7-10mers and polymers accounting for 7, 18, 26.5 and 48.7%, respectively, of the total. The redness value a(∗) of whole grain rice measured in CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) color space was negatively and positively correlated with extractable and non-extractable proanthocyanidins, respectively. The variation found indicates it is possible to select rice with bran containing high levels of total proanthocyanidins and specific degree of polymerization profiles.

  13. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  14. Characteristic and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} sorption from nitric acid solutions by rice and wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monji, Akbar Boveiri [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoulipour, Vanik [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Mallah, Mohammad Hassan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    In line with our previously conducted researches, various instrumental methods were applied to evaluate the adsorption features and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} from highly acidic solution (4M HNO{sub 3}) by rice and wheat bran. Although the results of cation exchange confirmed the existence of ion-exchange interaction in Th{sup 4+} adsorption, it had a trivial contribution in the biosorption process. The presence of Th{sup 4+} ions on the biomass surface was obviously revealed in SEM images and EDS elemental analysis. Moreover, the linkage of C=O, O-H and N-H functional groups on the biomass surface with Th{sup 4+} ions was clearly represented in the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, desorption studies indicated that ammonium oxalate (>81.3%) and ammonium carbonate (>75.4%) were effective in desorbing Th{sup 4+} from the biomass surface due to strong interactions of hard functional groups of C=O with Th{sup 4+}. The overall observations unfold the fact that electrostatic complexation mechanism is dominant between biomass and Th{sup 4+} ions.

  15. The influence of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Fermentation Product Mixture to the Broiler Carcass Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Priabudiman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC and rice bran (RB fermentation products mixture to the percentage of broiler carcass weight pieces. Research using completely randomized design (CRD with treatments of the fermentation product usage rate of   0% (P0, 10% (P1, 20% (P2, 30% (P3 and 40% (P4 of the total ration of 4replications.  Variables measured were percentage of carcass weight ratio cut    pieces  of carcass weight (carcass front, rear carcass, breast meat, wings, back, and thigh with carcass weight multiplied by 100%. The results showed that the percentage of carcass weight piece front and rear carcass was shown at P3.

  16. BBD Optimization of K-ZnO Catalyst Modification Process for Heterogeneous Transesterification of Rice Bran Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, K. S.; Yacob, A. R.; Bakar, W. A. W. A.; Buang, N. A.; Bello, A. M.; Ruskam, A.

    2016-07-01

    Environmentally benign zinc oxide (ZnO) was modified with 0-15% (wt.) potassium through wet impregnation and used in transesterification of rice bran oil (RBO) to form biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), its basic sites determined by back titration and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to optimize the modification process variables on the basic sites of the catalyst. The transesterification product, biodiesel was analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result reveals K-modified ZnO with highly increased basic sites. Quadratic model with high regression R2 = 0.9995 was obtained from the ANOVA of modification process, optimization at maximum basic sites criterion gave optimum modification conditions of K-loading = 8.5% (wt.), calcination temperature = 480 oC and time = 4 hours with response and basic sites = 8.14 mmol/g which is in close agreement with the experimental value of 7.64 mmol/g. The catalyst was used and a value of 95.53% biodiesel conversion was obtained and effect of potassium leaching was not significant in the process

  17. Comparative study of performance and emissions of a CI engine using biodiesel of microalgae, macroalgae and rice bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Karthikeyan, A.; Saikiran, K.; Beemkumar, N.; Joy, Nivin

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and safe fuel to replace conventional petroleum diesel. With high-lubricity and clean-burning ability the biodiesel can be a better fuel component for use in existing diesel engines without any modifications. The aim of this Research was to study the potential use of Macro algae oil, Micro algae oil, Rice Bran oil methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine. B10 and B20 blends of these three types of fuels are prepared by transesterification process. The blends on volume basis were used to test them in a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to study the performance and emission characteristics of these fuels and compared with neat diesel fuel. Also, the property testing of these biofuels were carried out. The biodiesel blends in this study substantially reduces the emission of unburnt hydro carbons and smoke opacity and increases the emission of NOx emission in exhaust gases. These biodiesel blends were consumed more by the engine during testing than Diesel and the brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency for the blends was identical with the Diesel.

  18. In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, γ-oryzanol, and γ-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.

  19. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD.

  20. Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Rice Bran Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6 on HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Husna Shafie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a “natural cancer fighter”, being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8.

  1. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-10-13

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 10(4) colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 10(5) focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4-5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens.

  2. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1].

  3. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004) [1].

  4. 施用稻糠对稻田除草及水稻分蘖和产量的影响%Effect of Rice Bran on Weed Controlling,Tillering and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑红; 庄同春; 孙海正; 赵凤民; 王立楠; 薛菁芳

    2011-01-01

    以优质、高产、抗病和耐寒水稻新品种龙粳20为材料,研究了化学药剂、稻糠+化学药剂和单施稻糠对水稻的除草效果、水稻分蘖和产量的影响。结果表明:单施稻糠具有一定的除草效果,但结合前期封闭除草后期再施用稻糠效果更好。并且分蘖增加,增产45%左右。%High quality,high yield and disease resistance,cold rice variety Longjing 20 was used to study the effect of chemical weeding,rice bran and chemical weeding,rice bran single on weed controlling,rice tillering and yield.The results showed that rice bran single had certain effect on weed controlling,but combining with closure weed controlling in early stage,applying rice bran later,the effect was better,which increasing tillering and yield about 45%.

  5. 响应面法优化米糠调和油配比的研究%Response surface methodology ratio of rice bran cooking oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 马哲

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran blend is made by using mathematical model, on this basis by induction time for response values, the proportion of the blend oil of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was studied by response surface methodology. It has the better oxidation stability and unsaturated fatty acid composition is more reasonable. Experimental data were analyzed by design Minitab software. The results showed that when the mass fraction of rice bran oil, reanut oil and wheat germ oil was 49.6970%, 10.4545% and 40.8485%, the blend oil had the better oxidation stability, and the induction time was 6.31620 h. Compared with unoptimized proportion of the blend oil, it increased by 29.85%.%利用数学模型制备米糠调和油,在此基础上以诱导时间为响应值,采用响应面分析法优化米糠油、花生油和小麦胚芽油的配比,使调和后的油脂不饱和脂肪酸组成更合理且氧化稳定性更好。实验结果表明当米糠油、小麦胚茅油、花生油的质量分数分别为49.6970%、10.4545%、40.8485%时,诱导时间最大,为6.31620h。与优化前相比提高了29.85%。

  6. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L. and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L. by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L and rice bran (Oryza sativa as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the reaction time, were evaluated. The results show that lipase from germinated jatropha seeds had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 6.73 U/g and 298.07 U/g, respectively. Lipase from rice bran had the hydrolitic and esterifi cation activity about 10.57 U/g and 324.03 U/g, respectively. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using germinated jatropha seed lipase as biocatalyst were crude enzyme concentration of 0.31 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 1.81, and reaction time of 50.9 min. The optimum conditions of esterifi cation reaction using rice bran lipase were crude enzyme concentration of 0.29 g/ml, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol of 1 : 2.05, and reaction time of 58.61 min. The obtained amounts of OAEE were 810.77 μmole and 626.92 μmole for lipases from rice bran and germinated jatropha seed, respectively. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  8. Qualidade de pães com farelo de arroz torrado Quality of breads with toasted rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de pães de fôrma formulados com diferentes níveis de substituição de farinha de trigo (FT por farelo de arroz torrado (FAT. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, um tratamento controle e quatro tratamentos (7,5, 15,0, 22,5 e 30,0% de substituição de FT por FAT e três repetições. Avaliaram-se a aceitabilidade (aparência, textura e sabor, o volume específico, a composição centesimal e o valor calórico de cada tratamento. Entre os pães formulados com FAT, o tratamento com 7,5% de substituição de FT por FAT obteve o maior volume específico (3,37 cm³.g-1, não diferindo do tratamento controle em relação às notas sensoriais de aparência (7,23, sabor (7,08 e textura (7,52. Em relação à composição centesimal, o tratamento com 7,5% de substituição obteve, quando comparado ao tratamento controle, um acréscimo de 26,02% de fibras totais, 34,85% de fibras insolúveis, 11,26% de fibras solúveis, 52,70% de lipídios, 53,33% de cinzas, 8,21% de umidade e uma redução de 8,36% de carboidratos, 8,85% de proteínas e 3,57% no valor calórico. Pães de fôrma formulados com 7,5% de substituição de FT por FAT podem ser uma alternativa viável de inclusão de um produto fonte de fibras e com menor valor calórico no mercado consumidor.The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of breads formulated with different levels of toasted rice bran (FAT in a mixture with wheat flour (FT. A completely randomized design was applied including one control and four treatments (7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0% substitution of FT by FAT and three repetitions. The acceptability (appearance, texture, and flavor, specific volume, centesimal composition, and caloric value of each treatment were evaluated. Among the breads formulated with FAT, the treatment using 7.5% FAT presented the highest specific volume (3.37 cm³.g-1, which did not differ from the control treatment in terms of

  9. Stability of rice bran oil extracted by SFE and soxhlet methods during accelerated shelf-life storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariod, A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid high oryzanol (SFE HO and supercritical fluid low oryzanol (SFE LO rice bran oils were obtained and compared with that extracted by the Soxhlet (SOX method. Their composition and stability during storage were determined. The amount of unsaponifiable matter and gamma oryzanol of SFE samples were significantly (p -1 was higher than that reported in SFE HO and SFE LO, at 3.2 and 2.6 mg·g-1, respectively. After storage for 42 days at 70 °C the PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine values of SOX were higher than those of SFE HO, and SFE LO. The SFE samples showed better stability than SOX under successive heating and the addition of BHA decreased PV, FFA%, conjugated diene and p-anisidine levels in all samples.Se realizaron extracciones mediante fluido supercrítico de salvado de arroz con alto (SFE HO y bajo (SFE LO contenido en orizanol y se comparó con los extraídos mediante Soxhlet (SOX. Se determinó la composición y la estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La materia insaponificable y el gamma orizanol de las muestras SFE fueron significativamente más altas (p -1 fue mayor que lo encontrado para SFE HO y SFE LO, 3,2 y 2,6 mg·g-1 respectivamente. Después de 42 días de almacenamiento a 70 °C los valores de PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y p-anisidina de SOX fueron mayores que los de SFE HO, y SFE LO. Las muestras SFE mostraron mejor estabilidad que SOX bajo calentamiento y la adición de BHA disminuyó el PV, FFA %, dienos conjugados y los niveles de p-anisidina en todas las muestras.

  10. Research advance on modificationof rice bran dietary fiber and its properties%米糠膳食纤维的改性及其对功能特性影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豁银强; 汤尚文; 张璐; 赵思明

    2015-01-01

    Rice bran is a by‐product of rice processing ,and rich in dietary fiber .in view of the low content of soluble dietary fiber and poor functional properties of rice bran dietary fiber ,it has not been used efficiently .We presented the researches on modification of rice bran dietary fibe and its properties ,aiming at providing a reference for the development and utilization of rice bran dietary fiber .%米糠是稻谷加工的副产物,富含膳食纤维,但由于水溶性膳食纤维含量低、功能特性差等问题,米糠膳食纤维并未得到有效利用。介绍了国内外有关米糠膳食纤维的改性及改性对米糠膳食纤维功能特性影响的研究进展,以期为米糠膳食纤维的开发利用提供参考。

  11. STABILITAS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BEKATUL BERAS MERAH TERHADAP OKSIDATOR DAN PEMANASAN PADA BERBAGAI pH [Stability of Antioxidant Activity of Red Rice Bran Extract Subjected to Oxidator and Heating in Various pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is acknowledged as the highest nutritious part of rice grain as well as rich in bioactive phytochemicals. Coloured rices are reported as potent sources of antioxidants therefore are regarded as viable source of antioxidants for functional foods. The aim of this study was to extract the bioactive component of red rice bran, and further the component was subjected to antioxidant activity and stability tests. The research design was a factorial randomized complete design with two factors. The first factor was the pH of the maceration that consisted of 3 levels, i.e. 1, 2.5, and 4. The second factor was the ratios of bran and solvent that consisted of 4 levels, namely: 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10. Total phenol, total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were measured. The results showed that extraction at the pH of 1 and under the optimized conditions of a material–solvent ratio of 1:10 (wt./vol. produced the most potent extract. This treatment resulted in 5.45 mg/100 g of total anthocyanins, 743.51 mg/100 g of total phenolics, 92.19% of antioxidant activity, and 441.74 mg/L of IC50. Reduction of the antioxidant activities as a result of heating of the red rice bran extract was greater than that of oxidator.

  12. Synthesis of biogenic silicon/silica (Si/SiO2) nanocomposites from rice husks and wheat bran through various microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjot; Pal Singh, Gurwinder; Kaur, Gurneet; Kaur, Sukhvir; Gill, Prabhjot Kaur

    2016-08-01

    Biosilification is an economically viable, energy saving and green approach for the commercial scale synthesis of oxide nanomaterials. The room temperature synthesis of oxide nanocomposites from cost effective agro-based waste is a particular example of biosilification. In this study, synthesis of Si/SiO2 nanocomposites from inexpensive agro-based waste material i.e. rice husks (RH) and wheat bran (WB) has been carried out by means of various eukaryotic microorganisms, i.e. Actinomycete, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Penicillium sp., under ambient conditions. The XRD diffrectrograms represents that the synthesized nanomaterials exhibits silicon, amorphous silica and other crystal arrays such as cristobalite, trydimite and quartz, depending upon the type microorganism and time period used for extraction. All of the aforesaid microorganism bio transformed the naturally occurring amorphous silica to crystalline structures within the period of 24 h. However, the Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp. took 48 h in case of rice husks for biotransformation of naturally occurring plant silica to crystalline nanocomposite. While in case of wheat bran, Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp. took 24 h for biotransformation. The extracted nanocomposites exhibits band edge in the range 230-250 nm and blue emission. The procedure described in study can be used for commercial level production of Si/SiO2 nanocomposites from agro based waste materials.

  13. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yung, Ka-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 °C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerol-enriched oil from high-acid rice bran oil in solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhihua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Li, Lei; Wang, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Ruijie

    2012-09-01

    The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) to catalyze the reaction of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) and monoglyceride (MG) for diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DG) preparation was investigated. The effects of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, time, and enzyme load on the respective content of free fatty acid (FFA) and DG in the final RBO-DG products was investigated. Enzyme screening on the reaction was also investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (50-70 °C), the enzyme load (2-6 %; relative to the weight of total substrates), and the reaction time (4-8 h) on the respective content of FFA and DG. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: MG/RBO, 0.25; temperature, 56 °C; enzyme load, 4.77 %; and reaction time, 5.75 h. Under the suggested conditions, the respective content of FFA and DG was 0.28 and 27.98 %, respectively. Repeated reaction tests indicated that Lipozyme RM IM could be used nine times under the optimum conditions with 90 % of its original catalytic activity still retained.

  15. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  17. 米糠毛油掺伪食用植物油的低场核磁共振检测%Discrimination of Edible Vegetable Oil Adulterated with Rice Bran Crude Oil by Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凝; 刘宝林; 王欣; 汪宏志; 杨培强; 周航

    2011-01-01

    应用低场核磁共振方法分别测定了米糠毛油和3种食用植物油(花生油、橄榄油和葵花籽油)的弛豫图谱,发现在10 ms左右米糠毛油弛豫图谱中出现了-明显特征峰,而其他3种纯油品均未检出,且随着米糠毛油掺入量的增多,该峰面积的比例也随之增大.结果表明,通过测定该特征峰面积比例可定量测出米糠毛油掺伪量.%The relaxation maps of three edible vegetable oils (peanut oil, sunflower seed oil and sunflower seed oil) and rice bran crude oil were detected by low - field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (NMR). An obvious characteristic peak has been determined in the relaxation maps of rice bran crude oil at 10ms, which can not be detected in the other three kinds of pure edible oil. And the area proportion increased with the increase of rice bran crude oil content. Therefore, the detecting of the characteristic peak area can judge the vegetable oil adulterated with rice bran crude oil.

  18. Extraction of rice bran polysaccharides by enzyme combined with ultrasound and its antioxidant activity%酶法协同超声波提取米糠多糖及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 王晨; 杨超英; 钱森和

    2015-01-01

    The effect of enzyme combined with ultrasound treatments on the extraction of polysaccharides from rice bran was investigated. The extraction conditions of polysaccharides from rice bran were opti-mized by response surface methodology, and antioxidant activity of rice bran polysaccharides was researched. The results showed that both ultrasound and compound enzymes ( mass ratio of cellulase to neutral protease 1∶1) treatments could improve the extraction of rice bran polysaccharides. The optimal extraction conditions of rice bran polysaccharides were obtained as follows:dosage of compound enzymes 3. 1 mg/mL, enzymolysis time 2 h, ultrasonic power 198 W, ultrasonic time 20 min, ratio of material to liquid 1∶30, extraction time 3. 2 h, extraction temperature 60℃. Under these conditions, the yield of rice bran polysaccharides reached 5 . 3%. The rice bran polysaccharides had strong reducing power and certain antioxidant capability on oil and its scavenging effects on DPPH· and ·OH were significant.%研究了酶法协同超声波处理对米糠多糖提取的影响,利用响应面法对米糠多糖提取工艺进行了优化,并探讨了米糠多糖的抗氧化活性。结果表明,纤维素酶与中性蛋白酶复配使用(质量比1∶1)以及超声波处理有利于米糠多糖的提取。提取米糠多糖的最佳条件为:复合酶加量3.1 mg/mL,酶解时间2 h,超声功率198 W,超声时间20 min,料液比1∶30,提取时间3.2 h,提取温度60℃;在此条件下米糠多糖得率达到5.3%。米糠多糖具有较强的还原力和一定的抗油脂氧化活性,对DPPH自由基、羟基自由基均表现出较好的清除能力。

  19. Rice Bran and Probiotics Alter the Porcine Large Intestine and Serum Metabolomes for Protection against Human Rotavirus Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human rotavirus (HRV is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry platform revealed significantly different metabolites (293 in LIC and 84 in serum in the pigs fed Pro+RB compared to Pro, and many of these metabolites were lipids and amino acid/peptides. Lipid metabolites included 2-oleoylglycerol (increased 293.40-fold in LIC of Pro+RB, p = 3.04E-10, which can modulate gastric emptying, andhyodeoxycholate (decreased 0.054-fold in the LIC of Pro+RB, p = 0.0040 that can increase colonic mucus production to improve intestinal barrier function. Amino acid metabolites included cysteine (decreased 0.40-fold in LIC, p = 0.033, and 0.62-fold in serum, p = 0.014 of Pro+RB, which has been found to reduce inflammation, lower oxidative stress and modulate mucosal immunity, and histamine (decreased 0.18-fold in LIC, p = 0.00030, of Pro+RB and 1.57-fold in serum, p = 0.043, which modulates local and systemic inflammatory responses as well as influences the enteric nervous system. Alterations to entire LIC and serum metabolic pathways further contributed to the anti-diarrheal and anti-viral activities of Pro+RB such as sphingolipid, mono/diacylglycerol, fatty acid, secondary bile acid, and polyamine metabolism. Sphingolipid and long chain fatty acid profiles influenced the

  20. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively.

  1. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  2. 稳定化方法对米糠过氧化物酶活力和抗氧化活性的影响%EFFECTS OF STABILIZING METHODS ON PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF RICE BRAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严梅荣; 张磊科

    2012-01-01

    研究微波加热、干热和盐酸处理三种方法稳定米糠的效果以及对米糠抗氧化活性的影响.实验结果表明,以过氧化物酶残余活力为指标,微波加热稳定米糠效果最好,其过氧化物酶残余活力为新鲜米糠的0.7%,而干热和盐酸处理的米糠的过氧化物酶残余活力分别为新鲜米糠的1.6%和7.8%.三种方法对米糠多酚类物质和抗氧化活性均造成一定破坏,其中干热稳定、微波稳定和酸化米糠的总酚含量分别为新鲜米糠的98.8%、79.0%和60.4%,它们对DPPH自由基的清除率分别为89.0%、79.4%和63.5%,干热稳定米糠和微波稳定米糠的还原能力和抑制亚油酸过氧化活性均相似,均小于新鲜米糠而大于酸化米糠.提高米糠提取物浓度可有效提高其抗氧化活性.%Effects of such three methods as microwave heating, oven heating and treatment with HC1 on stabilization and antioxidant activity of rice bran were investigated. Results showed that according to the residual peroxidase activity of rice bran, microwave heating was the best method. The residual peroxidase activity of rice bran stabilized by microwave heating was only 0.7% of fresh bran, compared with 1.6% and 7.8% for oven heating bran and acidified bran. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of bran were decreased to some extent by stabilization with three methods. The polyphenol content of bran stabilized by oven heating, microwave heating and acidification were 98.8%、79. 0% and 60. 4% of that of fresh bran, and DPPH radical scavenging rates were 89.0%、79. 4% and 63. 5% respectively. Rice bran stabilized by microwave heating and oven heating had similar inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and reducing power, both lower than fresh bran and higher than acidified bran. The antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts could be increased effectively by increasing the concentration of extracts.

  3. Effects of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber Particle Size and Addition Dosage on the Pasting Properties of Rice Starch%米糠膳食纤维对大米淀粉糊化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the particle size and addition dosage of rice bran dietary fiber on the pasting properties of rice starch,rapid viscosity analyzer system ( RVA) was employed to monitoring the pas-ting properties of the rice starch.The results demonstrated that different varieties of rice starch had different pasting characteristic values.When the dietary fiber content increased from 0%to 15%,the peak viscosity,set-back and breakdown values of the Japonica rice starch group decreased by 50.78%,30.36%and 73.11%,the peak time delayed for 1.66 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity increased by 95.20%and 7.25%re-spectively.As for the Indica rice starch group,the peak viscosity,setback and breakdown values decreased by 18.37%,29.05%and 54.48%,the peak time delayed for 0.74 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity in-creased by 23.96%and 7.61%respectively.The addition of the rice bran dietary fiber had no effect on the pas-ting properties of the Glutinous rice starch group( P>0.05) .The effects of pasting properties of rice bran dietary fiber particle size( Less than 80 meshes) on Japonica rice starch,Indica rice starch and Glutinous rice starch were not significant ( P>0.05) .The addition dosage(0%-15%) of rice bran dietary fiber in Japonica rice starch and Indica rice starch had a positive correlation with the peak viscosity( P<0.05) ,setback and breakdown val-ues,and had a negative correlation with trough viscosity,pasting temperature and peak time( P<0.05) .No sig-nificant correlation existed between the rice bran dietary fiber particle size and the pasting properties of the three kinds of rice starch in the work.%采用快速粘度分析仪( RVA)测定不同米糠膳食纤维颗粒大小和添加量对稻米淀粉糊化特性的影响。结果表明,籼米淀粉、粳米淀粉和糯米淀粉等3种稻米淀粉的糊化特征值存在着差异;当米糠膳食纤维添加量由0%增加到15%时,粳米淀粉糊化时的峰值粘度

  4. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics to discriminate between cold pressed rice bran oils produced from two different cultivars of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tossaton CHAROONRATANA; Thanapat SONGSAK; Apirak SAKUNPAK; Pathamaporn PATHOMPAK; Laksana CHAROENCHAI

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed liquid chromatography⁃mass spectrometry ( LC⁃MS) method for the analysis of cold pressed rice bran oil ( RBO) was established and used to discriminate between RBOs produced from two different cultivars of major Thai fragrant rice species. The cold pressed RBO was prepared using the screw com⁃pression method. The LC⁃MS data were preprocessed with MZmine 2�10 program before evaluating with princi⁃pal component analysis using SIMCA 13 software. The LC⁃MS method was able to detect and quantify several kinds of valuable constituents such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and γ⁃oryzanol. The chromatographic condition was feasible;short time for analysis and simple method were achieved. From score plot and loading plot of principle component analysis ( PCA) , two rice cultivar samples were clearly separated, and it was revealed that Khao⁃Hom⁃Pathum was more suitable than Khao⁃Hom⁃Mali for cold pressed RBO production since it contained high total γ⁃oryzanol and less saturated free fatty acids. As with the fixed price of all the rice brans, this infor⁃mation can be used in order to, if possible, preserve the price of rice brans from different cultivars.

  5. 双酶法水解米糠淀粉的工艺研究%Study on Hydrolysis Technology for Rice Bran Starch by Double Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡凯凯; 黄占旺; 沈柱英; 孙长涛

    2013-01-01

    为了提取米糠淀粉获得葡萄糖作为纳豆芽孢杆菌液态发酵的碳源,采用α-淀粉酶和糖化酶联合水解米糠中的淀粉,在单因素试验的基础上,运用正交试验设计方法对米糠中的淀粉水解工艺进行了研究和优化.结果表明,米糠中淀粉的最佳液化工艺条件为α-淀粉酶添加量16 u/g,温度60℃,CaCl2添加量0.2%,DE值为24.31%;最佳糖化工艺条件为糖化酶添加量200 u/g,温度60℃,pH 4.0,糖化时间6h,最大DE值为98.96%.该工艺使米糠中淀粉的提取率达到了89%,并基本都水解为了还原糖,可作为纳豆芽孢杆菌液态发酵的优质碳源.%In order to extract glucose from the rice-bran starch as the carbon source for the bacillus natto liquid state fermentation efficiently,α-amylase and glucoamylase was combined to hydrolyze starch in rice bran.Firstly we use the method of single-factor as basement to research,and then comprehensively use the orthogonal experimental to find the most optimal starch hydrolysis process.The result show that the most optimum liquefaction technique is as follows:the α-amylase's quantity is 16 u/g,temperature is at 60 ℃,the amount of CaCl2 is 0.2%,the value of DE is 24.31%.The most optimal saccharification technology is as follows:the amount of saccharifying enzyme is 200u/g,temperature is at 60 ℃,pH value is 4.0,the time of saccharification is for 6 h,and the biggest DE value is 98.96%.After improving the technological conditions,the extraction rate of starch in rice bran came up to 89%,almost hydrolyzed into reducing sugar,which could be the ideal carbon source for bacillus natto liquid state fermentation.

  6. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  7. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  8. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  9. Extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran Extração de γ-oryzanol de farelo de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Heidtmann-Bemvenuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available γ-oryzanol, a phytochemical, has antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for extracting high amounts of γ-oryzanol from rice bran and for verifying its stability in different solvents. Of the 5 methods under investigation, the one that yielded the highest γ-oryzanol content was further improved by using a central composite rotational design (DCCR - 2(4, including 8 tests in axial conditions and 4 central points, totaling 28 trials. The parameters under study were temperature, time, volume, and the ratio of hexane:isopropanol. High γ-oryzanol content (13.98 mg.g-1 was obtained by using the following extraction conditions: 40° C, 40 min, and 75 mL hexane:isopropanol (1:3. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.9 µg g-1 and 31 µg g-1, respectively. The instrumental precision was 0.004%, the repeatability (CVr was 9.4%, and the recovery was 111.7 ± 17.7%. γ-oryzanol is more stable in isopropanol than in hexane, in which 100% concentration could be maintained after refrigeration for 72 days.γ-orizanol, um fitoquímico, tem atividade antioxidante e benefícios potenciais para saúde. Esse estudo objetivou desenvolver um método para extração de alta quantidade de γ-orizanol de farelo de arroz e verificar sua estabilidade em diferentes solventes. Dentre os cinco métodos estudados, o que teve maior rendimento em γ-orizanol foi melhorado, usando um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR - 2(4, incluindo 8 experimentos no ponto axial e 4 no ponto central, totalizando 28 experimentos. As variáveis testadas foram temperatura, tempo, volume e proporção de hexano: isopropanol usados na extração. Elevado conteúdo de γ-orizanol (13,98 mg g-1 foi obtido quando as condições de extração foram 40° C, 40 min e 75 mL de hexano:isopropanol (1:3. Os limites de detecção e quantificação do método foram 0,9 µg g-1 e 31,0 µg g-1, respectivamente. A

  10. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost.

  11. Preparation of Diacylglycerol-enriched Rice Bran Oil by Lipase-catalyzed Deacidification in Packed-bed Reactors by Continuous Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongyun; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Han, Wang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Jin, Qiangzhe; Li, Li; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DAG) was produced by deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) with glycerol (Gly) using Lipozyme RM IM by continuous dehydration by combination of two enzyme columns (column 1 and 3, used for deacidification) with one molecular sieves column (column 2, used for dehydration). The conditions for three columns were respectively optimized. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions of column 1. The content of DAG and conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) were used as indicators and the effects of the enzyme load (8-12 g), flow rate (0.3-0.6 mL/min), substrate molar ratio (4-6) and reaction temperature (55-75°C) were investigated. The content of DAG and conversion of FFA were significantly correlated to the flow rate and substrate molar ratio. Most desirable conditions of the reaction with respect to the maximal DAG content and FFA conversion was attained under the residence time of 40 min, substrate molar ratio of 5.52 (Gly: RBO) and temperature of 66°C. The conditions for column 2 were investigated by varying molecular sieves load and flow rate, and the maximal dehydration rate of 85.22% was obtained under the optimal conditions. For column 3, the optimum conditions were obtained as: flow rate, 0.2mL/min; temperature, 65°C, and the content of DAG and FFA were 38.99% and 3.04%, respectively under these conditions. The catalytic activity of the lipase was stable in twelve continuous operations with 83.22% of its original ability, demonstrating its potential in the continuous packed-bed reactors (PBRs) system. These results showed that packed-bed reactors combined with continuous deacidification and dehydration in one system had great value in industrial production for high-acid RBO with the improved conversion rate.

  12. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess Tolerance and Efficacy of Navy Bean and Rice Bran Supplementation for Lowering Cholesterol in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Borresen MPH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Navy beans and rice bran demonstrate efficacy to regulate serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults; however, the cardiovascular disease (CVD protective properties of these foods in children are unknown and merit investigation. Objective: The objectives were to determine whether cooked navy bean powder (NBP and/or heat-stabilized rice bran (RB supplementation is tolerable, improves dietary fiber intake in children, and modulates lipid profiles. Methods: Children aged 8 to 13 years at risk for CVD due to abnormal lipids were recruited. Elevated cholesterol levels were defined as total cholesterol ≥180 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL 100 mg/dL and HDL <60 mg/dL. Participants completed a pilot 4-week, randomized controlled, 4-arm dietary intervention. They consumed study-provided muffins or a smoothie daily that included 0 g NBP or RB (control, 17.5 g NBP, 15 g RB, or a combination 9 g NBP + 8 g RB. Fasting blood was collected at baseline and week 4. Participants also completed 3-day food logs and gastrointestinal health questionnaires. Results: Thirty-eight children completed the trial (n = 9 control, n = 10 NBP, n = 9 RB, and n = 10 NBP + RB groups. Only 3 participants withdrew due to noncompliance of required food consumption. Participants in the intervention groups significantly increased intake of NBP and RB at week 4 (p≤.01. The NBP and NBP + RB groups increased total fiber intake from baseline to week 4 (p=.02 and p=<.01, respectively. HDL-cholesterol was higher in NBP-group participants compared to control at week 4 (P = .02. Conclusion: Increasing NBP and/or RB intake is tolerable for children, and our findings suggest higher daily intakes are needed for a longer duration to induce favorable changes across multiple serum lipid parameters.

  13. Rice bran supplementation during nutritional recovery period of malnourished rats improves colon development El suplemento con salvado de arroz durante el periodo de recuperación nutricional de ratas malnutridas mejora con el desarrollo del colon

    OpenAIRE

    M.ª Salete F. Martins; DORES, E. F. G. C.; J. E. Aguilar-Nascimento; L. Missae Oyama; Latorraca, M. Q.; M.ª H. G. Gomes-da-Silva; C. M.ª Oller do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the colon's development in rats subjected to protein energy malnutrition followed bysupplementation with rice bran. Materials and methods: Weaned Wistar male rats (21 days old), weight (40-50 g) were divided into two groups: diet with 17% protein (C; control group) or an aproteic diet (A; aproteic group), for 12 days. After this, 50% of the rats from each group were sacrificed. The remaining rats were further distributed in the three groups for a recovery (21 days): ...

  14. Effect of Twin-screw Extrusion Conditions on Soluble Dietary Fiber Content of Rice Bran%双螺杆挤出工艺对米糠可溶性膳食纤维含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 张传智; 浦静舒; 王大为

    2011-01-01

    采用双螺杆挤出技术对米糠进行处理,增加米糠中功能性成分的含量。在单因素试验的基础上,以可溶性膳食纤维得率为指标,采用响应面法优化最佳挤出工艺。结果表明:影响米糠中可溶性膳食纤维得率的各因素强弱次序为:挤出温度〉水分含量〉物料粒度;当挤出温度170℃、水分含量35%、物料粒度80目(0.175mm)时,米糠可溶性膳食纤维得率20.85%,与理论值接近。%On the basis of one-factor-at-a-time experiments,response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of process parameters for the twin-screw extrusion of rice bran.Soluble dietary fiber(SDF) content in extruded rice bran was investigated with respect to extrusion temperature,material moisture content and material granularity.The process parameters were ranked in decreasing order of their effect on SDF content in extruded rice bran as follows: extrusion temperature,material moisture content and material granularity.After extrusion at 170 ℃,the SDF content of 80 mesh(0.175 mm) rice bran with a moisture content of 35% was determined to be 20.85%,close to the model-predicted value.

  15. QUALITY OF RAW, EXTRUDED AND PARBOILED RICE BRAN QUALIDADE DE FARELOS DE ARROZ CRU, EXTRUSADO E PARBOILIZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valácia Lemes Silva-Lobo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Rice is the second most consumed cereal in the world, having reached a global production of 661.3 millions of tons, in 2008. Rice bran, resulted from grain milling to obtain white rice or polished parboiled rice, has significant amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, soluble fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This study had the objective of evaluating some physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of raw rice bran (RRB, extruded rice bran (ERB, and parboiled rice bran (PRB. All the analyses were done according to standardized methods recommended by the Brazilian National Health Vigilance and International Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The PRB presented the highest contents of protein (17.17 g 100 g-1, lipids (36.03 g 100 g-1, dietary fiber (34.06 g 100 g-1, calcium (99.45 mg 100 g-1, zinc (15.58 mg 100 g-1, cupper (1.45 g 100 g-1, and manganese (17.81 g 100 g-1, and the lowest levels of carbohydrate (5.73 g 100 g-1, ash (7.01 g 100 g-1, potassium (507.55 mg 100 g-1, and iron (6.83 mg 100 g-1. All the rice bran samples showed Aspergillus sp. contamination, but ERB had the lowest colonies counting. All samples showed acceptable microbiological patterns for coliforms at 45ºC and Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella sp. absence, according to the Brazilian legislation. The RRB, ERB, and PRB have high nutritive value, being considered good sources of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber, and minerals.

  16. 不同煎炸食材对米糠油煎炸品质影响的研究%Effect of different food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹辉; 刘玉兰; 田瑜; 杨书平

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four typical frying food materials on the frying quality of rice bran oil during the intermittent frying were studied by determing the quality indexes of fring rice bran oil. The four frying ma-terials were starch-base food material ( potato chips) , high moisture content food material ( bean curd) , meat food material ( chicken wing ) and flour-base food material ( dough sticks ) , and the parameters used to assess the quality of frying rice bran oil were color, acid value, carbonyl value, fatty acid compo-sition, contents of trans fatty acids and vitamin E. The results showed that different frying food materials presented different levels of influences on the deterioration of frying rice bran oil because of different main components in the food materials. The increase sequences of acid value, carbonyl value and total content of trans fatty acids of frying rice bran oil were bean curd>chicken wing>dough sticks>potato chips, dough sticks>potato chips>bean curd>chicken wing and dough sticks>chicken wing>potato chips=bean curd respectively, while the decrease extent of vitamin E content was potato chips>dough sticks>chicken wing>bean curd.%利用米糠油对不同煎炸食材进行间歇性煎炸,通过对煎炸油色泽、酸值、羰基值、脂肪酸组成、反式脂肪酸含量、维生素E含量的检测分析,对比研究植物淀粉基食材(薯条)、高含水量食材(豆腐)、肉类食材(鸡翅)、面粉基食材(油条)4种代表性煎炸食材对煎炸油品质的影响。结果表明:不同煎炸食材因所含主要组分的不同,对煎炸油品质劣变呈现出不同程度的影响;煎炸油酸值增大程度依次为豆腐>鸡翅>油条>薯条;羰基值增大程度依次为油条>薯条>豆腐>鸡翅;总反式脂肪酸增大程度依次为油条>鸡翅>薯条=豆腐;维生素E含量降低程度依次为薯条>油条>鸡翅>豆腐。

  17. Analysis and determination of ferula acid extraction separation in rice bran%米糠中阿魏酸的提取分离与测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周士臻

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the method of content determination of ferula acid extraction and isolation in rice bran. Methods: Extraction technology: 1% sodium hydroxide solution with ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 for mixed, extraction of 6h at 80 ℃, Solid-liquid ratio was 1:8, antioxidant was 0.2g/L sodium sulfite. Method for the determination of the content: HPLC. Results: HPLC detection confirmed ferulic acid concentration has good linear relationship between 1.0~5.0ug/ml, r=0.9996, the rate of recovery was 99.8%. Conclusion:The result of HPLC for the determination of ferulic acid in rice bran extract is accurate, worthy of attention.%  目的:对米糠中阿魏酸的提取分离以及含量测定方法进行分析探讨。方法:提取工艺:将1%氢氧化钠溶液同乙醇以4∶1的比例进行混和,而后在80℃条件下提取6h,固液比为1∶8,抗氧剂为0.2g/L的亚硫酸钠。含量测定方法为:高效液相色谱法。结果:经上述提取方法可获得阿魏酸,经高效液相色谱法检测证实阿魏酸浓度在1.0~5.0ug/ml 之间存在良好线性关系,r=0.9996,回收率为99.8%。结论:采取高效液相色谱法对米糠中提取的阿魏酸进行测定,操作简单、结果准确,灵敏度高,值得关注。

  18. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MINYAK BEKATUL PADI AWET DAN FRAKSINYA SECARA IN VITRO [In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Stabilized Rice Bran and Its Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanti1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Some Researches indicated that oryzanol had antioxidant activity, however, the information about the oryzanol role in the prevention of low density lipoprotein (LDL and human lymphocyte from oxidation under oxidative stress was still limited. The objective of this study was the investigate the antioxidant activity of oryzanol at concentrations based on rice bran beverage model in preventing LCL and lymphocyte from oxidation.Human plasma were supplemented with the samples of : rice bran oil (RBO, unsaponifiable matter and oryzanol IR-64, oryzanol IR-64 3x and oryzanol standard at the concentrations of 308.3, 22.2, 5.2, 10.4, and 10.4 µg/ml, respectively. Afterward, the human LDL were collected by ultracentrifuge and diluted until a concentration of 200 µg protein/ml was reached. Human LDL isolates were then oxidized with CuSO4 5 µM for measuring antioxidant activity of the sample. The length of incubation, H2O2 concentration, period of sample supplemented into human lymphocyte culture were determined before the antioxidant activity of RBO and its fraction in lymphocyte was measured. The samples used in the lymphocyte were RBO IR-64, unsaponifiable matter IR-64, and oryzanol standard at the concentrations of 133.2 – 2, 132.0 µg/ml, 9.6 – 153.6 µg/ml, and 2.4 – 37.7 µg/ml, consecutively.The result showed that malonaldehyde concentration in human LDL decreased significantly (α = 0.05, 15 – 41% and 39 – 56% compared to the control. The absorbance of living lymphocyte cell in culture was not influenced by the type and concentration of RBO and its fraction. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 3 mM into culture sifnificantly lowered the absorbance as compared to culture without (H2O2

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran Compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.Este trabalho investigou o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz fermentado, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da fermentação em estado sólido nessas propriedades. O processo foi realizado com o fungo Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 em reatores de bandeja a 30 °C por 120 horas. Amostras de farelo de arroz fermentado foram coletadas a cada 24 horas. A capacidade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método do sequestro do radical livre difenil-1-picrilhidrazil e também por meio da inibição da oxidação enzimática e da peroxidação lipídica do óleo de oliva. O extrato metanólico produzido com a biomassa de 96 horas sequestrou 50% do radical livre em 15 minutos. O mesmo extrato reduziu o índice de peróxido no óleo em 57% após 30 dias de armazenamento. O extrato aquoso obtido da biomassa de 120 horas foi o inibidor mais eficiente da reação de escurecimento enzimático catalisada pela peroxidase.

  20. Effect of rice bran as a replacement for oat grain in energy and nitrogen balance, methane emissions, and milk performance of Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscioni, P; Fernández, C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting oat grain with rice bran on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emissions, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation (46.1 ± 3.07 kg) were assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design, where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group of 5 goats was fed a mixed ration with 379 g of oat grain/kg of dry matter (O diet) and the other group of 5 goats was fed a diet that replaced oat grain with 379 g/kg dry matter of rice bran (RB diet). Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic, so bypass fat was added to reach the same amount of energy in both diets. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine outputs, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was different for both diets [1.83 ± 0.11 vs. 1.61 ± 0.08 (means ± SD), for O and RB, respectively]. Metabolizable energy intake and heat production were not significantly different between diets, with average values of 1,254 [standard error of the mean (SEM) = 110.0] and 640 (SEM = 21.0) kJ/kg of BW(0.75), respectively. Significant differences were found in milk fat content (5.3 and 6.9%, SEM = 0.36; for O and RB, respectively) and milk fatty acids: medium-chain fatty acids (17.17 vs. 12.90 g/100g, SEM = 0.969; for O and RB, respectively) and monounsaturated fatty acids (20.63 vs. 28.29 g/100g, SEM = 1.973; for O and RB, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission was lower for the RB diet (23.2 vs. 30.1g/d, SEM = 2.14; for O and RB, respectively), probably because of the higher lipid content in RB diets than O diets (11.7 vs. 4.1%, respectively). Lactating goats utilized RB without detrimental effects on energy metabolism. Higher milk fat

  1. 益生菌固态发酵黑米糠抗氧化发酵条件研究%Solid-State Fermented Condition on Antioxidative Activities of Black Rice Bran by Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉

    2013-01-01

    Fresh black rice bran as experimental materials,solid-state fermented condition of black rice bran were studied by single and mixed probiotics. Conclusions show that the optimal probiotic combination were Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis, inoculation ratio was 1∶1, means of inoculation was that Lactobacillus brevis continue fer-mented for two days after Bacillus natto fermented for three days. Experimental results for logarithmic value of the probiotics is 17.11. The half of total number of logarithmic value and DPPH·clearance rates of the probiotics as icri-terion, solid-state fermented condition on antioxidative activities of black rice bran were studied by single factor re-search and orthogonal test. Conclusions show that inoculated quantity was 8%, fermented temperature was 37℃, supplement water capacity was 0.28mL/g. Verific-ation experiment results were logarithmic value of the probiotics was 17.15, DPPH·clearance rates was 73%, composite score was 45.75. Further through the fermented and unfermented black rice bran DPPH·clearance rates experiments,conclusions show that the probiotics fermentation increased antiox-idant activity of black rice bran. The conclusions of this study show that Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis mixed bacterial solid state fermentation black rice bran is a feasible way to develop high oxidation resistance black rice bran health food.%  以新鲜黑米糠为原料,通过单菌和混合菌发酵实验,确定了固态发酵黑米糠的最适菌株组合为纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌,接种比例为1∶1,接种方式为先接入纳豆芽孢杆菌3d后接入短乳杆菌继续发酵2d,测得两菌株组合菌群数的对数值为17.11。设计单因素和正交实验,以菌群数的对数值和DPPH·清除率各占50%的综合评分为指标,确定纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌固态发酵黑米糠的最优抗氧化发酵条件为:接种量8%,发酵温度37℃、加水量0.28mL/g。该条

  2. 乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺研究%Study on Technical Process of Deacidifying and Dewaxing Rice Bran Oil through Ethanol Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓军; 李群; 许光映; 高忠东

    2013-01-01

    In order to search the process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil with high acid value,this study uses edible ethanol as extractant and extracts the rice bran oil to deacidify and dewax it.The study shows the optimized process is to extract crude rice bran oil with 95 % ethanol consecutively twice according to the proportion of 2.5∶1 (V/W).The result shows that rice bran oil output ratio is 87.59%,the acid value of the oil is 1.21 mg KOH/g,oryzanol retention rate is 87.10%,the weight of recycled free fatty acid is 8.93% of the weight of rice bran oil,the weight of wax is 3.48% of the weight of rice bran oil,the recycling rate of ethanol is 90.05%,and the ratio of oil loss and acid value is 0.56.Compared with chemical deacidifying and physical deacidifying process,the abovementioned process of deacidifying and dewaxing rice bran oil through ethanol extraction needs less equipment investment,realizes higher oryzanol retention rate and higher oil output ratio,and reclaims free fatty acid and wax as by-products.Its shortcomings are high ethanol consumption and the acid value of product can not reach the standard of the first grade oil.%为探索高酸值米糠油的脱酸、脱蜡方法,以食用乙醇为萃取剂,对米糠油采用萃取的方法达到脱酸、脱蜡的目的.研究表明其优化工艺是:用95%的乙醇与米糠毛油按2.5∶1体积质量比、连续萃取2次,结果是:米糠油得率为87.59%,产品的酸值为1.21 mgKOH/g,谷维素保留率为87.10%,得到米糠毛油重8.93%的游离脂肪酸和3.48%的蜡,乙醇回收率为90.05%,溶耗酸值比为0.56.用乙醇萃取米糠油脱酸脱蜡工艺相比化学脱酸和物理脱酸工艺,设备投资少,谷维素保留率高,米糠油得率较高,回收了副产品游离脂肪酸和蜡.不足之处是消耗的乙醇较多,产品的酸值达不到一级油标准.

  3. Technology of Adsorption and Separation of ACE Inhibition Peptide from Rice Bran by Macroporous Resin%大孔树脂吸附分离米糠中ACE抑制肽工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱; 翟爱华

    2013-01-01

    To screen the isolation and purification of rice bran protein,macroporous adsorption resin was used to separate rice bran ACE inhibition peptide,and compared the effect of adsorption and desorption of rice bran protein peptide in the 6 kinds of macroporous adsorption resin. The results showed that the HPD-400 type resin was the most suitable in the rice bran protein peptide. Process parameters were confirmed by systematacially studying the influence of various factors on the resin adsorption and desorption.The time for static adsorption equilibrium of HPD-400 resin to rice bran polypeptide was 4 h,appropriate adsorption temperature was about 45℃,after adsorption time was over 2 h,adsorption capacity of HPD-400 resin to rice bran protein peptide had already reached saturation,when pH was 4,adsorption effect was better,and the adsorption rate was 85.4%. Desorption solution was 70% ethanol solution and pH was 8. The elution time was determined as 30 min. The experiments of dynamic adsorption and separation showed that the resin could achieve the purpose of purification of ACE inhibitory peptides from rice bran.%采用大孔吸附树脂对米糠ACE抑制肽进行分离,比较6种大孔吸附树脂对米糠蛋白中肽的静态吸附和解吸效果,从中筛选出适合该米糠蛋白中肽分离纯化的树脂。结果表明,筛选出HPD-400型树脂最适合米糠蛋白中肽的混合物的纯化。通过对影响树脂吸附解吸的各种因素进行系统地研究,确定工艺参数。HPD-400树脂对米糠多肽的静态吸附4 h左右基本达到吸附平衡,选择吸附温度45℃较为适宜;吸附时间达到2 h后HPD-400型树脂对米糠蛋白肽的吸附量已达到饱和;在pH 4.0时吸附效果好,吸附率达85.4%。解吸液为pH 8.0的70%乙醇溶液,洗脱时间确定为30 min。通过动态吸附分离实验得出,该树脂可以达到分离纯化米糠ACE抑制肽的目的。

  4. Mass production of C50 carotenoids by Haloferax mediterranei in using extruded rice bran and starch under optimal conductivity of brined medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Will; Hsu, Shu-hui; Lin, Ming-Tse; Hsu, Yi-hui

    2015-12-01

    Microbial carotenoids have potentially healthcare or medical applications. Haloferax mediterranei was difficult to economically grow into a large quantities as well as producing a valuable pigment of carotenoids. This study reports a novel investigation into the optimal conductivity on the mass production of carotenoids from H. mediterranei. The major component at about 52.4% in the extracted red pigment has been confirmed as bacterioruberin, a C50 carotenoids, by liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry analysis. By maintaining higher conductivity of 40 S/m in the brined medium, the cell concentration attained to 7.73 × 10(9) cells/L with low pigments concentration of 125 mg/L. When the conductivity was controlled at about 30 S/m, we obtained the highest cell concentration to 1.29 × 10(10) cells/L with pigments of 361.4 mg/L. When the conductivity was maintained at optimal 25 S/m, the pigments can be increased to maximum value of 555.6 mg/L at lower cell concentration of 9.22 × 10(9) cells/L. But conductivity below 20 S/m will cause the significant decrease in cell concentration as well as pigments due to the osmotic stress around the cells. Red pigment of carotenoids from an extremely halophilic archaebacterium could be efficiently produced to a high concentration by applying optimal conductivity control in the brined medium with extruded low-cost rice bran and corn starch.

  5. Production of oleic acid ethyl ester catalyzed by crude rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase in a modified fed-batch system: problem and its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE using rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid at 2.05: 1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, and then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. Meanwhile, the production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend to the trend of ester production. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters in the last 6 h of the reaction. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powders (25 and 50 mg/ml were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7% (1.17 – 1.24 times. The addition also proved a hypothesis that the water was involved in reducing the ester conversion in the last 6 h of the reaction. Thus, the combination was effective to produce the high final ester conversion.

  6. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hagl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (psunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  8. Preventive Inositol Hexaphosphate Extracted from Rice Bran Inhibits Colorectal Cancer through Involvement of Wnt/β-Catenin and COX-2 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Md Akim, Abdah; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional or dietary factors have drawn attention due to their potential as an effective chemopreventive agent, which is considered a more rational strategy in cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of IP6 extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane- (AOM-) induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. Initially, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, with 6 rats in each group. The rats received two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of AOM in saline (15 mg/kg body weight) over a 2-week period to induce CRC. IP6 was given in three concentrations, 0.2% (w/v), 0.5% (w/v), and 1.0% (w/v), via drinking water for 16 weeks. The deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 have been implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis. β-Catenin and COX-2 expressions were analysed using the quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Herein, we reported that the administration of IP6 markedly suppressed the incidence of tumors when compared to the control. Interestingly, the administration of IP6 had also markedly decreased β-catenin and COX-2 in colon tumors. Thus, the downregulation of β-catenin and COX-2 could play a role in inhibiting the CRC development induced by IP6 and thereby act as a potent anticancer agent. PMID:24260743

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Study on the Extraction Technology of Calcium Phytate from Rice Bran%从米糠中提取植酸钙的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玥昕; 赵凤敏; 苏丹; 刘威; 兴丽; 王梅

    2011-01-01

    The extraction technology of calcium phytate from rice bran was mainly studied. To get the optimum conditions, the orthogonal experiments of 3 factors and 3 levels were carried out. The leaching pH, soak time and the ratio of solid to liquid were selected as the influencing factors. Results showed that the optimal condition were leaching pH 2.0, soak time 5h and the ratio of solid to liquid 8:1. Under the optimal condition, the yield of calcium phytate was 9. 06%. Compared with the infrared spectrum of standard calcium phytate, crude calcium phytate was identified from the extracts.%对米糠中提取植酸钙的工艺进行了研究.以酸浸pH值、浸泡时间、液料比为影响因素,进行了3因素3水平正交试验.经多次重复试验,结果表明最佳工艺为:酸浸pH值2.0,浸泡时间5h,液料比8∶1;在最佳条件下,植酸钙的提取率为9.06%.通过对植酸钙标准品和所提取物质的红外谱图的比较,证实所提取物质为植酸钙粗品.

  11. Minor Constituents in Rice Bran Oil and Sesame Oil Play a Significant Role in Modulating Lipid Homeostasis and Inflammatory Markers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalagala, Poorna C R; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Ramaprasad, Talahalli Ravichandra; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of feeding rats with groundnut oil (GNO), rice bran oil (RBO), and sesame oil (SESO) on serum lipids, liver lipids, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10 wt% of GNO, RBO, and SESO in the form of native (N) and minor constituent-removed (MCR) oils. Rats given RBO and SESO showed significant reduction in serum and liver lipids, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, cytokines in liver, and eicosanoids in leukocytes as compared with the rats given GNO and MCR oils. The rats fed with native oils of RBO and SESO showed an upregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and downregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65. These effects of native oil were significantly compromised when rats were given MCR oils. In conclusion, the minor constituents significantly support the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties of RBO and SESO.

  12. Preventive Inositol Hexaphosphate Extracted from Rice Bran Inhibits Colorectal Cancer through Involvement of Wnt/β-Catenin and COX-2 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Husna Shafie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional or dietary factors have drawn attention due to their potential as an effective chemopreventive agent, which is considered a more rational strategy in cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of IP6 extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane- (AOM- induced colorectal cancer (CRC in rats. Initially, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, with 6 rats in each group. The rats received two intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of AOM in saline (15 mg/kg body weight over a 2-week period to induce CRC. IP6 was given in three concentrations, 0.2% (w/v, 0.5% (w/v, and 1.0% (w/v, via drinking water for 16 weeks. The deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 have been implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis. β-Catenin and COX-2 expressions were analysed using the quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Herein, we reported that the administration of IP6 markedly suppressed the incidence of tumors when compared to the control. Interestingly, the administration of IP6 had also markedly decreased β-catenin and COX-2 in colon tumors. Thus, the downregulation of β-catenin and COX-2 could play a role in inhibiting the CRC development induced by IP6 and thereby act as a potent anticancer agent.

  13. Effects of Adding Rice Bran and Wheat Bran on Silage Quality of Different Cultivars of Potato Vines%添加米糠和小麦麸对不同品种马铃薯茎叶青贮品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉鹏; 郭艳丽; 秦士贞; 马淑梅; 杜进姣; 郑琛; 赵芳芳

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding wheat bran and rice bran on silage quality of 2 cultivars of potato vines. A 2×6 two factors experimental design was used. Potato vines (A) were from two potato cultivars: Zhuangshu 3 ( A1) and Qingshu 169 ( A2) . And six mixing ratios ( B) of wheat bran and rice bran were potato vines alone, ( B1 ) , 85% potato vines+15% rice bran ( B2 ) , 81% potato vines+15% rice bran+4% wheat bran ( B3) , 77% potato vines+15% rice bran+8% wheat bran ( B4) , 73%potato vines+15% rice bran+12% wheat bran ( B5 ) , 69% potato vines+15% rice bran+16% wheat bran ( B6) . There were 12 treatments with each treatment 4 replicates. Silages were prepared by using glass bottles ( 600 mL) in laboratory. The silos were kept at room temperature for 45 days. The results showed that A2 si-lage had higher sensory scoring and content of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber than A1 silage, and had lower pH and content of ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, butyric acid and crude protein than A1 silage ( P<0.05) . Compared with B1 silage, B2 silage decreased pH and content of acetic acid, butyric acid, ammonia nitrogen and crude protein ( P<0.05) , increased sensory scoring, lactic/acetic acid and content of lactic acid, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber ( P<0.05) . Compared with B2 silage, B3 silage decreased pH and con-tent of ammonia nitrogen and acetic acid ( P<0.05) , increased sensory scoring, lactic/acetic acid and content of lactic acid, dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber ( P<0.05) . B4, B5, B6 silages had lower content of ammonia nitrogen and butyric acid and higher content of dry matter and crude protein than B3 silage ( P<0.05) . There were interactions between cultivar and mixing ratio on sensory scoring, lactic/acetic acid and content of ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, butyric acid and dry matter ( P<0.05) . For the same mixing ratio, A2 silage had a better silage quality than A1 silage. It is

  14. Optimization of germanium accumulation conditions by yeast to ferment the organic rice bran%酵母菌发酵有机米糠富锗的条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓凯; 李艳娇; 金英海; 张敏; 陈石婷; 国传福

    2016-01-01

    试验以有机米糠为发酵底物,研究酵母菌对锗的生物富集作用,通过对富锗酵母生物量以及锗含量的测定,对此发酵试验的条件进行优化.试验结果显示:令初始pH值自然,米糠添加量32 g/250 ml、装液量80 ml/250 ml、接种量10%、时间60 h、温度30 ℃、GeO2 添加量为100 mg/l时,优化培养条件所得的富锗酵母菌发酵的有机米糠的有机锗生产水平为11.83 mg/kg.%The experiment took the organic rice bran as the fermentation substrate to study the biologi?cal accumulation function of the yeast to germanium. The biomass and germanium-enriched yeast were measured for optimizing the experiment conditions. The result showed: under the optimized condi?tions that the initial pH value was unchanged, the filling volume of organic rice bran was 32 g/250 ml, the filling volume of liquid medium was 80 ml/250 ml, the inoculum was 10%(v/v), the cultural time was 60 h, the cultural temperature was 30 ℃, GeO2 concentration was 100 mg/l, the organic germani?um production-level of the organic rice bran fermented by yeast was 11.83 mg/kg.

  15. Determination on Degradation Condition of Phytic Acid in Rice Bran Fermented by Bacillus Natto%纳豆芽孢杆菌发酵米糠中植酸降解的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁红兵; 宋莉; 陈钧

    2009-01-01

    优化了植酸分析样品的前处理工艺.在64 h 发酵过程中,米糠发酵物中植酸含量随发酵时间的延长而下降,降解率为34%.%The pretreatment process for analysis sample of phytic acid was optimized. In the whole fermentation process for 64 h,the phytic acid content in fermentation broth of rice bran was decreased with the delay of fermentation time,and its degradation rate was 34%.

  16. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  17. Heat-stabilised rice bran consumption by colorectal cancer survivors modulates stool metabolite profiles and metabolic networks: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dustin G; Borresen, Erica C; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2017-05-01

    Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control). Stool samples were collected at baseline and 4 weeks and analysed using GC-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS. Stool metabolomics revealed 93 significantly different metabolites in individuals consuming RB. A 264-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovaleroylcarnitine and 18-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovalerate exemplified changes in leucine, isoleucine and valine metabolism in the RB group. A total of thirty-nine stool metabolites were significantly different between RB and control groups, including increased hesperidin (28-fold) and narirutin (14-fold). Metabolic pathways impacted in the RB group over time included advanced glycation end products, steroids and bile acids. Fatty acid, leucine/valine and vitamin B6 metabolic pathways were increased in RB compared with control. There were 453 metabolites identified in the RB food metabolome, thirty-nine of which were identified in stool from RB consumers. RB consumption favourably modulated the stool metabolome of CRC survivors and these findings suggest the need for continued dietary CRC chemoprevention efforts.

  18. Enzymatic production of trans-free hard fat stock from fractionated rice bran oil, fully hydrogenated soybean oil, and conjugated linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P; Shin, J-A; Lee, J-H; Hu, J-N; Hwang, K T; Lee, K-T

    2009-03-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was fractionated into 2 phases, solid (S-RBO) and liquid (L-RBO), using acetone at -18 degrees C and the weight yield of each S-RBO and L-RBO was 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Then, trans-free hard fat was synthesized from trans-free substrate of S-RBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different molar ratios (S-RBO : FHSBO; 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) with Lipozyme TL IM lipase (10% of total substrate). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 20% of total substrate) was used as functional fatty acids for the production of trans-free hard fat. After fatty acid analysis, CLA (12.2% to 14.2%) was found on the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone of the interesterified products along with stearic (37.6% to 49%), palmitic (15% to 17.9%), and oleic acids (13.3% to 19.2%). The interesterified product contained higher level of saturated fatty acid (62.6% to 70.1%) at sn-2 position. Total tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-; 1.4 to 2.6 mg/100 g) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol; 220.5 to 362.7 mg/100 g) were found in the interesterified products. From DSC results, solid fat contents of the interesterified products (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) at 25 degrees C were 23.1%, 27%, 30.1%, and 44.9%. The interesterified products consisted mostly of beta' form crystal with a small portion of beta form. The interesterified product (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1.5) was softer than the physical blend but slightly harder than commercial shortenings as measured by texture analyzer. Thus, trans-free hard fat stock, which may have a potential functionality could be produced with various physical properties.

  19. Study on ultrasonically enhanced extraction of phytic acid from rice bran%超声波强化提取米糠中植酸研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡爱军; 田玲玲; 郑捷; 孙连立; 王豪

    2012-01-01

      As a native food additive,phytic acid has strong anti–corrosive and antioxidative properties. With rice bran as raw materials,ultrasound was used to improve the extraction yield of phytic acid. The influence of some factors on the extraction yield of phytic acid were investigated,including ultrasonication time,extraction temperature,the ratio of raw material to solvent and hydrochloric acid concentration. and the orthogonal experiment was conducted to optimize the extraction process using HPLC to analyze phytic acid. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were ultrasonication time at 8 min,extraction temperature at 40℃,the ratio of raw material to solven at 1∶8 and concentration hydrochloric acid at 0.10 mol/L,under above conditions,the extraction yield of phytic acid was 87.13%.%  植酸是一种天然食品添加剂,具有强烈防腐、抗氧化能力.该实验以米糠为原料,利用超声波强化提取植酸,研究超声时间、提取温度、料液比及盐酸浓度对植酸提取率影响;通过正交试验对提取工艺进行优化,并采用高效液相色谱法对植酸样品进行分析.结果表明,提取米糠中植酸最优工艺为:盐酸浓度0.10 mol/L、料液比(g/mL)1∶8、提取温40℃、超声时间8 min;在上述条件下,对米糠中植酸提取率为87.13%.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  1. Sesame Oil and Rice Bran Oil Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Distinguishing the Role of Minor Components and Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nayana Venugopal; Sadashivaiah; Ramaiyan, Breetha; Acharya, Pooja; Belur, Lokesh; Talahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra

    2016-12-01

    Though present in small amounts, the minor constituents of dietary oils may supplement the dietary therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, in the present study, we assessed the effect of minor constituents from sesame oil (SO) and rice bran oil (RBO) and their fatty acids on the severity of adjuvant-induced arthritis in experimental rats. Rats were gavaged with 1 mL of SO or RBO or groundnut oil (GNO, control) with or without its minor components for a period 15 days before and 15 days after the induction of arthritis. Oxidative stress, markers of RA, eicosanoids, cytokines, paw swelling and joint integrity were measured in experimental and control rats. Results demonstrated that native SO and RBO but not SO and RBO stripped of their minor components decreased severity of paw inflammation, oxidative stress (lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide), RA markers (RF and CRP), inflammatory eicosanoids (PGE2, LTB4 and LTC4) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α) compared to control rats. Native SO and RBO inhibited hydrolytic enzymes (collagenase, elastase and hyaluronidase) in the synovial tissue compared to SO and RBO without minor components. The arthritic scores assessed based on the digital and X-ray images indicated that native oils but not those without their minor components reduced the paw swelling and bone loss. Our results indicated that minor components of SO and RBO possess a significant degree of an anti-arthritic effect and are responsible for down regulating inflammation in the experimentally induced arthritis in rats.

  2. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  3. Dietary rice bran protects against rotavirus diarrhea and promotes Th1-type immune responses to human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingdong; Wen, Ke; Tin, Christine; Li, Guohua; Wang, Haifeng; Kocher, Jacob; Pelzer, Kevin; Ryan, Elizabeth; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran (RB) contains a distinct stoichiometry of phytochemicals that can promote gut mucosal immune responses against enteric pathogens. The effects of RB on rotavirus diarrhea and immunogenicity of an attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were evaluated in gnotobiotic pigs. The four treatment groups studied were RB plus vaccine, vaccine only, RB only, and mock control. Pigs in the RB groups were fed the amount of RB that replaced 10% of the pigs' total daily calorie intake from milk starting from 5 days of age until they were euthanized. Pigs in the vaccine groups were orally inoculated with two doses of the attenuated HRV vaccine. A subset of pigs from each group was orally challenged with the homologous virulent HRV on postinoculation day 28. Diarrhea and virus shedding were monitored daily from postchallenge day 0 to day 7. RB feeding significantly protected against diarrhea upon virulent HRV challenge and enhanced the protective rate of the vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea. Consistent with protection, RB significantly increased gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, RB also increased the number of total IgM- and IgA-secreting cells, total serum IgM, IgG, and IgA titers, and HRV-specific IgA titers in intestinal contents. RB reduced the numbers of intestinal and systemic HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells and reduced serum HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers before the challenge. These results demonstrate clear beneficial effects of RB in protection against rotavirus diarrhea and stimulation of nonspecific and HRV-specific immune responses, as well as its biased Th1-type adjuvant effect for the vaccine.

  4. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  5. The Driselase-treated fraction of rice bran is a more effective dietary factor to improve hypertension, glucose and lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Hashizume, Katsumi; Komai, Michio

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the Driselase-treated fraction (DF) of rice bran and ferulic acid (FA) on hypertension and glucose and lipid metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male SHRSP at 4 weeks of age were divided into three groups, and for 8 weeks were fed (1) a control diet based on AIN-93M, (2) a DF of rice bran-supplemented diet at 60 g/kg and (3) an FA-supplemented diet at 0.01 g/kg. Means and standard errors were calculated and the data were tested by one-way ANOVA followed by a least significance difference test. The results showed that both the DF and FA diets significantly improved hypertension as well as glucose tolerance, plasma nitric oxide (NOx), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and other parameters. In particular, compared to the FA diet, the DF diet produced a significant improvement in urinary NOx, hepatic triacylglycerol and several mRNA expressions of metabolic parameters involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. The results of the metabolic syndrome-related parameters obtained from this study suggest that the DF diet is more effective than the FA diet.

  6. Inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of a rice bran mixture including Angelica gigas, Cnidium officinale, Artemisia princeps and Camellia sinensis on Brucella abortus uptake by professional and non-professional phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Baek, Eun Jin; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Chun Hee; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Suk

    2017-09-05

    In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a rice bran mixture extract (RBE) on Brucella (B.) abortus pathogenesis in professional (RAW 264.7) and non-professional (HeLa) phagocytes. We fermented the rice bran mixture and then extracted with 50% ethanol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify components in RBE. Our results clearly showed that RBE caused a significant reduction in the adherence of B. abortus in both cell lines. Furthermore, analysis of phagocytic signaling proteins by Western blot revealed that RBE pretreatment resulted in inhibition of phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and p38, leading to decline of internalization compared with the controls. Additionally, the intensity of F-actin observed by fluorescence microscopy and FACS was remarkably reduced in RBE-pretreated cells compared with control cells. However, the intracellular replication of B. abortus within phagocytes was not affected by RBE. Taken together, these findings suggest that the phagocytic receptor blocking and suppressive effects of RBE on the MAPK-linked phagocytic signaling pathway could negatively affect the invasion of B. abortus into phagocytes.

  7. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  8. Phytase enzyme in diets containing defatted rice bran for growing swine Enzima fitase dietas com farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic phosphorus is poorly utilized by monogastric animals because they lack phytase, the enzyme that cleaves the ortho-phosphate groups from the phytate molecule. Diets fed to pigs are supplemented with inorganic P, and this can increase environmental pollution and diet costs. Sixty mixed sex, half-breed pigs, were used to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary levels of phytase (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU kg-1 feed on animal performance as compared to a control without phytase but supplemented with dicalcium phosphate. Enzyme levels did not affect daily feed intake, food conversion, average daily weight gain, plasma P and Ca, calcium and phosphorus in bone ash, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in the plasma and bones. A quadratic relationship between phytase levels and the percentages of P and Ca in bone ash was observed, reaching a maximum at the 880 and 879 PU levels, respectively. Animals fed diets containing phytase presented low plasma P values when compared to the control, but no effects were observed for the regression analysis. Using 759 PU phytase in rations containing corn, soybean bran and defatted rice bran for growing pigs can eliminate the use of traditional sources of P.Os animais monogástricos não aproveitam eficientemente o P orgânico das dietas, pois não sintetizam a enzima fitase, sendo necessária a suplementação das rações com P inorgânico, podendo elevar o custo das dietas e a poluição ambiental. Foram utilizados 60 leitões mestiços (machos castrados e fêmeas para avaliar a eficácia dos níveis dietéticos crescentes da enzima fitase (253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF kg-1 de ração sobre os parâmetros de desempenho e comparar com o tratamento testemunha que diferia dos demais por não conter fitase e por conter fosfato bicálcico. Os níveis da enzima fitase não afetaram o consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar, ganho diário de peso, P e Ca no plasma, cinzas no osso e relação cálcio e f

  9. 自动电位滴定法测定米糠油酸值的研究%Detection of acid value of rice bran oil by automatic potentiometric titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛斌; 曹文明; 包杰; 陈纯; 金俊

    2014-01-01

    为了克服传统的人工指示剂滴定法在测定米糠油酸值过程中,米糠油本身的颜色和高含量的γ-谷维素对测定结果的严重干扰,采用自动电位滴定法,根据经典的酸碱滴定理论,采用二次作图法,在滴定的同时由联机电脑实时同步绘制酸碱滴定的pH-滴定体积曲线及其相应的一阶微分曲线,以这些曲线上游离脂肪酸发生中和反应引起的“pH突跃”为滴定终点的判定依据,建立米糠油酸值测定的自动电位滴定法。结果发现,自动电位滴定法能够准确区分游离脂肪酸和γ-谷维素各自的滴定终点,从而排除γ-谷维素对米糠油酸值测定的干扰。对比实验发现,除了米糠油外,自动电位滴定法对各类食用植物油酸值的测定结果与传统的人工指示剂滴定法的测定结果十分接近;但对于米糠油,人工指示剂滴定法的酸值(KOH)测定结果一般偏高0.3~1.0 mg/g。表明自动电位滴定法更能准确地测定米糠油的酸值。%In order to overcome the severe interferences of color and high contentγ-oryzanol in the de-tection of acid value of rice bran oil by traditional manual indicator titration method, according to the classical theory of acid base titration, using methods of automatic potentiometric titration and “second graph”, a detection method of the acid value of rice bran oil was established. Using this method, the pH-titration volume curve and corresponding first -order difference curve of acid base titration were drawn by computer real-timely and synchronously, then the “pH jump” in these curves, which was caused by the neutralization of free fatty acids, was taken as the foundation for judgment of titration end point. The results showed that the titration end points of free fatty acids and γ-oryzanol could be distin-guished correctly by automatic potentiometric titration method, therefore the interference of γ-oryzanol in the detection

  10. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  11. 米糠多糖的免疫增强作用%The Effect of Immune Enhancement of Rice Bran Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梁; 孙维矿; 赵玲; 李赫宇; 陈新

    2014-01-01

    Crude polysaccharide SPK-1 and purification of polysaccharide SPK-2, SPK-3, SPK-4 were extracted from defatted rice bran. These polysaccharides have significant biological activity of enhancing immune regulation. The experiments on a cellular level investigated SPK-1,2,3,4 the influence on the mouse spleen lymphocyte activity, the mitogen and proliferation of spleen lymphocyte induced by ConA and LPS, and the levels of spleen lymphocyte secreting IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 cell factor induced by ConA and LPS. The study found that SPK-1, 2, 3, 4 have significantly effects of enhancing the activity of mouse spleen lymphocytes in vitro. They also can promote the secretion level of IFN-γ, IL-2 and inhibition of IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 in murine spleen lymphocytes.%从脱脂米糠中提取的粗多糖SPK-1以及纯化精制多糖SPK-2、SPK-3、SPK-4具有显著生物活性,具有增强免疫调节的功能。从细胞因子的层次考察了米糠多糖SPK-1,2,3,4对小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞活性、ConA和LPS丝裂原诱导的脾脏淋巴细胞活化增殖以及LPS、ConA诱导脾脏淋巴细胞分泌IFN-γ,IL-2,IL-10,IL-12,IL-17等细胞因子的影响。研究发现,SPK-1,2,3,4在体外都有显著增强小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞活性,而且均有促进小鼠脾脏淋巴细胞分泌IFN-γ, IL-2以及抑制IL-10,IL-12,IL-17因子分泌的作用。

  12. 脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应的研究%Study of rice bran oil hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄甫; 王萌; 聂开立; 邓利; 王芳; 谭天伟

    2012-01-01

    研究了Candida sp.99-125脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应,考察了米糠油水解反应过程中水油比、酶用量和反应温度对酶促油脂水解的影响,并且研究了添加剂Ca(OH)2对酶促油脂水解反应的影响.结果表明,最适合水解条件为水油比1.2、酶用量0.3%和反应温度40℃,反应48h后的水解率为90.6%.酶促油脂水解反应中添加油重2.6%的Ca(OH)2,反应24 h后的水解率为93.3%,反应产物中脂层成份单甘脂(MAG)、二甘酯(DAG)和三甘酯(TAG)的质量分数分别为0.7%、1.4%和4.6%,添加Ca(OH)2缩短了酶促水解反应时间,提高了酶促水解反应速率和水解率.%The enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil catalyzed by Candida sp. 99-125 lipase has been investigated. The effect of the ratio of water to oil, enzyme amount ( mass fraction to oil) and reaction temperature on the hydrolysis was studied. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be; ratio of water to oil of 1. 2, a lipase amount of 0. 3% ( mass fraction to oil) , and a reaction temperature of 40 ℃. A hydrolysis degree of 90. 6% was obtained under the optimal reaction conditions after 48 h. When 2. 6% Ca(0H)2(mass fraction to oil) was added, a hydrolysis degree of 93. 3% was obtained after 24 h. The glyceride components were found to be monoglyceride 0. 7% , diglyceride 1.4% and triglyceride 4. 6% . When Ca( OH)2 was added to the hydrolysis reaction, the reaction time was reduced and higher hydrolysis rates were obtained.

  13. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  14. Effect of Packaging Conditions on the Storage Stability of Rice Bran%不同包装条件对米糠贮藏稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪雅; 李文馨; 肖蓓; 丁筑红; 王国立

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich resource which has a very high potential for exploitation.However,its poor storage stability leads to a rapid decline in its quality.In the present study,the changes in quality-related characteristics of rice bran packaged in PE,PE/PA and PP bags,respectively with normal atmospheric environment or vacuum environment were analyzed during natural storage.After 30 days of natural storage,the moisture content of PE/PA vacuum-packaged rice bran was decreased by 0.99%,the crude fat content was decreased by 3.74%,and the fatty acid value was increased by 3.74%,which were 3.6,2,and 5.33 times less than those of the control,respectively.The contents of VE and γ-oryzanol in PE/PA vacuum-packaged rice bran were reduced by 0.4 mg/100 g and 0.01%,respectively,which were 2.78 and 6 times less than those of the control.The initial total bacterial count of 2.82 × 108 CFU/g in PE/PA vacuum-packaged rice bran was decreased to 0.3 × 107 CFU/g.Sensory traits of PE/PA vacuum-packaged rice bran remained good with no change in its unique aroma.In contrast,the total bacterial count of the control was increased to 1.8 × 1010 CFU/g with obvious mouldy smell,dark color and serious agglomeration.The improving effects of the different packaging methods on the storage stability of rice showed the decreasing order: PE/PA vacuum PE/PA normal atmospheric pressure PE vacuumPE normal atmospheric pressure PP control.A significant difference existed among the results observed for these packaging methods(P 0.05).Therefore,PE/PA vacuum packaging could effectively the storage stability of rice bran.%米糠资源营养丰富,具有很高的开发利用价值,但其贮藏稳定性差导致品质迅速下降。本实验以米糠为研究对象,分析自然贮藏条件下采用PE、PE/PA及编织袋包装的米糠在常压密封、真空密封条件下主要品质指标变化。结果发现:贮藏30d后,PE/PA/真空组水分含量下降0.99%,粗脂肪含量下降3

  15. 制备米糠蛋白降血压肽最佳用酶的筛选%Screening the Best Enzyme of the Preparation of Antihypertensive Peptides from Rice Bran Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于靖; 翟爱华

    2012-01-01

    试验以筛选制备米糠蛋白降压肽最佳用酶为目的。选用碱性蛋白酶、碱性蛋白酶Alcalase 2.4 L、中性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶、胰凝乳蛋白酶、蛋白酶K和双酶复合水解米糠蛋白,以血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)抑制率为主要指标,筛选出制备米糠蛋白降压肽的最佳用酶。结果表明,米糠降压肽ACE抑制率的大小与酶的种类及配比有关,筛选出碱性蛋白酶Alcalase为试验用酶,在酶解温度45℃,加酶量3 000 U.g-1,酶解pH8.5,米糠蛋白底物浓度3%酶解2 h时达到最大抑制率为71.1%。%The aim of this study was to select the best enzyme for rice bran protein.Rice bran protein was enzymolysised by alkali protease,Alcalase 2.4 L,neutral protease,papain,trysase,chymotrypsin,proteinase K and double enzyme composite to produce antihypertensive peptides,with ACE inhibiting rate as major indicator.The results indicated that ACE inhibiting rate of antihypertensive peptides in rice bran was related to the kind of enzyme and their ratio,and the best enzyme was alkali protease,the enzyme hydrolysis conditions were: hydrolysis temperature 45 ℃,the enzyme addition 3 000 U·g-1,pH8.5,substrate concentration 3%,hydrolysis time 2 h,its highest inhibiting rate reached 71.1%.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave Perfil físico-químico e sensorial de farelos de arroz torrados em micro-ondas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar as mudanças físicas, químicas e sensoriais de farelos de três cultivares de arroz em função do tempo de torra em micro-ondas. Foram estudados 3 cultivares de arroz, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P e Irga 417 (I, determinando-se os parâmetros de cor (L*, a* e b* aos 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18 minutos de torração. Após aplicação do teste de diferença do controle, selecionaram-se farelos de arroz com características de sabor e aroma distintas: S e P torrados por 9 e 15 minutos e I torrado por 9, 12 e 15 minutos. Essas amostras foram caracterizadas pela análise sensorial descritiva de Perfil Livre e quanto composição química. Quanto mais longa a torração, mais intenso o aroma e sabor de torrado dos farelos, apresentando sabor e aroma

  17. Stability and microbiological quality of rice bran subjected to different heat treatments Estabilidade e qualidade microbiológica de farelo de arroz submetido a diferentes tratamentos térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonzaga de Castro Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a byproduct commonly used for animal feeding; however its nutritional value and potential application in human diet have attracted market interest. Its preservation for safe use is still a challenge, so the objective of this study was to determine the quality of commercially available rice bran samples subjected to different heat treatments (extruding, parboiling, toasting, and microwave oven heating in order to promote stabilization during storage under room temperature. Rice bran samples were collected from two industries, and each treatment was divided in three parts, each corresponding to three repetitions. All samples were evaluated for moisture content, total microorganisms, mold and yeast counting, hydrolytic rancidity, and lipase activity during 90 days of storage. Most of the heat treatments, including domestic and thermoplastic extrusion, generated products which may be used for human consumption under the tested conditions in terms of physicochemical and microbiological quality. The domestic treatments were more efficient in eliminating microorganisms or keeping them within acceptable limits. The toasted rice bran showed satisfactory results in terms of moisture, hydrolytic rancidity control, and lipase activity.O farelo de arroz é um subproduto comumente utilizado em ração animal, porém seu valor nutricional e potencial de aproveitamento na alimentação humana vem despertando interesse do mercado. A conservação dessa matéria-prima para uso seguro ainda é um desafio, assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de farelos de arroz comercialmente disponíveis, submetidos a diferentes tratamentos térmicos (extrusão, parboilização, torração em fogão e forno micro-ondas visando à estabilização durante armazenamento em condições ambientais. As amostras foram coletadas em diferentes indústrias e cada tratamento foi dividido em três porções correspondentes a três repetições. Todas as

  18. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  19. Enhanced production of carboxymethylcellulase of a marine microorganism, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis A-53 in a pilot-scaled bioreactor by a recombinant Escherichia coli JM109/A-53 from rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Bo-Hwa; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2013-05-01

    A gene encoding the carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) of a marine bacterium, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis A-53, was cloned in Escherichia coli JMB109 and the recombinant strain was named as E. coli JMB109/A-53. The optimal conditions of rice bran, ammonium chloride, and initial pH of the medium for cell growth, extracted by Design Expert Software based on response surface methodology, were 100.0 g/l, 7.5 g/l, and 7.0, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 100.0 g/l, 7.5 g/l, and 8.0. The optimal temperatures for cell growth and the production of CMCase by E. coli JM109/A-53 were found to be and 40 and 35 °C, respectively. The optimal agitation speed and aeration rate of a 7 l bioreactor for cell growth were 400 rpm and 1.5 vvm, whereas those for production of CMCase were 400 rpm and 0.5 vvm. The optimal inner pressure for cell growth was 0.06 MPa, which was the same as that for production of CMCase. The production of CMCase by E. coli JM109/A-53 under optimized conditions was 880.2 U/ml, which was 2.9 times higher than that before optimization. In this study, rice bran and ammonium chloride were developed as carbon and nitrogen source for production of CMCase by a recombinant E. coli JM109/A-53 and the productivity of E. coli JM109/A-53 was 5.9 times higher than that of B. subtilis subp. subtilis A-53.

  20. 米糠中γ-氨基丁酸的富集及纯化工艺研究%Study on enrichment and purification of γ-aminobutyric acid in rice bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管娜娜; 张晖; 王立; 郭晓娜; 钱海峰

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of GABA in rice bran by glutamate decarboxylase(GAD) ,and the purification of GABA enriched solution using cation ion exchange resin were investigated. The optimal accumulation conditions of GABA were determined as described below: the ionic strength of citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer solution was 0.02mol/L, the reaction time was 16h. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration of GABA reached 2900mg/100g rice bran. The optimal purification conditions of GABA enriched solution also be determined as following: the optimal pH of sample solution was 2.0, the concentration of GABA enriched solution was 2.0mg/mL,concentration of eluting agent was 2.0mol/L. And the final purity of GABA reached 61.25%.%以米糠为原料,利用米糠中高活性谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)进行γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的富集实验,并采用阳离子交换树脂对富集液中GABA进行分离纯化.结果表明:采用0.02mol/L Ph5.6的Na2HPO4-柠檬酸缓冲液进行GABA富集实验,反应16h后可得到GABA 2900mg/100g米糠.采用D001大孔强酸性阳离子交换树脂对该富集液进行纯化实验,调节富集液Ph2.0,以2mg/Ml的浓度上样吸附,2mol/L的氨水浓度进行洗脱,最终可得γ-氨基丁酸纯度61.25%.

  1. Study on Extraction Process Conditions of Rice Bran Polysaccharide by Aqueous Two-phase System%双水相萃取米糠多糖工艺条件的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦微微; 金婷; 宋学东; 丁振铎; 张衡

    2014-01-01

    旨在探究聚乙二醇/硫酸铵双水相体系萃取米糠中多糖成分的最佳条件。以双水相系统的相比、分配系数、收率等为参数,探究了PEG 的相对分子质量、PEG 的质量分数以及硫酸铵质量分数对米糠多糖在两相系统中的分配行为的影响。结果表明:萃取最佳条件为PEG分子量为6000,硫酸铵质量分数为14.8%,PEG 6000质量分数为14.3%,多糖得率为0.826388。%The aqueous two-phase system of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/ammonium sulfate for extrac-tion of polysaccharide in rice bran is studied.Use the parameters such as the volume ratio of two pha-ses,the distribution coefficient and the yield to explore the effects of the molecular weight of PEG, the mass fraction of ammonium sulfate and PEG on distribution behavior of polysaccharide of rice bran in two-phase system.It is demonstrated that the optimum conditions of extraction are as follows:the molecular weight of PEG is 6000,the mass fraction of ammonium sulfate is 14.8%,the mass fraction of PEG 6000 is 14.3%,and the yield of polysaccharide is 0.826388.

  2. Influence of the use of rice bran extract as a source of nutrients on xylitol production Influência do uso de extrato de farelo de arroz como nutriente na produção de xilitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Acosta Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion using 2.5 or 10% (v/v rice bran extract was performed to verify the influence of this source of nutrients on Candida guilliermondii metabolism. Semisynthetic medium (SM and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate detoxified with ion-exchange resins (HIE or with alteration in pH combined with adsorption onto activated charcoal (HAC were fermented in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30 ºC and 200 rpm for 72 hours. Activated charcoal supplemented with 2.5% (v/v rice bran extract was fermented by C. guilliermondii in a MULTIGEN stirred tank reactor using pH 5.0 and 22.9/hour oxygen transfer volumetric coefficient. Higher values of xylitol productivity (0.70, 0.71, and 0.62 g.Lh-1 and xylose-to-xylitol conversion yield (0.71, 0.69, and 0.63 g.g-1 were obtained with 2.5% (v/v rice bran in semisynthetic medium, ion-exchange resins, and activated charcoal, respectively. Moreover, during batch fermentation, the xylitol volumetric productivity and fermentation efficiency values obtained were 0.53 g.Lh-1 and 61.1%, respectively.O estudo da bioconversão de xilose em xilitol usando 2,5 ou 10% (v/v de extrato de farelo de arroz foi realizado para verificar a influência desse nutriente no metabolismo de Candida guilliermondii. Meio semi-sintético (SM e hidrolisado hemicelulósico de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar purificado com resinas de troca iônica (HIE ou pela alteração de pH combinado com adsorção em carvão ativo (HAC foram fermentados nas condições de 30 ºC e 200 rpm durante 72 horas em frascos Erlenmeyer de 125 mL. O carvão ativo suplementado com 2,5% (v/v de farelo de arroz foi fermentado por C. guilliermondii em reator MULTIGEN, pH 5,0 e coeficiente volumétrico de transferência de oxigênio de 22,9/horas. Maiores valores de produtividade volumétrica em xilitol (0,70, 0,71 e 0,62 g.Lh-1 e de conversão de xilose em xilitol (0,71, 0,69 e 0,63 g/g foram obtidos com 2,5% (v/v de farelo de arroz em meio

  3. 碱性蛋白酶水解米糠蛋白动力学特性研究%Research on Kinetics Characteristics of Hydrolyzing Rice Bran Protein by Alkaline Protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟爱华; 李新华

    2012-01-01

    The response mechanism and kinetic behavior of bioactive peptides by protease were studied. Rice bran protein was used as raw material. Based on the classic Michaelis - Menten equation, the enzymatic kinetics of the system of rice bran protein and alkaline protease was researched by the method of mathematical derivation combined with experiment. The mechanism model of single substrate hydrolysis of protein and inactivation of protease were considered to build the kinetics model of R =aexp[ -b(DH) ] ,and the parameters "a" and "b" of the kinetics model were determined. Origin 8. 0 software was applied to fit the deduced formula and calculate related parameters of enzyme kinetic model. It was shown that the rate of hydrolysis kinetic model was R = (94. 754e0 - 0. 0597s0 ) exp [ -0. 157 (DH)] and the kinetic model of degree of hydrolysis and time of hydrolysis was DH = 6. 37× ln[1 +(14. 88e0/s0 -0. 009)t]. The kinetic constants of the system of rice bran protein and alkaline protease were fitted by experiments and the results showed that the constant K4 of enzyme inactivation was 16. 144 min-1 and the constant k2 of enzymatic reaction rate was 94. 754 min-1 .%研究蛋白酶水解制备生物活性多肽反应机制与动力学行为,基于经典的米氏方程理论,应用数学推导结合试验研究的方法,以米糠蛋白为原料,对米糠蛋白-碱性蛋白酶体系进行酶解动力学研究.考虑蛋白质单底物水解、蛋白酶失活的机理模型,构建动力学模型R=aexp[-b(DH)],其中对参数a值和b值进行确定.利用Origin 8.0软件,对推导出的公式进行拟合得到水解速率动力学模型为R=(94.754e0-0.0597s0)exp[-0.157(DH)],水解度-水解时间的动力学模型:DH =6.37ln[1+(14.88e0/s0-0.009)t].对于米糠蛋白-碱性蛋白酶模型体系,经试验拟合,并求得该体系动力学常数:酶失活常数K4为16.144 min-1,酶解反应速率常数k2为94.754 min-1.

  4. Research on preparation and properties of composite fat substitutes with rice bran%复合型米糠脂肪替代品的制备工艺及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉义平; 沈瑞敏; 雷霖

    2015-01-01

    以米糠为原料,研究一种复合型米糠脂肪替代品的制备工艺及其性质。结果表明,最佳制备工艺为:水料比为15∶1、功率400 W、超声处理时间20 min、50℃下搅拌提取时间30 min、高温淀粉酶用量4.8 U/g、95℃下糊化米糠淀粉时间30 min。喷雾干燥后的得率为35%。同时考察了三种不同DE值的脂肪替代品的性质。综合比较可知,DE值为2.45的样品在吸湿性、持水性、持油性、乳化性及起泡性等方面表现出更优性质,是一种较理想的脂肪替代品,具有良好的应用前景。%The preparation and properties of a composite fat substitute based on rice bran were studied. The result showed that the optimal preparation technology were:ratio of water to material 15∶1 ,the time of supersonic with 400 W was 20 min,stir extraction at 50 ℃ for 30min,the additive amount of high temperature amylase 4. 8 U/g,and pasting rice bran starch at 95℃ for 30 min,the yield could reach up to 35% after spray drying. Moreover,the properties of three kinds of fat substitutes with different DE (dextrose equivalent)were studied. The sample with DE of 2. 45 possessed better properties than the other two in hydroscopic property,water/oil retention,emulsifiability and foamability,could be used as perfect fat substitute and provided with assuring potential for applications.

  5. 米糠和光皮树籽粕对平菇受铅、汞毒害的缓解作用%Detoxification of rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake on toxicity of Pb2+ and Hg2+ to mycelium growth of Pleurotus Ostreatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦帅; 阮榕生; 刘玉环; 刘建强; 彭红

    2011-01-01

    通过平板培养试验及袋栽试验,观察米糠和光皮树籽粕对平菇受铅、汞毒害的缓解效果.结果表明:当Pb(2+)、Hg(2+)的质量浓度分别达到50、15 mg/L时,对应的基础培养基中平菇菌丝的生长受到显著抑制;在正常的培养基中添加米糠和光皮树籽粕能显著促进平菇菌丝的生长(20.0 g/L最佳),同时米糠和光皮树籽粕对pb(2+)、Hg(2+)具有螯合作用;在受到50 mg/L Pb(2+)或15 mg/L Hg(2+)污染的培养基中,添加米糠或光皮树籽粕都具有显著的螯合解毒效果,受pb(2+)、Hg(2+)毒害的平菇菌丝可以恢复生长.袋栽试验中,在被污染的栽培料中添加米糠或光皮树籽粕,表现出很强的螯合解毒和增产效果,其平菇子实体中的Pb(2+)、Hg(2+)含量都较相应的对照栽培处理配方有显著降低.%To alleviate the toxic effects of heavy metals on Pleurotus ostreatus, detoxification of rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake to heavy metals was studied through a series of plate cultivation and sawdust cultivation. The results showed that the mycelium growth of Pleurotus ostreatus were all significantly inhibited when the basic cultivating medium was contaminated by 50 mg/L Pbz+ or 15 mg/L Hg2+ , respectively. Both of rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake can promote the mycelium growth of Pleurotus ostreatus remarkably when they was added to the basic medium, and the best concentration was 20 g/L. Meanwhile, rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake can take chelation on Pb2+ or Hg2+. The chelation capacity of rice bran on Hg2+ is one order of magnitude stronger than that of Swida wilsoniana oilcake. When rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake are added in the medium contaminated by Pbz+ or Hg2+ respectively, the toxicity of Pb2+, Hg2+ to mycelium growth was decreased and the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was recovered. In cultivation experiments, rice bran and Swida wilsoniana oilcake showed a very strong effects on chelate detoxification

  6. The Enzymatic Extraction of Parboiled Rice Bran Protein was Analysed with Response Surface%酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白的响应面分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕银德; 赵俊芳; 朱永义

    2009-01-01

    以脱脂蒸谷米糠为原料,采用酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白,结合响应面分析确定最佳工艺条件为:反应时间为2.4 h、反应温度为50℃、pH值为7.5、加酶量为1%、酶解率为53.8%.同时由响应面可知,时酶解效果影响最大的因素为温度,其它依次为pH值、加酶量、反应时间.%The extraction of parboiled rice bran protein with enzymatic treatment was introduced.Through with response surface analysis,the optimum conditions of enzymatic extraction were discussed.The results showed that under extraction time 2.4 h,temperature 50 ℃,pH value 7.5 and conditions of enzyme addition 1%,the enzyming yields were 53.8%.The biggest reason of enzymatic extraction Writ8 temperature and then pH.conditions of enzyme addition and extraction time.

  7. Production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9 in wheat bran-rice straw mixed substrate and use of cocktail enzymes for deinking of waste office paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Halder, Suman K; Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize mixed substrate solid state fermentation for the production of cellulases and xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus ABK9. Among 11 different parameters, fermentation time (86-88 h), medium pH (6.1-6.2), substrate amount (10.0-10.5 g) and substrate ratio (wheat bran:rice straw) (1.1) had significantly influences on enzyme production. Under these conditions endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, FPase (filter paper degrading activity) and xylanase activities of 826.2, 255.16, 102.5 and 1130.4 U/g, respectively were obtained. The enzyme cocktail extracted (solid to water ratio of 1:10) from the ferments increased brightness of waste office paper pulp by 82.8% ISO, Ink(D) value by 82.1%, removed chromophores (2.53 OD; A(237)nm) and hydrophobic compounds (1.15 OD; A(465)nm) and also decreased the kappa number to 13.5 from 16.8. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative studies on fly ash coated low heat rejection diesel engine on performance and emission characteristics fueled by rice bran and pongamia methyl ester and their blend with diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.; Sivapirakasam, S.P.; Udayakumar, M. [National Institute of Technology, Tiruchchirappalli (India)

    2011-05-15

    In this study, for the first time, fly ash was used as a thermal barrier coating material in a diesel engine. The study consists of three phases. In first phase, biodiesel was prepared in a laboratory scale setup by single step base catalyzed transesterification method. In the second phase, engine combustion chamber elements such as cylinder head, cylinder liner, valves and piston crown face were coated with fly ash, which is a thermal power plant waste, to a thickness of 200{mu}m by using plasma spray coating method. In third phase, experiments were carried out on fly ash coated single cylinder diesel engine fueled by methyl ester of rice bran, pongamia oil and its blend (20% by volume) with diesel. The test run was repeated on uncoated engine under the same running conditions and the results were compared. An increase in engine power and decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NOx) were observed for all test fuels used in the fly ash coated engine compared with that of the uncoated engine.

  9. Efeitos da fermentação nas propriedades físico-químicas e nutricionais do farelo de arroz Effects of fermentation on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Feddern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilização de nutrientes no farelo de arroz através de um processo de fermentação utilizando Saccharomyces cerevisiae como inóculo, bem como caracterizar os farelos não fermentado e fermentado química e nutricionalmente. Os parâmetros definidos para a fermentação foram 3% de levedura, 30% de umidade e um intervalo de 6 horas a 30 °C. A caracterização físico-química foi realizada segundo AOAC (2000, a digestibilidade in vitro e metionina disponível por método enzimático, cálcio por complexometria, açúcares redutores por espectrofotometria e micotoxinas pelo multimétodo de TANAKA (2001. Observou-se, que os açúcares redutores variaram de 3,4 a 4,8% durante 6 horas de fermentação. Comparando-se o farelo não fermentado com o fermentado, o pH diminuiu de 6,5 para 5,8, a acidez, os minerais e as fibras variaram de 2,1 a 4,7%, de 10,5 a 11,9% e de 9,4 a 9,9%, respectivamente. A digestibilidade in vitro e os teores de lipídios, proteínas e cálcio não variaram significativamente com a fermentação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the availability of nutrients in rice bran through a solid-state fermentation process, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the inoculum, and to characterize the fermented and non-fermented bran physicochemically and nutritionally. The parameters defined for the fermentation were 3% yeast, 30% humidity and an interval of 6 hours at 30 °C. The physicochemical characterization was conducted according to an official methodology (AOAC, 2000, the pH and acidity were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute (1985 method, in vitro digestibility and available methionine by the enzymatic method, calcium by complexometry, reducing sugars by spectrophotometry and mycotoxins by TANAKA's multimethod (2001. The reducing sugars were found to vary from 3.4 to 4.8% during a 6 hours fermentation period. A comparison of the non-fermented and fermented bran

  10. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed.

  11. 以米糠提取液为主料的气相缓蚀剂的缓蚀性能%Vapor Phase Inhibition Performance and Inhibition Mechanism of Phytic Acid Extracted from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康笑阳; 付朝阳; 胡胜; 钟飞

    2009-01-01

    Phytic acid was extracted from rice bran by leaching in a dilute acid.The resulting phytic acid was used as a main component to formulate a vapor phase inhibitor.The inhibition performance of the inhibitor for carbon steel in 3 % brine was investigated by conducting weight loss test and measurement of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra.The inhibition mechanism of the inhibitor was also discussed.Results show that the corrosion inhibitor has good inhibition action for carbon steel subjected to vapor phase corrosion,and an inhibition efficiency of as much as 97% is obtained.As a kind of anodic adsorption inhibitor,the vapor phase inhibitor based on phytic acid is able to prohibit anode process and obeys the Langmuir's adsorption equation.%开发环境友好型缓蚀剂是缓蚀剂技术发展的必然趋势,从天然物中提取有效成分作为缓蚀剂就是途径之一,采用气相缓蚀剂可以有效减轻腐蚀,适应可持续发展的要求.用酸化浸取法从米糠中提取植酸,复配成了气相缓蚀剂;采用失重、极化曲线和阻抗测试等评价了该缓蚀剂的气相缓蚀效率,并对其缓蚀机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明:该缓蚀剂对碳钢的气相腐蚀有良好的缓蚀效果,缓蚀率可达97%;该缓蚀剂为阳极吸附型缓蚀剂,符合Langmuir吸附等温式.

  12. Refino de óleo de farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. em condições brandas para preservação do γ-orizanol Refining of rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L. to preserve γ-orizanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Paucar-Menacho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O γ-orizanol é um antioxidante presente no óleo de farelo de arroz, mas ausente em outros óleos vegetais, ao qual têm sido atribuídos efeitos antioxidante e hipocolesterolêmico. O conteúdo de γ-orizanol no óleo de farelo de arroz bruto varia entre 1-2%, mas durante a etapa de neutralização do refino químico, este composto fica retido na borra. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo propor uma técnica alternativa de refino físico em condições brandas para o óleo de farelo de arroz com a finalidade de preservar o γ-orizanol. Utilizou-se farelo de arroz inativado e extrusado obtido a partir do processo de produção do arroz parboilizado, sendo o óleo bruto (Oryza sativa extraído pelo método de expeller. O processo de refino do óleo bruto consistiu nas etapas de degomagem ácida (com H3PO4 85%, centrifugação, clarificação, desodorização a 180 ºC e winterização. Foram realizadas análises para caracterização e comparação do óleo bruto e refinado, seguindo metodologias oficiais da AOCS. Concluiu-se que o processo de refino físico preservou 97% do γ-orizanol, o qual potencializou a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo refinado pelo método alternativo, que apresentou uma melhoria de 33% (13,3 horas a 110 ºC do período de indução da oxidação em relação ao óleo comercial.γ-orizanol is an antioxidant present in rice bran oil, but absent in other vegetable oils, which were attributed to antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The content of γ-orizanol in crude rice bran oil varies between 1-2%, but during neutralization in chemical refining this substance is transferred to soapstock. The aim of this research is to study an alternative technique of physical refining in light conditions with the purpose of preserving γ-orizanol. Inativacted and extrused rice bran obtained by the production of parboilizated rice was used to extract crude rice bran oil (Oryza sativa by the expeller method. The process of

  13. Optimization of silica gel column chromatography extraction process of oryzanol from rice bran oil soap stock by response surface methodology%响应面法优化柱层析工艺提取米糠油皂脚中的谷维素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鸿; 张培培; 庞敏; 姜绍通

    2016-01-01

    以米糠油加工所得的副产物皂脚为原料,用乙酸乙酯索氏抽提得到皂脚浸提物,采用硅胶柱层析的方法对皂脚浸提物分离纯化谷维素,采用单因素和响应面方法进行优化,确定浸提液的谷维素浓度为4.00%,上样量为8.70 g,硅胶用量为60.00 g。结果表明,此工艺得到的谷维素纯度88.5%,皂脚中谷维素的总提取率达到58.7%。%Soapstock,the byproduct of rice bran oil procossing,was used as raw material. Oryzanol was extracted with ethyl acetate from rice bran oil soap stock and purified by silica gel column chromatography methods. Based on single factor experiments and response surface methodology,the optimum conditions were as follows:oryzanol concentration of sample forsilica gelcolumn chromatography was 4.00%,the sample volume was 8.70 g,the amount of silica gel was 60 g. The results showed that the total extraction rate of oryzanol could reached 58.7% while oryzanol purity was 88.5%.

  14. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  16. 硫酸酯化米糠多糖结构分析及其抗肿瘤活性研究%Characterization and Anti-tumor Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharide SRBPS2a Obtained from Defatted Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 朱丽丹; 盛慧明; 陈正行

    2011-01-01

    A novel sulfated polysaccharide SRBPS2a with anti -tumor activity was derived from defatted rice bran by chlorosulfonic acid - pyridine ( CSA - Pyr) method. The average molecular weight of SRBPS2a was 3.5 × 105 u and the degree of sulfation (DS) was 1.29. The Fourier- Transform Infrared Spectra (FT- IR) and 13C NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that SRBPS2a was mainly consist of β-( 1→3 )-D-galactopyranosyl residues, the sulfate substitution site was on C - 2 and C -4 while the side chains were cut off during the sulfated reaction. Furthermore,SRBPS2a exhibited evident growth inhibition on mouse mammary tumor EMT -6 cells both in vitro and in vivo.%采用氯磺酸-吡啶法对米糠多糖(RBPS2a)进行硫酸酯化修饰得到硫酸酯化米糠多糖(SRBPS2a),使用HPGPC测定SRBPS2a的分子质量,利用红外光谱和13CNMR进行结构分析,应用体内、外抗肿瘤试验对SRBPS2a抗肿瘤活性进行评价.结果发现:SRBPS2a的取代度为1.29,分子质量为3.5×105u,在体内和体外对小鼠乳腺癌细胞EMT-6有显著的抑制作用.RBPS2a经硫酸酯化修饰后,SRBPS2a主链结构保持β-(1→3)-D-甘露糖不变,侧链被切除,硫酸基团的取代发生在C-2和C-4位上,C-6氧化形成糖醛酸甲酯.

  17. THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE BRAND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dewi Indrasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran oil has a potential in lowering blood cholesterol. The oil content extracted from rice bran isa influenced by several factors such as raw material and processing method. This research was conducted to study the effect of heating on the physicochemical characteristics of rice bran oil. The study was carried out at the Food Technology and Nutrition Laboratory and Biotechnological Science Laboratory of the Inter University Center, Bogor Agricultural University, from February to MAy 1997. Bran used was from IR64 rice variety obtained from a local milling rice in Tambak Dahan, Binong-Subang, West Java. Rice bran was subjected to different period of heating (0, 15 and 30 minutes at 121oC by using an autoclave, then the oil was extraxted by using hexane solvent followed by standard processing at room temperature (28-30oC and 40oC for two hours. The parameters observed were oil content and its quality such as saponification, iodine, acid, peroxide, tiobarbituric acid, and triglyceric acid values as well as oil color. The results showed that oil extracted from rice bran was high, ranging from 9.65 to 11.02%. Heating (sterilizing of the rice bran for 15 and 30 minutes at 120oC proir to extraction increased the oil content. The Quality of rice bran oil extracted met the standard of AOAC.

  18. Valor do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação: digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes Value of rice bran as a fat source for Jersey cows in early lactation: apparent digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas oito vacas Jersey, com peso médio de 420 kg, produção média de 20 kg de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, na fase inicial de lactação (próximas ao pico de lactação, estabuladas em baias individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4. Objetivou-se avaliar a potencialidade do farelo de arroz integral como fonte de gordura, associado a óleo de arroz e a sebo bovino, em dietas isoprotéicas, isofibrosas e isolipídicas entre as fontes de gordura estudadas, por meio da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes. Os tratamentos foram: CON- concentrado sem adição de gordura; GP- concentrado com gordura protegida; FAIO- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e óleo de arroz; FAIS- concentrado com farelo de arroz integral e sebo bovino. Os concentrados foram à base de grãos de milho moído e farelo de soja, e, como volumosos, foram empregados silagem de milho e feno de alfafa (1:1. O concentrado foi fornecido três vezes ao dia, separadamente dos volumosos. Os volumosos foram fornecidos à vontade, procurando-se manter a proporção de 55% em relação às misturas concentradas. A estimativa da excreção fecal foi obtida com emprego de óxido de cromo e a digestibilidade da gordura por diferença. A interpretação estatística foi feita pela análise de variância dos valores médios de cada tratamento pelo teste F. As fontes de gordura não afetaram a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e de carboidratos não-fibrosos. O farelo de arroz integral pode ser usado como fonte de gordura, totalizando 6% de gordura bruta na dieta de vacas leiteiras na fase inicial da lactação.Eight Jersey cows with an average live weight of 420 kg, yielding around 20 kg of 3.5% FCM in early lactation (around the peak of lactation were used in a trial whose objectives were to evaluate rice bran as fat source associated with oil or tallow in iso-proteic, iso

  19. Brans-Dicke geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2008-01-01

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying omega-->0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking constrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  20. Brans-Dicke geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.de; Schuller, Frederic P. [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)], E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.de; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2008-12-11

    We reveal the non-metric geometry underlying {omega}{yields}0 Brans-Dicke theory by unifying the metric and scalar field into a single geometric structure. Taking this structure seriously as the geometry to which matter universally couples, we show that the theory is fully consistent with solar system tests. This is in striking contrast with the standard metric coupling, which grossly violates post-Newtonian experimental constraints.

  1. Dietary rice component, Oryzanol, inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Methods and results: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, '-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet fo...

  2. Valores energéticos do farelo de arroz integral suplementado com complexos enzimáticos para frangos de corte Energy values of whole rice bran supplemented with enzymes complexes for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Alberto Giacometti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de enzimas carboidrases exógenas com atividade xilanase sobre a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida (EMAn do farelo de arroz integral (FAI. As enzimas carboidrases com atividade xilanase utilizadas foram as da marca comercial Rovabio TM Excel AP, Allzyme Rice e Ronozyme WX, denominadas, respectivamente, neste trabalho, de enzimas A, B, e C. Foram utilizadas 240 aves de corte da linhagem Coob, com 21 dias de idade, alojadas em gaiolas metálicas com bandejas coletoras de excretas instaladas em uma sala de metabolismo com ambiente controlado. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, constituído por 4 dietas-referência e 4 dietas-teste e 6 repetições, totalizando 48 parcelas com 5 aves cada uma. As dietas-referência e as dietas-teste estudadas foram as seguintes: Dieta-referência à base de milho, farelo de soja, vitaminas e minerais (DR; DR + enzima A; DR + enzima B; DR + enzima C; 70% de DR + 30% de FAI; 70% de DR + 30% de FAI + enzima A; 70% de DR + 30% de FAI + enzima B e 70% de DR + 30% de FAI + enzima C. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas (Sibbald & Slinger, 1963 durante 5 dias em cada unidade experimental, precedido de 5 dias de adaptação das aves às dietas. As determinações de EMA e EMAn foram realizadas conforme metodologia de Matterson et al. (1965. A EMAn do FAI foi de 2897 kcal/kg de MS. Com o uso das enzimas carboidrases, o melhor valor de EMAn do FAI foi obtido quando utilizou-se a enzima C, sendo de 3083 kcal/kg de MS, com um aumento percentual de 6,4%. A dieta-referência que recebeu a adição da enzima C teve sua EMAn aumentada, o que não ocorreu com a utilização das outras carboidrases.An experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogen carbohydrase enzymes with xylanase activity on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and apparent corrected metabolizable energy (AMEn of whole rice bran (WRB. The

  3. Comparative Digestibility of Maize brawn, Wheat offal and Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKEEM

    financial capability can not sustain ruminant animal production of this nature in the ... the nutritional potential of rice bran, maize bran and wheat offal, through digestibility ..... Effect of nitrogen, energy and mineral supplementation on the growth ... potentials of mango and gliricidia leaves as protein supplement in the diet of.

  4. Residues of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Jones, Trevor; McCauley, Garry

    2015-03-04

    Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides have been important tools for controlling pests in rice. However, food safety issues related to pesticide residues are important to consider with a food crop such as rice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole residues in rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains. The study was conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Texas A&M Agrilife Research, David R. Wintermann Rice Research Station, near Eagle Lake, TX, USA. Rice was planted on May 5, 2012, using the cultivar 'Presidio'. Pesticide applications were performed at 5, 15, 25, and 35 days after flowering (DAF) using 1 and 2 times the recommended rate of 30 g active ingredient (ai) ha(-1) for thiamethoxam and 30 g ai ha(-1) for chlorantraniliprole. Sequentially, two treatments using the insecticides at recommended rate were applied at 5 and 25 DAF and at 5, 25, and 35 DAF. Insecticide residues were analyzed in different sample fractions: rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains. The samples were subjected to extraction using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. Sample aliquots were analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 5 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1). Residues of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were detected in rice hull, bran, and polished rice grains, and the quantified values were greater in hull and in rice bran.

  5. Bran: may irritate irritable bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M J; Whorwell, P J

    1998-05-01

    The irritable gut is known to be hypersensitive, and it is reasonable to suspect that patients with the disorder might be hyperreactive to agents that stimulate or irritate it. This appears to be a possible explanation for the adverse effects of bran on hospital patients with this disorder, but we do not yet know how this product affects community IBS sufferers. We cannot ignore the fact that fiber and bran have major beneficial effects in other areas, not least in the reduction of colonic carcinoma. In conclusion, it is probably best to recommend that patients with IBS be left to judge for themselves whether bran helps or exacerbates their symptoms, but there is enough evidence to suggest that the current dogma of routinely treating all IBS sufferers with bran should be challenged. Proprietary sources of fiber, such as ispaghula, may be more appropriate for those IBS subjects (for example, constipated) for whom fiber supplementation is believed justified.

  6. Characterization of Components Obtained during the Processing of Three Rough Rice Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Bocevska, Mirjana; Andreevska, Danica; Ilieva, Verica; Pavlovska, Nevenka

    2004-01-01

    During processing of rough rice into white rice (polished rice) through a series of operations, bulls and bran are obtained. Rice is number one food crop in the world. However, from recently rice and its structural parts are utilized for production of value-added products. Oil rich with antioxidants very good adsorbents for removing metal ions and gases, and edible films could be obtained. Further processing of rice by products depends of their composition. Therefore the present study is f...

  7. Survey on Contamination of Fusarium Mycotoxins in 2011-harvested Rice and Its By-products from Rice Processing Complexes in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in rice samples from rice processing complexes (RPCs, paddy rice and rice-milling products such as husks, brown rice, blue-tinged rice, broken rice, rice bran, discolored rice, and polished rice were collected from nationwide in 2012. Three hundred seventy one samples of rice and its by-products were analyzed for three trichothethenes including nivalenol (NIV, deoxynivalenol (DON, and zearalenone (ZEA by LC/MS. Discolored rice samples were found to have the highest contamination of DON, NIV or ZEA, followed by broken rice. Polished rice samples were largely free from mycotoxins, except three samples which were contaminated with NIV or DON at safety level. The rice byproduct samples were contaminated at higher level and frequencies than polished rice samples.

  8. Influence of pretreatment of agriculture residues on phytase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Various agriculture residues such as rice bran, de-oiled rice bran, wheat bran ... Protein concentration in the culture filtrate was determined by the method of Lowry et al. ... microbial phytase in soybean meal based broiler diets ...

  9. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, David Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    According to Lovelock's theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the \\emph{Lovelock-Brans-Dicke} (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density $\\mathscr{L}_{\\text{LBD}}=\\frac{1}{16\\pi}\\left[\\phi\\left(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}^*RR + b\\mathcal{G}\\right)-\\frac{\\omega_{\\text L}}{\\phi}\

  10. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  11. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Effects of rice harvest moisture on kernel damage and milled rice surface free fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amanda M; Proctor, Andrew; Eason, Robert L; Jain, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 Case and 9500 John Deere), and rice variety (Cocodrie and Bengal) on harvest damaged rough rice and milled rice surface FFA after drying to 12% moisture and 6 mo rough rice storage was examined. The Case harvester produced more damaged kernels than the John Deere harvester, but this was not reflected in surface FFA development. There were no significant FFA differences in variety or harvester type. Rice harvested at a higher moisture content (20%) produced significantly greater FFA values, with a peak near 0.1%, than rice harvested at lower moisture contents (13% and 16%), which had FFA values near 0.08%. Retention of bran by damaged kernels at high harvest moisture probably was responsible for promoting surface FFA development, but if bran was lost at lower harvest moistures, surface FFA, development was limited. Harvest moisture affected milled rice FFA, although rough rice was dried to 12% immediately after harvesting.

  13. Effect of cereal brans on Lentinula edodes growth and enzyme activities during cultivation on forestry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E M; Machuca, A; Milagres, A M F

    2005-01-01

    To develop strategies for increasing the growth of Lentinula edodes in eucalyptus residues. To this end, we have examined the effects of cereal brans additions on production of mycelial biomass and enzymes. Three isolates of the mushroom shiitake, L. edodes (Berk. Pegler), were evaluated for enzyme and ergosterol production on eucalyptus residue supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/w) of soya, wheat or rice brans. Nitrogen imput on eucalyptus residues accelerated mycelial growth by supplying the L. edodes with this limiting nutrient. High levels of enzymes activities were produced in eucalyptus residues supplemented by soya bran. Comparison of cellulose and xylanase production with manganese peroxidase (MnP) at 20% soya bran indicated that hydrolytic enzymes, but oxidative enzymes were reduced. Mycelial growth measurements revealed that eucalyptus residues supplemented with cereal brans supported fast growth of L. edodes, indicating that mycelium extension is related to the bioavailability of nitrogen. The type and concentration of nutrient supplement has a considerable effect both on substrate colonization and on the type of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced. These characteristics may be useful for mushroom growing. Lentinula edodes is commercially important for edible mushroom production and supplements which enhance growth and enzymes production might also be beneficial for mushroom yields.

  14. Multi Response Optimization of NOx Emission of a Stationary Diesel Engine Fuelled with Crude Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester Optimisation à réponses multiples de l’émission de NOx d’un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté par de l’ester méthylique d’huile de riz brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt was made to reduce the NOx emission of crude rice bran oil methyl ester without any considerable increase in smoke density, when used as a fuel in a stationary CI engine. Three factors namely, fuel injection timing, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR and fuel injection pressure were chosen and their combined effect in controlling the NOx emission of a stationary Diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil methyl ester was investigated. Three levels were chosen in each factor and NOx emission, smoke density and brake thermal efficiency were taken as the response variables. Experiments were designed by employing design of experiments method and Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Multi Response Signal-to-Noise ratio (MRSN was calculated for the response variables and the optimum combination level of factors was obtained simultaneously using Taguchi’s parametric design. Confirmation experiment was conducted for the obtained optimum combination level of factors and the results were compared with normal operating conditions and significant improvement was observed in the response variables. Dans la présente étude, il a été tenté de réduire les émissions de NOx de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut sans accroissement considérable de la densité de fumée lorsqu'il est utilisé comme carburant dans un moteur stationnaire à allumage par compression. Trois facteurs, à savoir le calage d'injection de carburant, le pourcentage de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (EGR ; Exhaust Gas Recirculation et la pression d'injection de carburant ont été choisis, et leur effet combiné a été examiné en matière de maîtrise des émissions de NOx d'un moteur Diesel stationnaire alimenté avec de l'ester méthylique d'huile de riz brut. Trois niveaux ont été choisis pour chaque facteur et les émissions de NOx, la densité de fum

  15. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  16. Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir José Conte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron

  17. Wormholes in vacuum Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bhadra, A; Bhadra, Arunava; Sarkar, Kabita

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that among the different classes of claimed static wormhole solutions of the vacuum Brans-Dicke theory only Brans Class I solution with coupling constant $\\omega$ less than -1.5 (excluding the point $\\omega =2$) gives rise to physically viable traversable wormhole geometry. Usability of this wormhole geometry for interstellar travel has been examined.

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  19. Brans-Dicke brane cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, L E; Mendes, Luis E.; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional brane cosmology with non-minimally coupled scalar field to gravity has been considered in a Jordan-Brans-Dicke frame. We derive an effective four dimensional field equations on a 3+1 dimensional brane where the fifth dimension has been assumed to have an orbifold symmetry. We have noticed that the evolution equation for the matter component stuck to the brane is non-trivially coupled to the scalar field living on the brane and the bulk. Finally we discuss some cosmological consequences of this set-up.

  20. Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, Romila; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which gives effective control of plant and leaf hoppers in rice. The persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in paddy leaves, rice grains, bran, straw and husk were studied following two applications of imidacloprid (Confidor 17.8 SL) @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) at an interval of 10 days. Samples of paddy leaves were collected at various time intervals. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk were collected at the time of harvest. The limit of quantification of imidacloprid and its metabolites was worked out to be 0.01 mg kg(-1). The maximum residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites in paddy leaves after 0 day (1 h after last spray) of its application @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) were found to be 4.57 and 13.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 days following last application of imidacloprid at lower and higher dosages, respectively. In rice, olefin metabolite was found to be the main constituent, followed by nitroguanidine, urea, 5-hydroxy, chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk did not reveal the presence of imidacloprid or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  1. Distribution and formation of heavy metal elements in rice plants. I. Distribution of heavy metal elements in rice grains using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Kusaka, S.; Zikihara, T.; Yoshida, T.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of minerals in the outer layer of rice grains was determined. Unpolished rice was polished using a rice-polishing machine and its bran was collected at specified intervals during the polishing. The bran comprised 6.5% of the whole grain by weight and contained the highest contents of cadmium, copper, and zinc. The contents of these metals in the bran after the first fraction, which comprised from 6.5% to 11.0% of the grain by weight, were lower than that of the surface fraction. An electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) was used to determine the transversal microdistribution of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the outer layer of the grains. Cadmium was concentrated in the surface fraction and copper and zinc were concentrated in the aleurone layer of the rice grains.

  2. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW), N

  3. Conformal classes of Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    1999-01-01

    A classification of Brans-Dicke theories of gravitation, based on the behaviour of the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant, is given. It is noted that the discussion takes place in the current literature, about which of the two distinguished conformal frames in which scalar-tensor theories of gravity can be formulated: the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, is the physical one, may, in most cases, be meaningless for both frames may belong to the same conformal class. It is also noted that the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with ordinary matter nonminimally coupled is scale-invariant, unlike the situation with the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with matter minimally coupled (the original formulation of Brans-Dicke theory), where the presence of nonzero mass ordinary matter breaks the scale-invariance of the theory.

  4. Quintessence Problem and Brans-Dicke Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Subenoy; Chakraborty, N. C.; Debnath, Ujjal

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that Brans-Dicke (BD) theory in anisotropic cosmological model can alone solve the quintessence problem and we have accelerated expanding universe without any quintessence matter. Also the flatness problem has been discussed in this context.

  5. Fermions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Samojeden, L L; Kremer, G M

    2010-01-01

    Using the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation we put under investigation a hypothetical universe filled with a fermionic field (with a self interaction potential) and a matter constituent ruled by a barotropic equation of state. It is shown that the fermionic field (in combination with the Brans-Dicke scalar field could be responsible for a final accelerated era, after an initial matter dominated period.

  6. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  7. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zúñiga-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  8. Brewers’ Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ling Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewers’ rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers’ rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM. Alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers’ rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers’ rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers’ rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers’ rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.

  9. Efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de arroz em dietas suplementadas com fitase para frangos de corte = Effect of different inclusion levels of rice bran in diets supplemented with phytase for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Robério Vieira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenhozootécnico, rendimento de carcaça e a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas contendo quantidades crescentes de farelo de arroz integral (FAI, suplementados com fitase. Foram utilizados 600 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagemRoss, alojados em boxes de acordo com um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos seguintes tratamentos: T1-ração referência (milho e farelo de soja; T2-ração referência com 750 FTU g-1; T3-ração com 3,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T4-ração com 7,5% de FAI com 750 FTU g-1; T5-ração com 10,5% FAI com 750 FTU g-1 e T6-ração com 14% FAIcom 750 FTU g-1. A inclusão de fitase, com a utilização de FAI até o nível de 14% e redução do fósforo inorgânico na formulação da ração, não afetou o desempenho zootécnico e características de carcaça dos frangos de corte, porém reduziu a deposição de fósforo e cinzas na tíbia dos ossos.The experiment was carried with the objective of evaluating the productive performance, carcass yield, phosphorus availability and tibia ash in broilers subjected to diets containing increasing amounts of whole rice bran (WRB, supplemented with phytase. Six hundred broilers (Ross, all males, were allocated in boxesaccording to a completely randomized design, being fed the following regimens: T1 standard feed (corn and soybean meal; T2 standard feed with 750 FTU g-1; T3 feed with 3.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1; T4 feed with 7.5% of WRB with 750 FTU g-1 T5 feed with 10.5% WRB with 750 FTU g-1 and T6 feed with 14% WRB with 750 FTU g-1. The inclusion of phytase with the use of WRB to the level of 14% and the reduction of the inorganic P in the formulation of the feed did not affect the performance and carcass characteristics of the broiler chickens; however, it did decrease the presence of phosphorus and ash in the tibia.

  10. Utilização da fitase em dietas com ou sem farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento/terminação Use of phytase in diets with or without defatted rice bran for growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência de diferentes níveis de fitase em relação à suplementação de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato bicálcico, quando adicionados em dietas sem e com farelo de arroz desengordurado (FAD. Foram utilizados 128 suínos com peso inicial médio de 21,2 ± 2,4 kg, alojados em baias coletivas, para avaliar o desempenho nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Os suínos foram abatidos com peso médio de 95,4 ± 5,3 kg e coletado o osso metacarpo para determinação do cálcio e do fósforo. Foram usados oito tratamentos, sendo quatro dietas sem FAD (milho e farelo de soja e quatro dietas com 30% de inclusão de FAD, nas quais foram adicionados níveis de 0, 750 ou 1000 UF (Unidades de Fitase/kg. Foi observado que adicionar fitase, tanto em dietas sem FAD quanto em dietas com FAD, melhora a disponibilidade do fósforo orgânico. Com os níveis de 750 e 1000 UF/kg adicionados em ambas as dietas, sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico, não houve prejuízo sobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, as características ósseas são prejudicadas se as dietas com fitase não forem suplementadas com a fonte de fósforo inorgânico.The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of different levels of phytase with the use of inorganic phosphate (dicalcium phosphate when added to diets with or without defatted rice bran (DRB. One hundred and twenty eight pigs with average initial weight of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg were housed in collective boxes for the pig performance evaluation in the growing and finishing phase. The pigs were slaughtered with an average weight of 95.42 ± 5.3 kg and the metacarpus bones were collected to determine the calcium and phosphorus content. Eight treatments were used with four diets being formulated without DRB (corn-soybean meal and the other four diets with DRB. The phytase levels added in the diets were 0, 750 or 1000 PU/kg of the diet. It was observed that

  11. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  12. Composite vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Sushkov, Sergey V

    2011-01-01

    We construct a new static spherically symmetric configuration composed of interior and exterior Brans-Dicke vacua matched at a thin matter shell. Both vacua correspond to the same Brans-Dicke coupling parameter $\\omega$, however they are described by the Brans class I solution with different sets of parameters of integration. In particular, the exterior vacuum solution has $C_{ext}(\\omega)\\equiv 0$. In this case the Brans class I solution for any $\\omega$ reduces to the Schwarzschild one being consistent with restrictions on the post-Newtonian parameters following from recent Cassini data. The interior region possesses a strong gravitational field, and so the interior vacuum solution has $C_{int}(\\omega)=-1/(\\omega+2)$. In this case the Brans class I solution describes a wormhole spacetime provided $\\omega$ lies in the narrow interval $-2-\\frac{\\sqrt{3}}{3}<\\omega<-2$. The interior and exterior regions are matched at a thin shell made from an ordinary perfect fluid with positive energy density and press...

  13. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specifications: Melting point 75 °C to 80 °C. Free fatty acids, maximum 10 percent. Iodine number, maximum 20... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  14. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  15. Rice growth improvement and grains bio-fortification through lime and zinc application in zinc deficit tropical acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mahmoud Soltani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A two years field study was conducted to explain the effect of Zn and lime application on morphological characteristics, rice yield and yield components, and more broadly, grains bio-fortification (Zn and protein content (CP, and amino acid profiles. The lime and Zn interaction increased grains and straw yield more than two times (6.64 ton ha−1 compared to the control (3.20 ton ha−1. The maximum increase in the Zn content of grain, white rice and bran was obtained about 30% in whole grain, 42% in bran and 56% in white rice. Furthermore, CP increased by about 8% in bran, 12.3% in whole grain, and 27% in white rice compared to control. Also, the Zn and lime application and their interaction were significantly increased the amino acids, especially essential parts.

  16. The complete Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kofinas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The most general completion of Brans-Dicke gravity is found when energy is exchanged in a uniquely defined way between the scalar field and ordinary matter. The theory contains a new parameter (integration constant from the integration procedure) and when this is switched off, Brans-Dicke theory emerges. As usually, the vacuum theory can be defined from the complete Brans-Dicke theory when the matter energy-momentum tensor vanishes. However, additionally, the complete family of vacuum theories is found, consistent with the free wave equation for the scalar field. The subclass of this family with identically covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor is identified and, thus, can be supplemented by any equation of motion for the scalar field.

  17. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  18. Rye bran as fermentation matrix boosts in situ dextran production by Weissella confusa compared to wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Mäkelä, Jari; Coda, Rossana; Shukla, Shraddha; Shi, Qiao; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Juvonen, Riikka; Ekholm, Päivi; Goyal, Arun; Tenkanen, Maija; Katina, Kati

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of fiber-rich foods such as cereal bran is highly recommended due to its beneficial health effects. Pre-fermentation of bran with lactic acid bacteria can be used to improve the otherwise impaired flavor and textural qualities of bran-rich products. These positive effects are attributed to enzymatic modification of bran components and the production of functional metabolites like organic acids and exopolysaccharides such as dextrans. The aim of this study was to investigate dextran production in wheat and rye bran by fermentation with two Weissella confusa strains. Bran raw materials were analyzed for their chemical compositions and mineral content. Microbial growth and acidification kinetics were determined from the fermentations. Both strains produced more dextran in rye bran in which the fermentation-induced acidification was slower and the acidification lag phase longer than in wheat bran. Higher dextran production in rye bran is expected to be due to the longer period of optimal pH for dextran synthesis during fermentation. The starch content of wheat bran was higher, which may promote isomaltooligosaccharide formation at the expense of dextran production. W. confusa Cab3 produced slightly higher amounts of dextran than W. confusa VTT E-90392 in all raw materials. Fermentation with W. confusa Cab3 also resulted in lower residual fructose content which has technological relevance. The results indicate that wheat and particularly rye bran are promising matrices for producing technologically significant amounts of dextran, which facilitates the use of nutritionally valuable raw bran in food applications.

  19. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  20. Variations in Concentration and Distribution of Health-Related Elements Affected by Environmental and Genotypic Differences in Rice Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xue-liang; LIU Qing-long; WU Dian-xing; SHU Qing-yao

    2006-01-01

    A research work was conducted to investigate the variations in concentration and distribution of health-related elements affected by environmental and genotypic differences in rice grains. The grain of Xieqingzao B (indica rice variety) and Xiushui 110 (japonica rice variety) were divided into: hull, bran and milled rice, based on the conventional rice consumption and process. Xieqingzao B was grown at four different locations, and at one location, it was planted in the same field and season as Xiushui 110. In addition, another four indica and four japonica varieties were cultivated in the same field and time to analyze the elements in milled rice. The average concentrations of total P and phytic acid P were the highest in the bran, followed by milled rice and hull; Zn, K, Mg, and As concentrations were the highest in bran, followed by hull and milled rice, while Fe, Ca, and Cu concentrations were the highest in the hull, but similar in bran and milled rice. The result indicated that genotype and environment significantly affected the concentrations of all the tested elements, while the distribution of the above elements in grains was not in the same order as concentration. Moreover, all the elements except 97.7% of Cu and 93.2% of Fe was deposited in the hull on average, were mostly distributed either in the bran (37.3% and 57.7% for K and phytic acid P) or in milled rice (41.7%, 42.6%, 40.3%, 49.8% for Zn, Mg, As, total P, respectively).

  1. Mass Inflation in Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Herdeiro, C A R

    2009-01-01

    A detailed non-linear analysis of the internal structure of spherical, charged black holes that are accreting scalar matter is performed in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We choose the lowest value of the Brans-Dicke parameter that is compatible with observational constraints. First, the homogeneous approximation is used. It indicates that mass inflation occurs and that the variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar inside the black hole, which could in principle be large in the absence of mass inflation, become small when mass inflation does occur. Then, a full non-linear numerical study of the black hole interior perturbed by a self-gravitating massless uncharged scalar-field is performed. We use an algorithm with adaptive mesh refinement capabilities. In this way, the changes in the internal structure of the black hole caused by mass inflation are determined, as well as the induced variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar, confirming, qualitatively, the indications given by the homogeneous appro...

  2. Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thailand has one of the most important rice genetic resources with white, light brown, brown, red, and purple rice bran colors. The latter believed to have potential for health benefits due to their phenolic content. Recently researchers have indicated that starch digestive enzymes, including salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidases, can be inhibited by phenolic compounds. Although pasting properties of rice flour are key determinants of quality significantly impactin...

  3. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  5. Generalized Mattig's relation in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salako, Ines G; Jawad, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The Geodesic Deviation Equation is being studied in Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. We briefly discuss the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity and then construct GDE for FLRW metric. In this way, the obtained geodesic deviation equation will correspond to the Brans-Dicke-Rastall gravity. Eventually, we solve numerically the null vector GDE to obtain from Mattig relation, the deviation vector $\\eta(z)$ and observer area distance $r_0(z)$ and compare the results with $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  6. Comparative Study of the Phytoprostane and Phytofuran Content of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, M; Domínguez-Perles, R; Abellán, A; Guy, A; Durand, T; Oger, C; Galano, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2017-10-03

    Phytoprostanes and phytofurans (PhytoPs and PhytoFs, respectively) are nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products derived from α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), considered biomarkers of oxidative degradation in plant foods. The present work profiled these compounds in white and brown grain flours and rice bran from 14 rice cultivars of the subspecies indica and japonica by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. For PhytoPs, the average concentrations were higher in rice bran (0.01-9.35 ng g(-1)) than in white and brown grain flours (0.01-1.17 ng g(-1)). In addition, the evaluation of rice flours for the occurrence PhytoFs evidenced average values 1.77, 4.22, and 10.30 ng g(-1) dw in rice bran, brown grain flour, and white grain flour, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total and individual compounds. The concentrations retrieved suggest rice bran as a valuable source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs that should be considered in further studies on bioavailability and bioactivity of such compounds.

  7. Third Quantization of Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.; Mora, Cesar

    2001-01-01

    We study the third quantization of a Brans-Dicke toy model, we calculate the number density of the universes created from nothing and found that it has a Planckian form. Also, we calculated the uncertainty relation for this model by means of functional Schr"odinger equation and we found that fluctuations of the third-quantized universe field tends to a finite limit in the course of cosmic expansion.

  8. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of pigmented rice subjected to different degrees of milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have reported the health benefits of pigmented rice cultivars due to the presence of bioactive compounds in its bran layer of caryopsis. This study evaluated the proximate composition, colour, total flavonoids, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contents, as well as the total phenolic...

  9. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  10. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  11. Composite spherically symmetric configurations in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a study of the scalar field shells in relativistic spherically symmetric configurations has been performed. We construct the composite solution of Jordan-Brans-Dicke field equation by matching the conformal Brans solutions at each junction surfaces. This approach allows us to associate rigorously with all solutions as a single glued "space", which is a unique differentiable manifold M^4.

  12. Euclidean non-vacuum wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hui-Qing; Ji Pei-Yong; Pan Peng-Peng

    2004-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke theory is investigated in which the Pauli metric is identified to be a physical spacetime metric.The solutions of a wormhole are obtained in Brans-Dicke theory with a relativistic radiation field for ω> -3/2.However, it is found that one cannot construct a wormhole in the presence of a 3-form axion field.

  13. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, H. S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W. C.; Bravin, E.; Miyamoto, R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×1034 cm-2 s-1 with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  14. Evidence of thermostable amylolytic activity from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis using wheat bran and corncob as alternative carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto-Nogueira, S C; Sandrim, V C; Guimarães, L H S; Jorge, J A; Terenzi, H F; Polizeli, M L T M

    2008-06-01

    Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis produced high levels of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase under solid state fermentation, with several agricultural residues, such as wheat bran, cassava flour, sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, corncob and crushed corncob as carbon sources. These materials were humidified with distilled water, tap water, or saline solutions--Segato Rizzatti (SR), Khanna or Vogel. The best substrate for amylase production was wheat bran with SR saline solution (1:2 v/v). Amylolytic activity was still improved (14.3%) with a mixture of wheat bran, corncob, starch and SR saline solution (1:1:0.3:4.6 w/w/w/v). The optimized culture conditions were initial pH 5, at 45 degrees C during 6 days and relative humidity around 76%. The crude extract exhibited temperature and pH optima around 65 degrees C and 4-5, respectively. Amylase activity was fully stable for 1 h at temperatures up to 75 degrees C, and at pH values between 2.5 and 7.5.

  15. RICE CROSSES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spikelet sterility is the greatest barrier to rice hybridization. ... sterility, Hybridization, Duplicate recessive epis- tasis ' ... hybrid fertility of intra-subspecific crosses, i.e., indica by ..... 'Germ 59(1) 293$ ' ' male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  16. Dynamical symmetries in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papagiannopoulos, G; Basilakos, S; Giacomini, A; Paliathanasis, A

    2016-01-01

    In the context of generalised Brans-Dicke cosmology we use the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to determine the unspecified potential of a scalar-tensor gravity theory. Specifically, based on the existence of contact symmetries of the field equations, we find four types of potentials which provide exactly integrable dynamical systems. We investigate the dynamical properties of these potentials by using a critical point analysis and we find solutions which lead to cosmic acceleration and under specific conditions we can have de-Sitter points as stable late-time attractors.

  17. Water-saving technologies affect the grain characteristics and recovery of fine-grain rice cultivars in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Riaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nasim, Wajid; Zaman, Umar; Fahad, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-05-01

    Growing rice with less water is direly needed due to declining water sources worldwide, but using methods that require less water inputs can have an impact on grain characteristics and recovery. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of conventionally sown flooded rice and low-water-input rice systems on the grain characteristics and recovery of fine rice. Three fine grain rice cultivars-Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, and Shaheen Basmati-were grown under conventional flooded transplanted rice (CFTR), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and aerobic rice systems. Grain characteristics and rice recovery were significantly influenced by different water regimes (production systems). Poor milling, including the lowest percentage of brown (head) rice (65.3%) and polished (white) rice (64.2-66.9%) and the highest percentage of broken brown rice (10.2%), husk (24.5%-26.3%), polished broken rice (24.7%), and bran (11.0-12.5%), were recorded in the aerobic rice system sown with Shaheen Basmati. With a few exceptions, cultivars sown in CFTR were found to possess a higher percentage of brown (head) and polished (white) rice and they had incurred the least losses in the form of brown broken rice, husk, polished broken rice, and bran. In conclusion, better grain quality and recovery of rice can be attained by growing Super Basmati under the CFTR system. Growing Shaheen Basmati under low-water-input systems, the aerobic rice system in particular, resulted in poor grain characteristics tied with less rice recovery.

  18. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  19. On the Chameleon Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    We consider a generalized Brans-Dicke model in which the scalar field has a potential function and is also allowed to couple non-minimally with the matter sector. We assume a power law form for the potential and the coupling functions as the inputs of the model and show that acceleration of the universe can be realized for a constrained range of exponent of the potential function. We also argue that this accelerating phase is consistent with a large and positive Brans-Dicke parameter. In our analysis, the potential plays a more important role with respect to the coupling function in dynamics of the universe as the latter does not contribute to any of the relations characterizing evolution of scale factor of the universe and the scalar field. However, we will show that the coupling function is closely related to magnitude and direction of the energy transfer between matter and the scale field. We use this fact and some thermodynamic aspects of the model to put some constraints on the coupling function. In part...

  20. Critical behavior in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, T; Chiba, Takeshi; Soda, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The collapse of a massless scalar field in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is studied in the analysis of both analytical solution and numerical one. By conformally transforming the Roberts's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that a continuous self-similarity continues and that the critical exponent does depend on \\omega. By conformally transforming the Choptuik's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that at the critical solution shows discrete self-similarity, however, the critical exponent depends strongly on \\omega while the echoing parameter weakly on it.

  1. Control Oriented Modeling of a De-oiling Hydrocyclone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon; Bram, Mads Valentin;

    2015-01-01

    Deoiling hydrocyclones are an important part of the downstream water treatment in offshore oil & gas production, they ensure a low discharge of oil and thus a higher yield of produced oil. This work investigates the possibility of developing a simple control-oriented model of a de....... There is a lack of a systematic and deep-insight analysis of the capability, stability and limitations of these control solutions, as there are few control-oriented models available for de-oiling hydrocyclone systems. This paper proposes a method of retrieving a set of simple 1st-order transfer function models......-oiling hydrocyclone based on experimental data that can support systematic analysis and control design of hydrocyclone systems. The most widely used control solution of a hydrocyclone is a Pressure Drop Ratio (PDR) control strategy, which is often empirically designed and experimentally tuned in a case-by-case manner...

  2. Generalized Brans-Dicke inflation with a quartic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Tahmasebzadeh, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of Brans-Dicke gravity, we investigate inflation with a quartic potential, $\\lambda\\varphi^4/4$, in the presence of generalized Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. We obtain the inflationary observables containing the scalar spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running of the scalar spectral index and the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter in terms of general form of the potential $U(\\varphi)$ and $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)$. For the quartic potential, our results show that the predictions of the model are in well agreement with the Planck 2015 data for the generalized Brans-Dicke parameters $\\omega_{\\rm GBD}(\\varphi)=\\omega_0\\varphi^{n}$ and $\\omega_0e^{b\\varphi}$. This is in contrast with both the Einstein and standard Brans-Dicke gravity, in which the result of quartic potential is disfavored by the Planck data.

  3. Jordan-Brans-Dicke stochastic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    1994-01-01

    We study stochastic inflation in the presence of a dynamical gravitational constant. We describe the Arnowitt--Deser--Misner formalism for Jordan--Brans--Dicke theory of gravity with an inflaton field. The inflaton and dilaton scalar fields can be separated into coarse-grained background fields and quantum fluctuations. We compute the amplitude of the perturbations generated by those quantum fluctuations in JBD theory with an arbitrary potential for the inflaton field. The effect of the quantum fluctuations on the background fields is equivalent to a Brownian motion of the scalar fields, which can be described with the use of a Fokker--Planck diffusion equation. The probability to find a given value of the fields in the comoving frame can be written as a Gaussian distribution centered on their classical trajectory, with decreasing dispersion along both field directions. We also calculate the condition for the Universe to enter a self-regenerating inflationary phase. The probability distribution in the physica...

  4. Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessyca dos Reis Celestino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta, for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g in solid state fermentation (SSF.

  5. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ... cake, urea, muriate of potash and single super phosphate. Two separate ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb.

  6. Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Anthony C; Yoshizawa, Takumi

    2005-01-01

    Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines were examined. The average mold counts of rough rice, brown rice, and locally produced polished rice were 4.1 x 10(3), 1.0 x 10(3), and 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Average Aspergillus section Flavi counts of the same samples were 3.0 x 10(2), 1.1 x 10(2), and 2.6 x 10(2) CFU/g, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of mold isolates from rough rice, polished rice, and brown rice were section Flavi spp., 31% of which were toxigenic. No section Flavi isolates were obtained from imported rice samples from Thailand and Vietnam. Aspergillus section Flavi was also isolated from rice hull, rice bran, and settled dust from rice milling operations. Toxigenic isolates of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were present in at least one sample of each type of rice and rice by-product except settled dust. Aflatoxins produced in vitro by the isolates ranged from marketing, especially in warm and humid seasons when infestation and consequent production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus section Flavi is expected.

  7. Development of Nutritious Snack from rice industry waste using twin screw extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoiled rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling industry was transformed into highly nutritious snack by the application of twin screw extrusion process. Response Surface Methodology (RSM with four- factor- five level central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including moisture content of different raw flours, feed composition, barrel temperature and screw speed of extruder on properties of extrudates was studied. Second order quadratic regression model fitted adequately in the variation. The significance was established at P ≤ 0.05. The regression models can be used to interpret the effect of feed composition, moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the properties of the final product. It was shown that higher rice bran in feed composition showed in minimum water absorption index and maximum water solubility index. Numerical optimization technique resulted in 123.83°C of barrel temperature, 294.68 rpm of screw speed, 13.94 % of feed moisture and 17.73 % of deoiled rice bran. The responses predicted for these optimum process conditions resulted water absorption index, 5.91468 g/g and water solubility index of 18.5553 % for the development of value added product with health benefits.

  8. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  9. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cosmological constraint on Brans-Dicke Model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ji-Xia; Li, Yi-Chao; Gong, Yan; Chen, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We combine new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from Planck with Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory, in which the gravitational constant $G$ evolves with time. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) provide another important set of cosmological data, as they may be regarded as standard candles after some empirical corrections. However, in theories that include modified gravity like the BD theory, there is some risk and complication when using the SNIa data because their luminosity may depend on $G$. In this paper, we assume a power law relation between the SNIa luminosity and $G$, but treat the power index as a free parameter. We then test whether the difference in distances measured with SNIa data and BAO data can be reduced in such a model. We also constrain the BD theory and cosmological parameters by making a global fit with the CMB, BAO and SNIa data set. For the CMB+BAO+SNIa data set, we find $0.08\\times10^{-2} < \\zeta <0.33\\times10^{-2} $ at ...

  11. Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2004-01-01

    Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...

  12. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  13. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...

  14. Wheat bran stabilization and its use in the preparation of high-fiber pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Ramasarma, P R; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-02-01

    Wheat bran was explored as a source of fiber in the preparation of high-fiber pasta. Ground raw wheat bran having an ash content 5.99%, crude protein 15.1% and fat content 5.83% was subjected to moist heat treatment (steam heat-treated bran) and dry heat treatment (dry heat-treated bran), wherein the lipase activity was reduced by 50%. Treated bran samples were stable for 3 months without developing any rancid flavor and bitterness. Pasta samples were prepared by substituting semolina with 40% and 50% of bran samples. There was no further significant inactivation of lipase activity upon extrusion followed by drying of pasta, irrespective of the type and the amount of bran sample used. The cooked weights of the pasta were in the range 257-268 g/100 g, whereas the cooking loss decreased from 12.8% to 9.3% for treated bran-incorporated pasta. Sensory scores for pasta containing treated bran samples were higher. The total dietary fiber increased by 5.2 times upon replacement of semolina by 40% of treated wheat bran. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis studies showed faint bands in treated bran samples as well as treated bran-incorporated pasta samples.

  15. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed ai

  16. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  17. Aspects of a supersymmetric Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2006-11-15

    We consider a locally supersymmetric theory where the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical superfield. This model can be thought of as the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory (MSBD). The motivation that underlies this analysis is the research of possible connections between Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories and supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios. We find that the phenomenology associated with the MSBD model is very different compared to the one of the original Brans-Dicke theory: the new scalar and fermionic degrees of freedom do not couple to matter in a universal metric way, i.e. they can not be removed from the matter sector by a Weyl rescaling of the metric. This feature could make the minimal supersymmetric extension of the BD idea phenomenologically inconsistent. (orig.)

  18. On Stationary Axially Symmetric Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kirezli, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Stationary axially symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell solutions are re-examined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory. We see that, employing a particular parametrization of the standard axially symmetric metric simplifies the procedure of obtaining the Ernst equations for axially symmetric electro-vacuum space-times for this theory. This analysis also permit us to construct a two parameter extension in both Jordan and Einstein frames of an old solution generating technique frequently used to construct axially symmetric solutions for Brans-Dicke theory from a seed solution of General Relativity. As applications of this technique, several known and new solutions are constructed including a general axially symmetric BD-Maxwell solution of Plebanski-Demianski with vanishing cosmological constant, i.e. the Kinnersley solution and general magnetized Kerr-Newman type solutions. Some physical properties and circular motion of test particles for a particular subclass of Kinnersley solution, i.e. Kerr-Newman-NUT type ...

  19. New views on classical and quantum Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, Júlio C; Rodrigues, Davi C; Almeida, Carla R; Piattella, Oliver F

    2016-01-01

    The Brans-Dicke action is one of the most natural extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action. It is based on the introduction of a fundamental scalar field that effectively incorporates a dynamics to the gravitational coupling $G$. In spite of the diverse motivations and the rich phenomenology that comes from its solutions, Solar System tests impose strong constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory, rendering it indistinguishable from General Relativity. In the present text, new perspectives for the Brans-Dicke theory are presented, based on the possibility that the scalar field presented in the BD theory can be external, as well as on the applications to black hole physics and the primordial universe.

  20. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Kourosh Dalvandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitionin vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activityin vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis ratein vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  1. Holographic Principle of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Y; Chen, Chi-Yi; Shen, You-Gen

    2003-01-01

    We consider the general situation of type-I stationary solutions of black holes in Brans-Dicke theory and investigate their statistical entropies by using the brick wall model. Compare with a generalized entropy formula derived from their thermodynamical evolution by Kang, We get the ultimate scenario of black holes entropies in Brans-Dicke theory. For further considering the bound of holographic principle, we obtain a new constraint on parameters in this type solution read as $2Q-\\chi=2$, which corresponds to $\\omega=-{3/2}$.

  2. Inflation and dark energy from the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian UniversityŁojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsawul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Brans-Dicke theory motivated by the f(R)=R+αR{sup n}−βR{sup 2−n} model to obtain a stable minimum of the Einstein frame scalar potential of the Brans-Dicke field. As a result we have obtained an inflationary scalar potential with non-zero value of residual vacuum energy, which may be a source of dark energy. In addition we discuss the probability of quantum tunnelling from the minimum of the potential. Our results can be easily consistent with PLANCK or BICEP2 data for appropriate choices of the value of n and ω.

  3. Extracellular protease derived from lactic acid bacteria stimulates the fermentative lactic acid production from the by-products of rice as a biomass refinery function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanori; Techapun, Charin; Kuntiya, Ampin; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Takenaka, Shinji; Maeda, Isamu; Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-02-01

    A lactic acid producing bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, newly isolated from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. This strain has the ability to utilize the non-sterilized rice washing drainage and rice bran as a source of carbohydrate, saccharifying enzymes and nutrients for lactic acid production. Observation of extracellular protease activity in SSF culture broth showed that a higher protease activity was present in strain M-23 than in other isolated lactic acid producing bacteria (LABs). To investigate the structural changes of solid particles of rice washing drainage throughout LAB cultivation, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed. The results of the SEM observation showed that the surface material could be removed from solid particles of rice washing drainage treated by culture broth (supernatant) of strain M-23, thus exposing the crystal structure of the starch particle surface. The results of the FT-IR analysis revealed that the specific transmittance decrease of the CC and CO stretching and OH group of the solid particles of the rice washing drainage were highly correlated with the produced lactic acid concentration and extracellular protease activity, respectively. These results demonstrate the high lactic acid producing ability of strain M-23 from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran under the SSF condition due to the removal of proteinaceous material and exposure of the starch particle surface by extracellular protease.

  4. Enhancing antioxidant activity and antiproliferation of wheat bran through steam flash explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Zhang, Ruiting; Liu, Chong; Zheng, Xueling; Liu, Benguo

    2016-07-01

    The effect of steam flash explosion (SFE), a green processing technology, on the phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antiproliferation to HepG2 of wheat bran was investigated. Moderate SFE treatment significantly enhanced the total soluble phenolic content of wheat bran. After SFE pretreatment, the free and conjugated ferulic acid content in the wheat bran were significantly increased. Antioxidant activities of SFE treated wheat bran were higher than those untreated wheat bran. The cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of SFE treated wheat bran were also significantly ameliorated. It was suggested that SFE pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities of wheat bran.

  5. Distribution and translocation of selenium from soil to grain and its speciation in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Liu, Xiao; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2010-09-01

    Selenium, an essential micronutrient for humans, is insufficient in dietary intake for millions of people worldwide. Rice as the most popular staple food in the world is one of the dominant selenium (Se) sources for people. The distribution and translocation of Se from soil to grain were investigated in a Se-rich environment in this study. The Se levels in soils ranged widely from 0.5 to 47.7 mg kg(-1). Selenium concentration in rice bran was 1.94 times higher than that in corresponding polished rice. The total Se concentrations in the rice fractions were in the following order: straw>bran>whole grain>polished rice>husk. Significant linear relationships between different rice fractions were observed with each other, and Se in the soil has a linear relationship with different rice fractions as well. Se concentration in rice can easily be predicted by soil Se concentrations or any rice fractions and vice versa according to their linear relationships. In all rice samples for Se speciation, SeMet was the major Se species, followed by MeSeCys and SeCys. The average percentage for SeMet (82.9%) and MeSeCys (6.2%) was similar in the range of total Se from 2.2 to 8.4 mg kg(-1) tested. The percentage of SeCys decreased from 6.3 to 2.8%, although its concentration elevated with the increase in total Se in rice. This could be due to the fact that SeCys is the precursor for the formation of other organic Se compounds. The information obtained may have considerable significance for assessing translocation and accumulation of Se in plant.

  6. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  7. Vacuum less global monopole in Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, F; Kalam, M; Mukherjee, R; Roy, T

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the gravitational field of a vacuum less global monopole has been investigated in Brans-Dicke theory under weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that the vacuum less global monopole exerts attractive gravitational effects on a test particle. It is dissimilar to the case studied in general relativity.

  8. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  9. Cosmological Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in Brans-Dicke theory, and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find their exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  10. Evolution of Black Holes in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a modified ``Swiss cheese'' model in the Brans-Dicke theory, and discuss the evolution of black holes in the expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the time evolution for dust and vacuum universes.

  11. Cosmological evolution of black holes in Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuyuki; Barrow, John D.

    2001-11-01

    We consider a modified 'Swiss cheese' model in the Brans-Dicke theory and use it to discuss the evolution of black holes in an expanding universe. We define the black hole radius by the Misner-Sharp mass and find the exact time evolutions for dust and vacuum universes of all curvatures.

  12. Static Generalized Brans-Dicke Universe and Gravitational Waves Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We find a static solution for the scale-factor in a Brans-Dicke generalized theory where the scalar field and the coupling constant vary with time. We find also that in the early Universe there may be amplification of gravitational waves.

  13. Inflationary Phase in a Generalized Brans-Dicke Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2009-07-01

    We find a solution for exponential inflation in a Brans-Dicke generalized model, where the coupling “constant” is variable. While in General Relativity the equation of state is p=- ρ, here we find p= α ρ, where α<-2/3. The negativity of cosmic pressure implies acceleration of the expansion, even with Λ<0.

  14. General class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    Recently, traversable wormhole geometries were constructed in the context of f(R) gravity. The latter is equivalent to a Brans-Dicke theory with a coupling parameter w=0, which is apparently excluded from the narrow interval, -3/2Brans-Dicke theory. However, this latter interval is only valid for a specific choice of an integration constant of the field equations derived on the basis of a post-Newtonian weak field approximation, and there is no reason for it to hold in the presence of compact objects with strong gravitational fields. In this context, we construct a general class of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormholes that include the value of w=0. Furthermore, we present the general condition for the existence of vacuum Brans-Dicke wormhole geometries, and show that the presence of effective negative energy densities is a generic feature of these vacuum solutions.

  15. Bran as a source of dietary fiber in oatmeal cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vratanina, D; Zabik, M E

    1980-07-01

    A panel of 1,542 Michigan consumers found oatmeal cookies in which 50 per cent of the flour was replaced with ground red or white wheat bran and a control cookie similarly acceptable. Cookie buying habits, consumer awareness of dietary fiber, and their methods of increasing it were cross-tabulated with demographic data.

  16. Coadministration of Resveratrol and Rice Oil Mitigates Nociception and Oxidative State in a Mouse Fibromyalgia-Like Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Peres Klein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM is not fully understood. Oxidative stress has emerged as pathophysiological event occurring during the development of the disease. The present study aimed at investigating the efficacy of resveratrol associated with rice bran oil on fibromyalgia-like mice model. Subcutaneous injection of reserpine (0.25 mg/Kg during 3 days produced fibromyalgia-like symptoms. Resveratrol and/or rice oil or pregabalin were administered through oral route in therapeutic (single dose and preventive (four doses schemes. In both schemes, treatment with resveratrol associated with rice bran oil and pregabalin significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. The preventive scheme displayed antidepressant effect which was demonstrated by the forced swimming test as well as reduced reactive species in the cerebrospinal fluid of reserpinized animals. Taken together, our data provide evidences that the intake of resveratrol associated with rice bran oil plays antinociceptive and antidepressant actions probably through reducing reactive species and suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in this model of FM as possible underlying mechanism of pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Coadministration of Resveratrol and Rice Oil Mitigates Nociception and Oxidative State in a Mouse Fibromyalgia-Like Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Klein, Caroline; Rodrigues Cintra, Marcos; Binda, Nancy; Montijo Diniz, Danuza; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius; Souto, Andre Arigony; de Souza, Alessandra Hubner

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM) is not fully understood. Oxidative stress has emerged as pathophysiological event occurring during the development of the disease. The present study aimed at investigating the efficacy of resveratrol associated with rice bran oil on fibromyalgia-like mice model. Subcutaneous injection of reserpine (0.25 mg/Kg) during 3 days produced fibromyalgia-like symptoms. Resveratrol and/or rice oil or pregabalin were administered through oral route in therapeutic (single dose) and preventive (four doses) schemes. In both schemes, treatment with resveratrol associated with rice bran oil and pregabalin significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. The preventive scheme displayed antidepressant effect which was demonstrated by the forced swimming test as well as reduced reactive species in the cerebrospinal fluid of reserpinized animals. Taken together, our data provide evidences that the intake of resveratrol associated with rice bran oil plays antinociceptive and antidepressant actions probably through reducing reactive species and suggests the involvement of oxidative stress in this model of FM as possible underlying mechanism of pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27069683

  18. Comparative evaluation of chemical and enzymatic saccharification of mixotrophically grown de-oiled microalgal biomass for reducing sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Bachani, Pooja; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-03-01

    For the commercialization of microalgal based biofuels, utilization of de-oiled carbohydrate rich biomass is important. In the present study, chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of mixotrophically grown Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 de-oiled biomass is evaluated. Among the chemical hydrolysis, use of 0.5M HCl for 45 min at 121°C resulted in highest saccharification yield of 37.87% w/w of de-oiled biomass. However, enzymatic hydrolysis using Viscozyme L at loading rate of 20 FBGU/g of de-oiled biomass, pH 5.5 and temperature 45°C for 72 h resulted in saccharification yield of 43.44% w/w of de-oiled biomass. Further, 78% ethanol production efficiency was achieved with enzymatically hydrolyzed de-oiled biomass using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 6793. These findings of the present study show application of mixotrophically grown de-oiled biomass of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as promising feedstock for bioethanol production.

  19. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  20. Efficiency of Barley Bran and Oat Bran in Ameliorating Blood Lipid Profile and the Adverse Histological Changes in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of oat bran and barley bran in lowering the induced hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in blood of male Albino rats (Rattus rattus was studied. Twenty rats were divided into four groups each consisted of five rats and fed the specified test diets for eight weeks. The first group (G1 is the negative group which was fed basal diet, the second group (G2 was fed 1.0% cholesterol, was the third group (G3 fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% oats bran, and the fourth group (G4 was fed 1.0% cholesterol and 10% barley bran. Feeding rats on 1% cholesterol significantly increased serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride and decreased serum high density lipoprotein. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase was increased, and lipid peroxide was increased, whereas catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased. Kidney functions parameters in the cholesterol supplemented group were elevated compared with the negative control. In addition, histological alteration in kidney, liver, heart, and testes was observed, compared with the negative control. Hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with oat bran and barley bran showed significant decrease in lipid parameters, significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, improved antioxidant enzyme, and improved histopathology of kidney, liver, heart, and testes. In conclusion, both oat bran and barley bran had protective effects against induced hyperlipidemia and improved histological alterations. Oat bran appeared more efficient than barley bran in lowering the lipid profile levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  1. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  2. Brans-Dicke theory of gravity with torsion: A possible solution of $\\omega$-problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yu-Huei

    2012-01-01

    We study Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in Riemann-Cartan space-times, and obtain general torsion solutions, which are completely determined by Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\Phi$, in the false vacuum energy dominated epoch. The substitution of the torsion solutions back to our action gives the original Brans-Dicke action with $\\Phi$-dependent Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega(\\Phi)$. The evolution of $\\omega(\\Phi)$ during inflation is studied and it yields that $\\omega$ approaches to infinity at the end of inflation. It may solve the $\\omega$-problem in the extended inflation model.

  3. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100..mu..Ci of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium.

  4. Antigravity in F( R) and Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.

    2014-12-01

    We study antigravity in F( R)-theory originating scalar-tensor theories and also in Brans-Dicke models without cosmological constant. For the F( R) theory case, we obtain the Jordan frame antigravity scalar-tensor theory by using a variant of the Lagrange multipliers method and we numerically study the time dependent effective gravitational constant. As we shall demonstrate in detail by using some viable F( R) models, although the initial F( R) models have no antigravity, their scalar-tensor counterpart theories might or not have antigravity, a fact mainly depending on the parameter that characterizes antigravity. Similar results hold true in the Brans-Dicke model, which we also studied numerically. In addition, regarding the Brans-Dicke model we also found some analytic cosmological solutions. Since antigravity is an unwanted feature in gravitational theories, our findings suggest that in the case of F( R) theories, antigravity does not occur in the real world described by the F( R) theory, but might occur in the Jordan frame scalar-tensor counterpart of the F( R) theory, and this happens under certain circumstances. The central goal of our study is to present all different cases in which antigravity might occur in modified gravity models.

  5. Exact Cosmological Solutions in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rasouli, S M M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain exact cosmological vacuum solutions for an extended FLRW homogenous and isotropic Brans-Dicke (BD) universe in five dimensions for all values of the curvature index. Then, by employing the equations associated to a modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT) [1], we construct the physics on a four-dimensional hypersurface. We show that the induced matter obeys the equation of state of a fluid of a barotropic type. We discuss the properties of such an induced matter for some values of the equation of state parameter and analyze in detail their corresponding solutions. To illustrate the cosmological behaviors of the solutions, we contrast our solutions with those present the standard Brans-Dicke theory. We retrieve that, in MBDT scenario, it is impossible to find a physically acceptable solution associated to the negative curvature for both the dust-dominated and radiation-dominated universes. However, for a spatially flat and closed universes, we argue that our obtained solutions are more gener...

  6. Brans-Dicke Galileon and the Variational Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quiros, Israel; Gonzalez, Tame; Horta-Rangel, F Antonio; Saavedra, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed at a (mostly) pedagogical exposition of the derivation of the motion equations of certain modifications of general relativity. Here we derive in all detail the motion equations in the Brans-Dicke theory with the cubic self-interaction. This is a modification of the Brans-dicke theory by the addition of a term in the Lagrangian which is non-linear in the derivatives of the scalar field: it contains second-order derivatives. This is the basis of the so-called Brans-Dicke Galileon. We pay special attention to the variational principle and to the algebraic details of the derivation. It is shown how higher order derivatives of the fields appearing in the intermediate computations cancel out leading to second order motion equations. The reader will find useful tips for the derivation of the field equations of modifications of general relativity such as the scalar-tensor theories and $f(R)$ theories, by means of the (stationary action) variational principle. The content of this paper is specially...

  7. Speciation and distribution of arsenic and localization of nutrients in rice grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Scheckel, K.G.; Pallon, J.; Carey, A.M.; Zhu, Y.G.; Meharg, A.A. (EPA); (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Lund); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-09-05

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains because these are key factors controlling bioavailability of nutrients and contaminants. Bulk total and speciation analyses using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was complemented by spatially resolved microspectroscopic techniques ({mu}-XANES, {mu}-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)) to investigate both speciation and distribution of As and localization of nutrients in situ. The distribution of As and micronutrients varied between the various parts of the grains (husk, bran and endosperm) and was characterized by element-specific distribution patterns. The speciation of As in bran and endosperm was dominated by As(III)-thiol complexes. The results indicate that the translocation from the maternal to filial tissues may be a bottleneck for As accumulation in the grain. Strong similarities between the distribution of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P) and between zinc (Zn) and sulphur (S) may be indicative of complexation mechanisms in rice grains.

  8. Challenges in Modelling and Control of Offshore De-oiling Hydrocyclone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdevic, Petar; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Offshore de-oiling installations are facing an increasing challenge with regards to removing oil residuals from produced water prior to discharge into the ocean. The de-oiling of produced water is initially achieved in the primary separation processes using gravity-based multi-phase separators, which can effectively handle large amounts of oil-well fluids but may struggle with the efficient separation of small dispersed oil particles. Thereby hydrocyclone systems are commonly employed in the downstream Produced Water Treatment (PWT) process for further reducing the oil concentration in the produced water before it can be discharged into the ocean. The popularity of hydrocyclone technology in the offshore oil and gas industry is mainly due to its rugged design and low maintenance requirements. However, to operate and control this type of system in an efficient way is far less simple, and alternatively this task imposes a number of key control challenges. Specifically, there is much research to be performed in the direction of dynamic modelling and control of de-oiling hydrocyclone systems. The current solutions rely heavily on empirical trial-and-error approaches. This paper gives a brief review of current hydrocyclone control solutions and the remaining challenges and includes some of our recent work in this topic and ends with a motivation for future work.

  9. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  10. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  11. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality - Evidence for fibre-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Haaster, D. van; Hemery, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions wer

  12. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  13. Role of the Brans-Dicke scalar in the holographic description of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H L; Myung, Y S; Kim, Hungsoo

    2005-01-01

    We study cosmological application of the holographic energy density in the Brans-Dicke theory. Considering the holographic energy density as a dynamical cosmological constant, it is more natural to study it in the Brans-Dicke theory than in general relativity. Solving the Friedmann and Brans-Dicke field equations numerically, we clarify the role of Brans-Dicke field during evolution of the universe. When the Hubble horizon is taken as the IR cutoff, the equation of state ($w_{\\Lmd}$) for the holographic energy density is determined to be 5/3 when the Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omg$ goes infinity. This means that the Brans-Dicke field plays a crucial role in determining the equation of state. For the particle horizon IR cutoff, the Brans-Dicke scalar mediates a transition from $w_{\\Lmd} = -1/3$ (past) to $w_{\\Lmd} = 1/3$ (future). If a dust matter is present, it determines future equation of state. In the case of future event horizon cutoff, the role of the Brans-Dicke scalar and dust matter are turned out to be ...

  14. Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, D D; Franz, P M

    1990-11-01

    High concentrations of colonic bile acids may promote tumor formation. Some studies have found that high levels of dietary fat increase fecal bile acid excretion, whereas others report no effect. Wheat bran appears to reduce fecal bile acid concentration. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary fat levels and types of wheat bran on bile acid metabolism. Rats were fed diets containing either no fiber, 2% cholestyramine (CHO) or brans of hard red spring, soft white winter or durum wheat--at both a 5 or 20% fat level. Animals were fed for 7 wk, and feces were collected in the last week. Wheat bran (all types) significantly increased fecal mass approximately fourfold, and CHO significantly increased fecal mass twofold compared to the fiber-free diet. Increasing the fat level did not increase fecal bile acid excretion, nor did the addition of wheat bran. Addition of CHO, however, more than doubled it. CHO increased fecal bile acid concentration, all wheat brans decreased it and fat level had no effect. Bile acid pool size was increased slightly by fat level and cholestyramine feeding but not by wheat brans. These results indicate that fat level slightly alters bile acid metabolism but that wheat brans do not.

  15. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...... variation in the chemical composition of industrially produced rye brans calls for the need of standardisation of this commodity, especially when used as a functional ingredient in foods....

  16. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  17. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  18. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Protein Modification and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arte, Elisa; Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana

    2015-10-07

    Besides providing dietary fiber, wheat bran is a recognized source of protein and is considered a very valuable substitute for other protein-rich sources in the food and feed industry. Nonetheless, several factors affect protein bioavailability, including bran's layered structure. This study showed the influence on the release and protein modification of wheat bran of different bioprocessing methods involving the activation of endogenous enzymes of bran, the addition of an enzyme mixture having carbohydrase activity, and microbial fermentation. Bioprocessing in acidic conditions significantly enhanced the solubilization of protein from wheat bran, reaching the highest value in the treatment where the sole endogenous protease activity was activated. Bioprocessing through controlled fermentation allowed a more intense proteolysis and strongly impacted the in vitro digestibility of proteins. The combined use of starter cultures and cell-wall-degrading enzymes was characterized by the highest increase of phytase activity and total phenols.

  20. TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLES IN BRANS-DICKE AND f(R) GRAVITATIONAL THEORIES%Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论中的可穿越虫洞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕璐峰; 刘文彪

    2012-01-01

    Brans-Dicke理论和f(R)理论均为不同于Einstein广义相对论的修正引力理论,并且在Brans-Dicke理论参数ω=0时能够回到f(R)理论.人们在Brans-Dicke理论框架下研究得出只有-3/2〈ω〈-4/3才存在可穿越虫洞,ω=0时没有;然而,f(R)理论中已经证明确实也存在可穿越虫洞.为了解决上述所谓的矛盾,有文献修改了Brans-Dicke理论中的某些函数,从而改变ω的取值范围.仔细分析发现,文献中探讨的是对应不同Φ(r),b(r)的可穿越虫洞,自然会给出不一致的结论.本文对2种修正引力理论中的可穿越虫洞问题进行了澄清,明确了各自虫洞解的讨论前提条件.%Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory are two types of modified gravitational theories.Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 is consistent with f(R) theory.Due to the traversable wormhole solution,Brans-Dicke theory under ω=0 should also be consistent with f(R) theory.However,the traversable wormhole solution in Brans-Dicke theory is limited under-3/2〈ω〈-4/3,excluding ω=0.Meanwhile,a traversable wormhole solution is given in f(R) theory.The C(ω) function in Brans-Dicke wormhole solution has been modified to extend the range of ω to 0.In fact,the traversable wormholes in Brans-Dicke theory and f(R) theory correspond to different functions of Φ(r) and b(r).It is not necessary to modify the range of ω in Brans-Dicke solutions.

  1. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak; Panchal, Shital S

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to...

  2. Comparative study on conventional, ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction of γ-oryzanol from rice bran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pramod; Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Pradyuman; Panesar, Paramjeet Singh; Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Mishra, Diwaker; Chopra, H K

    2016-01-01

    In present study, conventional, ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction methods were compared with the aim of optimizing best fitting solvent and method, solvent concentration and digestion time for high yield of γ...

  3. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  4. Stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the cylindrically symmetric stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity. For this purpose, we construct polytropic filamentary models through a generalized Lane-Emden equation in the Newtonian regime. The resulting models depend upon the values of the cosmological constant (due to the scalar field) along with the polytropic index and represent a generalization of the corresponding models in general relativity. We also investigate the fragmentation of the filaments by exploring the radial oscillations through a stability analysis. This stability criterion depends only upon the adiabatic index. (orig.)

  5. Brans-Dicke corrections to the gravitational Sagnac effect

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, K K; Evans, J C; Nayak, T B

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the Brans-Dicke scalar field on the gravitational corrections to the Sagnac effect has been computed for the first time in the Jordan and Einstein frames. The calculations suggest the possibility that the presence of the scalar field can be detected directly from the basic Sagnac effect in the case of geodesic motions. A second order correction of roughly 0.1 fringe shift for visible light is introduced by the scalar field in the case of polar orbits of the source/observer. It is also demonstrated how the final results in the two frames differ.

  6. Cosmic Wave Functions with the Brans-Dicke Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zong-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Using the standard Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, the Wheeler-De Witt equation for the Brans-Dicke theory is solved under three kinds of boundary conditions (proposed by Hattie-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde, respectively). It is found that, although the gravitational and cosmological"constants" are dynamical and timedependent in the classical models, they will acquire constant values when the universe comes from the quantum creation, and that in particular, the amplitude of the resulting wave function under Linde or Vilenkin boundary conditions reaches its maximum if the cosmological constant is the minimum.

  7. Massive motion in Brans-Dicke geometry and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R

    2009-01-01

    Gravity theories that can be viewed as dynamics for area metric manifolds, for which Brans-Dicke theory presents a recently studied example, require for their physical interpretation the identification of the distinguished curves that serve as the trajectories of light and massive matter. Complementing previous results on the propagation of light, we study effective massive point particle motion. We show that the relevant geometrical structure is a special Finsler norm determined by the area metric, and that massive point particles follow Finsler geodesics.

  8. Stellar Filaments in Self-Interacting Brans-Dicke Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study cylindrically symmetric stellar filaments in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity. For this purpose, we construct polytropic filamentary models through generalized Lane-Emden equation in Newtonian regime. The resulting models depend upon the values of cosmological constant (due to scalar field) along with polytropic index and represent a generalization of the corresponding models in general relativity. We also investigate fragmentation of filaments by exploring the radial oscillations through stability analysis. This stability criteria depends only upon the adiabatic index.

  9. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  10. A Nonsingular Brans Wormhole: An Analogue to Naked Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Laserra, Ettore; Nandi, Kamal K

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, we showed the Jordan frame vacuum Brans Class I solution provided a wormhole analogue to Horowitz-Ross naked black hole in the wormhole range -3/2<{\\omega}<-4/3. Thereafter, the solution has been criticized by some authors that, because of the presence of singularity in that solution within this range, a wormhole interpretation of it is untenable. While the criticism is correct, we show here that (i) a singularity-free wormhole can actually be obtained from Class I solution by performing a kind of Wick rotation on it, resulting into what Brans listed as his independent Class II solution (ii) the Class II solution has all the necessary properties of a regular wormhole in a revised range -2<{\\omega}<-3/2 and finally, (iii) naked black holes, as described by Horowitz and Ross, are spacetimes where the tidal forces attain their maxima above the black hole horizon. We show that in the non-singular Class II spacetime this maxima is attained above the throat and thus can be treated as ...

  11. Nucleation of vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Young Jae; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study nucleation of vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke type theory of gravity. In the Euclidean signatures, we calculate field combinations of vacuum bubbles as solutions of Einstein and field equations as well as their probabilities by integrating the Euclidean action. We illustrate three possible ways to obtain vacuum bubbles: true vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ > -3/2, false vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ -3/2 when the vacuum energy of the false vacuum in the potential of the Einstein frame is less than that of the true vacuum. After the bubble is nucleated at the t = 0 surface, we can smoothly connect and match the field combinations to some solutions of the Lorentzian signatures and consistently continue their subsequent evolutions. Therefore, we conclude that, in general scalar-tensor theories or Brans-Dicke type theories, which include some models of string theory, vacuum bubbles are allowed not only in the form of true vacuum bubbles but also false vacuum bubbles, as long as a special cond...

  12. On the action of the complete Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofinas, Georgios [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsoukalas, Minas [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece)

    2016-12-15

    Recently the most general completion of Brans-Dicke theory has appeared with energy exchanged between the scalar field and ordinary matter, given that the equation of motion for the scalar field keeps the simple wave form of Brans-Dicke. This class of theories contain undetermined functions, but there exist only three theories which are unambiguously determined from consistency. Here, for the first such theory, the action of the vacuum theory is found, which arises as the limit of the full matter theory. A symmetry transformation of this vacuum action in the Jordan frame is found which consists of a conformal transformation of the metric together with a redefinition of the scalar field. Since the general family of vacuum theories is parametrized by an arbitrary function of the scalar field, the action of this family is also found. As for the full theory with matter the action of the system is only found when the matter Lagrangian vanishes on-shell, as for example for pressureless dust. Due to the interaction, the matter Lagrangian is non-minimally coupled either in the Jordan or the Einstein frame. (orig.)

  13. Anisotropic Cosmological Model in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rasouli, S M M; Sepangi, Hamid R

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that four dimensional Brans-Dicke theory with effective matter field and self interacting potential can be achieved from vacuum 5D BD field equations, where we refer to as modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT). We investigate a generalized Bianchi type I anisotropic cosmology in 5D BD theory, and by employing obtained formalism, we derive induced-matter on any 4D hypersurface in context of the MBDT. We illustrate that if the usual spatial scale factors are functions of time while scale factor of extra dimension is constant, and scalar field depends on time and fifth coordinate, then in general, one will encounter inconsistencies in field equations. Then, we assume the scale factors and scalar field depend on time and extra coordinate as separated variables in power law forms. Hence, we find a few classes of solutions in 5D spacetime through which, we probe the one which leads to a generalized Kasner relations among Kasner parameters. The induced scalar potential is found to be in power law or i...

  14. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  15. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations.

  16. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  17. Reduced particle size wheat bran is butyrogenic and lowers Salmonella colonization, when added to poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, K; Verspreet, J; Courtin, C M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2017-01-01

    Feed additives, including prebiotics, are commonly used alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters to improve gut health and performance in broilers. Wheat bran is a highly concentrated source of (in)soluble fiber which is partly degraded by the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of wheat bran as such to reduce colonization of the cecum and shedding of Salmonella bacteria in vivo. Also, the effect of particle size was evaluated. Bran with an average reduced particle size of 280μm decreased levels of cecal Salmonella colonization and shedding shortly after infection when compared to control groups and groups receiving bran with larger particle sizes. In vitro fermentation experiments revealed that bran with smaller particle size was fermented more efficiently, with a significantly higher production of butyric and propionic acid, compared to the control fermentation and fermentation of a larger fraction. Fermentation products derived from bran with an average particle size of 280μm downregulated the expression of hilA, an important invasion-related gene of Salmonella. This downregulation was reflected in an actual lowered invasive potential when Salmonella bacteria were pretreated with the fermentation products derived from the smaller bran fraction. These data suggest that wheat bran with reduced particle size can be a suitable feed additive to help control Salmonella infections in broilers. The mechanism of action most probably relies on a more efficient fermentation of this bran fraction and the consequent increased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Among these SCFA, butyric and propionic acid are known to reduce the invasion potential of Salmonella bacteria.

  18. Research of Dislodgment of Ferric Ion Using Modified Rice Husk%改性米糠去除铁离子的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惟喜

    2012-01-01

    Using Rice bran as a raw material, after 30rain treatment of a 5% potassium hydroxide solution to boil soak, it becomes a pH≤3.3, the surface area 13m2 / g, the macropore volume of 35.5 ml / g silica precipitation adsorbent i.e. modified rice bran. This paper studied the best condition of using this modified rice bran to remove iron ion in the recovered phosphoric acid solution. Experiment result showed that at room temperature, 3g of the modified rice bran contacted with the iron ions in the phosphoric liquid 24h, filtered, then the purpose of the removal of iron is achieved, the efficiency of this method is up to 90%.This method is a worthy application technology.%以米糠为原料,用5%氢氧化钾液煮沸浸泡30min处理后,形成pH小于3.3,比表面积13m2/g,大孔体积35.5mL/g二氧化硅沉淀吸附剂即改性米糠。本文研究了利用该改性米糠去除回收磷酸液中铁离子的最佳条件。实验结果表明:在常温下,改性米糠3g与磷酸液中的铁离子接触24h,过滤,即可达到除铁的目的,用此法除铁离子效果可达90%,是一种值得推广的应用技术。

  19. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  20. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  1. Cosmological implications of a supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2007-09-15

    In the Brans-Dicke theory the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical scalar field. We consider here the supersymmetric analogous of this mechanism replacing in the supergravity Lagrangian the Planck mass with a chiral superfield. This analysis is motivated by the research of possible connections between supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios and Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories. We find that, contrary to the original Brans-Dicke theory, in its supersymmetric analogous the gravitational sector does not couple to the matter sector in a universal metric way. As a result, violations of the weak equivalence principle could be present in such a scenario. (orig.)

  2. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blecker, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focuses on ferulic acid, a major example of the hydroxycinnamic acids. These phenolic compounds show excellent antioxidant ability, and are found in relative abundance in cereal bran (about 6.6 mg.g-1, dry basis, in wheat bran. Ferulic acid (along with other hydroxycinnamic acids is in majority (usually about 80% ester-linked to other constitutive elements of the cell wall, namely arabinoxylans. Its enzymatic release depends mainly on the breaking of its ester linkage by Ferulic Acid Esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, which works in synergy with arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes (hemicellulase, including xylanase. Cellulase and even protease may also help by "unweaving" further the complex, cross-linked structure of bran cell-wall. The aim of our project is to design a process, starting from raw wheat bran to obtain purified ferulic acid, either crystallized or in concentrated solution. Furthermore, this process should be feasible at pilot scale, as it is meant to commercial application. Bran pre-treatment may impact the efficiency of the enzymatic action, by facilitating the access of the enzymes to their substrate (grinding, micronisation, or by modifying cell-wall structure (extrusion, steam-explosion, etc. processes involving non-enzymatic hydrolysis. The composition of the bran may also be altered, for instance by destarching, but also by pearling, this process being able to separate richer layers within the bran. Simpler process, like fine sieving of ground bran, is

  3. New Black Hole Solutions in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H

    1999-01-01

    Existence check of non-trivial, stationary axisymmetric black hole solutions in Brans-Dicke theory of gravity in different direction from those of Penrose, Thorne and Dykla, and Hawking is performed. Namely, working directly with the known explicit spacetime solutions in Brans-Dicke theory, it is found that non-trivial Kerr-Newman-type black hole solutions different from general relativistic solutions could occur for the generic Brans-Dicke parameter values -5/2\\leq ømega <-3/2. Finally, issues like whether these black holes can really arise in nature are discussed carefully.

  4. Elephant grass ensiled with wheat bran compared with corn silage in diets for lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Jacianelly Karla da Silva; Juliana Silva Oliveira; Ariosvalo Nunes de Medeiros; Edson Mauro Santos; Tamires da Silva Magalhães; Alenice Ozino Ramos; Higor Fábio Carvalho Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of wheat bran as an additive in elephant-grass silage on intake and digestibility of the nutrients, ingestive behavior, and yield and chemical composition of milk. Eight goats with 45 days of lactation were distributed in a (4 × 4) Latin square design.The treatments consisted of corn silage (CS), elephant-grass silage without wheat bran (EGS), elephant-grass silage with 10% wheat bran (EGS+10%WB), and elephant-grass silage with 20% wheat bra...

  5. Generalized Sparling-Thirring form in the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykal, Ahmet [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bor Yolu, Nigde (Turkey); Delice, Oezguer [Marmara University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    The definition of the Sparling-Thirring form is extended to Brans-Dicke theory. By writing the Brans-Dicke field equations in a formally Maxwell-like form, a superpotential and a corresponding pseudo-energy-momentum form are defined. The general energy expression provided by the superpotential in the Jordan frame is discussed in relation to the corresponding expression in the Einstein frame. In order to substantiate its formal definition, the generalized Sparling-Thirring form is used to calculate the energy for the spherically symmetric vacuum solution in Brans-Dicke theory. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of de-oiling from coal water%剩余氨水除油工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2016-01-01

    陶瓷膜过滤器在运行过程中由于滤芯堵塞、反冲洗系统故障等原因,除油效率低。采用射流气浮除油工艺和强化静置沉降等措施,提高了除油效率,达到了除油目的。%The de-oiling efficiency of ceramic membrane filter is low due to blockage of strainer core and failure of back flushing system during operation .By adopting of jet flotation de-oiling process and strengthening of settling ,de-oiling efficiency is improved .

  7. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibition in vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activity in vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis rate in vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P < 0.05 and dose dependent methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition [IC50: (174.77 ± 6.65 to (342.87 ± 0.43 µg/mL] and acetyl [(IC50: (37.00 ± 0.68 to (291.00 ± 3.54 µg/mL] and butyryl-cholinesterase [IC50: (18.50 ± 0.60 to (96.60 ± 0.56 µg/mL] inhibitory activities. Further, Sudu Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee had low starch digestion rate (52.40 ± 1.44 to 53.76 ± 1.19 indicating that these varieties may be low glycemic index rices. Brans of Masuran tested in rat model showed anti-hyperglycemic activity. Physicochemical properties studied showed that selected varieties were red in color and grain size and shape were mostly medium and bold respectively. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash and total carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the varieties. Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Rice Price under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  9. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  10. Little White Lies: Pericarp Color Provides Insights into the Origins and Evolution of Southeast Asian Weedy Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxia Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here, we examined variation in pericarp (bran color and its molecular basis to address how this trait evolved in Malaysian weeds and its possible role in weed adaptation. Functional alleles of the Rc gene confer proanthocyanidin pigmentation of the pericarp, a trait found in most wild and weedy Oryzas and associated with seed dormancy; nonfunctional rc alleles were strongly favored during rice domestication, and most cultivated varieties have nonpigmented pericarps. Phenotypic characterizations of 52 Malaysian weeds revealed that most strains are characterized by the pigmented pericarp; however, some weeds have white pericarps, suggesting close relationships to cultivated rice. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Rc haplotypes present in Malaysian weeds likely have at least three distinct origins: wild O. rufipogon, white-pericarp cultivated rice, and red-pericarp cultivated rice. These diverse origins contribute to high Rc nucleotide diversity in the Malaysian weeds. Comparison of Rc allelic distributions with other rice domestication genes suggests that functional Rc alleles may confer particular fitness benefits in weedy rice populations, for example, by conferring seed dormancy. This may promote functional Rc introgression from local wild Oryza populations.

  11. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  12. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  13. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  14. Overexpression of Thiamin Biosynthesis Genes in Rice Increases Leaf and Unpolished Grain Thiamin Content But Not Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Thomas, Nicholas; Ronald, Pamela C.; Goyer, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), also known as vitamin B1, serves as an enzymatic cofactor in glucose metabolism, the Krebs cycle, and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in all living organisms. Unlike plants and microorganisms, humans are not able to synthesize ThDP de novo and must obtain it from their diet. Staple crops such as rice are poor sources of thiamin. Hence, populations that mainly consume rice commonly suffer thiamin deficiency. In addition to thiamin’s nutritional function, studies in rice have shown that some thiamin biosynthesis genes are involved in resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes a serious disease in rice fields. This study shows that overexpression of two thiamin biosynthesis genes, 4-methyl-5-β-hydroxyethylthiazole phosphate synthase and 4-amino-2-methyl-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate synthase, involved in the first steps of the thiazole and pyrimidine synthesis branches, respectively, increased thiamin content up to fivefold in unpolished seeds that retain the bran. However, thiamin levels in polished seeds with removed bran were similar to those found in polished control seeds. Plants with higher accumulation of thiamin did not show enhanced resistance to X. oryzae. These results indicate that stacking of two traits can enhance thiamin accumulation in rice unpolished grain. We discuss potential roadblocks that prevent thiamin accumulation in the endosperm. PMID:27242822

  15. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  16. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  17. Can Brans-Dicke Scalar Field Account for Dark Energy and Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Çalik, M. C.

    By using a linearized non-vacuum late time solution in Brans-Dicke cosmology, we account for the 75% dark energy contribution but not for approximately 23% dark matter contribution to the present day energy density of the universe.

  18. Brans--Dicke cosmology does not have the $\\Lambda$CDM phase as an universal attractor

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we seek for relevant information on the asymptotic cosmological dynamics of the Brans--Dicke theory of gravity for several self-interaction potentials. By means of the simplest tools of the dynamical systems theory, it is shown that the general relativity de Sitter solution is an attractor of the Jordan frame (dilatonic) Brans--Dicke theory only for the exponential potential $U(\\vphi)\\propto\\exp\\vphi$, which corresponds to the quadratic potential $V(\\phi)\\propto\\phi^2$ in terms of the original Brans--Dicke field $\\phi=\\exp\\vphi$, or for potentials which asymptote to $\\exp\\vphi$. At the stable de Sitter critical point, as well as at the stiff-matter equilibrium configurations, the dilaton is necessarily massless. We find bounds on the Brans--Dicke coupling constant $\\omega_\\textsc{bd}$, which are consistent with well-known results.

  19. Amplification of Gravitational Waves During Inflation in Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    We show that Gravitational Waves are exponetially amplified in the inflationary phase in Brans-Dicke theory, so that it would be possible to detect them and in this way verify several features of physical reality.

  20. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs.

  1. Effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... wheat bran, becomes costly for animal production. ... to keep up with accelerated demand for growing and finishing animals, since droughts and changes in global climate affect the grain harvest and increase prices in the ...

  2. Evolution of the Brans-Dicke Parameter in Generalized Chameleon Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubasher Jami; D.Momeni

    2011-01-01

    @@ Motivated by an earlier study of Sahoo and Singh[Mod.Phys.Lett.A 17(2002)2409],we investigate the time dependence of the Brans-Dicke parameter ω(t)for an expanding Universe in the generalized Brans-Dicke Chameleon cosmology,and obtain an explicit dependence of ω(t)in different expansion phases of the Universe.Also,we discuss how the observed accelerated expansion of the observable Universe can be accommodated in the present formalism.%Motivated by an earlier study of Sahoo and Singh [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 17(2002)2409], we investigate the time dependence of the Brans-Dicke parameter ui(t) for an expanding Universe in the generalized Brans-Dicke Chameleon cosmology, and obtain an explicit dependence of uj(t) in different expansion phases of the Universe. Also, we discuss how the observed accelerated expansion of the observable Universe can be accommodated in the present formalism.

  3. Naked singularity formation in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Atazadeh, Khedmat [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Yaser, E-mail: am.ziaie@mail.sbu.ac.i, E-mail: k-atazadeh@sbu.ac.i, E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha (Portugal)

    2010-04-07

    Gravitational collapse of the Brans-Dicke scalar field with non-zero potential in the presence of matter fluid obeying the barotropic equation of state, p = wrho, is studied. Utilizing the concept of the expansion parameter, it is seen that the cosmic censorship conjecture may be violated for w=-1/3 and w=-2/3 which correspond to the cosmic string and domain wall, respectively. We have shown that physically, it is the rate of collapse that governs the formation of a black hole or a naked singularity as the final fate of dynamical evolution and only for these two cases can the singularity be naked as the collapse end state. Also the weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration.

  4. Generalized ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, A; Yosefi, Y

    2013-01-01

    It was argued that the vacuum energy of the Veneziano ghost field of QCD, in a time-dependent background, can be written in the general form, $H + O(H^2)$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. Based on this, a phenomenological dark energy model whose energy density is of the form $\\rho=\\alpha H+\\beta H^{2}$ was recently proposed to explain the dark energy dominated universe. In this paper, we investigate this generalized ghost dark energy model in the setup of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy model. It is shown that the equation of state parameter of the new ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D=-1$) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably.

  5. The momentum four-vector in Brans-Dicke wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Pirinccioglu, N; Salti, M; Acikgoz, Irfan; Pirinccioglu, Nurettin; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In this work, in order to compute energy and momentum distributions (due to matter plus fields including gravitation) associated with the Brans-Dicke wormhole solutions we consider Moller's energy-momentum complexes both in general relativity and the teleparallel gravity, and the Einstein energy-momentum formulation in general relativity. We find exactly the same energy and momentum in three of the formulations. The results obtained in teleparallel gravity is also independent of the teleparallel dimensionless coupling parameter, which means that it is valid not only in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, but also in any teleparallel model. Furthermore, our results also sustains (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given spacetime and (b) the viewpoint of Lessner that the M{\\o}ller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum. (c) The results calculated supports the hypothesis by Cooperstock that the energ...

  6. Cosmological solutions of Brans-Dicke equations with cosmological constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmadi-Azar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the analytical solutions of Brans-Dicke (B-D equations with cosmological constant are presented, in which the equation of state of the universe is P=mÙ° ρ , under the assumption φRn=c between the B-D field and the scale factor of the universe. The flat (K=0 Robertson- Walker metric has been considered for the metric of the universe. These solutions are rich in the sense that they include dust B-D theory with cosmological constant, Nariai Ù=° solutions, vacuum solutions of Ohanlen-Tupper and inflationary  Ù=° solutions.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  8. Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-06-01

    Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.

  9. Responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-21

    We study responses of the Brans-Dicke field due to gravitational collapses of scalar field pulses using numerical simulations. Double-null formalism is employed to implement the numerical simulations. If we supply a scalar field pulse, it will asymptotically form a black hole via dynamical interactions of the Brans-Dicke field. Hence, we can observe the responses of the Brans-Dicke field by two different regions. First, we observe the late time behaviors after the gravitational collapse, which include formations of a singularity and an apparent horizon. Second, we observe the fully dynamical behaviors during the gravitational collapse and view the energy-momentum tensor components. For the late time behaviors, if the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater (or smaller) than -1.5, the Brans-Dicke field decreases (or increases) during the gravitational collapse. Since the Brans-Dicke field should be relaxed to the asymptotic value with the elapse of time, the final apparent horizon becomes time-like (or space-like). For the dynamical behaviors, we observed the energy-momentum tensors around {omega} {approx} -1.5. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is greater than -1.5, the T{sub uu} component can be negative at the outside of the black hole. This can allow an instantaneous inflating region during the gravitational collapse. If the Brans-Dicke coupling is less than -1.5, the oscillation of the T{sub vv} component allows the apparent horizon to shrink. This allows a combination that violates weak cosmic censorship. Finally, we discuss the implications of the violation of the null energy condition and weak cosmic censorship.

  10. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focus...

  11. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino; Maria Cristina Dias Paes

    2014-01-01

    The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two g...

  12. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  13. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  14. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  15. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  16. Green Cosmetic Surfactant from Rice: Characterization and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hanno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, microwave irradiation has been extensively used for performing green organic synthesis. The aim of this study was to synthesize, through a microwave-assisted irradiation process, a natural surfactant with O/W emulsifying properties. Our attention was focused on polyglycerol esters of fatty acids that are biocompatible and biodegradable non-ionic surfactants widely used in food and cosmetic products. The emulsifier was obtained using vegetable raw material from renewable sources: polyglycerol derived from vegetable glycerol and rice bran oil fatty acids. The natural emulsifier obtained was then characterized and evaluated for its emulsifying properties using different doses, oil phases, rheological additives, waxes, etc. The potential application in solar products, in comparison with other natural emulsifiers, was also evaluated.

  17. Parigi, Quai Branly. Il dialogo delle nature e delle culture Quai Branly, Paris: The dialogue between natures and cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Pezzini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quai Branly (Museo Nazionale delle Arti e Civilt dAfrica, dAsia, dOceania e delle Americhe a Parigi, inaugurato nel 2006, analizzato da un punto di vista semiotico come un grande dispositivo di riconoscimento e di comunicazione culturale, nelle sue diverse componenti: architettonica, paesaggistica, di allestimento. Si tratta di uno spazio che si vuole fortemente innovativo, e che investe nellintegrazione fra la collezione e le nuove tecnologie della comunicazione. Il museo vuole affermare il valore della diversit delle culture, e costruire uno spazio di possibile dialogo fra di loro, oltre che di esposizione esemplare di artefatti eccezionali. Non solo museo ma anche centro per linsegnamento e la ricerca, nonch spazio a disposizione di diversi pubblici potenziali, compreso quello alla ricerca di intrattenimento: dunque un nuovo museo nel pieno senso del termine.Quai Branly (Africa, Asia, Oceania and Americas Arts and Civilization National Museum in Paris, opened in 2006 is analyzed from a semiotic point of view as a great device for cultural recognition and communication in its different components - architectural, landscape and exhibitions display. Its about a space that builds itself as innovative and that invests on the integration among collections and new communication technologies. The museum aims to state the value of cultures diversity and build a space for possible dialogues among them - besides the exhibition of exceptional artifacts copies. Not only the museum - but also a center for teaching and researching, - the space is available for several potential audiences, including that one that searches for entertainment: therefore, a new museum on its definitions strict sense.

  18. Studies on Feeding Animals with Straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice 201

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-gui; CHEN Jun-chen; HUANG Qin-lou; ZHENG Kai-bin; YE Xin-fu; TU Jie-feng; CHEN Bing-huan

    2002-01-01

    The straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice (GSDUR) variety 201 of which the grain quality and yield were equivalent to that of common rice variety (the grain yield approximately 7.5 t ha-1 ), but straw protein content was 9.31% (common rice straw i.e. CK was approximately 4.0%), and other eight fodder indexes were better than CK to some extent, was employed to feed animals. 15 N tracing result suggested that the protein in 201 straw could be effectively transformed into fish body protein and white mouse body protein. The digestibility of fodder, the 15N recovery rate of animal body and the absorption of fodder protein were 13.8,9.6, 24. 49 % and 16.5, 6.0, 47.2 % higher than those of common rice straw respectively when feeding grass carp and white mice with 201 rice straw, whereas the 1s N recovery rates of animal manure were 3.25, 6.5 %lower than those of common rice straw, respectively. The results of feeding animals with 201 straw were as carp, fish weight gain per kg fresh rice straw were increased by 60.0, 16.8 and 37.0% respectively when 201fresh straw was used to feed grass carp compared to feeding CK, and fish yield could be increased by 297.5 kg creased by 33.9 and 26.8% respectively when 201 rice straw was used as the main raw material of the compound fodder to feed white geese compared to feeding CK, and geese weight could be increased by 2 358.0 kg powder substituting for wheat bran which made up of 5 % compound fodder to feed cross bred pigs compared to CK, but 0. 11 kg fine fodder could be saved when 1 kg cross bred pig weight was increased.

  19. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  20. Applications of de-oiled microalgal biomass towards development of sustainable biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Mitra, Madhusree; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-08-01

    In view of commercialization of microalgal biofuel, the de-oiled microalgal biomass (DMB) is a surplus by-product in the biorefinery process that needs to be exploited to make the process economically attractive and feasible. This DMB, rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals, can be used as feed, fertilizer, and substrate for the production of bioethanol/bio-methane. Further, thermo-chemical conversion of DMB results into fuels and industrially important chemicals. Future prospects of DMB also lie with its conversion into novel biomaterials like nanoparticles and carbon-dot which have biomedical importance. The lowest valued application of DMB is to use it for adsorption of dyes and heavy metals from industrial effluents. This study reviews how DMB can be utilized for different applications and in the generation of valuable co-products. The value addition of DMB would thereby improve the overall cost economics of the microalgal bio-refinery.

  1. Fermentation of de-oiled algal biomass by Lactobacillus casei for production of lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Tom; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    De-oiled algal biomass (algal cake) generated as waste byproduct during algal biodiesel production is a promising fermentable substrate for co-production of value-added chemicals in biorefinery systems. We explored the ability of Lactobacillus casei 12A to ferment algal cake for co-production of lactic acid. Carbohydrate and amino acid availability were determined to be limiting nutritional requirements for growth and lactic acid production by L. casei. These nutritional requirements were effectively addressed through enzymatic hydrolysis of the algal cake material using α-amylase, cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase), and pepsin. Results confirm fermentation of algal cake for production of value-added chemicals is a promising avenue for increasing the overall cost competiveness of the algal biodiesel production process.

  2. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; Pchocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  3. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  4. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  5. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Harris, Philip J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Kestell, Philip [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Zhu, Shuotun [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M. [Agresearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2011-11-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen {sup 14}C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  6. Dark Energy From Fifth Dimensional Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrehbakhsh, Amir F; Vakili, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Following the approach of the induced-matter theory, we investigate the cosmological implications of a five-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory, and propose to explain the acceleration of the universe. After inducing in a four-dimensional hypersurface, we classify the energy-momentum tensor into two parts in a way that, one part represents all kind of the matter (the baryonic and dark) and the other one contains every extra terms emerging from the scale factor of the fifth dimension and the scalar field, which we consider as the energy-momentum tensor of dark energy. We also separate the energy-momentum conservation equation into two conservation equations, one for matter and the other for dark energy. We perform this procedure for different cases, without interacting term and with two particular (suitable) interacting terms between the two parts. By assuming the parameter of the state equation for dark energy to be constant, the equations of the model admit the power-law solutions. Though, the non-interacting cas...

  7. Quantized Brans Dicke Theory: Phase Transition and Strong Coupling Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-01-01

    We show that Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry with flat spatial section in quantized (Wheeler deWitt quantization) Brans Dicke (BD) theory reveals a rich phase structure owing to anomalous breaking of a classical symmetry, which maps the scale factor $a\\mapsto\\lambda a$ for some constant $\\lambda$. In the weak coupling ($\\omega$) limit, the theory goes from a symmetry preserving phase to a broken phase. The existence of phase boundary is an obstruction to another classical symmetry [arXiv:gr-qc/9902083] (which relates two BD theory with different coupling) admitted by BD theory with scale invariant matter content i.e $T^{\\mu}{}_{\\mu}=0$. Classically, this prohibits the BD theory to reduce to General Relativity (GR) for scale invariant matter content. We show that strong coupling limit of BD and GR both preserves the symmetry involving scale factor. We also show that with a scale invariant matter content (radiation i.e $P=\\frac{1}{3}\\rho$), the quantized BD theory does reduce to GR as $\\omega\\rightarr...

  8. Precooked bran-enriched wheat flour using extrusion: dietary fiber profile and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajula, H; Alavi, S; Adhikari, K; Herald, T

    2008-05-01

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran, total dietary fiber (TDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively. Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 ("like slightly" to "like moderately") for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases, tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 ("neither like nor dislike" to "like moderately"). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However, consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however, it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly.

  9. New agegraphic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory with logarithmic form of scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    In a very recent paper, the current authors (arXiv:gr-qc/1609.01477) have proposed and analyzed in detail the logarithmic form of Brans-Dicke scalar field $\\phi$ as $\\phi \\propto ln(\\alpha+\\beta a)$, where $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are positive constants, to alleviate the problems of interacting holographic dark energy models in Brans-Dicke theory. In this paper, the cosmological evolution of a new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model within the framework of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe is analyzed with the same form of scalar field in Brans-Dicke theory. We derive the equation of state parameter $w_D$ and deceleration parameter $q$ of NADE model. It is observed that $w_D\\rightarrow -1$ when $a\\rightarrow \\infty$, i.e., the NADE mimics cosmological constant in the late time evolution. Indeed, due to the assumption of logarithmic form of Brans-Dicke scalar field the NADE in Brans-Dicke theory behaves like NADE in general relativity in the late time evolution. The NADE model shows a phase transition from matte...

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENT ON DEGRADATION OF DRY MATTER AND FIBER OF UNTREATED AND UREA TREATED RICE STRAW IN THE RUMEN OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulistiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the degradation of dry matter (DM and neutral detergentfiber (NDF of urea untreated (URS and urea treated rice straw (TRS incubated in the rumen of sheepfed different diet. Three fistulated sheep were fed on urea-treated rice straw basal diet with threesupplemental treatment diets which consisted of control diet (T0 mulberry and molasses; mulberry,rice bran and urea (T1; and rice bran and urea (T2. Either URS or TRS was placed in nylon bags andincubated in the rumen at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Parameters recorded were degradation of DMand NDF, rumen pH, rumen ammonia. The results showed that DM degradability of URS of the diet T1was significantly lower than other diets. Similarly the URS degradability of rumen-insoluble fraction(b of DM and NDF of T1 diet was significantly lower than those of T0 and T2 diet. DM and NDFdegradability of URS was not affected by diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 wassignificantly higher than those T0, but still higher than critical ammonia concentration required forrumen microbial synthesis. These results suggest that different supplementations have no significanteffect on DM and NDF degradability of TRS.

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENT ON DEGRADATION OF DRY MATTER AND FIBER OF UNTREATED AND UREA TREATED RICE STRAW IN THE RUMEN OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulistiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the degradation of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of urea untreated (URS and urea treated rice straw (TRS incubated in the rumen of sheep fed different diet. Three fistulated sheep were fed on urea-treated rice straw basal diet with three supplemental treatment diets which consisted of control diet (T0 mulberry and molasses; mulberry, rice bran and urea (T1; and rice bran and urea (T2. Either URS or TRS was placed in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Parameters recorded were degradation of DM and NDF, rumen pH, rumen ammonia. The results showed that DM degradability of URS of the diet T1 was significantly lower than other diets. Similarly the URS degradability of rumen-insoluble fraction (b of DM and NDF of T1 diet was significantly lower than those of T0 and T2 diet. DM and NDF degradability of URS was not affected by diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than those T0, but still higher than critical ammonia concentration required for rumen microbial synthesis. These results suggest that different supplementations have no significant effect on DM and NDF degradability of TRS.

  12. EXPLORATION OF SUITABLE SOLID MEDIA FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF Cochliobolus lunatus AND Alternaria alternata USED AS MYCOHERBICIDE FOR WEED MANAGEMENT (BARNYARD GRASS IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens viz. Cochliobolus lunatus and Alternaria alternata were isolated from barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli and their pathogenicity was re - confirmed on same weed through various bioassays using spore suspension of both pathogens under green house conditi ons. For development of formulations of these mycoherbicide, large biomass is required and it is essential to find cheaper growth media to reduce the cost of the product. For this purpose, various solid substrates such as wheat and its bran, rice and its bran, broken sorghum and E. crusgalli seeds supplemented with yeast extract and molasses were used for mass multiplication of these weed pathogens. Among six substrates tested, rice supplemented with molasses (10g/L and yeast extract (3.0g/L produced high est conidia for both mycoherbicide after 14 days with 12h photoperiod at 25 0 C. The pathogenicity test with conidia obtained from both pathogens was conducted on 5 leaf stage of E. crusgalli and rice under glass house conditions. The results revealed that 100% mortality of the target weed within 14 days after treatment (DAT and no effect on rice.

  13. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation ...

  14. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  15. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  16. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  17. Simultaneous intake of oat bran and atorvastatin reduces their efficacy to lower lipid levels and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Andersson, Kristina E; Klungel, Olaf H; Hellstrand, Per; Oste, Rickard; van Kranen, Henk; Garssen, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of separate and simultaneous dietary intake of atorvastatin (ATO) and the soluble fiber oat bran on serum and hepatic lipid levels and the degree of atherosclerosis. Ninety female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet containing either low dose (0.0025%), high dose (0.01%) or no ATO, with or without oat bran (27%) (n=15 per group) for 16 weeks. Both ATO and oat bran were effective in reducing serum total cholesterol levels (low ATO: -5.48, high ATO: -9.12, oat bran: -3.82 mmol/l, compared to control (no ATO/no oat bran), all pdietary fiber, and on the relative timing of intake of the statin and the dietary fiber. Future studies should focus on these aspects to provide further insight into the exact mechanism of this food-drug interaction.

  18. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %).

  19. Rapid near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran after various pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    step is to increase the responsivity of the substrate to enzymatic attack and the type of pretreatment affects the enzymatic conversion efficiency. Destarched corn bran is a fibrous, heteroxylan-rich side-stream from the starch industry which may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production...... or as a source of xylose for other purposes. In the present study we demonstrate the use of diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and non-destructive analytical tool for evaluation of pretreatment effects on destarched corn bran. NIR was used to achieve classification between 43...... differently pretreated corn bran samples using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchal clustering algorithms. Quantification of the enzymatically released monosaccharides by HPLC was used to design multivariate calibration models (biPLS) on the NIR spectra. The models could predict the enzymatic...

  20. Holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke cosmology with chameleon scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.i [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: mjamil@camp.edu.p [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi 46000 (Pakistan)

    2010-06-07

    We study a cosmological implication of holographic dark energy in the Brans-Dicke gravity. We employ the holographic model of dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in non-flat (closed) universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of horizon named L. Our analysis shows that one can obtain the phantom crossing scenario if the model parameter {alpha} (of order unity) is tuned accordingly. Moreover, this behavior is achieved by treating the Brans-Dicke scalar field as a Chameleon scalar field and taking a non-minimal coupling of the scalar field with matter. Hence one can generate phantom-like equation of state from a holographic dark energy model in non-flat universe in the Brans-Dicke cosmology framework.