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Sample records for dc-voltage gradient technique

  1. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  2. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  3. Two coupled Josephson junctions: dc voltage controlled by biharmonic current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machura, L; Spiechowicz, J; Kostur, M; Łuczka, J

    2012-01-01

    We study transport properties of two Josephson junctions coupled by an external shunt resistance. One of the junctions (say, the first) is driven by an unbiased ac current consisting of two harmonics. The device can rectify the ac current yielding a dc voltage across the first junction. For some values of coupling strength, controlled by an external shunt resistance, a dc voltage across the second junction can be generated. By variation of system parameters such as the relative phase or frequency of two harmonics, one can conveniently manipulate both voltages with high efficiency, e.g. changing the dc voltages across the first and second junctions from positive to negative values and vice versa. (paper)

  4. Stability of DC Voltage Droop Controllers in VSC HVDC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Florian; Suul, Jon Are; D’Arco, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Future multi-terminal HVDC systems are expected to utilize dc voltage droop controllers and several control implementations have been proposed in literature. This paper first classifies possible dc droop implementations in a simple framework. Then, the small-signal stability of a VSC-based conver......Future multi-terminal HVDC systems are expected to utilize dc voltage droop controllers and several control implementations have been proposed in literature. This paper first classifies possible dc droop implementations in a simple framework. Then, the small-signal stability of a VSC...

  5. Comparison CCEM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marullo-Reedtz, G

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available , he has been with VNIIM where he has been involved in inves- tigation and development of electrical standards of dc voltage and dc current, using quantum effects in LT- and HT-superconductors and ratio voltage mea- surement up to 1000 V. Ronald...

  6. Control Of Stepper Motor Movement By DC Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayani, Didi; Margono; Indasah, Iin; Sugito

    2000-01-01

    Instrumentation for controlling the power of reactor of TRIGA Mark II uses the stepper motor to move the control rod of neutron absorbers. The direction and speed of control rod movement are determined by the polarity and the amplitude of DC voltage as an error signal that is the difference of set point of power and the power of being measured on the control system. The unit of stepper motor controller of reactor instrumentation of TRIGA Mark II uses patent module of trade Mark of Vexta, USA. In this chance, the electronic circuit is made to function as the control of stepper motor movement by using the DC voltage to anticipate the problem may be faced in case of repair and maintenance of reactor instrumentation. As a result of experiment, it is stated that the control of motor movement by using DC voltage is performed into 2 stages. First, by making the oscillator that is proportional to the positive DC voltage. Secondly, by making the translator to translate the oscillator signal to be a logic pattern for controlling the movement of stepper motor. Translator and motor driver are made by using the L297 and L298 as a pair of stepper motor controller of SGS T HOMSON

  7. A high-DC-voltage GaAs photoemission gun: Transverse emittance and momentum spread measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engwall, D.; Bohn, C.; Cardman, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a high-DC-voltage photoemission gun and a diagnostic beamline permitting us to measure rms transverse emittance (ε x ) and rms momentum spread (δ) of short-duration electron pulses produced by illuminating the cathode with light from a mode-locked, frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser. The electron gun is a GaAs photocathode source designed to operate at 500kV. We have measured ε x and δ for conditions ranging from emittance-dominated to space-charge-dominated. We report these measurements as functions of microbunch charge for different beam radii, pulse lengths, and voltages/field gradients at the cathode, and compare them with PARMELA calculations

  8. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  9. Application of Multipoint DC Voltage Control in VSC-MTDC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-source-converter- (VSC- based multiterminal VSC-HVDC power transmission system (VSC-MTDC is an ideal approach to connect wind farm with power grid. Analyzing the characteristics of doubly fed induction generators as well as the basic principle and the control strategy of VSC-MTDC, a multiterminal DC voltage control strategy suitable for wind farm connected with VSC-MTDC is proposed. By use of PSCAD/EMTDC, the proposed control strategy is simulated, and simulation results show that using the proposed control strategy the conversion between constant power control mode and constant DC voltage control mode can be automatically implemented; thus the DC voltage stability control and reliable power output of wind farm can be ensured after the fault-caused outage of converter station controlled by constant DC voltage and under other faults. The simulation result shows that the model can fulfill multiterminal power transmission and fast response control.

  10. Effect of applied DC voltages and temperatures on space charge behaviour of multi-layer oil-paper insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chao; Liao Ruijin [The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University (China); Chen, G [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Fu, M, E-mail: tangchao_1981@163.co [AVERA T and D Technology Centre, Stafford (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, space charge in a multi-layer oil-paper insulation system was investigated using the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique. A series of measurements had been carried following subjection of the insulation system to different applied voltages and different temperatures. Charge behaviours in the insulation system were analyzed and the influence of temperature on charge dynamics was discussed. The test results shows that homocharge injection takes place under all the test conditions, the applied DC voltage mainly affects the amount of space charge, while the temperature has greater influence on the distribution and mobility of space charge inside oil-paper samples.

  11. Disturbance Attenuation of DC Voltage Droop Control Structures in a Multi-Terminal HVDC Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Florian; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Prieto-Araujo, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    DC voltage droop control is seen as the preferred control structure for primary voltage control of future multiterminal HVDC systems. Different droop control structures have been proposed in literature which can be classified in eight categories. This paper contributes to an analysis of the distu......DC voltage droop control is seen as the preferred control structure for primary voltage control of future multiterminal HVDC systems. Different droop control structures have been proposed in literature which can be classified in eight categories. This paper contributes to an analysis...

  12. Five-Level Converter with Low Switching Frequency Applied as DC Voltage Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a multi-level converter as a DC supply. Equations for the converter will be deduced in the nondissipative case. The equations provide solutions to DC voltage and the angle of converter voltage. In addition the spectrum for the harmonics after the elimination of sel...

  13. Interactions Between Indirect DC-Voltage Estimation and Circulating Current Controllers of MMC-Based HVDC Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe, Harith R.; Konstantinou, Georgios; Pou, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control in MMCs interacts with circulating current control methods. This paper proposes an estimation-based indirect dc-voltage control method for MMC-HVDC systems and analyzes its performance compared to alternative estimations. The interactions between......-state and transient performance is demonstrated using a benchmark MMC-HVDC transmission system, implemented in a real-time digital simulator. The results verify the theoretical evaluations and illustrate the operation and performance of the proposed indirect dc-voltage control method....

  14. Construction of an input sensitivity variable CAMAC module for measuring DC voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Nobuaki.

    1979-03-01

    In on-line experimental data processing systems, the collection of DC voltage data is frequently required. In plasma confinement experiments, for example, the range of input voltage is very wide from over 1 kV applied to photomultiplier tubes to 10 mV full scale of the controller output for ionization vacuum gauges. A DC voltmeter CAMAC module with variable input range, convenient for plasma experiments and inexpensive, has been constructed for trial. The number of input channels is 16, and the input range is changeable in six steps from +-10 mV to +-200 V; these are all set by commands from a computer. The module is actually used for the on-line data processing system for JIPP T-2 experiment. The ideas behind its development, and the functions, features and usage of the module are described in this report. (J.P.N.)

  15. Pull-in behavior analysis of vibrating functionally graded micro-cantilevers under suddenly DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research attempts to explain dynamic pull-in instability of functionally graded micro-cantilevers actuated by step DC voltage while the fringing-field effect is taken into account in the vibrational equation of motion. By employing modern asymptotic approach namely Homotopy Perturbation Method with an auxiliary term, high-order frequency-amplitude relation is obtained, then the influences of material properties and actuation voltage on dynamic pull-in behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that the auxiliary term in the homotopy perturbation method is extremely effective for higher order approximation and two terms in series expansions are sufficient to produce an acceptable solution. The strength of this analytical procedure is verified through comparison with numerical results.

  16. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  17. DC-Voltage Fluctuation Elimination Through a DC-Capacitor Current Control for DFIG Converters Under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changjin; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced grid voltage causes a large second-order harmonic current in the dc-link capacitors as well as dc-voltage fluctuation, which potentially will degrade the lifespan and reliability of the capacitors in voltage source converters. This paper proposes a novel dc-capacitor current control...... method for a grid-side converter (GSC) to eliminate the negative impact of unbalanced grid voltage on the dc-capacitors. In this method, a dc-capacitor current control loop, where a negative-sequence resonant controller is used to increase the loop gain, is added to the conventional GSC current control...... loop. The rejection capability to the unbalanced grid voltage and the stability of the proposed control system are discussed. The second-order harmonic current in the dc capacitor as well as dc-voltage fluctuation is very well eliminated. Hence, the dc capacitors will be more reliable under unbalanced...

  18. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR STEPPING-UP CONVERTER OF DC VOLTAGE AT ACTIVE LOAD OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Мironovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of a nontransformer stepping-up converter of dc voltage has been carried out. A non-linear structural circuit of the converter has been developed with the help of the controlled current injection method. A linearization of an object and an automation control system synthesis have been conducted applying method of successive optimization of the circuits. The paper contains results of transient process simulation in the linear computer model and in the power electronics computer model. 

  19. Electrical actuation of electrically conducting and insulating droplets using ac and dc voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, N; Bahadur, V; Garimella, S V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets using dc voltages (classical electrowetting). Electrical actuation of conducting droplets using ac voltages and the actuation of insulating droplets (using dc or ac voltages) has remained relatively unexplored. This paper utilizes an energy-minimization-based analytical framework to study the electrical actuation of a liquid droplet (electrically conducting or insulating) under ac actuation. It is shown that the electromechanical regimes of classical electrowetting, electrowetting under ac actuation and insulating droplet actuation can be extracted from the generic electromechanical actuation framework, depending on the electrical properties of the droplet, the underlying dielectric layer and the frequency of the actuation voltage. This paper also presents experiments which quantify the influence of the ac frequency and the electrical properties of the droplet on its velocity under electrical actuation. The velocities of droplets moving between two parallel plates under ac actuation are experimentally measured; these velocities are then related to the actuation force on the droplet which is predicted by the electromechanical model developed in this work. It is seen that the droplet velocities are strongly dependent on the frequency of the ac actuation voltage; the cut-off ac frequency, above which the droplet fails to actuate, is experimentally determined and related to the electrical conductivity of the liquid. This paper then analyzes and directly compares the various electromechanical regimes for the actuation of droplets in microfluidic applications

  20. CAMAC system for data acquisition on output of digital panel meter for DC voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Nobuaki.

    1979-03-01

    An interface between the digital panel meter (DPM) for DC voltage measurement and the CAMAC system for T-2 experiment in JIPP (Japan Institute of Plasma Physics) was designed and produced. This panel meter is used for the purpose of monitoring the deflected electrode voltage of a 6 channel, neutral particle, energy analyzer (parallel plate electrodes, electro static type). The method of connecting the DPM to the CAMAC system is that of taking the gate pulses with the width proportional to the voltage to be measured out of the output of the DPM and counting the clock pulses. This system uses each one channel of output register, interrupting register, scaler and clock generator, and the binary digital data is obtained in the scaler, and sent to the main memory of the computer HITAC 10-2 through the CAMAC crate controller. At this time, the interface gives the output of the gate pulses with the width proportional to the DPM input voltage from the DPM BUSY output and PRINT COMMAND output, depending on the sampling pulses from the output register. The interface also gives the end pulse communicating the completion of the output of gate pulses to the interrupting register. The software is summarized in the flow chart of the program and in the program list used for the test on this data acquisition system. The features of this system are to be able to obtain the binary data directly, and to be capable of saving the number of transmission lines required for data transfer. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Weighted graph based ordering techniques for preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Simon S.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the basis of a matrix ordering heuristic for improving the incomplete factorization used in preconditioned conjugate gradient techniques applied to anisotropic PDE's. Several new matrix ordering techniques, derived from well-known algorithms in combinatorial graph theory, which attempt to implement this heuristic, are described. These ordering techniques are tested against a number of matrices arising from linear anisotropic PDE's, and compared with other matrix ordering techniques. A variation of RCM is shown to generally improve the quality of incomplete factorization preconditioners.

  2. 1.5V fully programmable CMOS Membership Function Generator Circuit with proportional DC-voltage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muñiz-Montero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Membership Function Generator Circuit (MFGC with bias supply of 1.5 Volts and independent DC-voltage programmable functionalities is presented. The realization is based on a programmable differential current mirror and three compact voltage-to-current converters, allowing continuous and quasi-linear adjustment of the center position, height, width and slopes of the triangular/trapezoidal output waveforms. HSPICE simulation results of the proposed circuit using the parameters of a double-poly, three metal layers, 0.5 μm CMOS technology validate the functionality of the proposed architecture, which exhibits a maximum deviation of the linearity in the programmability of 7 %.

  3. DC Voltage Droop Control Structures and its Impact on the Interaction Modes in Interconnected AC-HVDC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Florian; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Eriksson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Different dc voltage droop control structures for future multi-terminal HVDC systems have been proposed in literature. This paper contributes to the evaluation of those structures by an analysis of their impact on the coupling of the interconnected subsystems. In particular, the modes...... of the systems are classified in different subsets according to the participation of the various subsystems. Those subsets are then evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively indicating which impact the choice of the droop control structure has on the degree of coupling between the connected ac and dc systems...

  4. TIGER: Development of Thermal Gradient Compensation Algorithms and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.

    2004-01-01

    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external instruments. To address the problem of thermal gradients on the force measurement balance NASA-LaRC has initiated a research program called TIGER - Thermally-Induced Gradients Effects Research. The ultimate goals of the TIGER program are to: (a) understand the physics of the thermally-induced strain and its subsequent impact on load measurements and (b) develop a robust thermal gradient compensation technique. This paper will discuss the impact of thermal gradients on force measurement balances, specific aspects of the TIGER program (the design of a special-purpose balance, data acquisition and data analysis challenges), and give an overall summary.

  5. Quantitation of structural distortion with gradient-echo imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, R.D.; Schwaighofer, B.W.; Hesselink, J.R.; Chu, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the structural distortion and measurement error associated with fast MR imaging of the spinal neural foramina. Dry skeletal specimens and a thin cadaveric sagittal section through the neural foramina were placed in a water bath. MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T unit in different planes and with various pulse sequences. The size and shape of each neural foramen were carefully measured on the images and on the skeletal specimens. Gradient-echo (GRE) techniques (gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state, MPGR, three-dimensional volume acquisition) resulted in structural distortion in up to 10% on the fresh skeleton and 30% of the dry skeleton specimens when a small TE was used (the foramina appear narrower on the images)

  6. On the modelling of linear-assisted DC-DC voltage regulators for photovoltaic solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Herminio; García-Vílchez, Encarna

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the modelling of linear-assisted or hybrid (linear & switching) DC/DC voltage regulators. In this kind of regulators, an auxiliary linear regulator is used, which objective is to cancel the ripple at the output voltage and provide fast responses for load variations. On the other hand, a switching DC/DC converter, connected in parallel with the linear regulator, allows to supply almost the whole output current demanded by the load. The objective of this topology is to take advantage of the suitable regulation characteristics that series linear voltage regulators have, but almost achieving the high efficiency that switching DC/DC converters provide. Linear-assisted DC/DC regulators are feedback systems with potential instability. Therefore, their modelling is mandatory in order to obtain design guidelines and assure stability of the implemented power supply system.

  7. DC power flow control for radial offshore multi-terminal HVDC transmission system by considering steady-state DC voltage operation range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irnawan, Roni; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with a radial offshore multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) transmission system which is formed by interconnection several existing offshore wind farm (OWF) HVDC links with a shore-to-shore (StS) HVDC link. A challenge arises when deciding the steady-state DC voltage operating level...

  8. Crystalline phases by an improved gradient expansion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, S.; Mannarelli, M.; Anzuini, F.; Benhar, O.

    2018-02-01

    We develop an innovative technique for studying inhomogeneous phases with a spontaneous broken symmetry. The method relies on the knowledge of the exact form of the free energy in the homogeneous phase and on a specific gradient expansion of the order parameter. We apply this method to quark matter at vanishing temperature and large chemical potential, which is expected to be relevant for astrophysical considerations. The method is remarkably reliable and fast as compared to performing the full numerical diagonalization of the quark Hamiltonian in momentum space and is designed to improve the standard Ginzburg-Landau expansion close to the phase transition points. For definiteness, we focus on inhomogeneous chiral symmetry breaking, accurately reproducing known results for one-dimensional and two-dimensional modulations and examining novel crystalline structures, as well. Consistently with previous results, we find that the energetically favored modulation is the so-called one-dimensional real-kink crystal. We propose a qualitative description of the pairing mechanism to motivate this result.

  9. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. DC Voltage Control and Power-Sharing of Multi-Terminal DC Grids Based on Optimal DC Power Flow and Flexible Voltage Droop Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an effective control framework for DC voltage control and power-sharing of multi-terminal DC (MTDC grids based on an optimal power flow (OPF procedure and the voltage-droop control. In the proposed approach, an OPF algorithm is executed at the secondary level to find optimal reference of DC voltages and active powers of all voltage-regulating converters. Then, the voltage droop characteristics of voltage-regulating converters, at the primary level, are tuned based on the OPF results such that the operating point of the MTDC grid lies on the voltage droop characteristics. Consequently, the optimally-tuned voltage droop controller leads to the optimal operation of the MTDC grid. In case of variation in load or generation of the grid, a new stable operating point is achieved based on the voltage droop characteristics. By execution of a new OPF, the voltage droop characteristics are re-tuned for optimal operation of the MTDC grid after the occurrence of the load or generation variations. The results of simulation on a grid inspired by CIGRE B4 DC grid test system demonstrate efficient grid performance under the proposed control strategy.

  11. Measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient revisited: Catheter wedge vs balloon wedge techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Timothy Chelliah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient by catheter wedge as compared to balloon wedge (the gold standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients having a clinical diagnosis of intrahepatic portal hypertension were subjected to the two different types of pressure measurements (catheter wedge and balloon wedge during transjugular liver biopsy under fluoroscopic guidance. Statistical Analysis: Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot for agreement, and single measure intraclass correlation were used for analysis of data. Results: There was a close correlation between the results obtained by both the techniques, with highly significant concordance (P < 0.0001. Hepatic venous pressure gradients as measured by the catheter wedge technique were either equal to or less than those obtained by the balloon wedge technique. Conclusions: The difference in hepatic venous pressure gradients measured by the two techniques is insignificant.

  12. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans

  13. Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebon L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

  14. Fabrication of a wettability-gradient surface on copper by screen-printing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ding-Jun; Leu, Tzong-Shyng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a screen-printing technique is utilized to fabricate a wettability-gradient surface on a copper substrate. The pattern definitions on the copper surface were freely fabricated to define the regions with different wettabilities, for which the printing definition technique was developed as an alternative to the existing costly photolithography techniques. This fabrication process using screen printing in tandem with chemical modification methods can easily realize an excellent wettability-gradient surface with superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Surface analyses were performed to characterize conditions in some fabrication steps. A water droplet movement sequence is provided to clearly demonstrate the droplet-driving effectiveness of the fabricated gradient surface. The droplet-driving efficiency offers a promising solution for condensation heat transfer applications in the foreseeable future. (paper)

  15. The use of singular value gradients and optimization techniques to design robust controllers for multiloop systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Mukhopadhyay, V.

    1983-01-01

    A method for designing robust feedback controllers for multiloop systems is presented. Robustness is characterized in terms of the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix at the plant input. Analytical gradients of the singular values with respect to design variables in the controller are derived. A cumulative measure of the singular values and their gradients with respect to the design variables is used with a numerical optimization technique to increase the system's robustness. Both unconstrained and constrained optimization techniques are evaluated. Numerical results are presented for a two output drone flight control system.

  16. Techniques for Ultra-high Magnetic Field Gradient NMR Diffusion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Mitrovic, Vesna F.; Calder, Edward S.; Will Thomas, G.; Halperin, William P.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.

    2001-03-01

    We report on development and application of techniques for ultraslow diffusion coefficient measurements through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high magnetic field gradients. We have performed NMR experiments in a steady fringe field gradient of 175 T/m from a 23 T resistive Bitter magnet, as well as in a gradient of 42 T/m from an 8 T superconducting magnet. New techniques to provide optimum sensitivity in these experiments are described. To eliminate parasitic effects of the temporal instability of the resistive magnet, we have introduced a passive filter: a highly conductive cryogen-cooled inductive shield. We show experimental demonstration of such a shield’s effect on NMR performed in the Bitter magnet. For enhanced efficiency, we have employed “frequency jumping” in our spectrometer system. Application of these methods has made possible measurements of diffusion coefficients as low as 10-10 cm^2/s, probing motion on a 250 nm length scale.

  17. New resin gel for uranium determination by diffusive gradient in thin films technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregušová, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 684, 1-2 (2011), s. 142-146 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : diffusive gradient in thin film technique * 8-hydroxyquinoline resin gel * uranium determination Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.555, year: 2011

  18. Self-diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems using NMR pulsed field gradient technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heink, W.; Kaerger, J.; Walter, A.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental pecularities of the NMR pulsed field gradient technique are critical surveyed in its application to zeolite adsorbate adsorbent systems. After a presentation of the different transport parameters accessible by this technique, the consequences of the existence of inner field gradients being inherent to heterogeneous systems are analyzed. Experimental conditions and consequences of an application of pulsed field gradients of high intensity which are necessary for the measurement of small intracrystalline self-diffusion coefficients, are discussed. Gradient pulses of 0.15 Tcm -1 with pulse widths of 2 ms maximum and relative deviations of less than 0.01 per mille can be realized. Since for a number of adsorbate adsorbent systems a distinct dependence of the intracrystalline self-diffusion coeffcients on adsorbate concentration is observed, determination of zeolite pore fiiling factor is of considerable importance for the interpretation of the diffusivities obtained. It is demonstrated that also this information can be obtained by NMR technique in a straightforward way with a mean error of less than 5 to 10 %. Applying this new method and using an optimum experimental device as described, pore filling factor dependences of the self-diffusion coefficients of alkanes in NaX zeolites can be followed over more than two orders of magnitude. (author)

  19. Detection of human DNA polymorphisms with a simplified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, W.W.; Collins, M.

    1987-01-01

    Single base pair differences between otherwise identical DNA molecules can result in altered melting behavior detectable by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The authors have developed a simplified procedure for using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect base pair changes in genomic DNA. Genomic DNA is digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized in solution to labeled single-stranded probe DNA. The excess probe is then hybridized to complementary phage M13 template DNA, and the reaction mixture is electrophoresed on a denaturing gradient gel. Only the genomic DNA probe hybrids migrate into the gel. Differences in hybrid mobility on the gel indicate base pair changes in the genomic DNA. They have used this technique to identify two polymorphic sites within a 1.2-kilobase region of human chromosome 20. This approach should greatly facilitate the identification of DNA polymorphisms useful for gene linkage studies and the diagnosis of genetic diseases

  20. Preconditioned conjugate gradient technique for the analysis of symmetric anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) technique and a computational procedure are presented for the analysis of symmetric anisotropic structures. The technique is based on selecting the preconditioning matrix as the orthotropic part of the global stiffness matrix of the structure, with all the nonorthotropic terms set equal to zero. This particular choice of the preconditioning matrix results in reducing the size of the analysis model of the anisotropic structure to that of the corresponding orthotropic structure. The similarities between the proposed PCG technique and a reduction technique previously presented by the authors are identified and exploited to generate from the PCG technique direct measures for the sensitivity of the different response quantities to the nonorthotropic (anisotropic) material coefficients of the structure. The effectiveness of the PCG technique is demonstrated by means of a numerical example of an anisotropic cylindrical panel.

  1. Identification techniques for phenomenological models of hysteresis based on the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Petru; Oniciuc, Liviu; Stancu, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Laurentiu

    2007-01-01

    An identification technique for the parameters of phenomenological models of hysteresis is presented. The basic idea of our technique is to set up a system of equations for the parameters of the model as a function of known quantities on the major or minor hysteresis loops (e.g. coercive force, susceptibilities at various points, remanence), or other magnetization curves. This system of equations can be either over or underspecified and is solved by using the conjugate gradient method. Numerical results related to the identification of parameters in the Energetic, Jiles-Atherton, and Preisach models are presented

  2. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Materials Research, 51147 Cologne (Germany); Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Karlsson, Anette M. [Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  3. The low thermal gradient CZ technique as a way of growing of dislocation-free germanium crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers the possibility of growth of dislocation-free germanium single crystals. This is achieved by reducing the temperature gradients at the level of 1 K/cm and lower. Single germanium crystals 45-48 mm in diameter with a dislocation density of 102 cm-2 were grown by a Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski technique (LTG CZ).

  4. Processing of semen by density gradient centrifugation selects spermatozoa with longer telomeres for assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingling; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Wanli; Dai, Shanjun; Liu, Jinhao; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Xin, Hang; Niu, Wenbing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-07-01

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes contain specialized chromatin structures called telomeres, the length of which plays a key role in early human embryonic development. Although the effect of sperm preparation techniques on major sperm characteristics, such as concentration, motility and morphology have been previously documented, the possible status of telomere length and its relation with sperm preparation techniques is not well-known for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of density gradient centrifugation in the selection of spermatozoa with longer telomeres for use in assisted reproduction techniques in 105 samples before and after sperm processing. After density gradient centrifugation, the average telomere length of the sperm was significantly longer (6.51 ± 2.54 versus 5.16 ± 2.29, P average motile sperm rate was significantly higher (77.9 ± 11.8 versus 44.6 ± 11.2, P average DNA fragmentation rate was significantly lower (11.1 ± 5.9 versus 25.9 ± 12.9, P sperm count (rs = 0.58; P sperm with longer telomeres. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency-domain beamformers using conjugate gradient techniques for speech enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengkui; Jones, Douglas L; Khoo, Suiyang; Man, Zhihong

    2014-09-01

    A multiple-iteration constrained conjugate gradient (MICCG) algorithm and a single-iteration constrained conjugate gradient (SICCG) algorithm are proposed to realize the widely used frequency-domain minimum-variance-distortionless-response (MVDR) beamformers and the resulting algorithms are applied to speech enhancement. The algorithms are derived based on the Lagrange method and the conjugate gradient techniques. The implementations of the algorithms avoid any form of explicit or implicit autocorrelation matrix inversion. Theoretical analysis establishes formal convergence of the algorithms. Specifically, the MICCG algorithm is developed based on a block adaptation approach and it generates a finite sequence of estimates that converge to the MVDR solution. For limited data records, the estimates of the MICCG algorithm are better than the conventional estimators and equivalent to the auxiliary vector algorithms. The SICCG algorithm is developed based on a continuous adaptation approach with a sample-by-sample updating procedure and the estimates asymptotically converge to the MVDR solution. An illustrative example using synthetic data from a uniform linear array is studied and an evaluation on real data recorded by an acoustic vector sensor array is demonstrated. Performance of the MICCG algorithm and the SICCG algorithm are compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  6. A forward model and conjugate gradient inversion technique for low-frequency ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W A; Wright, William M D

    2006-10-01

    Emerging methods of hyperthermia cancer treatment require noninvasive temperature monitoring, and ultrasonic techniques show promise in this regard. Various tomographic algorithms are available that reconstruct sound speed or contrast profiles, which can be related to temperature distribution. The requirement of a high enough frequency for adequate spatial resolution and a low enough frequency for adequate tissue penetration is a difficult compromise. In this study, the feasibility of using low frequency ultrasound for imaging and temperature monitoring was investigated. The transient probing wave field had a bandwidth spanning the frequency range 2.5-320.5 kHz. The results from a forward model which computed the propagation and scattering of low-frequency acoustic pressure and velocity wave fields were used to compare three imaging methods formulated within the Born approximation, representing two main types of reconstruction. The first uses Fourier techniques to reconstruct sound-speed profiles from projection or Radon data based on optical ray theory, seen as an asymptotical limit for comparison. The second uses backpropagation and conjugate gradient inversion methods based on acoustical wave theory. The results show that the accuracy in localization was 2.5 mm or better when using low frequencies and the conjugate gradient inversion scheme, which could be used for temperature monitoring.

  7. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  9. Empirical gradient threshold technique for automated segmentation across image modalities and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, J; Majurski, M; Peskin, A; Breen, C; Bajcsy, P; Brady, M

    2015-10-01

    New microscopy technologies are enabling image acquisition of terabyte-sized data sets consisting of hundreds of thousands of images. In order to retrieve and analyze the biological information in these large data sets, segmentation is needed to detect the regions containing cells or cell colonies. Our work with hundreds of large images (each 21,000×21,000 pixels) requires a segmentation method that: (1) yields high segmentation accuracy, (2) is applicable to multiple cell lines with various densities of cells and cell colonies, and several imaging modalities, (3) can process large data sets in a timely manner, (4) has a low memory footprint and (5) has a small number of user-set parameters that do not require adjustment during the segmentation of large image sets. None of the currently available segmentation methods meet all these requirements. Segmentation based on image gradient thresholding is fast and has a low memory footprint. However, existing techniques that automate the selection of the gradient image threshold do not work across image modalities, multiple cell lines, and a wide range of foreground/background densities (requirement 2) and all failed the requirement for robust parameters that do not require re-adjustment with time (requirement 5). We present a novel and empirically derived image gradient threshold selection method for separating foreground and background pixels in an image that meets all the requirements listed above. We quantify the difference between our approach and existing ones in terms of accuracy, execution speed, memory usage and number of adjustable parameters on a reference data set. This reference data set consists of 501 validation images with manually determined segmentations and image sizes ranging from 0.36 Megapixels to 850 Megapixels. It includes four different cell lines and two image modalities: phase contrast and fluorescent. Our new technique, called Empirical Gradient Threshold (EGT), is derived from this reference

  10. Compensation of spatial system response in SPECT with conjugate gradient reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiconi, A.R.; Pupi, A.; Passeri, A.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure for determination of the system matrix in single photon emission tomography (SPECT) is described which use a conjugate gradient reconstruction technique to take into account the variable system resolution of a camera equipped with parallel-hole collimators. The procedure involves acquisition of system line spread functions (LSF) in the region occupied by the object studied. Those data are used to generate a set of weighting factors based on the assumption that the LSFs of the collimated camera are of Gaussian shape with full width at half maximum (FWHM) linearly dependent on source depth in the span of image space. Factors are stored on a disc file for subsequent use in reconstruction. Afterwards reconstruction is performed using the conjugate gradient method with the system matrix modified by incorporation of these precalculated factors to take into account variable geometrical system response. The set of weighting factors is regenerated whenever acquisition conditions are changed (collimator, radius of rotation) with an ultra high resolution (UHR) collimator 2000 weighting factors need to be calculated. (author)

  11. A novel technique for real-time estimation of edge pedestal density gradients via reflectometer time delay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L., E-mail: zeng@fusion.gat.com; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Sung, C.; Peebles, W. A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bobrek, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6006 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new model-based technique for fast estimation of the pedestal electron density gradient has been developed. The technique uses ordinary mode polarization profile reflectometer time delay data and does not require direct profile inversion. Because of its simple data processing, the technique can be readily implemented via a Field-Programmable Gate Array, so as to provide a real-time density gradient estimate, suitable for use in plasma control systems such as envisioned for ITER, and possibly for DIII-D and Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The method is based on a simple edge plasma model with a linear pedestal density gradient and low scrape-off-layer density. By measuring reflectometer time delays for three adjacent frequencies, the pedestal density gradient can be estimated analytically via the new approach. Using existing DIII-D profile reflectometer data, the estimated density gradients obtained from the new technique are found to be in good agreement with the actual density gradients for a number of dynamic DIII-D plasma conditions.

  12. The effect of swim-up and gradient sperm preparation techniques on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation in subfertile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Yuksel; Guler, Ismail; Erdem, Ahmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Gumuslu, Seyhan; Oktem, Mesut; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Mehmet

    2018-03-23

    To compare the effect of two different sperm preparation techniques, including swim-up and gradient methods on sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation status of semen samples from unexplained and mild male factor subfertile patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI). A prospective randomized study was conducted in 65 subfertile patients, including 34 unexplained and 31 male factor infertility to compare basal and post-procedure DNA fragmentation rates in swim-up and gradient techniques. Sperm DNA fragmentation rates were evaluated by a sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in two portions of each sample of semen that was prepared with either swim-up or gradient techniques. Sperm motility and morphology were also assessed based on WHO 2010 criteria. Swim-up but not gradient method yielded a statistically significant reduction in the DNA fragmented sperm rate after preparation as compared to basal rates, in the semen samples of both unexplained (41.85 ± 22.04 vs. 28.58 ± 21.93, p gradient) and mild male factor (46.61 ± 19.38 vs. 30.32 ± 18.20, p gradient) subgroups. Swim-up method significantly reduces sperm DNA fragmentation rates and may have some prognostic value on intrauterine insemination in patients with decreased sperm DNA integrity.

  13. Imaging of the brain using the fast-spin-echo and gradient-spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umek, W.; Ba-Ssalamah, A.; Prokesch, R.; Mallek, R.; Heimberger, K.; Hittmair, K.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare gradient-spin-echo (GRASE) to fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequences for fast T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain. Thirty-one patients with high-signal-intensity lesions on T2-weighted images were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. The FSE and GRASE sequences with identical sequence parameters were obtained and compared side by side. Image assessment criteria included lesion conspicuity, contrast between different types of normal tissue, and image artifacts. In addition, signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise, and contrast ratios and were determined. The FSE technique demonstrated more lesions than GRASE and with generally better conspicuity. Smaller lesions in particular were better demonstrated on FSE because of lower image noise and slightly weaker image artifacts. Gray-white differentiation was better on FSE. Ferritin and hemosiderin depositions appeared darker on GRASE, which resulted in better contrast. Fatty tissue was less bright on GRASE. With current standard hardware equipment, the FSE technique seems preferable to GRASE for fast T2-weighted routine MR imaging of the brain. For the assessment of hemosiderin or ferritin depositions, GRASE might be considered. (orig.)

  14. Acceptable solutions obtained by unfolding noisy data with a conjugate gradient technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    A linear resolution function in a physical measurement leads to data values and standard deviations at, say, N points. It is noted that the associated resolution functions may require that a number n of particular linear combinations of the data values be each not significantly different from zero. One is left with at most N-n parameters to evaluate. If the resolution functions are reasonably behaved, one can show that one sensible way to describe the underlying spectrum treats it as a linear combination of the given resolution functions and includes all the significant information from the data. An iterative search for the best component available to minimize the chi-square of the next fit to the data leads to a conjugate gradient technique. Programs based on the technique have been successfully used to obtain neutron spectra as a function of energy; in raw data from a pulse height analysis of proton recoils in a proportional counter, and where the raw data are time of flight spectra from a time dependent pulse of known form. It is planned to incorporate these, together with working programs respectively for photonuclear analysis and to explore the impurity concentration profile in a surface, into a single ''work-bench'' type program. A suitably difficult model unfolding problem has been developed and used to show the strengths and weaknesses of a number of other methods that have been used for unfolding

  15. Adjustment technique without explicit formation of normal equations /conjugate gradient method/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N. K.

    1974-01-01

    For a simultaneous adjustment of a large geodetic triangulation system, a semiiterative technique is modified and used successfully. In this semiiterative technique, known as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, original observation equations are used, and thus the explicit formation of normal equations is avoided, 'huge' computer storage space being saved in the case of triangulation systems. This method is suitable even for very poorly conditioned systems where solution is obtained only after more iterations. A detailed study of the CG method for its application to large geodetic triangulation systems was done that also considered constraint equations with observation equations. It was programmed and tested on systems as small as two unknowns and three equations up to those as large as 804 unknowns and 1397 equations. When real data (573 unknowns, 965 equations) from a 1858-km-long triangulation system were used, a solution vector accurate to four decimal places was obtained in 2.96 min after 1171 iterations (i.e., 2.0 times the number of unknowns).

  16. Adsorption combined with superconducting high gradient magnetic separation technique used for removal of arsenic and antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zenglu; Joshi, Tista Prasai; Liu, Ruiping; Li, Yiran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-02-05

    Manganese iron oxide (MnFe 2 O 4 ), an excellent arsenic(As)/antimony(Sb) removal adsorbent, is greatly restricted for the solid-liquid separation. Through the application of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technique, we herein constructed a facility for the in situ solid-liquid separation of micro-sized MnFe 2 O 4 adsorbent in As/Sb removal process. To the relative low initial concentration 50.0μgL -1 , MnFe 2 O 4 material sorbent can still decrease As or Sb below US EPA's drinking water standard limit. The separation of MnFe 2 O 4 was mainly relied on the flow rate and the amount of steel wools in the HGMS system. At a flow rate 1Lmin -1 and 5% steel wools filling rate, the removal efficacies of As and Sb in natural water with the system were achieved to be 94.6% and 76.8%, respectively. At the meantime, nearly 100% micro-sized MnFe 2 O 4 solid in the continuous field was readily to be separated via HGMS system. In a combination with the experiment results and finite element simulation, the separation was seemed to be independent on the magnetic field intensity, and the maximum separation capacities in various conditions were well predicted using the Thomas model (R 2 =0.87-0.99). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of renal function with dynamic MRI-T2-weighted gradient echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic MRI of kidneys in healthy volunteers and patients with different 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) levels, a dynamic study that employed the T2 weighted gradient echo technique (FLASH: TR/TE=34/25 msec, flip angle= 20 degrees) with single images during breathhold was performed on 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients, all examined for the Ccr and suspected of having renal parenchymal disease after a phantom study. T1-weighted and dynamic MR imagings were obtained with a 1.5T imager. I analyzed the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and medulla, and defined a cortex decreased ratio (CDR) and medulla decreased ratio (MDR) in comparison with the Ccr. The cortico-medullary difference ratio (CMDR) of T1WI was also compared with the Ccr. The parameters of the T2 dynamic MRI study (CDR, MDR) better correlated with the Ccr than CMDR. Renal function can be quantitatively evaluated with the T2 dynamic MRI and there is a possibility that we can qualitatively evaluate the renal dysfunction and estimate its cause. (author)

  18. New resin gel for uranium determination by diffusive gradient in thin films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregusova, Michaela; Docekal, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    A new resin gel based on Spheron-Oxin chelating ion-exchanger with anchored 8-hydroxyquinoline functional groups was tested for application in diffusive gradient in thin film technique (DGT) for determination of uranium. Selectivity of uranium uptake from model carbonate loaded solutions of natural water was studied under laboratory conditions and compared with selectivity of the conventional Chelex 100 based resin gel. The affinity of Spheron-Oxin functional groups enables determination of the overall uranium concentration in water containing carbonates up to the concentration level of 10 2 mg L -1 . The effect of uranium binding to the polyacrylamide (APA) and agarose diffusive gels (AGE) was also studied. Uranium is probably bound in both gels by a weak interaction with traces of acrylic acid groups in the structure of APA gel and with pyruvic and sulfonic acid groups in the AGE gel. These sorption effects can be eliminated to the negligible level by prolonged deployment of DGT probes or by disassembling probes after the 1-2 days post-sampling period that is sufficient for release of uranium from diffusive gel and its sorption in resin gel.

  19. New resin gel for uranium determination by diffusive gradient in thin films technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregusova, Michaela, E-mail: gregusova@iach.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Docekal, Bohumil [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-17

    A new resin gel based on Spheron-Oxin chelating ion-exchanger with anchored 8-hydroxyquinoline functional groups was tested for application in diffusive gradient in thin film technique (DGT) for determination of uranium. Selectivity of uranium uptake from model carbonate loaded solutions of natural water was studied under laboratory conditions and compared with selectivity of the conventional Chelex 100 based resin gel. The affinity of Spheron-Oxin functional groups enables determination of the overall uranium concentration in water containing carbonates up to the concentration level of 10{sup 2} mg L{sup -1}. The effect of uranium binding to the polyacrylamide (APA) and agarose diffusive gels (AGE) was also studied. Uranium is probably bound in both gels by a weak interaction with traces of acrylic acid groups in the structure of APA gel and with pyruvic and sulfonic acid groups in the AGE gel. These sorption effects can be eliminated to the negligible level by prolonged deployment of DGT probes or by disassembling probes after the 1-2 days post-sampling period that is sufficient for release of uranium from diffusive gel and its sorption in resin gel.

  20. Alternative sample-introduction technique to avoid breakthrough in gradient-elution liquid chromatography of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reingruber, E.; Bedani, F.; Buchberger, W.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach

  1. Determination of moisture content gradient in wood by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1981-01-01

    A new methodology for determining water content gradients in wood was developed. It was based on the low energy gamma ray attenuation. Two equations were proposed for determining wood water content, below and above the fiber saturation point. A series of measurents of moisture content gradients in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made, during drying in an environment with controlled relative humidity and temperature. The water cntent gradients determination was quick, non-destructive and presented sensitivity and accuracy in moisture content range from 9% to 150%. Aspects of the application of this methodology in water diffusion and flow studies in wood are discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Detection of human DNA polymorphisms with a simplified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, W W; Collins, M

    1987-01-01

    Single base pair differences between otherwise identical DNA molecules can result in altered melting behavior detectable by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We have developed a simplified procedure for using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect base pair changes in genomic DNA. Genomic DNA is digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized in solution to labeled single-stranded probe DNA. The excess probe is then hybridized to complementary phage M13 template DNA, and th...

  3. Arbitrary magnetic field gradient waveform correction using an impulse response based pre-equalization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goora, Frédéric G; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    The time-varying magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance applications result in the induction of eddy currents on conductive structures in the vicinity of both the sample under investigation and the gradient coils. These eddy currents typically result in undesired degradations of image quality for MRI applications. Their ubiquitous nature has resulted in the development of various approaches to characterize and minimize their impact on image quality. This paper outlines a method that utilizes the magnetic field gradient waveform monitor method to directly measure the temporal evolution of the magnetic field gradient from a step-like input function and extracts the system impulse response. With the basic assumption that the gradient system is sufficiently linear and time invariant to permit system theory analysis, the impulse response is used to determine a pre-equalized (optimized) input waveform that provides a desired gradient response at the output of the system. An algorithm has been developed that calculates a pre-equalized waveform that may be accurately reproduced by the amplifier (is physically realizable) and accounts for system limitations including system bandwidth, amplifier slew rate capabilities, and noise inherent in the initial measurement. Significant improvements in magnetic field gradient waveform fidelity after pre-equalization have been realized and are summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  5. A new technique for MR elastography of the supraspinatus muscle: A gradient-echo type multi-echo sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daiki; Numano, Tomokazu; Mizuhara, Kazuyuki; Takamoto, Koichi; Onishi, Takaaki; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) can measure tissue stiffness quantitatively and noninvasively. Supraspinatus muscle injury is a significant problem among throwing athletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an MRE technique for application to the supraspinatus muscle by using a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRE acquisitions were performed with a gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence at 100Hz pneumatic vibration. A custom-designed vibration pad was used as a pneumatic transducer in order to adapt to individual shoulder shapes. In a gradient-echo type multi-echo MR sequence, without motion encoding gradient (MEG) that synchronizes with vibrations, bipolar readout gradient lobes achieved a similar function to MEG (MEG-like effect). In other words, a dedicated MRE sequence (built-in MEG) is not always necessary for MRE. In this study, 7 healthy volunteers underwent MRE. We investigated the effects of direction of the MEG-like effect and selected imaging planes on the patterns of wave propagation (wave image). The results indicated that wave images showed clear wave propagation on a condition that the direction of the MEG-like effect was nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the supraspinatus muscle, and that the imaging plane was superior to the proximal supraspinatus muscle. This limited condition might be ascribed to specific features of fibers in the supraspinatus muscle and wave reflection from the boundaries of the supraspinous fossa. The mean stiffness of the supraspinatus muscle was 10.6±3.17kPa. Our results demonstrated that using MRE, our method can be applied to the supraspinatus muscle by using conventional MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylmercury speciation in the dissolved phase of a stratified lake using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, Olivier [Trent University, Department of Chemistry, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: olivier.clarisse@umoncton.ca; Foucher, Delphine; Hintelmann, Holger [Trent University, Department of Chemistry, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    The diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique was successfully used to monitor methylmercury (MeHg) speciation in the dissolved phase of a stratified boreal lake, Lake 658 of the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada. Water samples were conventionally analysed for MeHg, sulfides, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). MeHg accumulated by DGT devices was compared to MeHg concentration measured conventionally in water samples to establish MeHg speciation. In the epilimnion, MeHg was almost entirely bound to DOM. In the top of the hypolimnion an additional labile fraction was identified, and at the bottom of the lake a significant fraction of MeHg was potentially associated to colloidal material. As part of the METAALICUS project, isotope enriched inorganic mercury was applied to Lake 658 and its watershed for several years to establish the relationship between atmospheric Hg deposition and Hg in fish. Little or no difference in MeHg speciation in the dissolved phase was detected between ambient and spike MeHg. - Methylmercury speciation was determined in the dissolved phase of a stratified lake using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique.

  7. Methylmercury speciation in the dissolved phase of a stratified lake using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, Olivier; Foucher, Delphine; Hintelmann, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique was successfully used to monitor methylmercury (MeHg) speciation in the dissolved phase of a stratified boreal lake, Lake 658 of the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada. Water samples were conventionally analysed for MeHg, sulfides, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). MeHg accumulated by DGT devices was compared to MeHg concentration measured conventionally in water samples to establish MeHg speciation. In the epilimnion, MeHg was almost entirely bound to DOM. In the top of the hypolimnion an additional labile fraction was identified, and at the bottom of the lake a significant fraction of MeHg was potentially associated to colloidal material. As part of the METAALICUS project, isotope enriched inorganic mercury was applied to Lake 658 and its watershed for several years to establish the relationship between atmospheric Hg deposition and Hg in fish. Little or no difference in MeHg speciation in the dissolved phase was detected between ambient and spike MeHg. - Methylmercury speciation was determined in the dissolved phase of a stratified lake using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique

  8. Improving the performance of IPMCs with a gradient in thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Bing; Zheng, Gaofeng; Zheng, Jianyi; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhuang, Mingfeng; Sun, Daoheng

    2013-01-01

    An ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a kind of electro-active polymer. Due to the properties of low driving voltage, large deformation, flexibility and lightness, it is becoming one of the more popular from a diversity of smart materials. In this study, a novel structure of Nafion ® film is proposed to improve the performance of an IPMC. IPMC samples with a gradient structure in thickness are fabricated and their performance is investigated to confirm the validity of the gradient structure. The deformation displacement and the blocking force are compared under AC and DC voltage by experiments. The results indicate that the structure of gradient in thickness would improve the performance both in deformation displacement and blocking force. (paper)

  9. Measurement of the temperature Gradient in air using Talbot effect and Moire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoly, M.T.; Rasouli, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we have exploited the self-imaging or Talbot effect and Moire technique to measure the temperature distribution in the air enclosed between two paral led plates of different temperatures. This study shows that for the plates width of 60 cm a change of 1 d egC in 1 cm can be easily detected

  10. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  11. Layout-Driven Post-Placement Techniques for Temperature Reduction and Thermal Gradient Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    With the continuing scaling of CMOS technology, on-chip temperature and thermal-induced variations have become a major design concern. To effectively limit the high temperature in a chip equipped with a cost-effective cooling system, thermal specific approaches, besides low power techniques, are ...

  12. Characterization of urban particulate matter by diffusive gradients in thin film technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufka, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 9698710. ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thin film technique * urban particulate matter * particulate air pollution Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2016

  13. High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramics–titanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Schell, N.; Lang, H.; Burkel, E.

    2014-01-01

    A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is α-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable. - Highlights: • High energy XRD studies of dental ceramics–Ti gradient material consolidated by FAST. • Phase composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are determined. • Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient following weight fraction of Ti. • Lattice mismatch leading to internal stress is calculated over the whole gradient. • Internal stress in α-Ti embedded in the gradient is smaller than its yield strength

  14. Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

  15. Prediction of mercury bioavailability to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcová, Pavlína; Vičarová, Petra; Ridošková, Andrea; Dočekalová, Hana; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Poštulková, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The mercury bioaccumulation by common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues (gills, skin, eyes, scales, muscle, brain, kidneys, liver, and spleen) and the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique to predict bioavailability of mercury for individual carp's tissues were evaluated. Carp and DGT units were exposed to increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg 2+ : 0 μg L -1 , 0.5 μg L -1 , 1.5 μg L -1 and 3.0 μg L -1 ) in fish tanks for 14 days. In the uncontaminated fish group, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the muscle tissues and, in fish groups exposed to mercury, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the detoxification (kidneys) and input (gills) organs. A strong and positive correlation between the rate of mercury uptake by the DGT technique and the rate of mercury accumulation by fish tissues (gills, skin, scales, and eyes) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of a diffusive gradients in a thin film technique for measuring ammonium in freshwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.

    2016-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique, using Microlite PrCH cation exchange resin, was developed and evaluated for measuring NH4-N in freshwaters. Microlite PrCH had high uptake (>92.5%) and elution efficiencies (87.2% using 2 mol L-1 NaCl). Mass vs. time validation experiments...... over 24 h demonstrated excellent linearity (R2 ≥ 0.996). PrCH-DGT binding layers had an extremely high intrinsic binding capacity for NH4-N (~3000 μg). NH4-N uptake was quantitative over pH ranges 3.5-8.5 and ionic strength (up to 0.012 mol L-1 as NaCl) typical of freshwater systems. Several cations...... (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to compete with NH4-N for uptake by PrCH-DGT, but NH4-N uptake was quantitative over concentration ranges typical of freshwater (up to 0.012 mol L-1 Na+, 0.006 mol L-1 K+, 0.003 mol L-1 Ca2+ and 0.004 mol L-1 Mg2+). Effective diffusion coefficients determined from...

  17. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Irradiation: Organ-at-Risk Exposure and a Low-Gradient Junctioning Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Joshua B.; Grant, Jonathan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Mahajan, Anita; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare field junction robustness and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to conventional passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients, 5 adult and 5 pediatric patients, previously treated with PSPT-based CSI were selected for comparison. Anterior oblique cranial fields, using a superior couch rotation, and posterior spinal fields were used for IMPT planning. To facilitate low-gradient field junctioning along the spine, the inverse-planning IMPT technique was divided into 3 stages. Dose indices describing target coverage and normal tissue dose, in silico error modeling, and film dosimetry were used to assess plan quality. Results: Field junction robustness along the spine was improved using the staged IMPT planning technique, reducing the worst case impact of a 4-mm setup error from 25% in PSPT to <5% of prescription dose. This was verified by film dosimetry for clinical delivery. Exclusive of thyroid dose in adult patients, IMPT plans demonstrated sparing of organs at risk as good or better than PSPT. Coverage of the cribriform plate for pediatric (V95% [percentage of volume of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose]; 87 ± 11 vs 92 ± 7) and adult (V95%; 94 ± 7 vs 100 ± 1) patients and the clinical target in pediatric (V95%; 98 ± 2 vs 100 ± 1) and adult (V95%; 100 ± 1 vs 100 ± 1) patients for PSPT and IMPT plans, respectively, were comparable or improved. For adult patients, IMPT target dose inhomogeneity was increased, as determined by heterogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). IMPT lowered maximum spinal cord dose, improved spinal dose homogeneity, and reduced exposure to other OARs. Conclusions: IMPT has the potential to improve CSI plan quality and the homogeneity of intrafractional dose at match lines. The IMPT approach developed may also simplify treatments and reduce

  18. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  19. Influence of thermal gradient on gas turbine combustor wall using impingement/effusion cooling techniques: CHT CFD predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. El-jummah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal wall heat transfer relevant to impingement/effusion cooling techniques was investigated using conjugate heat transfer (CHT computational fluid dynamics (CFD with ANSYS Fluent and ICEM commercial software. This work concentrates on the development of CHT CFD design procedures that are applicable to combustor wall and turbine blade heat transfer optimisation in gas turbine (GT. It specifically modelled and compares two configuration which are specifically relevant to the impingement and effusion holes density n (m-2 and is the ratio of the hole pitch X2. The configurations investigated are equal and unequal impingement and effusion holes density n (m-2, respectively, whereby in each case the variation in the number of cooling holes were carried out. The ratio of impingement and effusion number of holes/m2 (or hole density n, investigated were impingement/effusion: 4306/4306 and 1076/4306, respectively. The geometries were for impingement wall, hole pitch X to diameter D, X/D ratio of ~ 11 but different number of holes N for both n geometries, at a constant offset effusion wall, hole X/D of 4.7 of the same N for both the two configurations. The model geometries have a constant impingement gap of 8 mm with both impingement and effusion walls at 6.35 mm thick Nimonic - 75 material and were computed for varied air mass flux G from 0.1 - 0.94 kg/sm2. Symmetrical applications were employed in modelling each of the geometry, whereby for the impingement hole, only quarter of one hole was modelled, while for the effusion side the holes were either quarter or half modelled. The two n geometries were computed with k - ɛ turbulence model using standard wall functions, which also applies to all G. The predicted locally surface X2 (or hole square area average heat transfer coefficient (HTC h values compared with with previously published experimental data showed good agreement. The reduced internal gap flow recirculation with reduced heat transfer to

  20. Fat-suppressed three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo imaging: a modified FS 3D SPGR technique for assessment of patellofemoral joint chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S F; Cheng, H C; Chang, C Y

    1999-01-01

    Fast fat-suppressed (FS) three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-recalled echo (SPGR) imaging of 64 articular cartilage regions in 16 patellofemoral joints was evaluated to assess its feasibility in diagnosing patellofemoral chondromalacia. It demonstrated good correlation with arthroscopic reports and took about half of the examination time that FS 3D SPGR did. This modified, faster technique has the potential to diagnose patellofemoral chondromalacia with shorter examination time than FS 3D SPGR did.

  1. Multi-Dimensional Quantum Effect Simulation Using a Density-Gradient Model and Script-Level Programming Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Connor S.; Biegel, Bryan A.; Yu, Zhi-Ping; Ancona, Mario G.; Bude, J.; Dutton, Robert W.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A density-gradient (DG) model is used to calculate quantum-mechanical corrections to classical carrier transport in MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) inversion/accumulation layers. The model is compared to measured data and to a fully self-consistent coupled Schrodinger and Poisson equation (SCSP) solver. Good agreement is demonstrated for MOS capacitors with gate oxide as thin as 21 A. It is then applied to study carrier distribution in ultra short MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) with surface roughness. This work represents the first implementation of the DG formulation on multidimensional unstructured meshes. It was enabled by a powerful scripting approach which provides an easy-to-use and flexible framework for solving the fourth-order PDEs (Partial Differential Equation) of the DG model.

  2. Skin-Friction Measurements in An Incompressible Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer. Review of Techniques and Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kornilov, V

    2002-01-01

    .... However, to define this value accurately, one should have a clear conception of the possibilities and efficiency of application of one or another technique for a special case of body flow around...

  3. Comparison of dynamic dual spin-echo and fast-gradient-echo techniques in the evaluation of cardiac diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, R.I.; Eisner, R.L.; Groen, J.P.; Baron, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative roles of a dynamic spin-echo method and a fast acquisition with multiphase excitations (FAME) technique, ten patients with myocardial infarction (MI), five with myocardial masses, and five healthy patients were studied with both methods. The dynamic dual-spin-echo (DSE) technique allows acquisition of each of seven sections at 14 cardiac phases in 20 minutes. Wall motion abnormalities were seen equally well with both techniques, but FAME usually required a shorter study time (10 minutes). DSE, however, was superior for evaluating cardiac masses and provided superior wall blood contrast. Thus, these techniques are complementary, and both are now a routine part of the authors' study of cardiac patients

  4. New diffusive gradients in a thin film technique for measuring inorganic arsenic and selenium(IV) using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William W.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Panther, Jared G.

    2010-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique, using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent (Metsorb), has been developed and evaluated for the determination of dissolved inorganic arsenic and selenium. AsIII, AsV, and SeIV were found to be quantitatively accumulated by the adsorbent (uptake...... measurement of inorganic arsenic. Reproducibility of the technique in field deployments was good (relative standard deviation arsenic and 0.05 μg L-1 for SeIV. The results of this study confirmed that DGT with Metsorb was a reliable...... and robust method for the measurement of inorganic arsenic and the selective measurement of SeIV within useful limits of accuracy....

  5. Application of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique as an efficient diagnostic tool for ciliate communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Nikolausz, Marcell; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-02-01

    Ciliates (or Ciliophora) are ubiquitous organisms which can be widely used as bioindicators in ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic and industrial influences. The evaluation of the environmental impact on soil ciliate communities with methods relying on morphology-based identification may be hampered by the large number of samples usually required for a statistically supported, reliable conclusion. Cultivation-independent molecular-biological diagnostic tools are a promising alternative to greatly simplify and accelerate such studies. In this present work a ciliate-specific fingerprint method based on the amplification of a phylogenetic marker gene (i.e. the 18S ribosomal RNA gene) with subsequent analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed and used to monitor community shifts in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil. The semi-nested approach generated ciliate-specific amplification products from all soil samples and allowed to distinguish community profiles from a PAH-polluted and a non-polluted control soil. Subsequent sequence analysis of excised bands provided evidence that polluted soil samples are dominated by organisms belonging to the class Colpodea. The general DGGE approach presented in this study might thus in principle serve as a fast and reproducible diagnostic tool, complementing and facilitating future ecological and ecotoxicological monitoring of ciliates in polluted habitats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekalová, H.; Škarpa, P.; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, March (2015), s. 153-157 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : radish * cadmium * copper * DGT technique * bioaccesibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.035, year: 2015

  7. Investigation of orientation gradients around a hard Laves particle in a warm-rolled Fe3Al-based alloy using a 3D EBSD-FIB technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, J.; Zaefferer, S.; Raabe, D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the microstructure around a hard Laves particle in a warm-rolled intermetallic Fe 3 Al-based alloy. The experiments are conducted using a system for three-dimensional orientation microscopy (3D electron backscattering diffraction, EBSD). The approach is realized by a combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning with high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy with EBSD. We observe the formation of steep 3D orientation gradients in the Fe 3 Al matrix around the rigid precipitate which entail in part particle-stimulated nucleation events in the immediate vicinity of the particle. The orientation gradients assume a characteristic pattern around the particle in the transverse plane while revealing an elongated tubular morphology in the rolling direction. However, they do not reveal a characteristic common rotation axis. Recovered areas in the matrix appear both in the transverse and rolling directions around the particle. The work demonstrates that the new 3D EBSD-FIB technique provides a new level of microstructure information that cannot be achieved by conventional 2D-EBSD analysis

  8. Thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth (GREG) technique using photoacoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor-Aguilera, M.L.; Gonzalez-Trujillo, M.A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Tufino-Velazquez, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report the study of the thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth technique. CdS films were grown on pyrex glass substrates. These studies were carried out using an open photoacoustic cell made out of an electret microphone. From X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence measurements we observed polycrystalline CdS films with good morphology and crystalline quality. We obtained a thermal diffusivity coefficient of our samples with values ranging from 3.15 to 3.89 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s. For comparison, we measured a value of 1.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s for the thermal diffusivity coefficient of a CdS single crystal. We measured an energy gap value of 2.42 eV for our samples by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy system

  9. Uranium aqueous speciation in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites using the diffusive gradients in thin films and ultrafiltration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzak, Jagoda; Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Elskens, Marc; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2016-03-24

    The performance of the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique with Chelex(®)-100, Metsorb™ and Diphonix(®) as binding phases was evaluated in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites of Chardon and L'Ecarpière (Loire-Atlantique department in western France). This is the first time that the DGT technique with three different binding agents was employed for the aqueous U determination in the context of uranium mining environments. The fractionation and speciation of uranium were investigated using a multi-methodological approach using filtration (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm), ultrafiltration (500 kDa, 100 kDa and 10 kDa) coupled to geochemical speciation modelling (PhreeQC) and the DGT technique. The ultrafiltration data showed that at each sampling point uranium was present mostly in the 10 kDa truly dissolved fraction and the geochemical modelling speciation calculations indicated that U speciation was markedly predominated by CaUO2(CO3)3(2-). In natural waters, no significant difference was observed in terms of U uptake between Chelex(®)-100 and Metsorb™, while similar or inferior U uptake was observed on Diphonix(®) resin. In turn, at mining influenced sampling spots, the U accumulation on DGT-Diphonix(®) was higher than on DGT-Chelex(®)-100 and DGT-Metsorb™, probably because their performance was disturbed by the extreme composition of the mining waters. The use of Diphonix(®) resin leads to a significant advance in the application and development of the DGT technique for determination of U in mining influenced environments. This investigation demonstrated that such multi-technique approach provides a better picture of U speciation and enables to assess more accurately the potentially bioavailable U pool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium aqueous speciation in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites using the diffusive gradients in thin films and ultrafiltration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdzak, Jagoda, E-mail: jdrozdza@vub.ac.be [Analytical, Environmental and Geochemistry (AMGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Elskens, Marc [Analytical, Environmental and Geochemistry (AMGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael [AREVA Mines – R& D Dpt., Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France)

    2016-03-24

    The performance of the Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique with Chelex{sup ®}-100, Metsorb™ and Diphonix{sup ®} as binding phases was evaluated in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites of Chardon and L'Ecarpière (Loire-Atlantique department in western France). This is the first time that the DGT technique with three different binding agents was employed for the aqueous U determination in the context of uranium mining environments. The fractionation and speciation of uranium were investigated using a multi-methodological approach using filtration (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm), ultrafiltration (500 kDa, 100 kDa and 10 kDa) coupled to geochemical speciation modelling (PhreeQC) and the DGT technique. The ultrafiltration data showed that at each sampling point uranium was present mostly in the 10 kDa truly dissolved fraction and the geochemical modelling speciation calculations indicated that U speciation was markedly predominated by CaUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 2−}. In natural waters, no significant difference was observed in terms of U uptake between Chelex{sup ®}-100 and Metsorb™, while similar or inferior U uptake was observed on Diphonix{sup ®} resin. In turn, at mining influenced sampling spots, the U accumulation on DGT-Diphonix{sup ®} was higher than on DGT-Chelex{sup ®}-100 and DGT-Metsorb™, probably because their performance was disturbed by the extreme composition of the mining waters. The use of Diphonix{sup ®} resin leads to a significant advance in the application and development of the DGT technique for determination of U in mining influenced environments. This investigation demonstrated that such multi-technique approach provides a better picture of U speciation and enables to assess more accurately the potentially bioavailable U pool. - Highlights: • The applicability of the DGT technique in the vicinity of former uranium mining sites was evaluated. • The binding selectivity order of the binding phase is

  11. Density gradient multilayered polymerization (DGMP): a novel technique for creating multi-compartment, customizable scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Barr, Shivanjali; Karpiak, Jerome V; Ner, Yogesh; Wen, Jessica H; Engler, Adam J; Almutairi, Adah

    2013-02-12

    Complex tissue culture matrices, in which types and concentrations of biological stimuli (e.g. growth factors, inhibitors, or small molecules) or matrix structure (e.g. composition, concentration, or stiffness of the matrix) vary over space, would enable a wide range of investigations concerning how these variables affect cell differentiation, migration, and other phenomena. The major challenge in creating layered matrices is maintaining the structural integrity of layer interfaces without diffusion of individual components from each layer. Current methodologies to achieve this include photopatterning, lithography, sequential functionalization5, freeze drying, microfluidics, or centrifugation, many of which require sophisticated instrumentation and technical skills. Others rely on sequential attachment of individual layers, which may lead to delamination of layers. DGMP overcomes these issues by using an inert density modifier such as iodixanol to create layers of varying densities. Since the density modifier can be mixed with any prepolymer or bioactive molecule, DGMP allows each scaffold layer to be customized. Simply varying the concentration of the density modifier prevents mixing of adjacent layers while they remain aqueous. Subsequent single step polymerization gives rise to a structurally continuous multilayered scaffold, in which each layer has distinct chemical and mechanical properties. The density modifier can be easily removed with sufficient rinsing without perturbation of the individual layers or their components. This technique is therefore well suited for creating hydrogels of various sizes, shapes, and materials. A protocol for fabricating a 2D-polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, in which alternating layers incorporate RGDS-350, is outlined below. We use PEG because it is biocompatible and inert. RGDS, a cell adhesion peptide, is used to demonstrate spatial restriction of a biological cue, and the conjugation of a fluorophore (Alexa Fluor 350) enables

  12. Mercury Distribution in the Deûle River (Northern France) Measured by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique and Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30% of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese.

  13. Comparison of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the influence of diet on ruminal bacterial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Cristina; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Abecia, Leticia; Ranilla, María José; Carro, María Dolores

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the effects of diet on diversity in bacterial pellets isolated from the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria (LAB)) and solid (solid-associated bacteria (SAB)) phase of the rumen. The four experimental diets contained forage to concentrate ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 and had either alfalfa hay or grass hay as forage. Four rumen-fistulated animals (two sheep and two goats) received the diets in a Latin square design. Bacterial pellets (LAB and SAB) were isolated at 2 h post-feeding for DNA extraction and analysed by ARISA and DGGE. The number of peaks in individual samples ranged from 48 to 99 for LAB and from 41 to 95 for SAB with ARISA, and values of DGGE-bands ranged from 27 to 50 for LAB and from 18 to 45 for SAB. The LAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals tended (p forage-fed animals with ARISA, but no differences were identified with DGGE. The SAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals had lower (p forage diets with ARISA, but only a trend was noticed for these parameters with DGGE (p forage type on LAB diversity was detected by any technique. In this study, ARISA detected some changes in ruminal bacterial communities that were not detected by DGGE, and therefore ARISA was considered more appropriate for assessing bacterial diversity of ruminal bacterial pellets. The results highlight the impact of the fingerprinting technique used to draw conclusions on dietary factors affecting bacterial diversity in ruminal bacterial pellets.

  14. A comparative study on full diagonalization of Hessian matrix and Gradient-only technique to trace out reaction path in doped noble gas clusters using stochastic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Shyamal Kumar; Chaudhury, Pinaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Estimation of critical points in Noble-gas clusters. ► Evaluation of first order saddle point or transition states. ► Construction of reaction path for structural change in clusters. ► Use of Monte-Carlo Simulated Annealing to study structural changes. - Abstract: This paper proposes Simulated Annealing based search to locate critical points in mixed noble gas clusters where Ne and Xe are individually doped in Ar-clusters. Using Lennard–Jones (LJ) atomic interaction we try to explore the search process of transformation through Minimum Energy Path (MEP) from one minimum energy geometry to another via first order saddle point on the potential energy surface of the clusters. Here we compare the results based on diagonalization of the full Hessian all through the search and quasi-gradient only technique to search saddle points and construction of reaction path (RP) for three sizes of doped Ar-clusters, (Ar) 19 Ne/Xe,(Ar) 24 Ne/Xe and (Ar) 29 Ne/Xe.

  15. Development and application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for the measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stillwell, Kathryn P.; Powell, Kipton J.; Downard, Alison J.

    2008-01-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, utilizing an iron-hydroxide adsorbent, has been investigated for the in situ accumulation of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters. Diffusion coefficients of the inorganic As V and As III species in the polyacrylamide gel were measured using a diffusion cell and DGT devices and a variety of factors that may affect the adsorption of the As species to the iron-hydroxide adsorbent, or the diffusion of the individual As species, were investigated. Under conditions commonly encountered in environmental samples, solution pH and the presence of anions, cations, fulvic acid, Fe III -fulvic acid complexes and colloidal iron-hydroxide were demonstrated not to affect uptake of dissolved As. To evaluate DGT as a method for accumulation and pre-concentration of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters, DGT was applied to two well waters and a river water that was spiked with As. For each sample, the concentration obtained with use of DGT followed by measurement by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with a Pd modifier (HG-AAS) was compared with the concentration of As measured directly by HG-AAS. The results confirmed that DGT is a reliable method for pre-concentration of total dissolved As

  16. Development and application of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique for the measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stillwell, Kathryn P.; Powell, Kipton J. [Chemistry Department, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Downard, Alison J. [Chemistry Department, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)], E-mail: alison.downard@canterbury.ac.nz

    2008-08-01

    The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, utilizing an iron-hydroxide adsorbent, has been investigated for the in situ accumulation of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters. Diffusion coefficients of the inorganic As{sup V} and As{sup III} species in the polyacrylamide gel were measured using a diffusion cell and DGT devices and a variety of factors that may affect the adsorption of the As species to the iron-hydroxide adsorbent, or the diffusion of the individual As species, were investigated. Under conditions commonly encountered in environmental samples, solution pH and the presence of anions, cations, fulvic acid, Fe{sup III}-fulvic acid complexes and colloidal iron-hydroxide were demonstrated not to affect uptake of dissolved As. To evaluate DGT as a method for accumulation and pre-concentration of total dissolved inorganic As in natural waters, DGT was applied to two well waters and a river water that was spiked with As. For each sample, the concentration obtained with use of DGT followed by measurement by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with a Pd modifier (HG-AAS) was compared with the concentration of As measured directly by HG-AAS. The results confirmed that DGT is a reliable method for pre-concentration of total dissolved As.

  17. Clinical efficacy of a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and swim-up techniques for semen processing in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples who were treated at Keio University Hospital between January 2002 and April 2012 were examined. A total of 183 ejaculates from 129 HIV-1 infected males were processed. After swim-up, we successfully collected motile sperms at a recovery rate as high as 100.0% in cases of normozoospermia (126/126 ejaculates, oligozoospermia (6/6, and asthenozoospermia (36/36. The recovery rate of oligoasthenozoospermia was 86.7% (13/15. In processed semen only four ejaculates (4/181:2.2% showed viral nucleotide sequences consistent with those in the blood of the infected males. After using these sperms, no horizontal infections of the female patients and no vertical infections of the newborns were observed. Furthermore, no obvious adverse effects were observed in the offspring. This protocol allowed us to collect HIV-1 negative motile sperms at a high rate, even in male factor cases. We concluded that our protocol is clinically effective both for decreasing HIV-1 infections and for yielding a healthy child.

  18. Harmonic elimination technique for a single-phase multilevel converter with unequal DC link voltage levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, N.; Zare, F.; Boora, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel converters, because of the benefits they attract in generating high quality output voltage, are used in several applications. Various modulation and control techniques are introduced by several researchers to control the output voltage of the multilevel converters like space vector...... modulation and harmonic elimination (HE) methods. Multilevel converters may have a DC link with equal or unequal DC voltages. In this study a new HE technique based on the HE method is proposed for multilevel converters with unequal DC link voltage. The DC link voltage levels are considered as additional...

  19. Gradient Boosting Machines, A Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey eNatekin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods. A theoretical information is complemented with many descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. A set of practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed.

  20. Determination of mercury species by the diffusive gradient in thin film technique and liquid chromatography – atomic fluorescence spectrometry after microwave extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelcová, Pavlína, E-mail: pavlina.pelcova@mendelu.cz; Dočekalová, Hana, E-mail: hana.docekalova@mendelu.cz; Kleckerová, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.kleckerova@mendelu.cz

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • DGT–MAE–LC–CV-AFS method was developed for determination of four mercury species. • The microwave extraction was used for isolation of mercury species from resin gels. • Optimized DGT–MAE–LC–CV-AFS method provides low detection limits (13–38 ng L{sup −1}). • The diffusion coefficients of four mercury species were simultaneously determined. - Abstract: A diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT) was combined with liquid chromatography (LC) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS) for the simultaneous quantification of four mercury species (Hg{sup 2+}, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Hg{sup +}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Hg{sup +}). After diffusion through an agarose diffusive layer, the mercury species were accumulated in resin gels containing thiol-functionalized ion-exchange resins (Duolite GT73, and Ambersep GT74). A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) in the presence of 6 M HCl and 5 M HCl (55 °C, 15 min) was used for isolation of mercury species from Ambersep and Duolite resin gels, respectively. The extraction efficiency was higher than 95.0% (RSD 3.5%). The mercury species were separated with a mobile phase containing 6.2% methanol + 0.05% 2-mercaptoethanol + 0.02 M ammonium acetate with a stepwise increase of methanol content up to 80% in the 16th min on a Zorbax C18 reverse phase column. The LODs of DGT–MAE–LC–CV-AFS method were 38 ng L{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}, 13 ng L{sup −1} for Hg{sup 2+}, 34 ng L{sup −1} for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Hg{sup +} and 30 ng L{sup −1} for C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Hg{sup +} for 24 h DGT accumulation at 25 °C.

  1. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is ca...

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF DOUBLE WASH SWIM-UP VERSUS DOUBLE DENSITY GRADIENT SWIM-UP TECHNIQUE OF SPERM PREPARATION IN IN VITRO FERTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sangisapu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recovery of optimum number of good quality of spermatozoa is an important component of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF. This is achieved by sperm preparation methods involving separation and recovery of capacitated sperms. Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU and Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU are two most accepted methods. Cochrane systematic review (2007 finds no clear benefit of one method over the other in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI. Systematic review on effectiveness of these preparations in IVF is lacking. Effectiveness is generally assessed in terms recovery rates of the sperms. Capability of successful fertilisation of good quality oocytes should ideally be the functional endpoint for evaluating effectiveness of sperm preparation methods. The aim of the study is to1. Compare the successful fertilisation rates of oocytes inseminated by semen preparation of Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU vis-a-vis by Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU method. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of fertilisation of oocytes by Double Wash Swim-up method (DWSU vis-a-vis Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU method. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infertile couples undergoing IVF from June 2014 to June 2017 at an ART Centre of a tertiary care hospital. The male partners were normozoospermic and female partners were normoresponsive to controlled ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval. RESULTS 70 male partners were subjected to double wash swim-up and 64 underwent double density gradient swim-up preparation. 1296 good quality oocytes were retrieved in their respective female partners. 452 (61% out of 742 oocytes were successfully fertilised after insemination by semen prepared by DWSU method. 378 (68% oocytes out of 554 were fertilised by insemination with semen prepared by DDGSU method. There seems to be strong association (RR=1.12 of fertilisation success with oocytes exposed to semen prepared by Double Density Gradient

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF DOUBLE WASH SWIM-UP VERSUS DOUBLE DENSITY GRADIENT SWIM-UP TECHNIQUE OF SPERM PREPARATION IN IN VITRO FERTILISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Sangisapu; Sandeep Karunakaran; Ashok Kumar Pillai

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recovery of optimum number of good quality of spermatozoa is an important component of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). This is achieved by sperm preparation methods involving separation and recovery of capacitated sperms. Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU) and Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU) are two most accepted methods. Cochrane systematic review (2007) finds no clear benefit of one method over the other in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI). Systematic review on effective...

  4. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C.; Dale, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 ± 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  5. In-phase and out-of-phase gradient-echo imaging in abdominal studies: intra-individual comparison of three different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Miguel; Heredia, Vasco; Campos, Rafael O. P. de; Azevedo, Rafael M.; Semelka, Richard C. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States)); Dale, Brian M. (Siemens Medical Systems, Morrisville (United States)), email: richsem@med.unc.edu

    2012-05-15

    Background: T1-weighted gradient-echo in-phase and out-of-phase imaging is an essential component of comprehensive abdominal MR exams. It is useful for the study of fat-containing lesions and to identify various disease states related to the presence of fat in the liver. Purpose: To compare three T1-weighted in-phase and out-of-phase (IP/OP) gradient-echo imaging sequences in an intra-individual fashion, and to determine whether advantages exist for each of these sequences for various patient types. Material and Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive subjects (74 men, 44 women; mean age 53.9 +- 13.8 years) who had MRI examinations containing all three different IP/OP sequences (two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo [2D-GRE], three-dimensional gradient-echo [3D-GRE], and magnetization-prepared gradient-recall echo [MP-GRE]) were included. Two different reviewers independently and blindly qualitatively evaluated IP/OP sequences to determine image quality, extent of artifacts, lesion detectability and conspicuity, and subjective grading of liver steatosis for the various sequences. Quantitative analysis was also performed. Qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Respiratory ghosting, parallel imaging, and truncation artifacts as well as shading and blurring were more pronounced with 3D-GRE IP/OP imaging. Overall image quality was higher with 2D-GRE (P < 0.05). Detectability of low-fluid content lesions was lower with IP/OP MP-GRE sequences. MP-GRE sequences had the lowest SNRs (P < 0.001). Liver-to-spleen and liver-to-lesion CNRs were significantly lower with 3D-GRE and MP-GR, respectively (P < 0.001). Fat liver indexes showed strongly positive correlation between all sequences. Conclusion: Currently, 2D-GRE remains the best approach for clinical IP/OP imaging. The good image quality of MP-GRE sequences acquired in a free-breathing manner should recommend its use in patients unable to suspend breathing

  6. A theory of gradient analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of gradient analysis is presented in this chapter, in which the heuristic techniques are integrated with regression, calibration, ordination and constrained ordination as distinct, well-defined statistical problems. The various techniques used for each type of problem are classified into

  7. Modeling the effects of the vertical temperature gradient in the furnace in an edge-defined film-fed growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epure, S.; Braescu, L.; Balint, St.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical model for the growth of cylindrical bars described elsewhere is considered. Using MathCAD 11 Enterprise Edition and mathematical tools, the asymptotically stable steady-states (r*, h*) of the nonlinear system of differential equations which governs the evolution of the bar radius r=r(t) and the meniscus height h=h(t), for different values of the pulling rate v, the melt temperature T 0 at the meniscus basis and the vertical temperature gradient k in the furnace, respectively, are found. For a given k, the range of the stable growth regions in the (v, T 0 ) plane (i.e. those couples (v, T 0 ) for which (r*, h*) has physical sense) are determined. The effects of the changes of the vertical temperature gradient k are investigated and it is shown that if v and T 0 are constant, and k increases, then the bar radius r increases and the meniscus height h decreases. Numerical results are given for the silicon bar grown in an edge-defined film-fed growth (E.F.G.) system with a die radius r 0e =20(cmx10 -2 )

  8. Sea-to-air flux of dimethyl sulfide in the South and North Pacific Ocean as measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yuko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kohei; Iwata, Toru; Kameyama, Sohiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Gamo, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Furuya, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere was examined by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux (PTR-MS/GF) system. We deployed the PTR-MS/GF system and observed vertical gradients of atmospheric DMS just above the sea surface in the subtropical and transitional South Pacific Ocean and the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. In total, we obtained 370 in situ profiles, and of these we used 46 data sets to calculate the sea-to-air flux of DMS. The DMS flux determined was in the range from 1.9 to 31 μmol m-2 d-1 and increased with wind speed and biological activity, in reasonable accordance with previous observations in the open ocean. The gas transfer velocity of DMS derived from the PTR-MS/GF measurements was similar to either that of DMS determined by the eddy covariance technique or that of insoluble gases derived from the dual tracer experiments, depending on the observation sites located in different geographic regions. When atmospheric conditions were strongly stable during the daytime in the subtropical ocean, the PTR-MS/GF observations captured a daytime versus nighttime difference in DMS mixing ratios in the surface air overlying the ocean surface. The difference was mainly due to the sea-to-air DMS emissions and stable atmospheric conditions, thus affecting the gradient of DMS. This indicates that the DMS gradient is strongly controlled by diurnal variations in the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere above the ocean surface.

  9. Nano-resonator frequency response based on strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miandoab, Ehsan Maani; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Fathi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the dynamic behaviour of a nano-resonator under ac and dc excitation using strain gradient theory. To achieve this goal, the partial differential equation of nano-beam vibration is first converted to an ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin projection method and the lumped model is derived. Lumped parameters of the nano-resonator, such as linear and nonlinear springs and damper coefficients, are compared with those of classical theory and it is demonstrated that beams with smaller thickness display greater deviation from classical parameters. Stable and unstable equilibrium points based on classic and non-classical theories are also compared. The results show that, regarding the applied dc voltage, the dynamic behaviours expected by classical and non-classical theories are significantly different, such that one theory predicts the un-deformed shape as the stable condition, while the other theory predicts that the beam will experience bi-stability. To obtain the frequency response of the nano-resonator, a general equation including cubic and quadratic nonlinearities in addition to parametric electrostatic excitation terms is derived, and the analytical solution is determined using a second-order multiple scales method. Based on frequency response analysis, the softening and hardening effects given by two theories are investigated and compared, and it is observed that neglecting the size effect can lead to two completely different predictions in the dynamic behaviour of the resonators. The findings of this article can be helpful in the design and characterization of the size-dependent dynamic behaviour of resonators on small scales. (paper)

  10. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958 were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01. However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  11. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. PMID:27271644

  12. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-04-30

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3-12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-3) to 1 molL(-1). DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L(-1), 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L(-1) and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L(-1), respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Meng-Han; Gu, Jia-Li; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-12-17

    Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) sampler with a polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) aqueous solution as a binding phase and a dialysis membrane as a diffusive phase (PQAS DGT) was developed for the measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was not dependent upon pH 3-10 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-4) to 1 mol L(-1). The effective binding capacity of PQAS DGT containing 2.0 mL of 0.050 mol L(-1) PQAS solution was estimated as 9.9 μg cm(-2). The measurement of DRP in a synthetic solution by PQAS DGT over a 48 h deployment period demonstrated high consistency with the concentration of DRP in the synthetic solution measured directly by the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method. Field deployments of PQAS DGT samplers allowed for accurate measurement of the DRP concentration in situ. The advantages of PQAS DGT include no requirement of the elution steps and direct concentration measurements of the binding phase.

  14. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong, E-mail: redastar@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Gu, Jia-Li [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: lijianrong@zjgsu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10{sup −3}–1 mol L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 mol L{sup −1}. DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L{sup −1}, 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1} and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method.

  15. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10 −3 –1 mol L −1 . - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10 −3 to 1 mol L −1 . DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L −1 and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L −1 , respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method

  16. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  17. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficients of trace elements in open and restricted diffusive layers used by the diffusive gradients in a thin film technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiva, Amir Houshang; Teasdale, Peter R.; Bennett, William W.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the diffusion coefficients of cations (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and oxyanions (Al, As, Mo, Sb, V, W) in open (ODL) and restricted (RDL) diffusive layers used by the DGT technique was undertaken. Diffusion coefficients were measured using both the diffusion cell...... concentrations required with the Dcell measurements. This is the first time that D values have been reported for several oxyanions using RDL. Except for Al at pH 8.30 with ODL, all DDGT measurements were retarded relative to diffusion coefficients in water (DW) for both diffusive hydrogels. Diffusion in RDL...

  18. Nonlinear behavior of capacitive micro-beams based on strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathalilou, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Morteza; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the size dependent behavior of materials in MEMS structures. This behavior becomes noticeable for a structure when the characteristic size such as thickness or diameter is close to its internal length-scale parameter and is insignificant for the high ratio of the characteristic size to the length-scale parameter, which is the case of the silicon base micro-beams. However, in some types of micro-beams like gold or nickel bases, the size dependent effect cannot be overlooked. In such cases, ignoring this behavior in modeling will lead to incorrect results. Some previous researchers have applied classic beam theory on their models and imposed a considerable hypothetical value of residual stress to match their theoretical results with the experimental ones. The equilibrium positions or fixed points of the gold and nickel micro-beams are obtained and shown that for a given DC voltage, there is a considerable difference between the obtained fixed points using classic beam theory, modified couple stress theory, and modified strain gradient theory. In addition, it is shown that the calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages using higher order theories are much closer to the experimental results and are higher several times than those obtained by classic beam theory.

  19. A Novel Sliding Mode Control Technique for Indirect Current Controlled Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sliding mode control (SMC method for indirect current controlled three-phase parallel active power filter is presented in this paper. There are two designed closed loops in the system: one is the DC voltage controlling loop and the other is the reference current tracking loop. The first loop with a PI regulator is used to control the DC voltage approximating to the given voltage of capacitor, and the output of PI regulator through a low-pass filter is applied as the input of the power supply reference currents. The second loop implements the tracking of the reference currents using integral sliding mode controller, which can improve the harmonic treating performance. Compared with the direct current control technique, it is convenient to be implemented with digital signal processing system because of simpler system structure and better harmonic treating property. Simulation results verify that the generated reference currents have the same amplitude with the load currents, demonstrating the superior harmonic compensating effects with the proposed shunt active power filter compared with the hysteresis method.

  20. An Inexpensive Digital Gradient Controller for HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James E.; Carr, Peter W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of gradient elution techniques in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is often essential for direct separation of complex mixtures. Since most commercial controllers have features that are of marginal value for instructional purposes, a low-cost controller capable of illustrating essential features of gradient elution was developed.…

  1. Sensitivity of 3D gradient recalled echo susceptibility-weighted imaging technique compared to computed tomography angiography for detection of middle cerebral artery thrombus in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at comparing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI with computed tomography angiography (CTA in the detection of middle cerebral artery (MCA thrombus in acute stroke. Seventy-nine patients with acute MCA stroke was selected using our search engine software; only the ones showing restricted diffusion in the MCA territory on diffusion-weighted images were included. We finally selected 35 patients who had done both MRI (including SWI and CTA. Twenty random subjects with completely normal MRI (including SWI exam were selected as control. Two neuroradiologists (blinded to the presence or absence of stroke reviewed the SW images and then compared the findings with CT angiogram (in patients with stroke. The number of MCA segments showing thrombus in each patient was tabulated to estimate the thrombus burden. Thrombus was detected on SWI in one or more MCA segments in 30 out of 35 patients, on the first review. Of the 30, SWI showed thrombus in more than one MCA segments in 7 patients. CTA depicted branch occlusion in 31 cases. Thrombus was seen on both SWI and CTA in 28 patients. Thrombus was noted in two patients on SWI only, with no corresponding abnormality seen on CTA. Two patients with acute MCA showed no vascular occlusion or thrombus on either CTA or SWI. Only two case of false-positive thrombus was reported in normal control subjects. Susceptibility-weighted images had sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 90% respectively, with positive predictive value 94%. Sensitivity was 86% for SWI, compared with 89% for CTA, and this difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Of all the positive cases on CTA (31 corresponding thrombus was seen on SWI in 90% of subjects (28 of 31. Susceptibility-weighted imaging has high sensitivity for detection of thrombus in acute MCA stroke. Moreover, SWI is a powerful technique for estimation of thrombus burden, which can be challenging on CTA.

  2. Differentiation between simple cyst and hepatic hemangioma utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gradient-echo (b-FFE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burim, Carolina Valente; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pecci Neto, Luiz; Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Tiferes, Dario Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to establish the role of MRI T2-weighted sequences in the differentiation between simple cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. Materials and methods: a double-blinded, prospective, observational, cross sectional study evaluated 52 patients with 91 hepatic lesions (34 simple cysts and 57 hemangiomas) submitted to abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. The combined analysis of all sequences was considered as the golden-standard. TSE sequences with long echo trains and b-FFE sequences were subjectively analyzed by two independent observers for differentiating cysts from hemangiomas. The kappa test (κ) was utilized in the analysis of the methods accuracy and inter- and intra-observer agreement (p * ). Results: cysts and hemangiomas dimensions ranged respectively between 0.5 and 6.5 cm (mean 1.89 cm), and 0.8 and 11 cm (mean = 2.62 cm). The analysis of the sequences with long-TE and the golden-standard demonstrated a non-statistically significant agreement (k: 0.00-0.10). The agreement between the evaluation of the b-FFE sequence and the golden-standard ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.71) to almost perfect (κ: 0.86) for both observers. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for the b-FFE sequence ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.70) to almost perfect (κ: 0.85-0.91). Conclusion: T2-weighted images acquired with the b-FFE technique present a high accuracy and reproducibility in the differentiation between cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. (author)

  3. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  4. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherginskaya, S.A.; Cann, I.K.O.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  5. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing

    2017-01-01

    We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME vo...

  6. $L_{0}$ Gradient Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shunsuke

    2017-04-01

    Minimizing L 0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L 0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L 0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L 0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L 0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L 0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter α . This strategy is much more intuitive than the L 0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L 0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α . We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments.

  7. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, B.W. [Babock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  8. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  9. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  10. Quaternion Gradient and Hessian

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel gen...

  11. Gradient Alloy for Optical Packaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in additive manufacturing, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), enables the fabrication of compositionally gradient microstructures, i.e. gradient...

  12. Measurements of labile Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production with diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João M; Menegário, Amauri A; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus A G; Francioni, Eleine

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the ability of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) was evaluated for monitoring the concentrations, and estimating the availability, of metals at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production. Three sites with an average distance between 0m (EM-1), 100 m (EM-2), and 1,000 m (EM-3) of a submarine outfall-I (Guamaré-RN, Brazil) and another site (GA-1) with an average distance of 12,000 m east of Outfall I, near the city of Galinhos, were studied. DGT units were deployed at the same sites in three campaigns from July, 2010 to June, 2011. Effects on the accuracy of analytical results regarding the deployment time, gel porosity, and thickness were evaluated. There was no difference between the measurements obtained with two sets of DGT devices, those assembled with open or restrictive pore gel, respectively, showing that organic metallic species are not present near the submarine outlet. After 21 day deployments in a region (near Submarine Outfall I) that receives produced waters that have been treated, there was evidence of biofilm formation on DGT membranes. However, it was demonstrated that the biofilm interference with DGT measurements was negligible. Data found in this work show that total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in seawater samples collected at sites GA-1 and EM-1 in two campaigns were below 0.33, 1.67, 0.47, 0.70, 2.86 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the first time, labile levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an area under the influence of oil production were determined. DGT measurements allowed the verification of the effects of temporal variation on levels of Zn and Ni. There were no effects of spatial variations on levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the four studied sites, suggesting no contamination of these metals at the northeastern Brazilian coastal area investigated in this work. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  14. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  15. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  16. Pressure gradient turbulent transport and collisionless reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The scale invariance technique is employed to discuss pressure gradient driven turbulent transport when an Ohm's law with electron inertia, rather than resistivity, is relevant. An expression for thermal diffusivity which has many features appropriate to L-mode transport in tokamaks, is seen to have greater generality than indicated by their particular calculation. The results of applying the technique to a more appropriate collisionless Ohm's law are discussed. (Author)

  17. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  18. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.

    1997-01-01

    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of ∼80 angstrom/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS ampersand T personnel

  19. Adaptive Regularization of Neural Networks Using Conjugate Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Andersen et al. (1997) and Larsen et al. (1996, 1997) suggested a regularization scheme which iteratively adapts regularization parameters by minimizing validation error using simple gradient descent. In this contribution we present an improved algorithm based on the conjugate gradient technique........ Numerical experiments with feedforward neural networks successfully demonstrate improved generalization ability and lower computational cost...

  20. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-01-01

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  1. Magnetoelectric Transverse Gradient Sensor with High Detection Sensitivity and Low Gradient Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Or, Siu Wing

    2017-10-25

    We report, theoretically and experimentally, the realization of a high detection performance in a novel magnetoelectric (ME) transverse gradient sensor based on the large ME effect and the magnetic field gradient (MFG) technique in a pair of magnetically-biased, electrically-shielded, and mechanically-enclosed ME composites having a transverse orientation and an axial separation. The output voltage of the gradient sensor is directly obtained from the transverse MFG-induced difference in ME voltage between the two ME composites and is calibrated against transverse MFGs to give a high detection sensitivity of 0.4-30.6 V/(T/m), a strong common-mode magnetic field noise rejection rate of gradient noise of 0.16-620 nT/m/ Hz in a broad frequency range of 1 Hz-170 kHz under a small baseline of 35 mm. An analysis of experimental gradient noise spectra obtained in a magnetically-unshielded laboratory environment reveals the domination of the pink (1/ f ) noise, dielectric loss noise, and power-frequency noise below 3 kHz, in addition to the circuit noise above 3 kHz, in the gradient sensor. The high detection performance, together with the added merit of passive and direct ME conversion by the large ME effect in the ME composites, makes the gradient sensor suitable for the passive, direct, and broadband detection of transverse MFGs.

  2. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  3. Signal restoration for NMR imaging using time-dependent gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, J.; Haenicke, W.

    1984-01-01

    NMR imaging experiments that employ linear but time-dependent gradients for encoding spatial information in the time-domain signals result in distorted images when treated with conventional image reconstruction techniques. It is shown here that the phase and amplitude distortions can be entirely removed if the timeshape of the gradient is known. The method proposed is of great theoretical and experimental simplicity. It consists of a retransformation of the measured time-domain signal and corresponds to synchronisation of the signal sampling with the time-development of the gradient field strength. The procedure complements other treatments of periodically oscillating gradients in NMR imaging. (author)

  4. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and

  5. Inversion gradients for acoustic VTI wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir; Wang, Hui; Tsvankin, Ilya; Dí az, Esteban; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a generalized pseudospectral operator based on a separable approximation for the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified image-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for a data-domain objective function that can more easily incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are similar to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations but the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show the potential advantages of the modified image-power objective function in estimating the anellipticity parameter η.

  6. Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Sautter, R. A.; Barchi, P. H.; Stalder, D. H.; Moura, T. C.; Rembold, S. B.; Morell, D. R. F.; Ferreira, N. C.

    2018-06-01

    Gradient pattern analysis (GPA) is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice. This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. We show the performance of the new method on a selected sample of 54 896 objects from the SDSS-DR7 in common with Galaxy Zoo 1 catalogue. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters. It separates early- from late-type galaxies better (˜ 90 per cent) than the CAS system (C˜ 79 per cent, A˜ 50 per cent, S˜ 43 per cent) and a benchmark test shows that it is applicable to hundreds of thousands of galaxies using typical processing systems.

  7. Nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in micromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fischbacher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate gradient methods for energy minimization in micromagnetics are compared. The comparison of analytic results with numerical simulation shows that standard conjugate gradient method may fail to produce correct results. A method that restricts the step length in the line search is introduced, in order to avoid this problem. When the step length in the line search is controlled, conjugate gradient techniques are a fast and reliable way to compute the hysteresis properties of permanent magnets. The method is applied to investigate demagnetizing effects in NdFe12 based permanent magnets. The reduction of the coercive field by demagnetizing effects is μ0ΔH = 1.4 T at 450 K.

  8. Inversion gradients for acoustic VTI wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir

    2017-03-21

    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a generalized pseudospectral operator based on a separable approximation for the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified image-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for a data-domain objective function that can more easily incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are similar to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations but the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show the potential advantages of the modified image-power objective function in estimating the anellipticity parameter η.

  9. MR imaging of articular cartilage : comparison of magnetization transfer contrast and fat-suppression in multiplanar and 3D gradient-echo, spin-echo, turbo spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joon; Joo, Eun Young; Eun, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetization transfer contrast(MTC) and fat-suppression(FS) in variable spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences for articular cartilage imaging and to determine the optimal pulse sequences. Using variable 7-pulse sequences, the knees of 15 pigs were imaged Axial images were obtained using proton density and T2-weighted spin-echo (PDWSE and T2WSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE), multiplanar gradient-echo (MPGR), and 3D steady-state gradient-echo (3DGRE) sequences, and the same pulse sequences were then repeated using MTC. Also T1-weighted spin-echo(T1WSE) and 3D spoiled gradient-echo(3DSPGR) images of knees were also acquired, and the procedure was repeated using FS. For each knee, a total of 14 axial images were acquired, and using a 6-band scoring system, the visibility of and the visibilities of the the articular cartilage was analyzed. The visual effect of MTC and FS was scored using a 4-band scale. For each image, the signal intensities of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, muscles, and saline were measured, and signal-to-noise ratios(SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios(CNR) were also calculated. Visibility of the cartilage was best when 3DSPGR and T1WSE sequences were used. MTC imaging increased the negative contrast between cartilage and saline, but FS imaging provided more positive contrast. CNR between cartilage and saline was highest when using TSE with FS(-351.1±15.3), though CNR between cartilage and bone then fell to -14.7±10.8. In MTC imaging using MPGR showed the greatest increase of negative contrast between cartilage and saline(CNR change=-74.7); the next highest was when 3DGRE was used(CNR change=-34.3). CNR between cartilage and bone was highest with MPGR(161.9±17.7), but with MTC, the greatest CNR decrease(-81.8) was observed. The greatest CNR increase between cartilage and bone was noted in T1WSE with FS. In all scans, FS provided a cartilage-only positive contrast image, though the absolute

  10. Bacterial pleomorphism and competition in a relative humidity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Yang, Xiaomei; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    The response of different bacterial species to reduced water availability was studied using a simple relative humidity gradient technique. Interestingly, distinct differences in morphology and growth patterns were observed between populations of the same species growing at different relative

  11. Ion funnel device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Harrer, Marques B.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-11-21

    An ion funnel device is disclosed. A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source. A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.

  12. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Refined discrete and empirical horizontal gradients in VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landskron, Daniel; Böhm, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Missing or incorrect consideration of azimuthal asymmetry of troposphere delays is a considerable error source in space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) or Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). So-called horizontal troposphere gradients are generally utilized for modeling such azimuthal variations and are particularly required for observations at low elevation angles. Apart from estimating the gradients within the data analysis, which has become common practice in space geodetic techniques, there is also the possibility to determine the gradients beforehand from different data sources than the actual observations. Using ray-tracing through Numerical Weather Models (NWMs), we determined discrete gradient values referred to as GRAD for VLBI observations, based on the standard gradient model by Chen and Herring (J Geophys Res 102(B9):20489-20502, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1029/97JB01739) and also for new, higher-order gradient models. These gradients are produced on the same data basis as the Vienna Mapping Functions 3 (VMF3) (Landskron and Böhm in J Geod, 2017.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-017-1066-2), so they can also be regarded as the VMF3 gradients as they are fully consistent with each other. From VLBI analyses of the Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS), it becomes evident that baseline length repeatabilities (BLRs) are improved on average by 5% when using a priori gradients GRAD instead of estimating the gradients. The reason for this improvement is that the gradient estimation yields poor results for VLBI sessions with a small number of observations, while the GRAD a priori gradients are unaffected from this. We also developed a new empirical gradient model applicable for any time and location on Earth, which is included in the Global Pressure and Temperature 3 (GPT3) model. Although being able to describe only the systematic component of azimuthal asymmetry and no short-term variations at all, even these

  14. Propagation characteristics of audible noise generated by single corona source under positive DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The directivity and lateral profile of corona-generated audible noise (AN from a single corona source are measured through experiments carried out in the semi-anechoic laboratory. The experimental results show that the waveform of corona-generated AN consists of a series of random sound pressure pulses whose pulse amplitudes decrease with the increase of measurement distance. A single corona source can be regarded as a non-directional AN source, and the A-weighted SPL (sound pressure level decreases 6 dB(A as doubling the measurement distance. Then, qualitative explanations for the rationality of treating the single corona source as a point source are given on the basis of the Ingard’s theory for sound generation in corona discharge. Furthermore, we take into consideration of the ground reflection and the air attenuation to reconstruct the propagation features of AN from the single corona source. The calculated results agree with the measurement well, which validates the propagation model. Finally, the influence of the ground reflection on the SPL is presented in the paper.

  15. DC Voltage Droop Control Implementation in the AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm: Combinational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, F.; Macpherson, D.E.; Harrison, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    of operational flexibility, as more than one VSC station controls the DC link voltage of the MTDC system. This model enables the study of the effects of DC droop control on the power flows of the combined AC/DC system for steady state studies after VSC station outages or transient conditions without needing...... to use its complete dynamic model. Further, the proposed approach can be extended to include multiple AC and DC grids for combined AC/DC power flow analysis. The algorithm is implemented by modifying the MATPOWER based MATACDC program and the results shows that the algorithm works efficiently....

  16. Breakdown Characteristic Analysis of Paper- Oil Insulation under AC and DC Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, N. F.; Jamail, N. A. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Kamarudin, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the study of breakdown characteristic of Kraft paper insulated with two different types of insulating fluid, which are Palm oil and Coconut oil. Palm oil and Coconut oil are chosen as the alternative fluid to the transformer oil because it has high potential and environmentally-friendly. The Segezha Kraft papers with various thicknesses (65.5 gsm, 75 gsm, 85gsm, 90 gsm) have been used in this research. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC), High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and carbon track and severity analysis is conducted to observe the sample of aging Kraft paper. These samples have been immersed using Palm oil and Coconut oil up to 90 days to observe the absorption rate. All samples started to reach saturation level at 70 days of immersion. HVDC and HVAC breakdown experiments have been done after the samples had reached the saturation level based on normal condition, immersed in Palm oil and immersed in Coconut oil. All samples immersed in liquid show different breakdown voltage reading compared to normal condition. The analysis of carbon track and severity on surface has been done using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Analysis. The results of the experiment show that the sample of Kraft paper immersed in Palm oil was better than Coconut oil immersed sample. Therefore the sample condition was the main factor that determines the value of breakdown voltage test. Introduction

  17. Absolute Determination of High DC Voltages by Means of Frequency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peier, Dirk; Schulz, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    A novel absolute measuring procedure is presented for the definition of fixed points of the voltage in the 100 kV range. The method is based on transit time measurements with accelerated electrons. By utilizing the selective interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of a special cavity resonator, the voltage is referred to fundamental constants and the base unit second. Possible balance voltages are indicated by a current detector. Experimental investigations are carried out with resonators in the normal conducting range. With a copper resonator operating at the temperature of boiling nitrogen (77 K), the relative uncertainty of the voltage points is estimated to be +/- 4 × 10-4. The technically realizable uncertainty can be reduced to +/- 1 × 10-5 by the proposed application of a superconducting niobium resonator. Thus this measuring device becomes suitable as a primary standard for the high-voltage range.

  18. PowerFactory model for multi-terminal HVDC network with DC voltage droop control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korompili, Asimenia; Wu, Qiuwei

    Nowadays, most of the installed HVDC systems are based on line commutated converters (LCC), since this technology offers a series of advantages, mainly low costs and losses. However, voltage source converters (VSCs) have recently drawn more and more attention, due to their high controllability....... Moreover, recent developments have improved efficiency and power quality. For multi-terminal HVDC grids, the advantages of VSCs become so large, that VSC-HVDC systems are the only viable solution. Nevertheless, no VSC-based multi-terminal HVDC grids exist to date. This is the reason for which many research...

  19. Gradient computation for VTI acoustic wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir

    2016-09-06

    Wavefield tomography can handle complex subsurface geology better than ray-based techniques and, ultimately, provide a higher resolution. Here, we implement forward and adjoint wavefield extrapolation for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media using a pseudospectral operator that employes a separable approximation of the P-wave dispersion relation. This operator is employed to derive the gradients of the differential semblance optimization (DSO) and modified stack-power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for the data-domain objective function, which can incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are compared to the ones obtained with a space-time finite-difference (FD) scheme for a system of coupled wave equations. Whereas the kernels computed with the two wave-equation operators are similar, the pseudospectral method is not hampered by the imprint of the shear-wave artifact. Numerical examples also show that the modified stack-power objective function produces cleaner gradients than the more conventional DSO operator.

  20. HG2006 Workshop on High-Gradient Radio Frequency

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Meeting to be held at CERN on 25-27 September 2006 in Room 40/S2-B01 (Building 40). The objective of the workshop is to bring the high-gradient RF community together to present and discuss recent theoretical and experimental developments. Significant progress has recently been made in understanding the basic physics of rf breakdown and developing techniques for achieving higher gradients. This workshop should contribute to maintaining these efforts and to promoting contacts and collaboration. The scientific programme will be organized in half day sessions dedicated to: High-gradient rf experimental results Theory and computation High-gradient technology, materials and processing Specialized experiments on related high-gradient or high-power phenomenon like dc discharge and pulsed surface heating Reports from collaborations and projects. Each session will consist of selected presentations followed by a dedicated discussion. Information about the meeting and participant registration is available at http...

  1. Gradient waveform synthesis for magnetic propulsion using MRI gradient coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B H; Lee, S Y; Park, S

    2008-01-01

    Navigating an untethered micro device in a living subject is of great interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Magnetic propulsion of an untethered device carrying a magnetic core in it is one of the promising methods to navigate the device. MRI gradients coils are thought to be suitable for navigating the device since they are capable of magnetic propulsion in any direction while providing magnetic resonance images. For precise navigation of the device, especially in the peripheral region of the gradient coils, the concomitant gradient fields, as well as the linear gradient fields in the main magnetic field direction, should be considered in driving the gradient coils. For simple gradient coil configurations, the Maxwell coil in the z-direction and the Golay coil in the x- and y-directions, we have calculated the magnetic force fields, which are not necessarily the same as the conventional linear gradient fields of MRI. Using the calculated magnetic force fields, we have synthesized gradient waveforms to navigate the device along a desired path

  2. Turbo-Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (t-PEPSI) MR technique in the detection of diffuse axonal damage in brain injury. Comparison with Gradient-Recalled Echo (GRE) sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, E; Sabatini, U; Hagberg, G E; Formisano, R; Castriota-Scanderbeg, A

    2005-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common type of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, and is frequently accompanied by tissue tear haemorrhage. The T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences are more sensitive than T2-weighted spin-echo images for detection of haemorrhage. This study was undertaken to determine whether turbo-PEPSI, an extremely fast multi-echo-planar-imaging sequence, can be used as an alternative to the GRE sequence for detection of DAI. Nineteen patients (mean age 24,5 year) with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurred at least 3 months earlier, underwent a brain MRI study on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. A qualitative evaluation of the turbo-PEPSI sequences was performed by identifying the optimal echo time and in-plane resolution. The number and size of DAI lesions, as well as the signal intensity contrast ratio (SI CR), were computed for each set of GRE and turbo-PEPSI images, and divided according to their anatomic location into lobar and/or deep brain. There was no significant difference between GRE and turbo-PEPSI sequences in the total number of DAI lesions detected (283 vs 225 lesions, respectively). The GRE sequence identified a greater number of hypointense lesions in the temporal lobe compared to the t-PEPSI sequence (72 vs 35, pPEPSI than for the GRE sequence (pPEPSI sequence can be used as an alternative to the GRE to assess brain DAI in severe TBI patients, especially if uncooperative and medically unstable.

  3. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Ion temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc

  5. Variational approach to coarse-graining of generalized gradient flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duong, M.H.; Lamacz, A.; Peletier, M.A.; Sharma, U.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a variational technique that handles coarse-graining and passing to a limit in a unified manner. The technique is based on a duality structure, which is present in many gradient flows and other variational evolutions, and which often arises from a large-deviations principle.

  6. Characterization of gradient control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; van der Schaft, Arjan; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  7. Characterization of Gradient Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, Jorge; Schaft, Arjan van der; Crouch, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  8. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, J W

    2010-01-01

    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  9. Electric field gradients in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  10. Rainbow refractometry on particles with radial refractive index gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Sawitree [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France); Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Vanisri, Hathaichanok; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut [Chulalongkorn University, Center of Excellence in Particle Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Biscos, Yves; Garcia, Nicolas; Lavergne, Gerard [ONERA/DMAE, Toulouse (France); Mees, Loic; Gouesbet, Gerard; Grehan, Gerard [CNRS/Universite et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6614/CORIA, BP12, 76 800, Saint Etienne du Rouvray CEDEX (France)

    2007-10-15

    The rainbow refractrometry, under its different configurations (classical and global), is an attractive technique to extract information from droplets in evaporation such as diameter and temperature. Recently a new processing strategy has been developed which increases dramatically the size and refractive index measurements accuracy for homogeneous droplets. Nevertheless, for mono component as well as for multicomponent droplets, the presence of temperature and/or of concentration gradients induce the presence of a gradient of refractive index which affects the interpretation of the recorded signals. In this publication, the effect of radial gradient on rainbow measurements with a high accuracy never reached previously is quantified. (orig.)

  11. Superconducting niobium cavities with high gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneisel, P.; Saito, K.

    1992-01-01

    Present accelerator projects making use of superconducting cavity technology are constructed with design accelerating gradients E acc ranging between 5 MV/m and 8 MV/m and Q-values of several 10 9 . Future plans for upgrades of existing accelerators or for linear colliders call for gradients greater than 15 MV/m corresponding to peak surface electric fields above 30 MV/m. These demands challenge state-of-the-art production technology and require improvements in processing and handling of these cavities to overcome the major performance limitation of field emission loading. This paper reports on efforts to improve the performance of cavities made from niobium from different suppliers by using improved cleaning techniques after processing and ultrahigh vacuum annealing at temperatures of 1400 C. In single cell L-band cavities peak surface electric fields as high as 50 MV/m have been measured without significant field emission loading. (Author) 8 refs., fig

  12. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of oleic and linoleic acids from -100 to 50°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS and DS...

  13. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...

  14. Characterization of a texture gradient in tantalum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.I.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1994-01-01

    Clark et al. have shown that significant texture gradients can be produced in rolled tantalum plate and that the strength of the gradient is dependent on the processing path. Texture gradients are often ignored because they are time consuming to characterize and add significant complexity to materials modeling. The variation in texture through the thickness of rolled materials is most commonly measured by sectioning samples to different depths through the thickness of the plate and then measuring the texture from these section planes by X-ray diffraction. A new technique based on automatic indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns in the scanning electron microscope enables spatially specific orientations to be measured in a practical manner. This technique allows spatial variations in texture to be measured directly enabling gradients in texture to be investigated in more detail than previously possible. This data can be used directly in coupled finite-element/polycrystal-plasticity models to simulate the effects of variations in texture on the plastic behavior of polycrystals. This work examines the variation in texture through the thickness of a tantalum plate and its resultant effect on the compressive deformation of samples prepared from the plate. The characterization of the texture gradient using the automatic point-by-point measurement technique mentioned above is described in detail. The effect of the gradient on the plastic response of through-thickness compression tests is also discussed

  15. MODIFIED ARMIJO RULE ON GRADIENT DESCENT AND CONJUGATE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZURAIDAH FITRIAH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Armijo rule is an inexact line search method to determine step size in some descent method to solve unconstrained local optimization. Modified Armijo was introduced to increase the numerical performance of several descent algorithms that applying this method. The basic difference of Armijo and its modified are in existence of a parameter and estimating the parameter that is updated in every iteration. This article is comparing numerical solution and time of computation of gradient descent and conjugate gradient hybrid Gilbert-Nocedal (CGHGN that applying modified Armijo rule. From program implementation in Matlab 6, it's known that gradient descent was applying modified Armijo more effectively than CGHGN from one side: iteration needed to reach some norm of the gradient  (input by the user. The amount of iteration was representing how long the step size of each algorithm in each iteration. In another side, time of computation has the same conclusion.

  16. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-06-16

    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  17. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say s, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm s times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum

  18. Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ault, Jesse T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Patrick B. [Unilever R& D Port Sunlight, Bebington (United Kingdom); Shin, Sangwoo [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γp relative to the solute diffusivity Ds for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.

  19. Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, Jesse T.; Warren, Patrick B.; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ p relative to the solute diffusivity D s for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.

  20. Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.

  1. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA gradient (gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The evolving approach to the evaluation of low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, William B; Bavry, Anthony A

    2018-04-07

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is typically identified by a low valve area (≤1.0 cm 2 ) and high mean gradient (≥40 mm Hg). A subset of patients are found to have a less than severe mean gradient (gradient AS (stage D2) or normal ejection fraction with low-gradient AS (stage D3). Determining the true severity of disease within these categories has proved difficult. In this review we illustrate both traditional and novel techniques that can be used for further valvular assessment. We also propose a simple algorithm that can be used to evaluate low-gradient AS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Dose gradient curve: A new tool for evaluating dose gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, KiHoon; Choi, Young Eun

    2018-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy, which delivers an ablative high radiation dose to a target volume for maximum local tumor control, requires a rapid dose fall-off outside the target volume to prevent extensive damage to nearby normal tissue. Currently, there is no tool to comprehensively evaluate the dose gradient near the target volume. We propose the dose gradient curve (DGC) as a new tool to evaluate the quality of a treatment plan with respect to the dose fall-off characteristics. The average distance between two isodose surfaces was represented by the dose gradient index (DGI) estimated by a simple equation using the volume and surface area of isodose levels. The surface area was calculated by mesh generation and surface triangulation. The DGC was defined as a plot of the DGI of each dose interval as a function of the dose. Two types of DGCs, differential and cumulative, were generated. The performance of the DGC was evaluated using stereotactic radiosurgery plans for virtual targets. Over the range of dose distributions, the dose gradient of each dose interval was well-characterized by the DGC in an easily understandable graph format. Significant changes in the DGC were observed reflecting the differences in planning situations and various prescription doses. The DGC is a rational method for visualizing the dose gradient as the average distance between two isodose surfaces; the shorter the distance, the steeper the dose gradient. By combining the DGC with the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in a single plot, the DGC can be utilized to evaluate not only the dose gradient but also the target coverage in routine clinical practice.

  4. The influence of ALN-Al gradient material gradient index on ballistic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Youcong; Liu Qiwen; Li Yao; Shen Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Ballistic performance of the gradient material is superior to laminated material, and gradient materials have different gradient types. Using ls-dyna to simulate the ballistic performance of ALN-AL gradient target plates which contain three gradient index (b = 1, b = 0.5, b = 2). Through Hopkinson bar numerical simulation to the target plate materials, we obtained the reflection stress wave and transmission stress wave state of gradient material to get the best gradient index. The internal stress state of gradient material is simulated by amplification processing of the target plate model. When the gradient index b is equal to 1, the gradient target plate is best of all.

  5. Larmor labeling by time-gradient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander; Bodnarchuk, Victor; Bussmann, Klaus; Mueller, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Larmor labeling of neutrons, due to the Larmor precession of neutron spin in a magnetic field, opens the unique possibility for the development of neutron spin-echo (NSE) based on neutron scattering techniques, featuring an extremely high energy (momentum) resolution. Here, we present the experimental proof of a new method of the Larmor labeling using time-gradient magnetic fields

  6. Measurement of gradient index profiles by Babinet fringe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, T P; Saxena, A K

    1979-03-01

    A theory for determining one-dimensional ray deflections with the help of distorted Babinet fringes has been developed. An approach for investigating two-dimensional ray deflections has been presented. Applications of the techniques for the study of gradient index glass have been described.

  7. Development and implementation of an 84-channel matrix gradient coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Sebastian; Jia, Feng; Layton, Kelvin J; Kroboth, Stefan; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-02-01

    Design, implement, integrate, and characterize a customized coil system that allows for generating spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) in a highly-flexible fashion. A gradient coil with a high number of individual elements was designed. Dimensions of the coil were chosen to mimic a whole-body gradient system, scaled down to a head insert. Mechanical shape and wire layout of each element were optimized to increase the local gradient strength while minimizing eddy current effects and simultaneously considering manufacturing constraints. Resulting wire layout and mechanical design is presented. A prototype matrix gradient coil with 12 × 7 = 84 elements consisting of two element types was realized and characterized. Measured eddy currents are gradient strengths between 24 mT∕m and 78 mT∕m could be realized locally with maximum currents of 150 A. Initial proof-of-concept imaging experiments using linear and nonlinear encoding fields are demonstrated. A shielded matrix gradient coil setup capable of generating encoding fields in a highly-flexible manner was designed and implemented. The presented setup is expected to serve as a basis for validating novel imaging techniques that rely on nonlinear spatial encoding fields. Magn Reson Med 79:1181-1191, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Advanced Gradient Based Optimization Techniques Applied on Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endelt, Benny; Nielsen, Karl Brian

    2005-01-01

    The computational-costs for finite element simulations of general sheet metal forming processes are considerable, especially measured in time. In combination with optimization, the performance of the optimization algorithm is crucial for the overall performance of the system, i.e. the optimization algorithm should gain as much information about the system in each iteration as possible. Least-square formulation of the object function is widely applied for solution of inverse problems, due to the superior performance of this formulation.In this work focus will be on small problems which are defined as problems with less than 1000 design parameters; as the majority of real life optimization and inverse problems, represented in literature, can be characterized as small problems, typically with less than 20 design parameters.We will show that the least square formulation is well suited for two classes of inverse problems; identification of constitutive parameters and process optimization.The scalability and robustness of the approach are illustrated through a number of process optimizations and inverse material characterization problems; tube hydro forming, two step hydro forming, flexible aluminum tubes, inverse identification of material parameters

  9. Photon storage in ¿-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Calarco, Tomasso; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2008-01-01

    We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in -type media to previouslyinaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical....... We also demonstrate that the often discussed connection between time reversal andoptimality in photon storage follows naturally from gradient ascent. Finally, we discuss the optimization of controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening....

  10. Modeling biological gradient formation: combining partial differential equations and Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, Laura M F; Kleijn, Jetty; Hille, Sander C; Heiner, Monika; Koutny, Maciej; Verbeek, Fons J

    2016-01-01

    Both Petri nets and differential equations are important modeling tools for biological processes. In this paper we demonstrate how these two modeling techniques can be combined to describe biological gradient formation. Parameters derived from partial differential equation describing the process of gradient formation are incorporated in an abstract Petri net model. The quantitative aspects of the resulting model are validated through a case study of gradient formation in the fruit fly.

  11. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  12. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  13. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  14. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  15. Imaging the Buried Chicxulub Crater with Gravity Gradients and Cenotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Pilkington, M.; Halpenny, J. F.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Connors, M.; Graniel-Castro, E.; Camara-Zi, A.; Vasquez, J.

    1995-09-01

    Differing interpretations of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the Chicxulub crater, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have yielded diameter estimates of 170 to 320 km. Knowing the crater's size is necessary to quantify the lethal perturbations to the Cretaceous environment associated with its formation. The crater's size (and internal structure) is revealed by the horizontal gradient of the Bouguer gravity anomaly over the structure, and by mapping the karst features of the Yucatan region. To improve our resolution of the crater's gravity signature we collected additional gravity measurements primarily along radial profiles, but also to fill in previously unsurveyed areas. Horizontal gradient analysis of Bouguer gravity data objectively highlights the lateral density contrasts of the impact lithologies and suppresses regional anomalies which may obscure the gravity signature of the Chicxulub crater lithologies. This gradient technique yields a striking circular structure with at least 6 concentric gradient features between 25 and 85 km radius. These features are most distinct in the southwest probably because of denser sampling of the gravity field. Our detailed profiles detected an additional feature and steeper gradients (up to 5 mGal/km) than the original survey. We interpret the outer four gradient maxima to represent concentric faults in the crater's zone of slumping as is also revealed by seismic reflection data. The inner two probably represent the margin of the central uplift and the peak ring and or collapsed transient cavity. Radial gradients in the SW quadrant over the inferred ~40 km-diameter central uplift (4) may represent structural "puckering" as revealed at eroded terrestrial craters. Gradient features related to regional gravity highs and lows are visible outside the crater, but no concentric gradient features are apparent at distances > 90 km radius. The marginal gradient features may be modelled by slump faults as observed in large complex craters on

  16. Mutation screening of the TP53 gene by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørlie, Therese; Johnsen, Hilde; Vu, Phuong; Lind, Guro Elisabeth; Lothe, Ragnhild; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for detection of mutations in the TP53 gene using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) is described. TTGE is a mutation detection technique that separates DNA fragments differing by single base pairs according to their melting properties in a denaturing gel. It is based on constant denaturing conditions in the gel combined with a temperature gradient during the electrophoretic run. This method combines some of the advantages of the related techniques denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and constant denaturant gel electrophoresis (CDGE) and eliminates some of the problems. The result is a rapid and sensitive screening technique that is robust and easily set up in smaller laboratory environments.

  17. Elemental gradients in macrophytes from a reactor effluent gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, J.B.; Tilly, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The tissues of submersed macrophtes from along the thermal gradient were analyzed for phosphorus to determine whether any pattern correspondent to standing crop distributions could be detected. Although water concentrations of phosphorus showed no detectable relationship to the thermal effluent, tissue concentrations of this element in submersed macrophytes declined with distance from the effluent entry point. The occurrence of this concentration pattern suggests that phosphorus availability is greater near the discharge. Because phosphorus is the element most often determined to limit aquatic productivity, its greater availability may partially account for the apparent enhancement of macrophte growth near the thermal discharge. A patter of macrophyte abundance which indicated enchancement related to the discharge gradient in the reactor-cooling reservoir, Par Pond is reported. Correlative data tended to implicate light and temperature as important in influencing the differential abundance pattern

  18. The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.

  19. Gradient descent learning algorithm overview: a general dynamical systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, P

    1995-01-01

    Gives a unified treatment of gradient descent learning algorithms for neural networks using a general framework of dynamical systems. This general approach organizes and simplifies all the known algorithms and results which have been originally derived for different problems (fixed point/trajectory learning), for different models (discrete/continuous), for different architectures (forward/recurrent), and using different techniques (backpropagation, variational calculus, adjoint methods, etc.). The general approach can also be applied to derive new algorithms. The author then briefly examines some of the complexity issues and limitations intrinsic to gradient descent learning. Throughout the paper, the author focuses on the problem of trajectory learning.

  20. Ultrasonic wave propagation through aberrating layers: experimental verification of the conjugate gradient Rayleigh method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, L.A.F.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.

    The Conjugate Gradient Rayleigh method for the calculation of acoustic reflection and transmission at a rough interface between two media was experimentally verified. The method is based on a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique and plane-wave expansions. We measured the beam

  1. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....

  2. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  3. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  4. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  5. A fast, preconditioned conjugate gradient Toeplitz solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Victor; Schrieber, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A simple factorization is given of an arbitrary hermitian, positive definite matrix in which the factors are well-conditioned, hermitian, and positive definite. In fact, given knowledge of the extreme eigenvalues of the original matrix A, an optimal improvement can be achieved, making the condition numbers of each of the two factors equal to the square root of the condition number of A. This technique is to applied to the solution of hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz systems. Large linear systems with hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz matrices arise in some signal processing applications. A stable fast algorithm is given for solving these systems that is based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm exploits Toeplitz structure to reduce the cost of an iteration to O(n log n) by applying the fast Fourier Transform to compute matrix-vector products. Matrix factorization is used as a preconditioner.

  6. 3D printing for the design and fabrication of polymer-based gradient scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracaglia, Laura G; Smith, Brandon T; Watson, Emma; Arumugasaamy, Navein; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2017-07-01

    To accurately mimic the native tissue environment, tissue engineered scaffolds often need to have a highly controlled and varied display of three-dimensional (3D) architecture and geometrical cues. Additive manufacturing in tissue engineering has made possible the development of complex scaffolds that mimic the native tissue architectures. As such, architectural details that were previously unattainable or irreproducible can now be incorporated in an ordered and organized approach, further advancing the structural and chemical cues delivered to cells interacting with the scaffold. This control over the environment has given engineers the ability to unlock cellular machinery that is highly dependent upon the intricate heterogeneous environment of native tissue. Recent research into the incorporation of physical and chemical gradients within scaffolds indicates that integrating these features improves the function of a tissue engineered construct. This review covers recent advances on techniques to incorporate gradients into polymer scaffolds through additive manufacturing and evaluate the success of these techniques. As covered here, to best replicate different tissue types, one must be cognizant of the vastly different types of manufacturing techniques available to create these gradient scaffolds. We review the various types of additive manufacturing techniques that can be leveraged to fabricate scaffolds with heterogeneous properties and discuss methods to successfully characterize them. Additive manufacturing techniques have given tissue engineers the ability to precisely recapitulate the native architecture present within tissue. In addition, these techniques can be leveraged to create scaffolds with both physical and chemical gradients. This work offers insight into several techniques that can be used to generate graded scaffolds, depending on the desired gradient. Furthermore, it outlines methods to determine if the designed gradient was achieved. This review

  7. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  8. Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.

    1987-10-01

    The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.

  9. Experiments with conjugate gradient algorithms for homotopy curve tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Kashmira M.; Ribbens, Calvin J.; Watson, Layne T.; Kamat, Manohar P.; Walker, Homer F.

    1991-01-01

    There are algorithms for finding zeros or fixed points of nonlinear systems of equations that are globally convergent for almost all starting points, i.e., with probability one. The essence of all such algorithms is the construction of an appropriate homotopy map and then tracking some smooth curve in the zero set of this homotopy map. HOMPACK is a mathematical software package implementing globally convergent homotopy algorithms with three different techniques for tracking a homotopy zero curve, and has separate routines for dense and sparse Jacobian matrices. The HOMPACK algorithms for sparse Jacobian matrices use a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for the computation of the kernel of the homotopy Jacobian matrix, a required linear algebra step for homotopy curve tracking. Here, variants of the conjugate gradient algorithm are implemented in the context of homotopy curve tracking and compared with Craig's preconditioned conjugate gradient method used in HOMPACK. The test problems used include actual large scale, sparse structural mechanics problems.

  10. Gradient computation for VTI acoustic wavefield tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir; Wang, Hui; Tsvankin, Ilya; Diaz, Esteban; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    -power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for the data-domain objective function, which can incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are compared to the ones obtained with a space

  11. Parallelism between gradient temperature raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy (TDR) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDR and D...

  12. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy identifies flexible sites in proline and alanine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous thermo dynamic Raman spectroscopy (TDRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDRS...

  13. Metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Brook, Chris B.; Casagrande, Luca; Ciucă, Ioana; Gibson, Brad K.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hunt, Jason A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo chemical 'painting' technique to explore possible radial and vertical metallicity gradients for the thick disc progenitor. In our analysis, we match an N-body simulation to the data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey. We assume that the thick disc has a constant scaleheight and has completed its formation at an early epoch, after which time radial mixing of its stars has taken place. Under these assumptions, we find that the initial radial metallicity gradient of the thick disc progenitor should not be negative, but either flat or even positive, to explain the current negative vertical metallicity gradient of the thick disc. Our study suggests that the thick disc was built-up in an inside-out and upside-down fashion, and older, smaller and thicker populations are more metal poor. In this case, star-forming discs at different epochs of the thick disc formation are allowed to have different radial metallicity gradients, including a negative one, which helps to explain a variety of slopes observed in high-redshift disc galaxies. This scenario helps to explain the positive slope of the metallicity-rotation velocity relation observed for the Galactic thick disc. On the other hand, radial mixing flattens the slope of an existing gradient.

  14. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  15. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...... of gradient hardening are found to delay the onset of localization under plane strain tension, and significantly reduce strain gradients in the localized zone. For plane strain compression gradient hardening is found to increase the load-carrying capacity significantly....

  16. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  18. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  19. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  20. Methods for Fabricating Gradient Alloy Articles with Multi-Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Dillon, Robert P. (Inventor); Suh, Eric J. (Inventor); Mulder, Jerry L. (Inventor); Gardner, Paul B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for fabricating multi-functional articles comprised of additively formed gradient materials are provided. The fabrication of multi-functional articles using the additive deposition of gradient alloys represents a paradigm shift from the traditional way that metal alloys and metal/metal alloy parts are fabricated. Since a gradient alloy that transitions from one metal to a different metal cannot be fabricated through any conventional metallurgy techniques, the technique presents many applications. Moreover, the embodiments described identify a broad range of properties and applications.

  1. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons

  2. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods with a line search only using gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Changhe

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods are developed to solve the optimality condition of an unconstrained optimization, they only utilize gradient information and have broader application scope. Under suitable conditions, the developed methods are globally convergent. Numerical tests and comparisons with the PRP+ conjugate gradient method only using gradient show that the methods are efficient.

  4. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  5. Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2010-01-01

    Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...

  6. High gradient RF breakdown study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Hanna, S.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and UC Davis have been investigating high gradient RF breakdown and its effects on pulse shortening in high energy microwave devices. RF breakdown is a critical issue in the development of high power microwave sources and next generation linear accelerators since it limits the output power of microwave sources and the accelerating gradient of linacs. The motivation of this research is to find methods to increase the breakdown threshold level in X-band structures by reducing dark current. Emphasis is focused on improved materials, surface finish, and cleanliness. The test platform for this research is a traveling wave resonant ring. A 30 MW klystron is employed to provide up to 300 MW of traveling wave power in the ring to trigger breakdown in the cavity. Five TM 01 cavities have previously been tested, each with a different combination of surface polish and/or coating. The onset of breakdown was extended up to 250 MV/m with a TiN surface finish, as compared to 210 MV/m for uncoated OFE copper. Although the TiN coating was helpful in depressing the field emission, the lowest dark current was obtained with a 1 microinch surface finish, single-point diamond-turned cavity

  7. Computational modeling applied to stress gradient analysis for metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Susana M.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Monine, Vladimir I.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays composite materials including materials reinforced by particles are the center of the researcher's attention. There are problems with the stress measurements in these materials, connected with the superficial stress gradient caused by the difference of the stress state of particles on the surface and in the matrix of the composite material. Computer simulation of diffraction profile formed by superficial layers of material allows simulate the diffraction experiment and gives the possibility to resolve the problem of stress measurements when the stress state is characterized by strong gradient. The aim of this paper is the application of computer simulation technique, initially developed for homogeneous materials, for diffraction line simulation of composite materials and alloys. Specifically we applied this technique for siluminum fabricated by powder metallurgy. (author)

  8. MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARDONA, J.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, R.; PTITSYN, V.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented [2]. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model

  9. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  10. Strength gradient enhances fatigue resistance of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongtao; Wei, Yujie; Gao, Huajian

    2016-02-01

    Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially enhances the fatigue life of the material. Pre-notched samples with negative strength gradients in front of the notch’s tip endure many more fatigue cycles than do samples with positive strength gradients during the crack initiation stage, and samples with either type of gradient perform better than do gradient-free samples with the same average yield strength. However, as a crack grows, samples with positive strength gradients exhibit better resistance to fatigue crack propagation than do samples with negative gradients or no gradient. This study demonstrates a simple and promising strategy for using gradient structures to enhance the fatigue resistance of materials and complements related studies of strength and ductility.

  11. Thermal conduction down steep temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1980-08-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation has been solved numerically in one spatial and two velocity dimensions in order to study thermal conduction in large temperature gradients. An initially cold plasma is heated at one end of the spatial grid producing temperature gradients with scale lengths of a few times the electron mean free path. The heat flow is an order of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory which is valid in the limit of small temperature gradients. (author)

  12. Testing the limits of gradient sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinal Lakhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis or grow (chemotropism towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0.1 nM/μm. Noise reduction mechanisms, such as time-averaging and the internalization of pheromone molecules, have been proposed to explain how yeast cells filter fluctuations and detect shallow gradients. Here, we use a Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion model of ligand-receptor dynamics to test the effectiveness of these mechanisms and to determine the limits of gradient sensing. In particular, we develop novel simulation methods for establishing chemical gradients that not only allow us to study gradient sensing under steady-state conditions, but also take into account transient effects as the gradient forms. Based on reported measurements of reaction rates, our results indicate neither time-averaging nor receptor endocytosis significantly improves the cell's accuracy in detecting gradients over time scales associated with the initiation of polarized growth. Additionally, our results demonstrate the physical barrier of the cell membrane sharpens chemical gradients across the cell. While our studies are motivated by the mating response of yeast, we believe our results and simulation methods will find applications in many different contexts.

  13. Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller

    2004-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...... of a circular four microphone array with a radius of 5 mm, and applying convolutive gradient flow instead of just applying instantaneous gradient flow, experimental results show an improvement of up to around 14 dB can be achieved for simulated impulse responses and up to around 10 dB for a hearing aid...

  14. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter...... the tangent moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that is at odds with what is expected from a strain gradient theory....... The findings raise questions about the physical acceptability of this class of strain gradient theories....

  15. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  16. STOCHASTIC GRADIENT METHODS FOR UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Krejić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This papers presents an overview of gradient based methods for minimization of noisy functions. It is assumed that the objective functions is either given with error terms of stochastic nature or given as the mathematical expectation. Such problems arise in the context of simulation based optimization. The focus of this presentation is on the gradient based Stochastic Approximation and Sample Average Approximation methods. The concept of stochastic gradient approximation of the true gradient can be successfully extended to deterministic problems. Methods of this kind are presented for the data fitting and machine learning problems.

  17. Motion-compensating gradients in the study of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Wood, M.L.; Kaufman, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A low bandwidth motion compensating technique (no. 1) was compared with a conventional spin-echo technique (no. 2) in 20 patients with multiple sclerosis using a 1.0-T MR imaging system. In technique 1, refocusing gradients were employed to compensate for motion of constant velocity along the frequency-encoding direction. The sampling time was also increased to provide a greater S/N. Use of technique 1 was resulted in detection of 42% +- 23% more lesions (n = 8). The contrast-to-noise ratio for gray versus white matter improved by 87% +- 54% and that for lesion versus white matter by 66% +- 22%. The S/N for white matter improved by 56% +- 25%. An increase in chemical shift artifact was noted but not felt to be detrimental to lesion visualization. In the majority of cases, normal brain stem structures were more distinctly visualized. In two cases, pontine lesions were more clearly demarcated due to reduced pulsation artifacts. The combined use of refocusing gradients and low bandwidth techniques provides reduction of motion artifacts (from CSF and vessel pulsation) and improved S/N, leading to improved lesion detection

  18. Experimental investigation on the development characteristics of initial electrons in a gas pressurized closing switch under DC voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongxiao, ZHAI; Mengtong, QIU; Weixi, LUO; Peitian, CONG; Tao, HUANG; Jiahui, YIN; Tianyang, ZHANG

    2018-04-01

    As one of the most important elements in linear transformer driver (LTD) based systems, the gas pressurized closing switches are required to operate with a very low prefire probability during the DC-charging process to ensure reliable operation and stable output of the whole pulsed power system. The most direct and effective way to control the prefire probability is to select a suitable working coefficient. The study of the development characteristics of the initially generated electrons is useful for optimizing the working coefficient and improving the prefire characteristic of the switches. In this paper an ultraviolet pulsed laser is used to generate initial electrons inside the gap volume. A current measuring system is used to measure the time-dependent current generated by the growth of the initial electrons so as to study the development characteristics of the electrons under different working coefficients. Experimental results show that the development characteristics of the initial electrons are influenced obviously by the working coefficient. With the increase of the working coefficient, the development degree of the electrons increases consequently. At the same times, there is a threshold of working coefficient which produces the effect of ionization on electrons. The range of the threshold has a slow growth but remains close to 65% with the gas pressure increase. When the working coefficient increases further, γ processes are starting to be generated inside the gap volume. In addition, an optimal working coefficient beneficial for improving the prefire characteristic is indicated and further tested.

  19. Selection of DC voltage magnitude using Fibonacci series for new hybrid asymmetrical multilevel inverter with minimum PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Banaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverters are suggested to obtain high quality output voltage. In this paper, a new hybrid configuration is proposed, obtained by cascading one four switches H-bridge cell with a family of multilevel inverters. In addition, by the use of specific sequence for value of DC sources named Fibonacci series, asymmetrical topology of proposed inverter is introduced. Main advantages are that proposed inverter has least Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV than other conventional multilevel converters in both symmetric and asymmetric modes. Also, this topology doubles the number of output levels using only one cascaded four switches H-bridge cell. The PCI-1716 DAQ using PC has been used to generate switching pulses in experimental results. For presenting valid performance of proposed configuration, simulation results carried out by MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the validity of the proposed multilevel inverter is verified by experimental results.

  20. Bioinspired adaptive gradient refractive index distribution lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kezhen; Lai, Chuan-Yar; Wang, Jia; Ji, Shanzuo; Aldridge, James; Feng, Jingxing; Olah, Andrew; Baer, Eric; Ponting, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the soft, deformable human eye lens, a synthetic polymer gradient refractive index distribution (GRIN) lens with an adaptive geometry and focal power has been demonstrated via multilayer coextrusion and thermoforming of nanolayered elastomeric polymer films. A set of 30 polymer nanolayered films comprised of two thermoplastic polyurethanes having a refractive index difference of 0.05 were coextruded via forced-assembly technique. The set of 30 nanolayered polymer films exhibited transmission near 90% with each film varying in refractive index by 0.0017. An adaptive GRIN lens was fabricated from a laminated stack of the variable refractive index films with a 0.05 spherical GRIN. This lens was subsequently deformed by mechanical ring compression of the lens. Variation in the optical properties of the deformable GRIN lens was determined, including 20% variation in focal length and reduced spherical aberration. These properties were measured and compared to simulated results by placido-cone topography and ANSYS methods. The demonstration of a solid-state, dynamic focal length, GRIN lens with improved aberration correction was discussed relative to the potential future use in implantable devices.

  1. Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.

  2. Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Max

    2017-01-01

    A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein–Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie–Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions. (paper)

  3. Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, Max

    2017-06-01

    A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein-Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie-Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions.

  4. Rank gradient and p-gradient of amalgamated free products and HNN extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the rank gradient and p-gradient of free products, free products with amalgamation over an amenable subgroup, and HNN extensions with an amenable associated subgroup. The notion of cost is used to compute the rank gradient of amalgamated free products and HNN extensions. For the p-gradient the Kurosh subgroup theorems for amalgamated free products and HNN extensions will be used.

  5. Experimental estimation of fluctuating velocity and scalar gradients in turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, R.J.; Lavoie, P. [University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buxton, O.R.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Center for Aeromechanics Research, Austin, TX (United States); Ganapathisubramani, B. [University of Southampton, Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics Research Group, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    The effect of numerical differentiation is investigated in the context of evaluating fluctuating velocity and scalar quantities in turbulent flows. In particular, 2-point forward-difference and 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-point centred-difference schemes are investigated. The spectral technique introduced by Wyngaard (in J Sci Instr 1(2):1105-1108, 1968) for homogeneous turbulence is used to quantify the effects of the schemes. Numerical differentiation is shown to attenuate gradient spectra over a range of wavenumbers. The spectral attenuation, which varies with the order of the scheme, results in a reduction in the measured mean-squared gradients. High-order schemes (e.g. 7- or 9-point) are shown to significantly decrease the attenuation at all wavenumbers and as a result produce more accurate gradients. Hot-wire measurements and direct numerical simulations of decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the analysis, which suggests that high-order schemes can be used to improve empirical gradient estimates. The shape of the probability density functions is also found to be sensitive to the choice of numerical differentiation scheme. The effect of numerical differentiation is also discussed with respect to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of a nominally two-dimensional planar mixing layer. It is found that the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio inherent in typical PIV measurements necessitates the use of low-order schemes to prevent excessive noise amplification, which increases with the order of the scheme. The results of the present work demonstrate that high-order numerical differentiation schemes can be employed to more accurately resolve gradients measured at a given resolution provided the measurements have an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.)

  6. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  7. Preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the convergence analysis of the conventional conjugate Gradient method was reviewed. And the convergence analysis of the modified conjugate Gradient method was analysed with our extension on preconditioning the algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm is a function of the condition number of M-1A.

  8. Structures and Strength of Gradient Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    distance from the surface forming a gradient structure. In this study [2], by shot peening of a low carbon steel a gradient structure has been produced extending to about 1 mm below the surface. A number of strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed as a basis for a calculation of the stress and strain...

  9. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter...

  10. Ultra-high gradient compact accelerator developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Continued development of relatively compact, although not quite 'table-top', lasers with peak powers in the range up to 100 TW has enabled laser-plasma-based acceleration experiments with amazing gradients of up to 1 TV/m. In order to usefully apply such gradients to 'controlled' acceleration,

  11. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  12. Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.

    1986-04-01

    A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient

  13. Patterns of macromycete community assemblage along an elevation gradient: options for fungal gradient and metacommunity analyse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Gómez-Hernández; Guadalupe Williams-Linera; Roger Guevara; D. Jean Lodge

    2012-01-01

    Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for gradient analysis that can be applied to studies of communities of fungi. Selected sites from 100 to 3,500 m altitude represent tropical dry forest, tropical montane cloud...

  14. Density Gradient Stabilization of Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence in a Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.M.; Mazzucato, E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Smith, D.R.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k (perpendicular) ρ s ∼< 10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.

  15. Electroforming of nickel and partially stabilized zirconia (Ni+PSZ) gradient coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jun [Herbin Inst. of Technol. (China). Dept. of Appl. Chem.; Dai Changsong [Herbin Inst. of Technol. (China). Dept. of Appl. Chem.; Wang Dianlong [Herbin Inst. of Technol. (China). Dept. of Appl. Chem.; Hu Xinguo [Herbin Inst. of Technol. (China). Dept. of Appl. Chem.

    1997-05-01

    A sediment electrodeposition technique has been successfully used to prepare Ni+PSZ gradient coatings with a compositional gradient. The microstructure and composition of the coating have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The variation of the hardness, elastic modulus, residual stress, thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the coatings with various components is also discussed. Thermal fatigue tests demonstrate that Ni+PSZ gradient coatings improve the resistance to thermal shock by eliminating the mismatch with the substrate. (orig.)

  16. High Gradient Accelerating Structures for Carbon Therapy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Faillace, L.; Goel, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.; Plastun, A.; Savin, E.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon therapy is the most promising among techniques for cancer treatment, as it has demonstrated significant improvements in clinical efficiency and reduced toxicity profiles in multiple types of cancer through much better localization of dose to the tumor volume. RadiaBeam, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, are developing an ultra-high gradient linear accelerator, Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL), for the delivery of ion-beams with end-energies up to 450 MeV/u for 12C6+ ions and 250 MeV for protons. In this paper, we present a thorough comparison of standing and travelling wave designs for high gradient S-Band accelerating structures operating with ions at varying velocities, relative to the speed of light, in the range 0.3-0.7. In this paper we will compare these types of accelerating structures in terms of RF, beam dynamics and thermo-mechanical performance.

  17. Application of Conjugate Gradient methods to tidal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragy, E.; Carey, G.F.; Walters, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A harmonic decomposition technique is applied to the shallow water equations to yield a complex, nonsymmetric, nonlinear, Helmholtz type problem for the sea surface and an accompanying complex, nonlinear diagonal problem for the velocities. The equation for the sea surface is linearized using successive approximation and then discretized with linear, triangular finite elements. The study focuses on applying iterative methods to solve the resulting complex linear systems. The comparative evaluation includes both standard iterative methods for the real subsystems and complex versions of the well known Bi-Conjugate Gradient and Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared methods. Several Incomplete LU type preconditioners are discussed, and the effects of node ordering, rejection strategy, domain geometry and Coriolis parameter (affecting asymmetry) are investigated. Implementation details for the complex case are discussed. Performance studies are presented and comparisons made with a frontal solver. ?? 1993.

  18. Automated gravity gradient tensor inversion for underwater object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lin; Tian, Jinwen

    2010-01-01

    Underwater abnormal object detection is a current need for the navigation security of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, an automated gravity gradient tensor inversion algorithm is proposed for the purpose of passive underwater object detection. Full-tensor gravity gradient anomalies induced by an object in the partial area can be measured with the technique of gravity gradiometry on an AUV. Then the automated algorithm utilizes the anomalies, using the inverse method to estimate the mass and barycentre location of the arbitrary-shaped object. A few tests on simple synthetic models will be illustrated, in order to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the new algorithm. Moreover, the method is applied to a complicated model of an abnormal object with gradiometer and AUV noise, and interference from a neighbouring illusive smaller object. In all cases tested, the estimated mass and barycentre location parameters are found to be in good agreement with the actual values

  19. Strain gradient elasticity within the symmetric BEM formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terravecchia,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method is used to address a class of strain gradient elastic materials featured by a free energy function of the (classical strain and of its (first gradient. With respect to the classical elasticity, additional response variables intervene, such as the normal derivative of the displacements on the boundary, and the work-coniugate double tractions. The fundamental solutions - featuring a fourth order partial differential equations (PDEs system - exhibit singularities which in 2D may be of the order 1/ r 4 . New techniques are developed, which allow the elimination of most of the latter singularities. The present paper has to be intended as a research communication wherein some results, being elaborated within a more general paper [1], are reported.

  20. Microecology: Using Fast-Growing Filamentous Fungi to Study the Effects of Environmental Gradients on the Growth Patterns of Hyphae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple and rapid techniques for examining the growth responses of fungal hyphae cultivated on environmental gradients. The creation of such gradients using agar-based growth media in petri dishes is explained, along with recommendations for quantitative macroscopic and microscopic measurements. The intention is to provide…

  1. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  2. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  4. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1507 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  5. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  6. Solving large mixed linear models using preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandén, I; Lidauer, M

    1999-12-01

    Continuous evaluation of dairy cattle with a random regression test-day model requires a fast solving method and algorithm. A new computing technique feasible in Jacobi and conjugate gradient based iterative methods using iteration on data is presented. In the new computing technique, the calculations in multiplication of a vector by a matrix were recorded to three steps instead of the commonly used two steps. The three-step method was implemented in a general mixed linear model program that used preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration. Performance of this program in comparison to other general solving programs was assessed via estimation of breeding values using univariate, multivariate, and random regression test-day models. Central processing unit time per iteration with the new three-step technique was, at best, one-third that needed with the old technique. Performance was best with the test-day model, which was the largest and most complex model used. The new program did well in comparison to other general software. Programs keeping the mixed model equations in random access memory required at least 20 and 435% more time to solve the univariate and multivariate animal models, respectively. Computations of the second best iteration on data took approximately three and five times longer for the animal and test-day models, respectively, than did the new program. Good performance was due to fast computing time per iteration and quick convergence to the final solutions. Use of preconditioned conjugate gradient based methods in solving large breeding value problems is supported by our findings.

  7. Gradient pre-emphasis to counteract first-order concomitant fields on asymmetric MRI gradient systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengzhen; Weavers, Paul T; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Huston, John; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Frigo, Louis M; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-06-01

    To develop a gradient pre-emphasis scheme that prospectively counteracts the effects of the first-order concomitant fields for any arbitrary gradient waveform played on asymmetric gradient systems, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using a real-time implementation on a compact gradient system. After reviewing the first-order concomitant fields that are present on asymmetric gradients, we developed a generalized gradient pre-emphasis model assuming arbitrary gradient waveforms to counteract their effects. A numerically straightforward, easily implemented approximate solution to this pre-emphasis problem was derived that was compatible with the current hardware infrastructure of conventional MRI scanners for eddy current compensation. The proposed method was implemented on the gradient driver subsystem, and its real-time use was tested using a series of phantom and in vivo data acquired from two-dimensional Cartesian phase-difference, echo-planar imaging, and spiral acquisitions. The phantom and in vivo results demonstrated that unless accounted for, first-order concomitant fields introduce considerable phase estimation error into the measured data and result in images with spatially dependent blurring/distortion. The resulting artifacts were effectively prevented using the proposed gradient pre-emphasis. We have developed an efficient and effective gradient pre-emphasis framework to counteract the effects of first-order concomitant fields of asymmetric gradient systems. Magn Reson Med 77:2250-2262, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Intracellular chemical gradients: morphing principle in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Robert G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in computational biology allow systematic investigations to ascertain whether internal chemical gradients can be maintained in bacteria – an open question at the resolution limit of fluorescence microscopy. While it was previously believed that the small bacterial cell size and fast diffusion in the cytoplasm effectively remove any such gradient, a new computational study published in BMC Biophysics supports the emerging view that gradients can exist. The study arose from the recent observation that phosphorylated CtrA forms a gradient prior to cell division in Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium known for its complicated cell cycle. Tropini et al. (2012 postulate that such gradients can provide an internal chemical compass, directing protein localization, cell division and cell development. More specifically, they describe biochemical and physical constraints on the formation of such gradients and explore a number of existing bacterial cell morphologies. These chemical gradients may limit in vitro analyses, and may ensure timing control and robustness to fluctuations during critical stages in cell development.

  9. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  10. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, Keith R.

    2013-08-01

    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  11. Segmentation of DTI based on tensorial morphological gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Leticia; de Alencar Lotufo, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a segmentation technique for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This technique is based on a tensorial morphological gradient (TMG), defined as the maximum dissimilarity over the neighborhood. Once this gradient is computed, the tensorial segmentation problem becomes an scalar one, which can be solved by conventional techniques, such as watershed transform and thresholding. Similarity functions, namely the dot product, the tensorial dot product, the J-divergence and the Frobenius norm, were compared, in order to understand their differences regarding the measurement of tensor dissimilarities. The study showed that the dot product and the tensorial dot product turned out to be inappropriate for computation of the TMG, while the Frobenius norm and the J-divergence were both capable of measuring tensor dissimilarities, despite the distortion of Frobenius norm, since it is not an affine invariant measure. In order to validate the TMG as a solution for DTI segmentation, its computation was performed using distinct similarity measures and structuring elements. TMG results were also compared to fractional anisotropy. Finally, synthetic and real DTI were used in the method validation. Experiments showed that the TMG enables the segmentation of DTI by watershed transform or by a simple choice of a threshold. The strength of the proposed segmentation method is its simplicity and robustness, consequences of TMG computation. It enables the use, not only of well-known algorithms and tools from the mathematical morphology, but also of any other segmentation method to segment DTI, since TMG computation transforms tensorial images in scalar ones.

  12. Generation of metal composition gradients by means of bipolar electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserant, Gwendoline; Fattah, Zahra; Ayela, Cédric; Roche, Jérome; Plano, Bernard; Zigah, Dodzi; Goudeau, Bertrand; Kuhn, Alexander; Bouffier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A bipolar electrochemistry approach for the preparation of surface gradients is reported. • Several metals are simultaneously deposited on a bipolar electrode. • The elemental composition and thickness of the deposit varies alongside the bipolar electrode. • The deposit affects the surface properties and exhibits a barcode feature. - Abstract: Bipolar electrochemistry is an unconventional technique that currently encounters a renewal of interest due to modern applications in the fields of analytical chemistry or materials science. The approach is particularly relevant for the preparation of asymmetric objects or surfaces such as Janus particles for example. Bipolar electrochemistry allows spatially controlled deposition of various layers from electroactive precursors, selectively at one side of a bipolar electrode. We report here the concomitant cathodic deposition of up to three different metals at the same time in a single experiment. The deposits were characterized by optical and electron microscopy imaging as well as profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the deposited layer is composed of several areas exhibiting both a composition and a thickness gradient. Such a variation directly modifies the optical and electronic properties alongside the surface and gives access to the design of composite surfaces exhibiting a visual gradient feature.

  13. Prototyping high-gradient mm-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Haase, Andrew; Neilson, Jeffrey; Tantawi, Sami

    2017-01-01

    We present single-cell accelerating structures designed for high-gradient testing at 110 GHz. The purpose of this work is to study the basic physics of ultrahigh vacuum RF breakdown in high-gradient RF accelerators. The accelerating structures are π-mode standing-wave cavities fed with a TM 01 circular waveguide. The structures are fabricated using precision milling out of two metal blocks, and the blocks are joined with diffusion bonding and brazing. The impact of fabrication and joining techniques on the cell geometry and RF performance will be discussed. First prototypes had a measured Q 0 of 2800, approaching the theoretical design value of 3300. The geometry of these accelerating structures are as close as practical to singlecell standing-wave X-band accelerating structures more than 40 of which were tested at SLAC. This wealth of X-band data will serve as a baseline for these 110 GHz tests. Furthermore, the structures will be powered with short pulses from a MW gyrotron oscillator. RF power of 1 MW may allow an accelerating gradient of 400 MeV/m to be reached.

  14. Unimodal and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föcker, J.; Hötting, K.; Gondan, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that spatial attention is gradually distributed around the center of the attentional focus. The present study compared uni- and crossmodal gradients of spatial attention to investigate whether the orienting of auditory and visual...... spatial attention is based on modality specific or supramodal representations of space. Auditory and visual stimuli were presented from five speaker locations positioned in the right hemifield. Participants had to attend to the innermost or outmost right position in order to detect either visual...... or auditory deviant stimuli. Detection rates and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated that spatial attention is distributed as a gradient. Unimodal spatial ERP gradients correlated with the spatial resolution of the modality. Crossmodal spatial gradients were always broader than the corresponding...

  15. Full Gradient Solution to Adaptive Hybrid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Schiller, Noah H.; Fuller, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adaptation mechanisms in adaptive hybrid controllers. Most adaptive hybrid controllers update two filters individually according to the filtered reference least mean squares (FxLMS) algorithm. Because this algorithm was derived for feedforward control, it does not take into account the presence of a feedback loop in the gradient calculation. This paper provides a derivation of the proper weight vector gradient for hybrid (or feedback) controllers that takes into account the presence of feedback. In this formulation, a single weight vector is updated rather than two individually. An internal model structure is assumed for the feedback part of the controller. The full gradient is equivalent to that used in the standard FxLMS algorithm with the addition of a recursive term that is a function of the modeling error. Some simulations are provided to highlight the advantages of using the full gradient in the weight vector update rather than the approximation.

  16. Continuous spray forming of functionally gradient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, T.N.; Richardson, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at Plasma Processes Inc. have produced a Functional Gradient Material (FGM) through advanced vacuum plasma spray processing for high heat flux applications. Outlined in this paper are the manufacturing methods used to develop a four component functional gradient material of copper, tungsten, boron, and boron nitride. The FGM was formed with continuous gradients and integral cooling channels eliminating bondlines and providing direct heat transfer from the high temperature exposed surface to a cooling medium. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analyses of the materials formed through innovative VPS (vacuum plasma spray) processing are also presented. Applications for this functional gradient structural material range from fusion reactor plasma facing components to missile nose cones to boilers

  17. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a

  18. Coreless Concept for High Gradient Induction Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    An induction linac cell for a high gradient is discussed. The proposed solid state coreless approach for the induction linac topology (SLIM(reg s ign)) is based on nanosecond mode operation. This mode may have an acceleration gradient comparable with gradients of rf- accelerator structures. The discussed induction system has the high electric efficiency. The key elements are a solid state semiconductor switch and a high electric density dielectric with a thin section length. The energy in the induction system is storied in the magnetic field. The nanosecond current break-up produces the high voltage. The induced voltage is used for acceleration. This manner of an operation allows the use of low voltage elements in the booster part and achieves a high accelerating gradient. The proposed topology was tested in POP (proof of principle) experiments

  19. Flexoelectricity: strain gradient effects in ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wenhui [Department of Physics, Shantou Unversity, Shantou, Guangdong 515063 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Mechanical strain gradient induced polarization effect or flexoelectricity in perovskite-type ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics was investigated. The flexoelectric coefficients measured at room temperature ranged from about 1 {mu} C m{sup -1} for lead zirconate titanate to 100 {mu} C m{sup -1} for barium strontium titanate. Flexoelectric effects were discovered to be sensitive to chemical makeup, phase symmetry, and domain structures. Based on phenomenological discussion and experimental data on flexoelectricity, the present study proposed that mechanical strain gradient field could influence polarization responses in a way analogous to electric field. Flexoelectric coefficients were found to be nonlinearly enhanced by dielectric permittivity and strain gradient. Interfacial mismatch in epitaxial thin films can give rise to high strain gradients, enabling flexoelectric effects to make a significant impact in properly engineered ferroelectric heterostructure systems.

  20. On fracture in finite strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields are invest......In this work a general framework for damage and fracture assessment including the effect of strain gradients is provided. Both mechanism-based and phenomenological strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theories are implemented numerically using finite deformation theory and crack tip fields...... are investigated. Differences and similarities between the two approaches within continuum SGP modeling are highlighted and discussed. Local strain hardening promoted by geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) in the vicinity of the crack leads to much higher stresses, relative to classical plasticity...... in the multiple parameter version of the phenomenological SGP theory. Since this also dominates the mechanics of indentation testing, results suggest that length parameters characteristic of mode I fracture should be inferred from nanoindentation....

  1. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  2. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  3. Stability of gradient semigroups under perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão-Costa, E. R.; Caraballo, T.; Carvalho, A. N.; Langa, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we prove that gradient-like semigroups (in the sense of Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) are gradient semigroups (possess a Lyapunov function). This is primarily done to provide conditions under which gradient semigroups, in a general metric space, are stable under perturbation exploiting the known fact (see Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) that gradient-like semigroups are stable under perturbation. The results presented here were motivated by the work carried out in Conley (1978 Isolated Invariant Sets and the Morse Index (CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics vol 38) (RI: American Mathematical Society Providence)) for groups in compact metric spaces (see also Rybakowski (1987 The Homotopy Index and Partial Differential Equations (Universitext) (Berlin: Springer)) for the Morse decomposition of an invariant set for a semigroup on a compact metric space).

  4. Stability of gradient semigroups under perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragão-Costa, E R; Carvalho, A N; Caraballo, T; Langa, J A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we prove that gradient-like semigroups (in the sense of Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646–68)) are gradient semigroups (possess a Lyapunov function). This is primarily done to provide conditions under which gradient semigroups, in a general metric space, are stable under perturbation exploiting the known fact (see Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646–68)) that gradient-like semigroups are stable under perturbation. The results presented here were motivated by the work carried out in Conley (1978 Isolated Invariant Sets and the Morse Index (CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics vol 38) (RI: American Mathematical Society Providence)) for groups in compact metric spaces (see also Rybakowski (1987 The Homotopy Index and Partial Differential Equations (Universitext) (Berlin: Springer)) for the Morse decomposition of an invariant set for a semigroup on a compact metric space)

  5. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  6. Fabrication of polystyrene porous films with gradient pore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hongwei; Zhang Lin; Li Bo; Yin Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Silica opals and multilayer heterostructures were fabricated by vertical deposition technique. Polystyrene inverse opals and gradient porous structures were obtained by colloidal templating, in order to control the pore microstructure of polymer porous materials. As shown in the scanning electron microscopy images, the polystyrene porous structures are precise replicas of inverse structures of the original templates. After being infiltrated with the polystyrene, the photonic stop-band position of the opal composite is redshifted compared with the original template, and it is blueshifted after the opal template being removed. The filling ratio of polystyrene was calculated according to the Bragg formula. (authors)

  7. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e + /e - super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%

  8. The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density left angle E(t) right angle is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge SU(2) coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.

  9. Is there a composition gradient in the halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R.P.; Trefzger, C.F.; Suntzeff, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the inner halo (galactocentric distance R < approximately 8 kpc), the Basel RGU photometry should allow the derivation of the shapes and dimensions of the iso-abundance contours. For the outer halo to R approximately 30 kpc, the authors review techniques based on Δs-measurements of RR Lyraes (Lick) and intermediate band-pass photometry of globular-cluster giants (Searle and Zinn, Palomar). Both methods suggest little change in mean [Fe/H] between 10 and 30 kpc; however, both may be biased against the discovery of very metal-poor objects. The conclusion that the outer halo has no abundance gradient may be somewhat premature. (Auth.)

  10. Density gradients in the solar plasma observed by interplanetary scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapper, G.R.; Hewish, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique is described which overcomes the limitation set by Fresnel filtering in previous IPS studies of the small-scale density irregularities in the solar plasma. Phase gradients introduced by irregularities larger than the Fresnel limit cause transverse displacements of the small-scale scintillation pattern. In the presence of the solar wind, such refraction effects may be revealed by simultaneous measurements of intensity scintillation at two radio frequencies. Observations show that the structure corresponding to temporal frequencies approximately 0.02 Hz is in agreement with an extrapolation of the Kolmogorov spectrum derived from spacecraft data at lower frequencies. (author)

  11. Separation of actinides by high-gradient magnetic filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-gradient magnetic filtration has been identified as a candidate solid/liquid separation technique for removing actinide particulate from waste streams. Although HGMS is not intended to reduce the activity in the waste stream to below 100 nCi/g, it does offer two significant advantages: (a) selective removal of TRU solids for subsequent secondary processing and (b) reduced operating complications during solvent extraction due to solids accumulation in the interfacial region. Removal of > 95 wt% of the plutonium and americium solids is expected regardless of the solids present and their properties. Verification tests will be performed to validate this assumption

  12. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  13. Quasistatic nonlinear viscoelasticity and gradient flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, John M.; Şengül, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    We consider the equation of motion for one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelasticity of strain-rate type under the assumption that the stored-energy function is λ-convex, which allows for solid phase transformations. We formulate this problem as a gradient flow, leading to existence and uniqueness of solutions. By approximating general initial data by those in which the deformation gradient takes only finitely many values, we show that under suitable hypotheses on the stored-energy function the d...

  14. Tolman temperature gradients in a gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Jessica; Visser, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Tolman's relation for the temperature gradient in an equilibrium self-gravitating general relativistic fluid is broadly accepted within the general relativity community. However, the concept of temperature gradients in thermal equilibrium continues to cause confusion in other branches of physics, since it contradicts naive versions of the laws of classical thermodynamics. In this paper we discuss the crucial role of the universality of free fall, and how thermodynamics emphasises the great di...

  15. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. Determination of boundaries between ranges of high and low gradient of beam profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendykier, Jacek; Bieniasiewicz, Marcin; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Jedynak, Tadeusz; Kośniewski, Wiktor; Reudelsdorf, Marta; Wendykier, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of treatment planning system commissioning by introducing a new method of determination of boundaries between high and low gradient in beam profile. The commissioning of a treatment planning system is a very important task in the radiation therapy. One of the main goals of this task is to compare two field profiles: measured and calculated. Applying points of 80% and 120% of nominal field size can lead to the incorrect determination of boundaries, especially for small field sizes. The method that is based on the beam profile gradient allows for proper assignment of boundaries between high and low gradient regions even for small fields. TRS 430 recommendations for commissioning were used. The described method allows a separation between high and low gradient, because it directly uses the value of the gradient of a profile. For small fields, the boundaries determined by the new method allow a commissioning of a treatment planning system according to the TRS 430, while the point of 80% of nominal field size is already in the high gradient region. The method of determining the boundaries by using the beam profile gradient can be extremely helpful during the commissioning of the treatment planning system for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy or for other techniques which require very small field sizes.

  17. Tearing modes with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Huishan; Li Ding; Zheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    The general dispersion relation of tearing mode with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas is derived analytically. If the pressure gradients of positron and electron are not identical in pair plasmas, the pressure gradient has significant influence at tearing mode in both collisionless and collisional regimes. In collisionless regime, the effects of pressure gradient depend on its magnitude. For small pressure gradient, the growth rate of tearing mode is enhanced by pressure gradient. For large pressure gradient, the growth rate is reduced by pressure gradient. The tearing mode can even be stabilized if pressure gradient is large enough. In collisional regime, the growth rate of tearing mode is reduced by the pressure gradient. While the positron and electron have equal pressure gradient, tearing mode is not affected by pressure gradient in pair plasmas.

  18. Diferenciação entre cisto simples e hemangioma hepático utilizando seqüência de ressonância magnética ponderada em T2 com técnica gradiente-eco (B-FFE Differentiation between simple cyst and hepatic hemangioma utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gradient-echo (b-FFE technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valente Burim

    2008-12-01

    : 0.85-0.91. CONCLUSION: T2-weighted images acquired with the b-FFE technique present a high accuracy and reproducibility in the differentiation between cysts and hepatic hemangiomas.

  19. An explicit parametrization for casting constraints in gradient driven topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    From a practical point of view it is often desirable to limit the complexity of a topology design such that casting/milling type manufacturing techniques can be applied. In the context of gradient driven topology optimization this work studies how castable designs can be obtained by use of a Heav......From a practical point of view it is often desirable to limit the complexity of a topology design such that casting/milling type manufacturing techniques can be applied. In the context of gradient driven topology optimization this work studies how castable designs can be obtained by use...

  20. Development of the CARS method for measurement of pressure and temperature gradients in centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeltmann, A.H.; Valentini, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    These experiments evaluated the feasibility of applying the CARS technique to the measurement of UF 6 concentrations and pressure gradients in a gas centrifuge. The resultant CARS signals were properly related to system parameters as suggested by theory. The results have been used to guide design of an apparatus for making CARS measurements in a UF 6 gas centrifuge. Ease of measurement is expected for pressures as low as 0.1 torr. Temperature gradients can be measured by this technique with changes in the data acquisition method. 16 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  1. Nonnegative least-squares image deblurring: improved gradient projection approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, F.; Zanella, R.; Zanni, L.; Bertero, M.

    2010-02-01

    The least-squares approach to image deblurring leads to an ill-posed problem. The addition of the nonnegativity constraint, when appropriate, does not provide regularization, even if, as far as we know, a thorough investigation of the ill-posedness of the resulting constrained least-squares problem has still to be done. Iterative methods, converging to nonnegative least-squares solutions, have been proposed. Some of them have the 'semi-convergence' property, i.e. early stopping of the iteration provides 'regularized' solutions. In this paper we consider two of these methods: the projected Landweber (PL) method and the iterative image space reconstruction algorithm (ISRA). Even if they work well in many instances, they are not frequently used in practice because, in general, they require a large number of iterations before providing a sensible solution. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to refresh these methods by increasing their efficiency. Starting from the remark that PL and ISRA require only the computation of the gradient of the functional, we propose the application to these algorithms of special acceleration techniques that have been recently developed in the area of the gradient methods. In particular, we propose the application of efficient step-length selection rules and line-search strategies. Moreover, remarking that ISRA is a scaled gradient algorithm, we evaluate its behaviour in comparison with a recent scaled gradient projection (SGP) method for image deblurring. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the accelerated methods still exhibit the semi-convergence property, with a considerable gain both in the number of iterations and in the computational time; in particular, SGP appears definitely the most efficient one.

  2. The quest for high-gradient superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting RF cavities excel in applications requiring continuous waves or long pulse voltages. Since power losses in the walls of the cavity increase as the square of the accelerating voltage, copper cavities become uneconomical as demand for high continuous wave voltage grows with particle energy. For these reasons, RF superconductivity has become an important technology for high energy and high luminosity accelerators. The state of art in performance of sheet metal niobium cavities is best represented by the statistics of more than 300 5-cell, 1.5-GHz cavities built for CEBAF. Key aspects responsible for the outstanding performance of the CEBAF cavities set are the anti-multipactor, elliptical cell shape, good fabrication and welding techniques, high thermal conductivity niobium, and clean surface preparation. On average, field emission starts at the electric field of 8.7 MV/m, but there is a large spread, even though the cavities received nominally the same surface treatment and assembly procedures. In some cavities, field emission was detected as low as 3 MV/m. In others, it was found to be as high as 19 MV/m. As we will discuss, the reason for the large spread in the gradients is the large spread in emitter characteristics and the random occurrence of emitters on the surface. One important phenomenon that limits the achievable RF magnetic field is thermal breakdown of superconductivity, originating at sub-millimeter-size regions of high RF loss, called defects. Simulation reveal that if the defect is a normal conducting region of 200 mm radius, it will break down at 5 MV/m. Producing high gradients and high Q in superconducting cavities demands excellent control of material properties and surface cleanliness. The spread in gradients that arises from the random occurrence of defects and emitters must be reduced. It will be important to improve installation procedures to preserve the excellent gradients now obtained in laboratory test in vertical cryostats

  3. Microsphere-based gradient implants for osteochondral regeneration: a long-term study in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Gupta, Vineet; Sridharan, Banu Priya; Mellott, Adam J; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Galbraith, Richard A; Key, Vincent H; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The microfracture technique for cartilage repair has limited ability to regenerate hyaline cartilage. Aim: The current study made a direct comparison between microfracture and an osteochondral approach with microsphere-based gradient plugs. Materials & methods: The PLGA-based scaffolds had opposing gradients of chondroitin sulfate and β-tricalcium phosphate. A 1-year repair study in sheep was conducted. Results: The repair tissues in the microfracture were mostly fibrous and had scattered fissures with degenerative changes. Cartilage regenerated with the gradient plugs had equal or superior mechanical properties; had lacunated cells and stable matrix as in hyaline cartilage. Conclusion: This first report of gradient scaffolds in a long-term, large animal, osteochondral defect demonstrated potential for equal or better cartilage repair than microfracture. PMID:26418471

  4. Virus purification by CsCl density gradient using general centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasukawa, Tadahiro; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Ota, Sumire; Ujihara, Takako; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu; Murakami, Hironobu; Mizukami, Keijirou; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Virus purification by cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient, which generally requires an expensive ultracentrifuge, is an essential technique in virology. Here, we optimized virus purification by CsCl density gradient using general centrifugation (40,000 × g, 2 h, 4 °C), which showed almost the same purification ability as conventional CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation (100,000 × g, 1 h, 4 °C) using phages S13' and φEF24C. Moreover, adenovirus strain JM1/1 was also successfully purified by this method. We suggest that general centrifugation can become a less costly alternative to ultracentrifugation for virus purification by CsCl densiy gradient and will thus encourage research in virology.

  5. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  6. Application of velocity imaging and gradient-recalled echo in neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, O.B.; Pelc, N.J.; Shimakawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience with imaging blood flow at 1.5 T by means of a phase-sensitive gradient refocused pulse sequence. A spin-echo flow-encoding technique was modified to a gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state sequence, producing a velocity imaging and gradient recalled echo (VIGRE) sequence (TR = 24 msec, TE = 13 msec, flip angle = 45 degrees, 24-cm field of view, 7 mm contiguous sections). Two views per phase-encoding step are acquired; one using the first-moment flow-compensation gradient waveform and the second having a (selectable) nonzero first moment. A phase subtraction image is obtained where the signal is dependent on the direction and velocity of flow. The sequence was done following routine spin-echo imaging in 35 patients

  7. HNO3 fluxes to a deciduous forest derived using gradient and REA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 mug m(-3). Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the results...... indicate substantial uncertainties in the gradient-based calculations. The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) derived fluxes are physically reasonable and are shown to be of similar magnitude to dry deposition estimates from gradient sampling. The REA derived mean deposition velocity is approximately 3 cm s......(-1), which is also comparable to growing season estimates derived by Meyers et al. for a similar deciduous forest. Occasional inverted concentration gradients and fluxes are observed but most are not statistically significant. Data are also presented that indicate substantial through canopy...

  8. Angio-RM das artérias carótidas e vertebrais: análise de diferentes técnicas de volume e diluição de contraste em aparelho de 1,0 t e gradiente de 15 mt/m Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the carotid and vertebral arteries: analysis of different contrast volumes and dilution techniques at 1.0 T with 15 mT/m gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme C. Hartmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as artérias cervicais (carótidas e vertebrais por meio da angio-RM, utilizando-se diferentes dosagens e diluições de contraste paramagnético. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em 15 pacientes, com análise de 30 artérias carótidas comuns, 30 artérias carótidas internas, 30 artérias carótidas externas e 30 artérias vertebrais, utilizando-se diferentes volumes e dosagens de contraste paramagnético: grupo I - dose única (14 ml de Gd-DTPA; grupo II -dose dupla (28 ml de Gd-DTPA; grupo III - dose única e diluída a 50%. A injeção de contraste foi realizada com a utilização de bomba injetora e com velocidades de injeção de 2 ml/s (grupo I e 3 ml/s (grupos II e III. Os segmentos arteriais foram analisados por três examinadores em consenso de forma subjetiva, avaliando-se o grau de visibilidade, intensidade de contrastação e definição de seus contornos. RESULTADOS: Em todos os itens analisados os pacientes do grupo II apresentaram melhor resultado (visibilização total, boa contrastação dos vasos e contornos bem definidos. No grupo I houve boa visibilização das artérias carótidas e vertebrais, porém a intensidade de contraste e a definição dos contornos apresentaram variabilidade qualitativa. O grupo III apresentou os piores resultados, com dificuldade de visibilização, intensidade de contrastação baixa e contornos mal definidos. CONCLUSÃO: Entre os grupos analisados, a técnica utilizando dose dupla de gadolínio é a que permite melhor avaliação das artérias cervicais. A utilização de contraste diluído prejudica a avaliação dos vasos do pescoço.PURPOSE: To evaluate the carotid and vertebral arteries by magnetic resonance angiography, using different contrast volumes and dilution techniques. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of 15 patients, which included the evaluation of 30 common carotid arteries, 30 internal carotid arteries, 30 external carotid arteries and 30

  9. Full magnetic gradient tensor from triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements: Calculation and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Wu, Mei-Ping; Wang, Ping; Duan, Shu-Ling; Liu, Hao-Jun; Wang, Jin-Long; An, Zhan-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The full magnetic gradient tensor (MGT) refers to the spatial change rate of the three field components of the geomagnetic field vector along three mutually orthogonal axes. The tensor is of use to geological mapping, resources exploration, magnetic navigation, and others. However, it is very difficult to measure the full magnetic tensor gradient using existing engineering technology. We present a method to use triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements for deriving the full MGT. The method uses the triaxial gradient data and makes full use of the variation of the magnetic anomaly modulus in three dimensions to obtain a self-consistent magnetic tensor gradient. Numerical simulations show that the full MGT data obtained with the proposed method are of high precision and satisfy the requirements of data processing. We selected triaxial aeromagnetic gradient data from the Hebei Province for calculating the full MGT. Data processing shows that using triaxial tensor gradient data allows to take advantage of the spatial rate of change of the total field in three dimensions and suppresses part of the independent noise in the aeromagnetic gradient. The calculated tensor components have improved resolution, and the transformed full tensor gradient satisfies the requirement of geological mapping and interpretation.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Castro, Yolanda, E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); De Beule, Pieter A.A. [Applied Nano-Optics Laboratory, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Flores-Arias, María T. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Bao-Varela, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bao@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2015-05-29

    In this work, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2-TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia; De Beule, Pieter A.A.; Flores-Arias, María T.; Bao-Varela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity

  12. Physical simulations using centrifuge techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Centrifuge techniques offer a technique for doing physical simulations of the long-term mechanical response of deep ocean sediment to the emplacement of waste canisters and to the temperature gradients generated by them. Preliminary investigations of the scaling laws for pertinent phenomena indicate that the time scaling will be consistent among them and equal to the scaling factor squared. This result implies that this technique will permit accelerated-life-testing of proposed configurations; i.e, long-term studies may be done in relatively short times. Presently, existing centrifuges are being modified to permit scale model testing. This testing will start next year

  13. High gradient magnetic separation applied to environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.; de Aguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is an application of superconducting magnet technology to the separation of magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The production of both high magnetic fields (>4 T) and large field gradients using superconducting magnet technology has made it possible to separate a previously unreachable but large family of paramagnetic materials. This is a powerful technique that can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material and may be the only technique available for separating material in the colloidal state. Because it is a physical separation process, no additional waste is generated. We are applying this technology to the treatment of radioactive wastes for environmental remediation. We have conducted tests examining slurries containing nonradioactive, magnetic surrogates. Results from these studies were used to verify our analytical model of the separation process. The model describes the rate process for magnetic separation and is based on a force balance on the paramagnetic species. This model was used to support bench scale experiments and prototype separator design

  14. Income inequality and socioeconomic gradients in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard G; Pickett, Kate E

    2008-04-01

    We investigated whether the processes underlying the association between income inequality and population health are related to those responsible for the socioeconomic gradient in health and whether health disparities are smaller when income differences are narrower. We used multilevel models in a regression analysis of 10 age- and cause-specific US county mortality rates on county median household incomes and on state income inequality. We assessed whether mortality rates more closely related to county income were also more closely related to state income inequality. We also compared mortality gradients in more- and less-equal states. Mortality rates more strongly associated with county income were more strongly associated with state income inequality: across all mortality rates, r= -0.81; P=.004. The effect of state income inequality on the socioeconomic gradient in health varied by cause of death, but greater equality usually benefited both wealthier and poorer counties. Although mortality rates with steep socioeconomic gradients were more sensitive to income distribution than were rates with flatter gradients, narrower income differences benefit people in both wealthy and poor areas and may, paradoxically, do little to reduce health disparities.

  15. Jupiter's evolution with primordial composition gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazan, Allona; Helled, Ravit; Guillot, Tristan

    2018-02-01

    Recent formation and structure models of Jupiter suggest that the planet can have composition gradients and not be fully convective (adiabatic). This possibility directly affects our understanding of Jupiter's bulk composition and origin. In this Letter we present Jupiter's evolution with a primordial structure consisting of a relatively steep heavy-element gradient of 40 M⊕. We show that for a primordial structure with composition gradients, most of the mixing occurs in the outer part of the gradient during the early evolution (several 107 yr), leading to an adiabatic outer envelope (60% of Jupiter's mass). We find that the composition gradient in the deep interior persists, suggesting that 40% of Jupiter's mass can be non-adiabatic with a higher temperature than the one derived from Jupiter's atmospheric properties. The region that can potentially develop layered convection in Jupiter today is estimated to be limited to 10% of the mass. Movies associated to Figs. 1-3 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  16. Gradient dissimilation in Mongolian: Implications for diachrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jatteau, Adèle; Hejná, Michaela

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast with this ass......This paper explores the implications of ‘gradient dissimilation’ (Jatteau & Hejná 2016) for the diachronic implementation of dissimilation. Since this sound change is usually considered as typically sporadic, lexically regular cases should result from lexical diffusion. In contrast...... with this assumption, we explore the hypothesis that gradient dissimilation may represent the phonetic precursor of completed, regular dissimilatory processes. Such cases of dissimilation might then be reanalysed as Neogrammarian types of change. To assess this question, we gather and analyse new data from Halh...... Mongolian, a language reported to show gradient dissimilation (Svantesson et al. 2005), and compare it to two completed patterns of dissimilation reconstructed within the Mongolic family: Mongolian Chahar and Monguor. The results suggest that the gradient dissimilation in Halh may represent the phonetic...

  17. Gradient algorithm applied to laboratory quantum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of a quantum control landscape, which is the physical observable as a function of the control variables, is fundamental for understanding the ability to perform observable optimization in the laboratory. For high control variable dimensions, trajectory-based methods provide a means for performing such systematic explorations by exploiting the measured gradient of the observable with respect to the control variables. This paper presents a practical, robust, easily implemented statistical method for obtaining the gradient on a general quantum control landscape in the presence of noise. In order to demonstrate the method's utility, the experimentally measured gradient is utilized as input in steepest-ascent trajectories on the landscapes of three model quantum control problems: spectrally filtered and integrated second harmonic generation as well as excitation of atomic rubidium. The gradient algorithm achieves efficiency gains of up to approximately three times that of the standard genetic algorithm and, as such, is a promising tool for meeting quantum control optimization goals as well as landscape analyses. The landscape trajectories directed by the gradient should aid in the continued investigation and understanding of controlled quantum phenomena.

  18. High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2004-01-01

    High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.

  19. An implicit tensorial gradient plasticity model - formulation and comparison with a scalar gradient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poh, L.H.; Peerlings, R.H.J.; Geers, M.G.D.; Swaddiwudhipong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Many rate-independent models for metals utilize the gradient of effective plastic strain to capture size-dependent behavior. This enhancement, sometimes termed as "explicit" gradient formulation, requires higher-order tractions to be imposed on the evolving elasto-plastic boundary and the resulting

  20. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-gradient growth, where growth per unit temperature increases as temperature decreases, can reduce the variation in ectothermic growth rates across environmental gradients. Understanding how ectothermic species respond to changing temperatures is essential to their conservation and management due to human-altered habitats and changing climates.

  1. Momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent algorithm for gradient coil optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanbing; Jesmanowicz, Andrzej; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James S

    2004-01-01

    MRI gradient coil design is a type of nonlinear constrained optimization. A practical problem in transverse gradient coil design using the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) method is that wire elements move at different rates along orthogonal directions (r, phi, z), and tend to cross, breaking the constraints. A momentum-weighted conjugate gradient descent (MW-CGD) method is presented to overcome this problem. This method takes advantage of the efficiency of the CGD method combined with momentum weighting, which is also an intrinsic property of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to adjust step sizes along the three orthogonal directions. A water-cooled, 12.8 cm inner diameter, three axis torque-balanced gradient coil for rat imaging was developed based on this method, with an efficiency of 2.13, 2.08, and 4.12 mT.m(-1).A(-1) along X, Y, and Z, respectively. Experimental data demonstrate that this method can improve efficiency by 40% and field uniformity by 27%. This method has also been applied to the design of a gradient coil for the human brain, employing remote current return paths. The benefits of this design include improved gradient field uniformity and efficiency, with a shorter length than gradient coil designs using coaxial return paths. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  3. Relativistic klystrons for high-gradient accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenskow, G.A.; Aalberts, D.P.; Boyd, J.K.; Deis, G.A.; Houck, T.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Ryne, R.D.; Yu, S.S.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental work is being performed by collaborators at LLNL, SLAC, and LBL to investigate relativistic klystrons as a possible rf power source for future high-gradient accelerators. The authors have learned how to overcome their previously reported problem of high power rf pulse shortening and have achieved peak rf power levels of 330 MW using an 11.4-GHz high-gain tube with multiple output structures. In these experiments the rf pulse is of the same duration as the beam current pulse. In addition, experiments have been performed on two short sections of a high-gradient accelerator using the rf power from a relativistic klystron. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80-MW of rf power

  4. Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui

    2014-07-11

    Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42  m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100  m/s on tapered surfaces.

  5. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  6. Conjugate gradient algorithms using multiple recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1996-12-31

    Much is already known about when a conjugate gradient method can be implemented with short recursions for the direction vectors. The work done in 1984 by Faber and Manteuffel gave necessary and sufficient conditions on the iteration matrix A, in order for a conjugate gradient method to be implemented with a single recursion of a certain form. However, this form does not take into account all possible recursions. This became evident when Jagels and Reichel used an algorithm of Gragg for unitary matrices to demonstrate that the class of matrices for which a practical conjugate gradient algorithm exists can be extended to include unitary and shifted unitary matrices. The implementation uses short double recursions for the direction vectors. This motivates the study of multiple recursion algorithms.

  7. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  8. Review of new shapes for higher gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient E acc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field H pk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field H crit,RF , a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of H pk /E acc has been recently proposed. For a reduced H pk /E acc , a higher ultimate E acc is sustained when H pk finally strikes H crit,RF . The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called 'Low-loss' shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration

  9. Review of new shapes for higher gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, R. L.

    2006-07-01

    High-gradient superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are needed for energy frontier superconducting accelerators. Progress has been made over the past decades and the accelerating gradient Eacc has been increased from a few MV/m to ∼42 MV/m in SRF niobium cavities. The corresponding peak RF magnetic field Hpk on the niobium cavity surface is approaching the intrinsic RF critical magnetic field Hcrit,RF, a hard physical limit at which superconductivity breaks down. Pushing the gradient envelope further by adopting new cavity shapes with a lower ratio of Hpk/ Eacc has been recently proposed. For a reduced Hpk/ Eacc, a higher ultimate Eacc is sustained when Hpk finally strikes Hcrit,RF. The new cavity geometry include the re-entrant shape conceived at Cornell University and the so-called “Low-loss” shape proposed by a DESY/JLAB/KEK collaboration. Experimental work is being pursued at Cornell, KEK and JLAB. Results of single-cell cavities are encouraging. A record gradient of 47 MV/m was first demonstrated in a 1.3 GHz re-entrant niobium cavity at Cornell University. At the time of writing, a new record of 52 MV/m has been realized with another 1.3 GHz re-entrant cavity, designed and built at Cornell and processed and tested at KEK. Single-cell low-loss cavities have reached equally high gradients in the range of 45-51 MV/m at KEK and JLAB. Owing to their higher gradient potential and the encouraging single-cell cavity results, the new cavity shapes are becoming attractive for their possible use in the international linear collider (ILC). Experimental work on multi-cell niobium cavities of new shapes is currently under active exploration.

  10. Frequency Analysis of Gradient Estimators in Volume Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lichtenbelt, Barthold B.A.; Malzbender, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Gradient information is used in volume rendering to classify and color samples along a ray. In this paper, we present an analysis of the theoretically ideal gradient estimator and compare it to some commonly used gradient estimators. A new method is presented to calculate the gradient at arbitrary

  11. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print......]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  12. Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.

  13. CFRMF neutron flux gradient and spectral determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.; Turk, E.H.; Hogg, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    Recently more accurate and complete measurements of the flux gradient have been measured by the activation of 235 U and Au samples. Neutron spectrum characteristics were studied by making activation measurements with and without the ends of the CFRMF test region plugged with 10 B. These measurements define the flux gradient to +-1 to 2% and indicate there is no detectable streaming of thermal or resonance neutrons from the ends in the central 30 cm of the CFRMF test region. Measurements of the Cd ratio of Au foil activations were conducted and these results also indicate there is no streaming of thermal and resonance neutrons into the CFRMF test region

  14. The effect of density gradients on hydrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Sillanpää, Sampo

    2003-05-01

    Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer calibration system. In the tests, the method was found reliable. However, the reliability depends on the available information on the hydrometer dimensions and density gradients.

  15. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs

  16. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli

    2014-01-01

    The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752

  17. Gradient Learning Algorithms for Ontology Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of a supercapacitor flow cell for power production from salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, B.B.; Liu, F.; Schaetzle, O.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity gradients could be a great source of energy in the future. Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) is a new technique to directly convert this energy into electricity. COP uses a supercapacitor-like device combining ion exchange membranes and capacitive materials to

  19. Implementing quantum logic gates with gradient ascent pulse engineering: principles and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Benjamin; Jones, Jonathan A

    2012-10-13

    We briefly describe the use of gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) pulses to implement quantum logic gates in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computers, and discuss a range of simple extensions to the core technique. We then consider a range of difficulties that can arise in practical implementations of GRAPE sequences, reflecting non-idealities in the experimental systems used.

  20. Inference in Complex Systems Using Multi-Phase MCMC Sampling With Gradient Matching Burn-in

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus, Alan; Husmeier, Dirk; Papamarkou, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for parameter inference that builds on the current research in gradient matching surrogate likelihood spaces. Adopting a three phase technique, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain parameter estimates of limited bias whilst still adopting the paradigm of the computationally cheap surrogate approximation.

  1. Towards implementation of reverse electrodialysis for power generation from salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.W.; Goeting, C.H.; Valk, J.; Goinga, S.; Veerman, J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hack, P.J.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis is a conversion technique to obtain electricity from salinity gradients. Over the past few years, the performance of reverse electrodialysis on laboratory scale has improved considerably. In this paper, we discuss the challenges we are still facing concerning the economic and

  2. Decomposition of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter along elevational gradients in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Douglas R. Turner; Peter M. Vitousek

    2000-01-01

    We examined interactions between temperature, soil development, and decomposition on three elevational gradients, the upper and lower ends of each being situated on a common lava flow or ash deposit. We used the reciprocal transplant technique to estimate decomposition rates of Metrosideros polymorpha leaf litter during a three-year period at warm...

  3. Gas-Foamed Scaffold Gradients for Combinatorial Screening in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Kohn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for screening cell-material interactions typically utilize a two-dimensional (2D culture format where cells are cultured on flat surfaces. However, there is a need for combinatorial and high-throughput screening methods to systematically screen cell-biomaterial interactions in three-dimensional (3D tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a two-syringe pump approach for making 3D scaffold gradients for use in combinatorial screening of salt-leached scaffolds. Herein, we demonstrate that the two-syringe pump approach can also be used to create scaffold gradients using a gas-foaming approach. Macroporous foams prepared by a gas-foaming technique are commonly used for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds due to their high interconnectivity and good mechanical properties. Gas-foamed scaffold gradient libraries were fabricated from two biodegradable tyrosine-derived polycarbonates: poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester carbonate (pDTEc and poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine octyl ester carbonate (pDTOc. The composition of the libraries was assessed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and showed that pDTEc/pDTOc gas-foamed scaffold gradients could be repeatably fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that scaffold morphology was similar between the pDTEc-rich ends and the pDTOc-rich ends of the gradient. These results introduce a method for fabricating gas-foamed polymer scaffold gradients that can be used for combinatorial screening of cell-material interactions in 3D.

  4. Design and Performance of Property Gradient Ternary Nitride Coating Based on Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei; Chen, Kaijie; Wang, Yubin; Zhou, Han; Peng, Zeyu; Jiao, Li; Wang, Xibin

    2018-05-09

    Surface coating is an effective approach to improve cutting tool performance, and multiple or gradient coating structures have become a common development strategy. However, composition mutations at the interfaces decrease the performance of multi-layered coatings. The key mitigation technique has been to reduce the interface effect at the boundaries. This study proposes a structure design method for property-component gradient coatings based on process control. The method produces coatings with high internal cohesion and high external hardness, which could reduce the composition and performance mutations at the interface. A ZrTiN property gradient ternary nitride coating was deposited on cemented carbide by multi-arc ion plating with separated Ti and Zr targets. The mechanical properties, friction behaviors, and cutting performances were systematically investigated, compared with a single-layer coating. The results indicated that the gradient coating had better friction and wear performance with lower wear rate and higher resistance to peeling off during sliding friction. The gradient coating had better wear and damage resistance in cutting processes, with lower machined surface roughness Ra. Gradient-structured coatings could effectively inhibit micro crack initiation and growth under alternating force and temperature load. This method could be extended to similar ternary nitride coatings.

  5. Systematic generation of buffer systems for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Frieder; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-04-12

    pH gradient protein separations are widely used techniques in the field of protein analytics, of which isoelectric focusing is the most well known application. The chromatographic variant, based on the formation of pH gradients in ion exchange columns is only rarely applied due to the difficulties to form controllable, linear pH gradients over a broad pH range. This work describes a method for the systematic generation of buffer compositions with linear titration curves, resulting in well controllable pH gradients. To generate buffer compositions with linear titration curves an in silico method was successfully developed. With this tool, buffer compositions for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with pH ranges spanning up to 7.5 pH units were established and successfully validated. Subsequently, the buffer systems were used to characterize the elution behavior of 22 different model proteins in cation and anion exchange pH gradient chromatography. The results of both chromatographic modes as well as isoelectric focusing were compared to describe differences in between the methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  7. Preparation and evaluation of Vinpocetine self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqi; Zhang, Shiming; Cui, Shuxia; Chen, Fen; Jia, Lianqun; Wang, Shu; Gai, Xiumei; Li, Pingfei; Yang, Feifei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a pH gradient release pellet with self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), which could not only improve the oral bioavailability of Vinpocetine (VIN), a poor soluble drug, but reduce the fluctuation of plasma concentration. First, the liquid VIN SEDDS formulation was prepared. Then the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, and formulation consisted by the liquid SEDDS, absorbent (colloidal silicon dioxide), penetration enhancer (sodium chloride), microcrystalline cellulose, ethyl alcohol, and three coating materials (HPMC, Eudragit L30D55, Eudragit FS30D) were eventually selected. Three kinds of coated pellets were mixed in capsules with the mass ratio of 1:1:1. The release curves of capsules were investigated in vitro under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of VIN self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets, commercial tablets and liquid VIN SEDDS were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The oral bioavailability of self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets was about 149.8% of commercial VIN tablets, and it was about 86% of liquid VIN SEDDS, but there were no significant difference between liquid SEDDS and self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. In conclusion, the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets could significantly enhance the absorption of VIN and effectively achieve a pH gradient release. And the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellet was a promising method to improve bioavailability of insoluble drugs.

  8. Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-12-01

    Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.

  9. Large Airborne Full Tensor Gradient Data Inversion Based on a Non-Monotone Gradient Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Meng, Zhaohai; Li, Fengting

    2018-03-01

    Following the development of gravity gradiometer instrument technology, the full tensor gravity (FTG) data can be acquired on airborne and marine platforms. Large-scale geophysical data can be obtained using these methods, making such data sets a number of the "big data" category. Therefore, a fast and effective inversion method is developed to solve the large-scale FTG data inversion problem. Many algorithms are available to accelerate the FTG data inversion, such as conjugate gradient method. However, the conventional conjugate gradient method takes a long time to complete data processing. Thus, a fast and effective iterative algorithm is necessary to improve the utilization of FTG data. Generally, inversion processing is formulated by incorporating regularizing constraints, followed by the introduction of a non-monotone gradient-descent method to accelerate the convergence rate of FTG data inversion. Compared with the conventional gradient method, the steepest descent gradient algorithm, and the conjugate gradient algorithm, there are clear advantages of the non-monotone iterative gradient-descent algorithm. Simulated and field FTG data were applied to show the application value of this new fast inversion method.

  10. Energy Transfer Using Gradient Index Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boopalan Ganapathy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradient refractive index structure in this paper is used to increase the quantum of energy transfer. This is done by improving the directive gain of the pyramidal horn antenna at a frequency of 10 GHz. A three-dimensional array of closed square rings is placed in front of the horn antenna aperture to form a gradient refractive index structure. This structure increases the directive gain by 1.6 dB as compared to that of the conventional horn antenna. The structure nearly doubles the wireless power transfer quantum between the transmitter and the receiver when placed at both ends. The increase in the directivity is achieved by converting the spherical wave emanating from the horn to a plane wave once it passes through the structure. This transformation is realized by the gradient refractive index structure being placed perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The gradient refractive index is constructed by changing the dimensions of a closed square ring placed in the unit cell of the array. The change in the refractive index gives rise to an improvement of the half power beam width and side lobe level compared to that of the normal horn. The design and simulation were done using CST Studio software.

  11. Crack Tip Mechanics in Distortion Gradient Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuentes-Alonso, Sandra; Martínez Pañeda, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Gradient Plasticity (DGP), the influence on crack tip mechanics of DGP's distinguishing features that entail superior modelling capabilities has not been investigated yet. In this work crack tip fields are thoroughly examined by implementing the higher order theory of DGP in an implicit finite element...

  12. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renna, L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated

  13. Gradient based filtering of digital elevation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Andersen, Rune Carbuhn

    We present a filtering method for digital terrain models (DTMs). The method is based on mathematical morphological filtering within gradient (slope) defined domains. The intention with the filtering procedure is to improbé the cartographic quality of height contours generated from a DTM based...

  14. Gradient Space under Orthography and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-24

    surfaceorientation to image geometry [8, 9, 10, 13, 15]. The descriptions of important gradient space properties, however, have been scattered throughout...Kanade, T. A Theory of Origami World. Artificial Intelligence 13:279-311, 1980. *[8] Kanade, T. and Kender, J. Mapping Image Properies into Shape

  15. Mass balance gradients and climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude

  16. Considerations of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    The ion temperature gradient driven instability is considered in this paper. Physical pictures are presented to clarify the nature of the instability. The saturation of a single eddy is modeled by a simple nonlinear equation. We show that eddies which are elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient are the most unstable and have the highest saturation amplitudes. In a sheared magnetic field, such elongated eddies twist with the field lines. This structure is shown to be alternative to the usual Fourier mode picture in which the mode is localized around the surface where k parallel = 0. We show how these elongated twisting eddies, which are an integral part of the ''ballooning mode'' structure, could survive in a torus. The elongated eddies are shown to be unstable to secondary instabilities that are driven by the large gradients in the long eddy. We argue that this mechanism isotropizes ion temperature gradient turbulence. We further argue that the ''mixing length'' is set by this nonlinear process, not by a linear eigenmode width. 17 refs., 6 figs

  17. Analysis of magnetic gradients to study gravitropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H; John, Susan; Scherp, Peter; Povinelli, Daniel; Mopper, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Gravitropism typically is generated by dense particles that respond to gravity. Experimental stimulation by high-gradient magnetic fields provides a new approach to selectively manipulate the gravisensing system. The movement of corn, wheat, and potato starch grains in suspension was examined with videomicroscopy during parabolic flights that generated 20 to 25 s of weightlessness. During weightlessness, a magnetic gradient was generated by inserting a wedge into a uniform, external magnetic field that caused repulsion of starch grains. The resultant velocity of movement was compared with the velocity of sedimentation under 1 g conditions. The high-gradient magnetic fields repelled the starch grains and generated a force of at least 0.6 g. Different wedge shapes significantly affected starch velocity and directionality of movement. Magnetic gradients are able to move diamagnetic compounds under weightless or microgravity conditions and serve as directional stimulus during seed germination in low-gravity environments. Further work can determine whether gravity sensing is based on force or contact between amyloplasts and statocyte membrane system.

  18. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.

  19. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  20. Subspace learning from image gradient orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of subspace learning from image gradient orientations for appearance-based object recognition. As image data is typically noisy and noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional subspace learning from pixel intensities fails very often to estimate reliably the

  1. Gradient augmented level set method for phase change simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumolu, Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2018-01-01

    A numerical method for the simulation of two-phase flow with phase change based on the Gradient-Augmented-Level-set (GALS) strategy is presented. Sharp capturing of the vaporization process is enabled by: i) identification of the vapor-liquid interface, Γ (t), at the subgrid level, ii) discontinuous treatment of thermal physical properties (except for μ), and iii) enforcement of mass, momentum, and energy jump conditions, where the gradients of the dependent variables are obtained at Γ (t) and are consistent with their analytical expression, i.e. no local averaging is applied. Treatment of the jump in velocity and pressure at Γ (t) is achieved using the Ghost Fluid Method. The solution of the energy equation employs the sub-grid knowledge of Γ (t) to discretize the temperature Laplacian using second-order one-sided differences, i.e. the numerical stencil completely resides within each respective phase. To carefully evaluate the benefits or disadvantages of the GALS approach, the standard level set method is implemented and compared against the GALS predictions. The results show the expected trend that interface identification and transport are predicted noticeably better with GALS over the standard level set. This benefit carries over to the prediction of the Laplacian and temperature gradients in the neighborhood of the interface, which are directly linked to the calculation of the vaporization rate. However, when combining the calculation of interface transport and reinitialization with two-phase momentum and energy, the benefits of GALS are to some extent neutralized, and the causes for this behavior are identified and analyzed. Overall the additional computational costs associated with GALS are almost the same as those using the standard level set technique.

  2. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Terrence Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  3. Understanding and Optimizing Asynchronous Low-Precision Stochastic Gradient Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sa, Christopher; Feldman, Matthew; Ré, Christopher; Olukotun, Kunle

    2018-01-01

    Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) is one of the most popular numerical algorithms used in machine learning and other domains. Since this is likely to continue for the foreseeable future, it is important to study techniques that can make it run fast on parallel hardware. In this paper, we provide the first analysis of a technique called Buckwild! that uses both asynchronous execution and low-precision computation. We introduce the DMGC model, the first conceptualization of the parameter space that exists when implementing low-precision SGD, and show that it provides a way to both classify these algorithms and model their performance. We leverage this insight to propose and analyze techniques to improve the speed of low-precision SGD. First, we propose software optimizations that can increase throughput on existing CPUs by up to 11×. Second, we propose architectural changes, including a new cache technique we call an obstinate cache, that increase throughput beyond the limits of current-generation hardware. We also implement and analyze low-precision SGD on the FPGA, which is a promising alternative to the CPU for future SGD systems. PMID:29391770

  4. A search for strain gradients in gold thin films on substrates using x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, O. S.; Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S.; Nix, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The high strengths of gold thin films on silicon substrates have been studied with particular reference to the possible effect of strain gradients. Wafer curvature/thermal cycling measurements have been used to study the strengths of unpassivated, oxide-free gold films ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 2.5 μm. Films thinner than about 1 μm in thickness appear to be weakened by diffusional relaxation effects near the free surface and are not good candidates for the study of strain gradient plasticity. Our search for plastically induced strain gradients was thus limited to thicker films with correspondingly larger grain sizes. Three related x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the elastic strains in these films. The standard d hkl vs sin2 Ψ technique has been used to find the average strain through the thickness of the films. The results are consistent with wafer curvature measurements. We have also measured a number of d hkl 's as a function of penetration depth to construct depth-dependent d hkl vs sin2 Ψ plots. These data show that the residual elastic strain is essentially independent of depth in the film. Finally, a new technique for sample rotation has been used to measure the d hkl 's for a fixed set of grains in the film as a function of penetration depth. Again, no detectable gradient in strain has been observed. These results show that the high strengths of unpassivated gold films relative to the strength of bulk gold cannot be rationalized on the basis of strain gradients through the film thickness. However, a sharp gradient in strain close to the film substrate interface cannot be ruled out. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  6. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  7. Tubing-Electrospinning: A One-Step Process for Fabricating Fibrous Matrices with Spatial, Chemical, and Mechanical Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Suk; Im, Byung Gee; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-08-31

    Guiding newly generated tissues in a gradient pattern, thereby precisely mimicking inherent tissue morphology and subsequently arranging the intimate networks between adjacent tissues, is essential to raise the technical levels of tissue engineering and facilitate its transition into the clinic. In this study, a straightforward electrospinning method (the tubing-electrospinning technique) was developed to create fibrous matrices readily with diverse gradient patterns and to induce patterned cellular responses. Gradient fibrous matrices can be produced simply by installing a series of polymer-containing lengths of tubing into an electrospinning circuit and sequentially processing polymers without a time lag. The loading of polymer samples with different characteristics, including concentration, wettability, and mechanical properties, into the tubing system enabled unique features in fibrous matrices, such as longitudinal gradients in fiber density, surface properties, and mechanical stiffness. The resulting fibrous gradients were shown to arrange cellular migration and residence in a gradient manner, thereby offering efficient cues to mediate patterned tissue formation. The one-step process using tubing-electrospinning apparatus can be used without significant modifications regardless of the type of fibrous gradient. Hence, the tubing-electrospinning system can serve as a platform that can be readily used by a wide-range of users to induce patterned tissue formation in a gradient manner, which will ultimately improve the functionality of tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Convergence in gradient systems with branching of equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V A; Pohozaev, Stanislav I; Shishkov, A E

    2007-01-01

    The basic model is a semilinear elliptic equation with coercive C 1 non-linearity: Δψ+f(ψ)=0 in Ω, ψ=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω subset of R N is a bounded smooth domain. The main hypothesis (H R ) about resonance branching is as follows: if a branching of equilibria occurs at a point ψ with k-dimensional kernel of the linearized operator Δ+f'(ψ)I, then the branching subset S k at ψ is a locally smooth k-dimensional manifold. For N=1 the first result on the stabilization to a single equilibrium is due to Zelenyak (1968). It is shown that Zelenyak's approach, which is based on the analysis of Lyapunov functions, can be extended to general gradient systems in Hilbert spaces with smooth resonance branching. The case of asymptotically small non-autonomous perturbations of such systems is also considered. The approach developed here represents an alternative to Hale's stabilization method (1992) and other similar techniques in the theory of gradient systems. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  9. Case study of the gradient features of in situ concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengkun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of gradient features of the properties of in situ concrete is important for the interpretation/prediction of service life. In this work, the gradient features: water absorption, porosity, mineralogy, morphology and micromechanical properties were studied on two in situ road concretes (15 and 5 years old, respectively by weighing, MIP, XRD, IR, SEM/EDS and micro-indentation techniques. Results showed that a coarsening trend of the pores of the concrete leads to a gradual increase of liquid transport property from inside to outside. Although the carbonation of the exposed surface results in a compact microstructure of the paste, its combined action with calcium-leaching leads to a comparable porosity of different concrete layers. Moreover, the combining factors result in three morphological features, i.e. a porous and granular exposed-layer, a fibrous and porous subexposed-layer and a compact inner-layer. Micro-indentation test results showed that a hard layer that moves inward with aging exists due to the alterations of the mineralogy, the pore and the gel structure.

  10. Subspace Barzilai-Borwein Gradient Method for Large-Scale Bound Constrained Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yunhai; Hu Qingjie

    2008-01-01

    An active set subspace Barzilai-Borwein gradient algorithm for large-scale bound constrained optimization is proposed. The active sets are estimated by an identification technique. The search direction consists of two parts: some of the components are simply defined; the other components are determined by the Barzilai-Borwein gradient method. In this work, a nonmonotone line search strategy that guarantees global convergence is used. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising, and competitive with the well-known method SPG on a subset of bound constrained problems from CUTEr collection

  11. Spectroscopic analysis of the density and temperature gradients in the laser-heated gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Auerbach, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the x-ray spectra produced by a 1.0TW, lambda/sub L/-0.53μm laser-irradiated gas jet. Plasmas produced by ionization of neon, argon and N 2 + SF 6 gases were included in those measurements. Plasma electron density and temperature gradients were obtained by comparison of measured spectra with those produced by computer modeling. Density gradients were also obtained using laser interferometry. The limitations of this technique for plasma diagnosis will be discussed

  12. Nonlinear System Identification Using Neural Networks Trained with Natural Gradient Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnkahla Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We use natural gradient (NG learning neural networks (NNs for modeling and identifying nonlinear systems with memory. The nonlinear system is comprised of a discrete-time linear filter followed by a zero-memory nonlinearity . The NN model is composed of a linear adaptive filter followed by a two-layer memoryless nonlinear NN. A Kalman filter-based technique and a search-and-converge method have been employed for the NG algorithm. It is shown that the NG descent learning significantly outperforms the ordinary gradient descent and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM procedure in terms of convergence speed and mean squared error (MSE performance.

  13. Utilization of a pressure sensor guidewire to measure bileaflet mechanical valve gradients: hemodynamic and echocardiographic sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorey, Andrew J; Gakhal, Mandip; Pasquale, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Suspected prosthetic valve dysfunction is a difficult clinical problem, because of the high risk of repeat valvular surgery. Echocardiographic measurements of prosthetic valvular dysfunction can be misleading, especially with bileaflet valves. Direct measurement of trans-valvular gradients is problematic because of potentially serious catheter entrapment issues. We report a case in which a high-fidelity pressure sensor angioplasty guidewire was used to cross prosthetic mitral and aortic valves in a patient, with hemodynamic and echocardiographic assessment. This technique was safe and effective, refuting the inaccurate non-invasive tests that over-estimated the aortic valvular gradient.

  14. Performance comparison of a new hybrid conjugate gradient method under exact and inexact line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Zull, N.; Shoid, S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of iterative techniques prominently used in solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity, low memory storage, and good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new hybrid conjugate gradient method, named NRM1 method. The method is analyzed under the exact and inexact line searches in given conditions. Theoretically, proofs show that the NRM1 method satisfies the sufficient descent condition with both line searches. The computational result indicates that NRM1 method is capable in solving the standard unconstrained optimization problems used. On the other hand, the NRM1 method performs better under inexact line search compared with exact line search.

  15. Eigenvector of gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips considering fault type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The dips of boundaries in faults and caldera walls play an important role in understanding their formation mechanisms. The fault dip is a particularly important parameter in numerical simulations for hazard map creation as the fault dip affects estimations of the area of disaster occurrence. In this study, I introduce a technique for estimating the fault dip using the eigenvector of the observed or calculated gravity gradient tensor on a profile and investigating its properties through numerical simulations. From numerical simulations, it was found that the maximum eigenvector of the tensor points to the high-density causative body, and the dip of the maximum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the normal fault. It was also found that the minimum eigenvector of the tensor points to the low-density causative body and that the dip of the minimum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the reverse fault. It was shown that the eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips is determined by fault type. As an application of this technique, I estimated the dip of the Kurehayama Fault located in Toyama, Japan, and obtained a result that corresponded to conventional fault dip estimations by geology and geomorphology. Because the gravity gradient tensor is required for this analysis, I present a technique that estimates the gravity gradient tensor from the gravity anomaly on a profile.

  16. Effects of Gradient Coil Noise and Gradient Coil Replacement on the Reproducibility of Resting State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Tsuzuki, Erina; Yoshida, Yukina; Ozawa, Yohei; Kuzuya, Maki; Otani, Takashi; Koyama, Shuji; Isoda, Haruo; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Maesawa, Satoshi; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the MRI scanner throughout a given study is critical in minimizing hardware-induced variability in the acquired imaging data set. However, MRI scanners do malfunction at times, which could generate image artifacts and would require the replacement of a major component such as its gradient coil. In this article, we examined the effect of low intensity, randomly occurring hardware-related noise due to a faulty gradient coil on brain morphometric measures derived from T1-weighted images and resting state networks (RSNs) constructed from resting state functional MRI. We also introduced a method to detect and minimize the effect of the noise associated with a faulty gradient coil. Finally, we assessed the reproducibility of these morphometric measures and RSNs before and after gradient coil replacement. Our results showed that gradient coil noise, even at relatively low intensities, could introduce a large number of voxels exhibiting spurious significant connectivity changes in several RSNs. However, censoring the affected volumes during the analysis could minimize, if not completely eliminate, these spurious connectivity changes and could lead to reproducible RSNs even after gradient coil replacement.

  17. Gradient waveform pre-emphasis based on the gradient system transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Manuel; Wech, Tobias; Slawig, Anne; Ringler, Ralf; Dewdney, Andrew; Greiser, Andreas; Ruyters, Gudrun; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert

    2018-02-25

    The gradient system transfer function (GSTF) has been used to describe the distorted k-space trajectory for image reconstruction. The purpose of this work was to use the GSTF to determine the pre-emphasis for an undistorted gradient output and intended k-space trajectory. The GSTF of the MR system was determined using only standard MR hardware without special equipment such as field probes or a field camera. The GSTF was used for trajectory prediction in image reconstruction and for a gradient waveform pre-emphasis. As test sequences, a gradient-echo sequence with phase-encoding gradient modulation and a gradient-echo sequence with a spiral read-out trajectory were implemented and subsequently applied on a structural phantom and in vivo head measurements. Image artifacts were successfully suppressed by applying the GSTF-based pre-emphasis. Equivalent results are achieved with images acquired using GSTF-based post-correction of the trajectory as a part of image reconstruction. In contrast, the pre-emphasis approach allows reconstruction using the initially intended trajectory. The artifact suppression shown for two sequences demonstrates that the GSTF can serve for a novel pre-emphasis. A pre-emphasis based on the GSTF information can be applied to any arbitrary sequence type. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Degraded character recognition based on gradient pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. R. Ramesh; Ravishankar, M.; Kumar, Manish; Wadera, Kevin; Raj, Aakash

    2010-02-01

    Degraded character recognition is a challenging problem in the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The performance of an optical character recognition depends upon printed quality of the input documents. Many OCRs have been designed which correctly identifies the fine printed documents. But, very few reported work has been found on the recognition of the degraded documents. The efficiency of the OCRs system decreases if the input image is degraded. In this paper, a novel approach based on gradient pattern for recognizing degraded printed character is proposed. The approach makes use of gradient pattern of an individual character for recognition. Experiments were conducted on character image that is either digitally written or a degraded character extracted from historical documents and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  19. Voltammetry under a Controlled Temperature Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krejci, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical measurements are generally done under isothermal conditions. Here we report on the application of a controlled temperature gradient between the working electrode surface and the solution. Using electrochemical sensors prepared on ceramic materials with extremely high specific heat conductivity, the temperature gradient between the electrode and solution was applied here as a second driving force. This application of the Soret phenomenon increases the mass transfer in the Nernst layer and enables more accurate control of the electrode response enhancement by a combination of diffusion and thermal diffusion. We have thus studied the effect of Soret phenomenon by cyclic voltammetry measurements in ferro/ferricyanide. The time dependence of sensor response disappears when applying the Soret phenomenon, and the complicated shape of the cyclic voltammogram is replaced by a simple exponential curve. We have derived the Cotrell-Soret equation describing the steady-state response with an applied temperature difference.

  20. Anisotropic gradients in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmany, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pn amplitudes in some widely spaced sets of orthogonal marine refraction lines on young oceanic crust are greater in the fast direction than in the slow direction. This is inconsistent with the predicted amplitude behavior for simple head waves, but can be explained by an increase in anisotropy with depth. It appears that these gradients are due to increasing olivine crystal orientation, although changes in the relative abundance of two anisotropic minerals without variable tectonization could also account for the observations. Depth variation of tectonization most probably indicates very high temperature gradients at the Moho. This would imply a substantial amount of convective heat transport in the whole oceanic crust near mid-ocean rises

  1. Model predictive control for wind power gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Boyd, Stephen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    We consider the operation of a wind turbine and a connected local battery or other electrical storage device, taking into account varying wind speed, with the goal of maximizing the total energy generated while respecting limits on the time derivative (gradient) of power delivered to the grid. We...... ranges. The system dynamics are quite non-linear, and the constraints and objectives are not convex functions of the control inputs, so the resulting optimal control problem is difficult to solve globally. In this paper, we show that by a novel change of variables, which focuses on power flows, we can...... wind data and modern wind forecasting methods. The simulation results using real wind data demonstrate the ability to reject the disturbances from fast changes in wind speed, ensuring certain power gradients, with an insignificant loss in energy production....

  2. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  3. Social gradients in periodontal diseases among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rodrigo; Fernández, Olaya; Baelum, Vibeke

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic position and periodontal diseases among adolescents. Data were obtained from 9203 Chilean high school students. Clinical examinations included direct recordings of clinical attachment level and the necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions. Students answered a questionnaire on various dimensions of socioeconomic position. Seven periodontal outcomes were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify socioeconomic variables associated with the periodontal outcomes. The occurrence of all periodontal outcomes investigated followed social gradients, and paternal income and parental education were the most influential variables. The study demonstrates the existence of significant social gradients in periodontal diseases already among adolescents. This is worrying, and indicates a new potential for further insight into the mechanisms of periodontal disease causation.

  4. Opinion formation models on a gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Gastner

    Full Text Available Statistical physicists have become interested in models of collective social behavior such as opinion formation, where individuals change their inherently preferred opinion if their friends disagree. Real preferences often depend on regional cultural differences, which we model here as a spatial gradient g in the initial opinion. The gradient does not only add reality to the model. It can also reveal that opinion clusters in two dimensions are typically in the standard (i.e., independent percolation universality class, thus settling a recent controversy about a non-consensus model. However, using analytical and numerical tools, we also present a model where the width of the transition between opinions scales proportional g(-1/4, not proportional g(-4/7 as in independent percolation, and the cluster size distribution is consistent with first-order percolation.

  5. Optimizing sampling approaches along ecological gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Andreas; Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    1. Natural scientists and especially ecologists use manipulative experiments or field observations along gradients to differentiate patterns driven by processes from those caused by random noise. A well-conceived sampling design is essential for identifying, analysing and reporting underlying...... patterns in a statistically solid and reproducible manner, given the normal restrictions in labour, time and money. However, a technical guideline about an adequate sampling design to maximize prediction success under restricted resources is lacking. This study aims at developing such a solid...... and reproducible guideline for sampling along gradients in all fields of ecology and science in general. 2. We conducted simulations with artificial data for five common response types known in ecology, each represented by a simple function (no response, linear, exponential, symmetric unimodal and asymmetric...

  6. Spectrum of resistivity gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Shaing, K.C.; Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The resistivity fluctuation correlation function and electrostatic potential spectrum of resistivity gradient driven turbulence are calculated analytically and compared to the results of three dimensional numerical calculations. Resistivity gradient driven turbulence is characterized by effective Reynolds' numbers of order unity. Steady-state solution of the renormalized spectrum equations yields an electrostatic potential spectrum (circumflex phi 2 )/sub ktheta/ approx. k/sub theta//sup -3.25/. Agreement of the analytically calculated potential spectrum and mean-square radial velocity with the results of multiple helicity numerical calculations is excellent. This comparison constitutes a quantitative test of the analytical turbulence theory used. The spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is also calculated, and agrees well with that obtained from the numerical computations. 13 refs., 8 figs

  7. Electroceramic functional gradient materials. Final report 1995 - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft Soerensen, O. [ed.

    1999-10-01

    In this programme the research and development is focused on electroceramic materials, which are of direct interest for the Danish producers of electronic components (AMP Danmark) and ceramic gas sensors (PBI-Dansensor) as well as companies involved in development of fuel cells (Haldor Topsoee). The R and D work has been focused on strategic materials research, both application oriented and more basic research, and on development of new techniques for fabrication of EFGM (Electroceramic Functional Gradient Materials) of three types: LC circuit materials (electronic noise filters), oxides for electrochemical reactors and solid oxide fuel cell applications (SOFC) and materials (semiconductors, oxygen ion conductors) for oxygen sensors. This work has been carried out in five projects: 1) Integrated filter components; 2) Electrochemical reactor materials; 3) Oxygen sensors based on semiconductors and oxygen ion conductors; 4) Interface models - synthesis and characterisation; 5) Suppression of cracking in multilayered ceramic materials. (EHS)

  8. Mass transfer in horizontal flow channels with thermal gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendrich, G.; Shemilt, L.W.

    1997-01-01

    Mass transfer to a wall of a horizontal rectangular channel reactor was investigated by the limiting current technique for Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 32000. Overall mass transfer coefficients at various mass transfer surface angles were obtained while the reactor was operated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Dimensionless correlations were developed for isothermal flows from 25 to 55 o C and for non-isothermal flows with applied temperature differences up to 30 o C. In the laminar flow range natural convection dominated, but under turbulent conditions combined natural and forced convection prevailed. Mass transfer was approximately doubled under optimum selection of channel surface rotation, temperature gradient and flow rate. (author)

  9. Increased flow sensitivity from gradient recalled echoes and short TRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearshen, D.O.; Froelich, J.W.; Wehrli, F.W.; Haggar, A.M.; Shimakawa, A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-of-flight effects from flow have been characterized in spin-echo images. ''Paradoxical'' enhancement and flow void are observed. Similar enhancement is seen on GRASS images. With no flow void and gradients existing throughout the volume, spins experiencing radio-frequency pulses will give rise to signals even for fast flow, providing a greater velocity sensitivity. GRASS images were obtained from a volunteer with a blood pressure cuff placed over the right thigh. With the cuff inflated, flow in the popliteal vein results in signal saturation. Increasing TR increases intensity in the popliteal vein relative to other vessels. This suggests a clinical role for the technique in assessment of slow flow

  10. Spiral MRI on a 9.4T Vertical-bore Superconducting Magnet Using Unshielded and Self-shielded Gradient Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Nao; Setoi, Ayana; Kose, Katsumi

    2018-01-01

    Spiral MRI sequences were developed for a 9.4T vertical standard bore (54 mm) superconducting magnet using unshielded and self-shielded gradient coils. Clear spiral images with 64-shot scan were obtained with the self-shielded gradient coil, but severe shading artifacts were observed for the spiral-scan images acquired with the unshielded gradient coil. This shading artifact was successfully corrected with a phase-correction technique using reference scans that we developed based on eddy current field measurements. We therefore concluded that spiral imaging sequences can be installed even for unshielded gradient coils if phase corrections are performed using the reference scans. PMID:28367906

  11. Spiral MRI on a 9.4T Vertical-bore Superconducting Magnet Using Unshielded and Self-shielded Gradient Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Nao; Setoi, Ayana; Kose, Katsumi

    2018-04-10

    Spiral MRI sequences were developed for a 9.4T vertical standard bore (54 mm) superconducting magnet using unshielded and self-shielded gradient coils. Clear spiral images with 64-shot scan were obtained with the self-shielded gradient coil, but severe shading artifacts were observed for the spiral-scan images acquired with the unshielded gradient coil. This shading artifact was successfully corrected with a phase-correction technique using reference scans that we developed based on eddy current field measurements. We therefore concluded that spiral imaging sequences can be installed even for unshielded gradient coils if phase corrections are performed using the reference scans.

  12. Transport due to ion pressure gradient turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Turbulent transport due to the ion pressure gradient (or temperature drift) instability is thought to be significant when etasub(i)=d(ln Tsub(i))/d(ln n)>1. The invariance properties of the governing equations under scale transformations are used to discuss the characteristics of this turbulence. This approach not only clarifies the relationships between earlier treatments but also, in certain limits, completely determines the scaling properties of the fluctuations and the consequent thermal transport. (author)

  13. Radial oxygen gradients over rat cortex arterioles

    OpenAIRE

    Galler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We present the results of the visualisation of radial oxygen gradients in rats’ cortices and their use in neurocritical management. Methods: PO2 maps of the cortex of 10 wistar rats were obtained with a camera (SensiMOD, PCO, Kehlheim, Germany). Those pictures were analyzed and edited by a custom-made software. We chose a vessel for examination. A matrix, designed to evaluate the cortical O2 partial pressure, was placed vertically to the artery and afterwards multiple regio...

  14. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  15. High gradient accelerators for linear light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ultra-high gradient radio frequency linacs powered by relativistic klystrons appear to be able to provide compact sources of radiation at XUV and soft x-ray wavelengths with a duration of 1 picosecond or less. This paper provides a tutorial review of the physics applicable to scaling the present experience of the accelerator community to the regime applicable to compact linear light sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs

  16. CERN/KEK: Very high accelerating gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-01-15

    Full text: A world-wide effort is under way to develop linear electron-positron colliders so that physics experiments can be extended into a range of energies where circular machines (necessarily much larger than CERN's 27-kilometre LEP machine) would be crippled by synchrotron radiation. CERN is studying the feasibility of building a 2 TeV machine called CLIC powered not by individual klystrons, but by a high intensity electron 'drive' linac running parallel to the main linac (November 1990, page 7). This drive linac will itself be powered by similar superconducting cavities to those developed for LEP. A high gradient is an obvious design aim for any future high energy linear collider because it makes it shorter and therefore cheaper - the design figure for the CLIC machine is 80 MV/m. The CLIC study group has taken a significant step forward in demonstrating the technical feasibility of their machine by achieving peak and average accelerating gradients of 137 MV/m and 84 MV/m respectively in a short section of accelerating structure during high gradient tests at the Japanese KEK Laboratory last year. This result obtained within the framework of a CERN/KEK collaboration on linear colliders was obtained using a 20-cell accelerating section built at CERN using state-of the- art technology which served both as a model for CLIC studies as well as a prototype for the Japanese Linear Collider studies. The operating frequency of the model accelerating section is 2.6 times lower than the CLIC frequency but was chosen because a high power r.f. source and pulse compression scheme has been developed for this frequency at KEK. Testing CLIC models at 11.4 GHz is however more stringent than at 30 GHz because the chance of electrical breakdown increases as the frequency is lowered. This recent result clearly demonstrates that a gradient of 80 MV/m is feasible.

  17. Error Estimation in Preconditioned Conjugate Gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strakoš, Zdeněk; Tichý, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, - (2005), s. 789-817 ISSN 0006-3835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR KJB1030306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioned conjugate gradient method * error bounds * stopping criteria * evaluation of convergence * numerical stability * finite precision arithmetic * rounding errors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2005

  18. Conjugate gradient optimization programs for shuttle reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. F.; Jacobson, R. A.; Leonard, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two computer programs for shuttle reentry trajectory optimization are listed and described. Both programs use the conjugate gradient method as the optimization procedure. The Phase 1 Program is developed in cartesian coordinates for a rotating spherical earth, and crossrange, downrange, maximum deceleration, total heating, and terminal speed, altitude, and flight path angle are included in the performance index. The programs make extensive use of subroutines so that they may be easily adapted to other atmospheric trajectory optimization problems.

  19. M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L.

    1983-01-01

    Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving sparse symmetric and positive finite systems of linear equations are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when these preconditioners can be used and an analysis of their effectiveness is given. Efficient computer implementations of these methods are discussed and results on the CYBER 203 and the Finite Element Machine under construction at NASA Langley Research Center are included.

  20. CERN/KEK: Very high accelerating gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: A world-wide effort is under way to develop linear electron-positron colliders so that physics experiments can be extended into a range of energies where circular machines (necessarily much larger than CERN's 27-kilometre LEP machine) would be crippled by synchrotron radiation. CERN is studying the feasibility of building a 2 TeV machine called CLIC powered not by individual klystrons, but by a high intensity electron 'drive' linac running parallel to the main linac (November 1990, page 7). This drive linac will itself be powered by similar superconducting cavities to those developed for LEP. A high gradient is an obvious design aim for any future high energy linear collider because it makes it shorter and therefore cheaper - the design figure for the CLIC machine is 80 MV/m. The CLIC study group has taken a significant step forward in demonstrating the technical feasibility of their machine by achieving peak and average accelerating gradients of 137 MV/m and 84 MV/m respectively in a short section of accelerating structure during high gradient tests at the Japanese KEK Laboratory last year. This result obtained within the framework of a CERN/KEK collaboration on linear colliders was obtained using a 20-cell accelerating section built at CERN using state-of the- art technology which served both as a model for CLIC studies as well as a prototype for the Japanese Linear Collider studies. The operating frequency of the model accelerating section is 2.6 times lower than the CLIC frequency but was chosen because a high power r.f. source and pulse compression scheme has been developed for this frequency at KEK. Testing CLIC models at 11.4 GHz is however more stringent than at 30 GHz because the chance of electrical breakdown increases as the frequency is lowered. This recent result clearly demonstrates that a gradient of 80 MV/m is feasible

  1. Designing optimal nanofocusing with a gradient hyperlens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Lian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the design of a high-throughput gradient hyperbolic lenslet built with real-life materials and capable of focusing a beam into a deep sub-wavelength spot of λ/23. This efficient design is achieved through high-order transformation optics and circular effective-medium theory (CEMT, which are used to engineer the radially varying anisotropic artificial material based on the thin alternating cylindrical metal and dielectric layers. The radial gradient of the effective anisotropic optical constants allows for matching the impedances at the input and output interfaces, drastically improving the throughput of the lenslet. However, it is the use of the zeroth-order CEMT that enables the practical realization of a gradient hyperlens with realistic materials. To illustrate the importance of using the CEMT versus the conventional planar effective-medium theory (PEMT for cylindrical anisotropic systems, such as our hyperlens, both the CEMT and PEMT are adopted to design gradient hyperlenses with the same materials and order of elemental layers. The CEMT- and PEMT-based designs show similar performance if the number of metal-dielectric binary layers is sufficiently large (9+ pairs and if the layers are sufficiently thin. However, for the manufacturable lenses with realistic numbers of layers (e.g. five pairs and thicknesses, the performance of the CEMT design continues to be practical, whereas the PEMT-based design stops working altogether. The accurate design of transformation optics-based layered cylindrical devices enabled by CEMT allow for a new class of robustly manufacturable nanophotonic systems, even with relatively thick layers of real-life materials.

  2. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  3. Calibration of a rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer using centrifugal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingbiao; Cai, Tijing

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate scale factors and equivalent zero biases of a rotating accelerometer gravity gradiometer (RAGG). We calibrate scale factors by determining the relationship between the centrifugal gradient excitation and RAGG response. Compared with calibration by changing the gravitational gradient excitation, this method does not need test masses and is easier to implement. The equivalent zero biases are superpositions of self-gradients and the intrinsic zero biases of the RAGG. A self-gradient is the gravitational gradient produced by surrounding masses, and it correlates well with the RAGG attitude angle. We propose a self-gradient model that includes self-gradients and the intrinsic zero biases of the RAGG. The self-gradient model is a function of the RAGG attitude, and it includes parameters related to surrounding masses. The calibration of equivalent zero biases determines the parameters of the self-gradient model. We provide detailed procedures and mathematical formulations for calibrating scale factors and parameters in the self-gradient model. A RAGG physical simulation system substitutes for the actual RAGG in the calibration and validation experiments. Four point masses simulate four types of surrounding masses producing self-gradients. Validation experiments show that the self-gradients predicted by the self-gradient model are consistent with those from the outputs of the RAGG physical simulation system, suggesting that the presented calibration method is valid.

  4. Self-organization of intracellular gradients during mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Brian G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gradients are used in a number of biological systems to transmit spatial information over a range of distances. The best studied are morphogen gradients where information is transmitted over many cell lengths. Smaller mitotic gradients reflect the need to organize several distinct events along the length of the mitotic spindle. The intracellular gradients that characterize mitosis are emerging as important regulatory paradigms. Intracellular gradients utilize intrinsic auto-regulatory feedback loops and diffusion to establish stable regions of activity within the mitotic cytosol. We review three recently described intracellular mitotic gradients. The Ran GTP gradient with its elaborate cascade of nuclear transport receptors and cargoes is the best characterized, yet the dynamics underlying the robust gradient of Ran-GTP have received little attention. Gradients of phosphorylation have been observed on Aurora B kinase substrates both before and after anaphase onset. In both instances the phosphorylation gradient appears to result from a soluble gradient of Aurora B kinase activity. Regulatory properties that support gradient formation are highlighted. Intracellular activity gradients that regulate localized mitotic events bare several hallmarks of self-organizing biologic systems that designate spatial information during pattern formation. Intracellular pattern formation represents a new paradigm in mitotic regulation.

  5. Variable high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole (QUAPEVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, F.; Ghaith, A.; N'Gotta, P.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Loulergue, A.; Vétéran, J.; Sebdaoui, M.; André, T.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.; Vallerand, C.; Oumbarek, D.; Cosson, O.; Forest, F.; Jivkov, P.; Lancelot, J. L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Different applications such as laser plasma acceleration, colliders, and diffraction limited light sources require high gradient quadrupoles, with strength that can reach up to 200 T/m for a typical 10 mm bore diameter. We present here a permanent magnet based quadrupole (so-called QUAPEVA) composed of a Halbach ring and surrounded by four permanent magnet cylinders. Its design including magnetic simulation modeling enabling us to reach 201 T/m with a gradient variability of 45% and mechanical issues are reported. Magnetic measurements of seven systems of different lengths are presented and confirmed the theoretical expectations. The variation of the magnetic center while changing the gradient strength is ±10 μm. A triplet of QUAPEVA magnets is used to efficiently focus a beam with large energy spread and high divergence that is generated by a Laser Plasma Acceleration source for a free electron laser demonstration and has enabled us to perform beam based alignment and control the dispersion of the beam.

  6. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  7. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  8. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  9. Induced electric currents in the Alaska oil pipeline measured by gradient, fluxgate, and SQUID magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. H.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The field gradient method for observing the electric currents in the Alaska pipeline provided consistent values for both the fluxgate and SQUID method of observation. These currents were linearly related to the regularly measured electric and magnetic field changes. Determinations of pipeline current were consistent with values obtained by a direct connection, current shunt technique at a pipeline site about 9.6 km away. The gradient method has the distinct advantage of portability and buried- pipe capability. Field gradients due to the pipe magnetization, geological features, or ionospheric source currents do not seem to contribute a measurable error to such pipe current determination. The SQUID gradiometer is inherently sensitive enough to detect very small currents in a linear conductor at 10 meters, or conversely, to detect small currents of one amphere or more at relatively great distances. It is fairly straightforward to achieve imbalance less than one part in ten thousand, and with extreme care, one part in one million or better.

  10. Controlling Directional Liquid Motion on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xin; Kong, Tiantian; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhou, Xuechang; Tang, Yongbing

    2018-01-30

    In this Article, we report the synthesis of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films, using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and its application as a robust and chemically inert means to actuate water and hazardous liquids. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, the composition of the surface changed gradually from pure nanocrystalline diamond (hydrophobic) to a nanocrystalline β-SiC surface (hydrophilic). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the presence of diamond, graphite, and β-SiC phases. The as-prepared gradient films were evaluated for their ability to actuate water. Indeed, water was transported via the gradient from the hydrophobic (hydrogen-terminated diamond) to the hydrophilic side (hydroxyl-terminated β-SiC) of the gradient surface. The driving distance and velocity of water is pivotally influenced by the surface roughness. The nanogradient surface showed significant promise as the lower roughness combined with the longer gradient yields in transport distances of up to 3.7 mm, with a maximum droplet velocity of nearly 250 mm/s measured by a high-speed camera. As diamond and β-SiC are chemically inert, the gradient surfaces can be used to drive hazardous liquids and reactive mixtures, which was signified by the actuation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. We envision that the diamond/β-SiC gradient surface has high potential as an actuator for water transport in microfluidic devices, DNA sensors, and implants, which induce guided cell growth.

  11. Comparison of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.S.; Yang, D.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We apply and compare the preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods to solve the linear system equation that arises in the two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in this paper. Several subroutines are developed on the basis of preconditioned generalized conjugate gradient methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron and photon transport equation in the transport theory. These generalized conjugate gradient methods are used: TFQMR (transpose free quasi-minimal residual algorithm) CGS (conjugate gradient square algorithm), Bi-CGSTAB (bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm) and QMRCGSTAB (quasi-minimal residual variant of bi-conjugate gradient stabilized algorithm). These subroutines are connected to computer program DORT. Several problems are tested on a personal computer with Intel Pentium CPU. The reasons to choose the generalized conjugate gradient methods are that the methods have better residual (equivalent to error) control procedures in the computation and have better convergent rate. The pointwise incomplete LU factorization ILU, modified pointwise incomplete LU factorization MILU, block incomplete factorization BILU and modified blockwise incomplete LU factorization MBILU are the preconditioning techniques used in the several testing problems. In Bi-CGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR and QMRCGSTAB method, we find that either CGS or Bi-CGSTAB method combined with preconditioner MBILU is the most efficient algorithm in these methods in the several testing problems. The numerical solution of flux by preconditioned CGS and Bi-CGSTAB methods has the same result as those from Cray computer, obtained by either the point successive relaxation method or the line successive relaxation method combined with Gaussian elimination

  12. NMR imaging of solids with multiple-pulse line narrowing and radiofrequency gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The usual methods of magnetic resonance imaging fail in rigid solids due to the line-shape contributions of dipolar coupling, chemical shift dispersion and anisotropy, and bulk magnetic susceptibility. This dissertation presents a new method of solid-stage imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance which averages away these contributions with multiple-pulse line-narrowing and encodes spatial information with pulsed radiofrequency field gradients. This method is closely related to simultaneously developed methods utilizing pulsed DC gradients, and offers similar improvements in sensitivity and resolution. The advantage of rf gradients is that they can be rapidly switched without inducing eddy currents in the probe or the magnet. In addition, the phases and amplitudes of the rf gradients can be switched by equipment which is already part of an NMR spectrometer capable of solid-state spectroscopy. The line-narrowing and gradient pulses originate in separate rf circuits tuned to the same frequency. Interactions between the circuits have been minimized by a method of active Q-switching which employs PIN diodes in the matching networks of these circuits. Both one- and two-dimensional images are presented. The latter are obtained by a novel method in which the two dimensions of imaging transverse to the static magnetic field are encoded by two orthogonal components of a single rf gradient. A π/2 phase shift of the rf phase relative to that of the line-narrowing pulses selects one component or the other. This arrangement allows the solid-state analogs of versatile imaging sequences based on Fourier imaging and eliminates the need for sample rotation and back-projection methods. Coherent averaging theory is used to analyze this imaging technique and exact numerical simulations on several coupled spins are discussed. These lend insight to the residual linewidth and its dependence on pixel position as well as to the range of applicability of this technique

  13. Growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on wettability gradient surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The growth, spreading, and shape of human skin fibroblasts (PK 84) and human umbilical cord endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) and dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DOGS) gradient surfaces were investigated in the presence of serum proteins. Gradient surfaces were prepared on glass using

  14. A strain gradient plasticity theory with application to wire torsion

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J. X.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the framework of the existing strain gradient plasticity theories, we have examined three kinds of relations for the plastic strain dependence of the material intrinsic length scale, and thus developed updated strain gradient plasticity

  15. Mapping the Salinity Gradient in a Microfluidic Device with Schlieren Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-li Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of the schlieren imaging to quantify the salinity gradients in a microfluidic device. By partially blocking the back focal plane of the objective lens, the schlieren microscope produces an image with patterns that correspond to spatial derivative of refractive index in the specimen. Since salinity variation leads to change in refractive index, the fluid mixing of an aqueous salt solution of a known concentration and water in a T-microchannel is used to establish the relation between salinity gradients and grayscale readouts. This relation is then employed to map the salinity gradients in the target microfluidic device from the grayscale readouts of the corresponding micro-schlieren image. For saline solution with salinity close to that of the seawater, the grayscale readouts vary linearly with the salinity gradient, and the regression line is independent of the flow condition and the salinity of the injected solution. It is shown that the schlieren technique is well suited to quantify the salinity gradients in microfluidic devices, for it provides a spatially resolved, non-invasive, full-field measurement.

  16. Mini-batch optimized full waveform inversion with geological constrained gradient filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Jia, Junxiong; Wu, Bangyu; Gao, Jinghuai

    2018-05-01

    High computation cost and generating solutions without geological sense have hindered the wide application of Full Waveform Inversion (FWI). Source encoding technique is a way to dramatically reduce the cost of FWI but subject to fix-spread acquisition setup requirement and slow convergence for the suppression of cross-talk. Traditionally, gradient regularization or preconditioning is applied to mitigate the ill-posedness. An isotropic smoothing filter applied on gradients generally gives non-geological inversion results, and could also introduce artifacts. In this work, we propose to address both the efficiency and ill-posedness of FWI by a geological constrained mini-batch gradient optimization method. The mini-batch gradient descent optimization is adopted to reduce the computation time by choosing a subset of entire shots for each iteration. By jointly applying the structure-oriented smoothing to the mini-batch gradient, the inversion converges faster and gives results with more geological meaning. Stylized Marmousi model is used to show the performance of the proposed method on realistic synthetic model.

  17. A multi-slice gradient sequence for contrast enhanced MR diagnosis of intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Sander, B.; Kornmesser, W.; Laniado, M.; Nakamura, T.; Felix, R.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-slice gradient echo sequence (FLASH) was compared with a conventional spin-echo (SE) technique with regard to its value for contrast enhanced MR diagnosis. In 28 patients with cerebral tumours, SE images (SE 400/30; four images/3.4 minutes) and FLASH images (FLASH 315/14; 15 images/1.4 minutes) were obtained before and after gadolinium DTPA. After gadolinium-DTPA results were comparable for both techniques with respect to contrast enhancement, tumor contrast and delineation. Because of the higher efficiency of the FLASH 315/14 technique, this sequence is the method of choice for contrast enhanced cerebral MR imaging. (orig.) [de

  18. Recognition of handwritten characters using local gradient feature descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Karaaba, Mahir F.; Schomaker, Lambert R.B.; Wiering, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose to use local gradient feature descriptors, namely the scale invariant feature transform keypoint descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients, for handwritten character recognition. The local gradient feature descriptors are used to extract feature vectors

  19. UV-LIGA technique for ECF micropumps using back UV exposure and self-alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Xia, Y.; Yokota, S.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes and develops a novel UV-LIGA technique using back UV exposure and self-alignment to realize high aspect ratio micromachining (HARM) in high power density electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) micropumps. ECF is a functional fluid designed to be able to generate strong and active jet flow (ECF jetting) between anode and cathode in ECF when high DC voltage is applied. We have developed high power density ECF micropumps consisting of triangular prism and slit electrode pairs (TPSEs) fabricated by HARM. The traditional UV-LIGA technique for HARM is mainly divided into two approaches: (a) single thick layer and (b) multiple thin layers. Both methods have limitations—deformed molds in the former and misalignment between layers in the latter. Using the finite element method software COMSOL Multiphysics, we demonstrate that the deformed micro-molds critically impair the performance of ECF micropumps. In addition, we experimentally prove that the misalignment would easily trigger electric discharge in the ECF micropumps. To overcome these limitations, we conceive a new concept utilizing the seed electrode layer for electroforming as the UV shield and pattern photoresist (KMPR) by back UV exposure. The seed electrode layer should be composed of a non-transparent conductor (Au/Ti) for patterning and a transparent conductor (ITO) for wiring. Instead of ITO, we propose the concept of transparency-like electrodes comprised of thin metal line patterns. To verify this concept, KMPR layers with thicknesses of 70, 220, and 500 µm are experimentally investigated. In the case of 500 µm KMPR thickness, the concept of transparency-like electrode was partially proved. As a result, TPSEs with a height of 440 µm were successfully fabricated. Characteristic experiments demonstrated that ECF micropumps (367 mW cm-3) fabricated by back UV achieved almost the same output power density as ECF micropumps (391 mW cm-3) fabricated by front UV. This paper proves that the proposed

  20. UV-LIGA technique for ECF micropumps using back UV exposure and self-alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D; Xia, Y; Yokota, S; Kim, J W

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and develops a novel UV-LIGA technique using back UV exposure and self-alignment to realize high aspect ratio micromachining (HARM) in high power density electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) micropumps. ECF is a functional fluid designed to be able to generate strong and active jet flow (ECF jetting) between anode and cathode in ECF when high DC voltage is applied. We have developed high power density ECF micropumps consisting of triangular prism and slit electrode pairs (TPSEs) fabricated by HARM. The traditional UV-LIGA technique for HARM is mainly divided into two approaches: (a) single thick layer and (b) multiple thin layers. Both methods have limitations—deformed molds in the former and misalignment between layers in the latter. Using the finite element method software COMSOL Multiphysics, we demonstrate that the deformed micro-molds critically impair the performance of ECF micropumps. In addition, we experimentally prove that the misalignment would easily trigger electric discharge in the ECF micropumps. To overcome these limitations, we conceive a new concept utilizing the seed electrode layer for electroforming as the UV shield and pattern photoresist (KMPR) by back UV exposure. The seed electrode layer should be composed of a non-transparent conductor (Au/Ti) for patterning and a transparent conductor (ITO) for wiring. Instead of ITO, we propose the concept of transparency-like electrodes comprised of thin metal line patterns. To verify this concept, KMPR layers with thicknesses of 70, 220, and 500 µ m are experimentally investigated. In the case of 500 µ m KMPR thickness, the concept of transparency-like electrode was partially proved. As a result, TPSEs with a height of 440 µ m were successfully fabricated. Characteristic experiments demonstrated that ECF micropumps (367 mW cm −3 ) fabricated by back UV achieved almost the same output power density as ECF micropumps (391 mW cm −3 ) fabricated by front UV. This paper proves that the

  1. Post-placement temperature reduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With technology scaled to deep submicron era, temperature and temperature gradient have emerged as important design criteria. We propose two post-placement techniques to reduce peak temperature by intelligently allocating whitespace in the hotspots. Both methods are fully compliant with commercial...

  2. Universal field matching in craniospinal irradiation by a background-dose gradient-optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traneus, Erik; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Fellin, Francesco; Rombi, Barbara; Farace, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The gradient-optimized methods are overcoming the traditional feathering methods to plan field junctions in craniospinal irradiation. In this note, a new gradient-optimized technique, based on the use of a background dose, is described. Treatment planning was performed by RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden) on the CT scans of a pediatric patient. Both proton (by pencil beam scanning) and photon (by volumetric modulated arc therapy) treatments were planned with three isocenters. An 'in silico' ideal background dose was created first to cover the upper-spinal target and to produce a perfect dose gradient along the upper and lower junction regions. Using it as background, the cranial and the lower-spinal beams were planned by inverse optimization to obtain dose coverage of their relevant targets and of the junction volumes. Finally, the upper-spinal beam was inversely planned after removal of the background dose and with the previously optimized beams switched on. In both proton and photon plans, the optimized cranial and the lower-spinal beams produced a perfect linear gradient in the junction regions, complementary to that produced by the optimized upper-spinal beam. The final dose distributions showed a homogeneous coverage of the targets. Our simple technique allowed to obtain high-quality gradients in the junction region. Such technique universally works for photons as well as protons and could be applicable to the TPSs that allow to manage a background dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. Fabrication of hydrogels with steep stiffness gradients for studying cell mechanical response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimon Sunyer

    Full Text Available Many fundamental cell processes, such as angiogenesis, neurogenesis and cancer metastasis, are thought to be modulated by extracellular matrix stiffness. Thus, the availability of matrix substrates having well-defined stiffness profiles can be of great importance in biophysical studies of cell-substrate interaction. Here, we present a method to fabricate biocompatible hydrogels with a well defined and linear stiffness gradient. This method, involving the photopolymerization of films by progressively uncovering an acrylamide/bis-acrylamide solution initially covered with an opaque mask, can be easily implemented with common lab equipment. It produces linear stiffness gradients of at least 115 kPa/mm, extending from ∼1 kPa to 240 kPa (in units of Young's modulus. Hydrogels with less steep gradients and narrower stiffness ranges can easily be produced. The hydrogels can be covalently functionalized with uniform coatings of proteins that promote cell adhesion. Cell spreading on these hydrogels linearly correlates with hydrogel stiffness, indicating that this technique effectively modifies the mechanical environment of living cells. This technique provides a simple approach that produces steeper gradients, wider rigidity ranges, and more accurate profiles than current methods.

  4. Combined use of heat and saline tracer to estimate aquifer properties in a forced gradient test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2015-06-01

    Usually electrolytic tracers are employed for subsurface characterization, but the interpretation of tracer test data collected by low cost techniques, such as electrical conductivity logging, can be biased by cation exchange reactions. To characterize the aquifer transport properties a saline and heat forced gradient test was employed. The field site, located near Ferrara (Northern Italy), is a well characterized site, which covers an area of 200 m2 and is equipped with a grid of 13 monitoring wells. A two-well (injection and pumping) system was employed to perform the forced gradient test and a straddle packer was installed in the injection well to avoid in-well artificial mixing. The contemporary continuous monitor of hydraulic head, electrical conductivity and temperature within the wells permitted to obtain a robust dataset, which was then used to accurately simulate injection conditions, to calibrate a 3D transient flow and transport model and to obtain aquifer properties at small scale. The transient groundwater flow and solute-heat transport model was built using SEAWAT. The result significance was further investigated by comparing the results with already published column experiments and a natural gradient tracer test performed in the same field. The test procedure shown here can provide a fast and low cost technique to characterize coarse grain aquifer properties, although some limitations can be highlighted, such as the small value of the dispersion coefficient compared to values obtained by natural gradient tracer test, or the fast depletion of heat signal due to high thermal diffusivity.

  5. A z-gradient array for simultaneous multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Koray; Taraghinia, Soheil; Sadeghi, Alireza; Atalar, Ergin

    2018-07-01

    Multi-slice radiofrequency (RF) pulses have higher specific absorption rates, more peak RF power, and longer pulse durations than single-slice RF pulses. Gradient field design techniques using a z-gradient array are investigated for exciting multiple slices with a single-band RF pulse. Two different field design methods are formulated to solve for the required current values of the gradient array elements for the given slice locations. The method requirements are specified, optimization problems are formulated for the minimum current norm and an analytical solution is provided. A 9-channel z-gradient coil array driven by independent, custom-designed gradient amplifiers is used to validate the theory. Performance measures such as normalized slice thickness error, gradient strength per unit norm current, power dissipation, and maximum amplitude of the magnetic field are provided for various slice locations and numbers of slices. Two and 3 slices are excited by a single-band RF pulse in simulations and phantom experiments. The possibility of multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse using a z-gradient array is validated in simulations and phantom experiments. Magn Reson Med 80:400-412, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. The shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional in optimal shape design problems of radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukolaine, Sergey A.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal shape design problems of steady-state radiative heat transfer are considered. The optimal shape design problem (in the three-dimensional space) is formulated as an inverse one, i.e., in the form of an operator equation of the first kind with respect to a surface to be optimized. The operator equation is reduced to a minimization problem via a least-squares objective functional. The minimization problem has to be solved numerically. Gradient minimization methods need the gradient of a functional to be minimized. In this paper the shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional is derived with the help of the shape sensitivity analysis and adjoint problem method. In practice a surface to be optimized may be (or, most likely, is to be) given in a parametric form by a finite number of parameters. In this case the objective functional is, in fact, a function in a finite-dimensional space and the shape gradient becomes an ordinary gradient. The gradient of the objective functional, in the case that the surface to be optimized is given in a finite-parametric form, is derived from the shape gradient. A particular case, that a surface to be optimized is a 'two-dimensional' polyhedral one, is considered. The technique, developed in the paper, is applied to a synthetic problem of designing a 'two-dimensional' radiant enclosure.

  7. Is the temperature gradient or the derivative of the density gradient responsible for drift solitons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salat, A.

    1990-01-01

    In conventional drift wave theory the density gradient κ n =d lnn/dχ determines the linear phase velocity, and the (electron) temperature gradient κ T =d lnT/dχ gives rise to a nonlinear term which leads to the existence of soliton-type solutions and solitary waves. LAKHIN, MIKHAILOVSKI and ONISHCHENKO, Phys. Lett. A 119, 348 (1987) and Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fus. 30, 457 (1988), recently claimed that it is not κ T but essentially the derivative of the density gradient, dκ n /dχ, that is relevant. This claim is refuted by means of an expansion scheme in ε=eΦ/T≤1, where Φ is the drift wave potential. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  9. Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A

    2014-01-01

    A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.

  10. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  11. Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.

    2000-12-01

    We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.

  12. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  13. Gradient-index optics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Reino, Carlos; Bao, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Gradient-Index (GRIN) optics provides a comprehensive and thorough treatment on fundamentals and applications of light propagation through inhomogeneous media. The book can be used both as a classroom text for students in physics and engineering and as a reference for specialists. A description of the phenomena, components and technology used in GRIN Optics are presented. The relationship to lenses, waveguides, optical connections, spatial solitons and vision is demonstrated. Applications of GRIN components and hybrid structures for optical connections, optical sensing and Talbot effect are analyzed.

  14. Microfluidic high gradient magnetic cell separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Riehn, Robert; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-04-01

    Separation of blood cells by native susceptibility and by the selective attachment of magnetic beads has recently been demonstrated on microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic principles of how forces are generated via the magnetic susceptibility of an object and how microfluidics can be combined with micron-scale magnetic field gradients to greatly enhance in principle the fractionating power of magnetic fields. We discuss our efforts and those of others to build practical microfluidic devices for the magnetic separation of blood cells. We also discuss our attempts to integrate magnetic separation with other microfluidic features for developing handheld medical diagnostic tools.

  15. Quasi parton distributions and the gradient flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new approach to determining quasi parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice quantum chromodynamics. By incorporating the gradient flow, this method guarantees that the lattice quasi PDFs are finite in the continuum limit and evades the thorny, and as yet unresolved, issue of the renormalization of quasi PDFs on the lattice. In the limit that the flow time is much smaller than the length scale set by the nucleon momentum, the moments of the smeared quasi PDF are proportional to those of the lightfront PDF. Finally, we use this relation to derive evolution equations for the matching kernel that relates the smeared quasi PDF and the light-front PDF.

  16. Human impact gradient on mammalian biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Munguía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drastic changes have been caused by human influence in natural landscapes, which may exert an intensive effect on species loss. However, species loss from human pressure is not random but depends on a series of environmentally associated factors. Linking species traits to environmental attributes may allow us to detect the ecological impacts of habitat so that meaningful habitat degradation gradients can be identified. The relationships between environmental factors and species traits provide the basis for identifying those biological traits that make species more sensitive to disturbance. These relationships are also helpful to detect the geographic distribution of latent risk to reveal areas where biodiversity is threatened. Here, we identify a “Human Impact Gradient for Biodiversity (HIGB” based on a three-table ordination method (RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis to identify key species traits that are associated with environmental gradient. Species distribution and environmental geographic data were gathered nationwide to analyze 68 localities, which represent 27% of Mexico’s surface, including 211 species of mammals. Nine environmental variables (including biophysical, geophysical and land-use impacts were analyzed by using the Geographic Information System. Three types of species’ traits were evaluated: locomotion, trophic habit and body size. We identified a human impact gradient, which was mainly determined by the percentage of the area that was covered by seedlings, the plant richness, the understory coverage percentage and the human settlement index. The most important species traits that are associated with non-human-impacted sites were carnivores, frugivores–herbivores and a body size that was greater than 17.8 kg; 25 species were selected by the decision criteria framework for species that were sensitive to degradation based on ecological function information. Conversely, granivores, fossorial and semifossorial

  17. PET regularization by envelope guided conjugate gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, L.; Neumaier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors propose a new way to iteratively solve large scale ill-posed problems and in particular the image reconstruction problem in positron emission tomography by exploiting the relation between Tikhonov regularization and multiobjective optimization to obtain iteratively approximations to the Tikhonov L-curve and its corner. Monitoring the change of the approximate L-curves allows us to adjust the regularization parameter adaptively during a preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration, so that the desired solution can be reconstructed with a small number of iterations

  18. Theory of resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Callen, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    A theory of the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity-driven turbulence, which evolves from linear rippling instabilities, is presented. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is identified both analytically and numerically. Saturation occurs when the turbulent diffusion of the resistivity is large enough so that dissipation due to parallel electron thermal conduction balances the nonlinearly modified resistivity gradient driving term. The levels of potential, resistivity, and density fluctuations at saturation are calculated. A combination of computational modeling and analytic treatment is used in this investigation

  19. Mullite-alumina functionally gradient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Bartolome, J.; Requena, J.; Moya, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Cracks free mullite-alumina Functionally Gradient Ceramics (FGC) have been obtained by sequential slip casting of Mullite-alumina slurries with different mullite/alumina ratios. These slurries were prepared with 65 % solids content and viscosities ranging from 10 to 40 mPa.s. The presence of cracks perpendicular to the FGC layers have been attributed to residual stresses developed because of the mismatch in thermal expansion between layers. The microstructure of the different layers, and de residual stress value σ R in each layer was also determined. (orig.)

  20. A method for easily customizable gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J; Roman, Brandon; Norstrom, Eric

    2016-09-15

    Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for the resolution of polypeptides by relative mobility. Here, we present a simplified method for generating polyacrylamide gradient gels for routine analysis without the need for specialized mixing equipment. The method allows for easily customizable gradients which can be optimized for specific polypeptide resolution requirements. Moreover, the method eliminates the possibility of buffer cross contamination in mixing equipment, and the time and resources saved with this method in place of traditional gradient mixing, or the purchase of pre-cast gels, are noteworthy given the frequency with which many labs use gradient gel SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of the vertical pressure gradient in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Vittori, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    By direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow in an oscillatory boundary layer, it is possible to obtain the pressure field. From the latter, the vertical pressure gradient is determined. Turbulent spots are detected by a criterion involving the vertical pressure gradient. The vertical pressure...... gradient is also treated as any other turbulence quantity like velocity fluctuations and statistical properties of the vertical pressure gradient are calculated from the DNS data. The presence of a vertical pressure gradient in the near bed region has significant implications for sediment transport....

  2. Structural and compositional gradients: basic idea, preparation, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The term gradient materials refers to gradients of chemical composition and/or microstructural parameters which are intentionally introduced into components of any kind of homogeneous or heterogeneous materials, including metallic alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, and composites. After a short review of the development of the gradient materials technology since 1972, some fundamental aspects concerning the effects of such gradients on physical or mechanical properties are discussed. A selection of technical applications which have been discussed recently is presented. Finally, different methods for the preparation of gradients from gaseous, liquid or powder precursors are reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Wide-range stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel to investigate stem cell differentiation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; An, Dan Bi; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jin Ho

    2016-04-15

    Although stiffness-controllable substrates have been developed to investigate the effect of stiffness on cell behavior and function, the use of separate substrates with different degrees of stiffness, substrates with a narrow range stiffness gradient, toxicity of residues, different surface composition, complex fabrication procedures/devices, and low cell adhesion are still considered as hurdles of conventional techniques. In this study, a cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel with a wide-range stiffness gradient (between ∼20kPa and ∼200kPa) and cell adhesiveness was prepared by a liquid nitrogen (LN2)-contacting gradual freezing-thawing method that does not use any additives or specific devices to produce the stiffness gradient hydrogel. From an in vitro cell culture using the stiffness gradient PVA/HA hydrogel, it was observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have favorable stiffness ranges for induction of differentiation into specific cell types (∼20kPa for nerve cell, ∼40kPa for muscle cell, ∼80kPa for chondrocyte, and ∼190kPa for osteoblast). The PVA/HA hydrogel with a wide range of stiffness spectrum can be a useful tool for basic studies related with the stem cell differentiation, cell reprogramming, cell migration, and tissue regeneration in terms of substrate stiffness. It is postulated that the stiffness of the extracellular matrix influences cell behavior. To prove this concept, various techniques to prepare substrates with a stiffness gradient have been developed. However, the narrow ranges of stiffness gradient and complex fabrication procedures/devices are still remained as limitations. Herein, we develop a substrate (hydrogel) with a wide-range stiffness gradient using a gradual freezing-thawing method which does not need specific devices to produce a stiffness gradient hydrogel. From cell culture experiments using the hydrogel, it is observed that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have

  4. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  5. A new smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method for [Formula: see text]-norm minimization problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shouqiang; Chen, Miao

    2018-01-01

    We consider a kind of nonsmooth optimization problems with [Formula: see text]-norm minimization, which has many applications in compressed sensing, signal reconstruction, and the related engineering problems. Using smoothing approximate techniques, this kind of nonsmooth optimization problem can be transformed into a general unconstrained optimization problem, which can be solved by the proposed smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method. The smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method is based on Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method. For the Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method has good numerical properties, the proposed method possesses the sufficient descent property without any line searches, and it is also proved to be globally convergent. Finally, the numerical experiments show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. A substrate independent approach for generation of surface gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreham, Renee V. [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Mierczynska, Agnieszka; Pierce, Madelene [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Short, Robert D.; Taheri, Shima; Bachhuka, Akash; Cavallaro, Alex; Smith, Louise E. [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir, E-mail: krasimir.vasilev@unisa.edu.au [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-01-01

    Recently, surface gradients have attracted significant interest for various research and technological applications. In this paper, we report a facile and versatile method for generating surface gradients of immobilized nanoparticles, nanotopography and ligands that is independent from the substrate material. The method consists of first depositing a functional polymer layer on a substrate and subsequent time controlled immersion of this functionalized substrate in solution gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS). Chemical characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and morphological analysis by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) show that the density of nanoparticles and the concentration of PSS across the surface increases in a gradient manner. As expected, time of immersion determines the concentration of surface bound species. We also demonstrate the generation of surface gradients of pure nanotopography. This is achieved by depositing a 5 nm thick plasma polymer layer on top of the number density gradient of nanoparticles to achieve a homogeneous surface chemistry. The surface independent approach for generation of surface gradients presented in this paper may open opportunities for a wider use of surface gradient in research and in various technologies. - Highlights: ► We present a substrate independent approach for generation of surface gradients. ► We demonstrate well-defined density gradients of gold and silver nanoparticles. ► We provide an example of pure surface nanotopography gradients. ► We demonstrate concentration gradients of bound ligands.

  7. A substrate independent approach for generation of surface gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goreham, Renee V.; Mierczynska, Agnieszka; Pierce, Madelene; Short, Robert D.; Taheri, Shima; Bachhuka, Akash; Cavallaro, Alex; Smith, Louise E.; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    Recently, surface gradients have attracted significant interest for various research and technological applications. In this paper, we report a facile and versatile method for generating surface gradients of immobilized nanoparticles, nanotopography and ligands that is independent from the substrate material. The method consists of first depositing a functional polymer layer on a substrate and subsequent time controlled immersion of this functionalized substrate in solution gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS). Chemical characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and morphological analysis by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) show that the density of nanoparticles and the concentration of PSS across the surface increases in a gradient manner. As expected, time of immersion determines the concentration of surface bound species. We also demonstrate the generation of surface gradients of pure nanotopography. This is achieved by depositing a 5 nm thick plasma polymer layer on top of the number density gradient of nanoparticles to achieve a homogeneous surface chemistry. The surface independent approach for generation of surface gradients presented in this paper may open opportunities for a wider use of surface gradient in research and in various technologies. - Highlights: ► We present a substrate independent approach for generation of surface gradients. ► We demonstrate well-defined density gradients of gold and silver nanoparticles. ► We provide an example of pure surface nanotopography gradients. ► We demonstrate concentration gradients of bound ligands

  8. Cell orientation gradients on an inverse opal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Zou, Xin; Zhao, Ze; Mu, Zhongde; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-05-20

    The generation of cell gradients is critical for understanding many biological systems and realizing the unique functionality of many implanted biomaterials. However, most previous work can only control the gradient of cell density and this has no effect on the gradient of cell orientation, which has an important role in regulating the functions of many connecting tissues. Here, we report on a simple stretched inverse opal substrate for establishing desired cell orientation gradients. It was demonstrated that tendon fibroblasts on the stretched inverse opal gradient showed a corresponding alignment along with the elongation gradient of the substrate. This "random-to-aligned" cell gradient reproduces the insertion part of many connecting tissues, and thus, will have important applications in tissue engineering.

  9. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  10. Extracting Baseline Electricity Usage Using Gradient Tree Boosting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehoon [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Lee, Dongeun [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Choi, Jaesik [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Spurlock, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    To understand how specific interventions affect a process observed over time, we need to control for the other factors that influence outcomes. Such a model that captures all factors other than the one of interest is generally known as a baseline. In our study of how different pricing schemes affect residential electricity consumption, the baseline would need to capture the impact of outdoor temperature along with many other factors. In this work, we examine a number of different data mining techniques and demonstrate Gradient Tree Boosting (GTB) to be an effective method to build the baseline. We train GTB on data prior to the introduction of new pricing schemes, and apply the known temperature following the introduction of new pricing schemes to predict electricity usage with the expected temperature correction. Our experiments and analyses show that the baseline models generated by GTB capture the core characteristics over the two years with the new pricing schemes. In contrast to the majority of regression based techniques which fail to capture the lag between the peak of daily temperature and the peak of electricity usage, the GTB generated baselines are able to correctly capture the delay between the temperature peak and the electricity peak. Furthermore, subtracting this temperature-adjusted baseline from the observed electricity usage, we find that the resulting values are more amenable to interpretation, which demonstrates that the temperature-adjusted baseline is indeed effective.

  11. Asymmetric Uncertainty Expression for High Gradient Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    When the physics of the flow around an aircraft changes very abruptly either in time or space (e.g., flow separation/reattachment, boundary layer transition, unsteadiness, shocks, etc), the measurements that are performed in a simulated environment like a wind tunnel test or a computational simulation will most likely incorrectly predict the exact location of where (or when) the change in physics happens. There are many reasons for this, includ- ing the error introduced by simulating a real system at a smaller scale and at non-ideal conditions, or the error due to turbulence models in a computational simulation. The un- certainty analysis principles that have been developed and are being implemented today do not fully account for uncertainty in the knowledge of the location of abrupt physics changes or sharp gradients, leading to a potentially underestimated uncertainty in those areas. To address this problem, a new asymmetric aerodynamic uncertainty expression containing an extra term to account for a phase-uncertainty, the magnitude of which is emphasized in the high-gradient aerodynamic regions is proposed in this paper. Additionally, based on previous work, a method for dispersing aerodynamic data within asymmetric uncer- tainty bounds in a more realistic way has been developed for use within Monte Carlo-type analyses.

  12. Adaptive Gradient Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Junfei

    2017-10-09

    An adaptive gradient multiobjective particle swarm optimization (AGMOPSO) algorithm, based on a multiobjective gradient (stocktickerMOG) method and a self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, is developed to improve the computation performance in this paper. In this AGMOPSO algorithm, the stocktickerMOG method is devised to update the archive to improve the convergence speed and the local exploitation in the evolutionary process. Meanwhile, the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, according to the diversity information of the particles, is then established to balance the convergence and diversity of AGMOPSO. Attributed to the stocktickerMOG method and the self-adaptive flight parameters mechanism, this AGMOPSO algorithm not only has faster convergence speed and higher accuracy, but also its solutions have better diversity. Additionally, the convergence is discussed to confirm the prerequisite of any successful application of AGMOPSO. Finally, with regard to the computation performance, the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm is compared with some other multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithms and two state-of-the-art multiobjective algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed AGMOPSO algorithm can find better spread of solutions and have faster convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front.

  13. The phenotypic variance gradient - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bundgaard, Jørgen; Loeschcke, Volker; Barker, James Stuart Flinton

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary ecologists commonly use reaction norms, which show the range of phenotypes produced by a set of genotypes exposed to different environments, to quantify the degree of phenotypic variance and the magnitude of plasticity of morphometric and life-history traits. Significant differences among the values of the slopes of the reaction norms are interpreted as significant differences in phenotypic plasticity, whereas significant differences among phenotypic variances (variance or coefficient of variation) are interpreted as differences in the degree of developmental instability or canalization. We highlight some potential problems with this approach to quantifying phenotypic variance and suggest a novel and more informative way to plot reaction norms: namely "a plot of log (variance) on the y-axis versus log (mean) on the x-axis, with a reference line added". This approach gives an immediate impression of how the degree of phenotypic variance varies across an environmental gradient, taking into account the consequences of the scaling effect of the variance with the mean. The evolutionary implications of the variation in the degree of phenotypic variance, which we call a "phenotypic variance gradient", are discussed together with its potential interactions with variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity and canalization.

  14. The multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (MGCG method), which uses the multigrid method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, is proposed. The multigrid method has inherent high parallelism and improves convergence of long wavelength components, which is important in iterative methods. By using this method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, an efficient method with high parallelism and fast convergence is obtained. First, it is considered a necessary condition of the multigrid preconditioner in order to satisfy requirements of a preconditioner of the PCG method. Next numerical experiments show a behavior of the MGCG method and that the MGCG method is superior to both the ICCG method and the multigrid method in point of fast convergence and high parallelism. This fast convergence is understood in terms of the eigenvalue analysis of the preconditioned matrix. From this observation of the multigrid preconditioner, it is realized that the MGCG method converges in very few iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method.

  15. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  16. Biological soil crusts in Chile along the precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolov, Elena; Glaser, Karin; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Jung, Patrick; Büdel, Burkhard; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    Biological soil crusts in Chile along a precipitation gradient Elena Samolov* (1), Karin Glaser (1), Karen Baumann (2), Peter Leinweber (2), Patrick Jung (3), Burkhard Büdel (3), Tatiana Mikhailyuk (4) and Ulf Karsten (1) (1) Institute of Biological Sciences - Applied Ecology and Phycology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, (2) Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Soil Sciences, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany (3) University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany (4) M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine * elena.samolov@uni-rostock.de Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions; together with their by-products they create a micro-ecosystem that performs important ecological functions, e.g. primary production, nitrogen fixation, mineralization and stabilization of soils. These top-soil assemblages are almost unstudied in South America (Büdel et al. 2016). Therefore, our aim is to investigate for the first time biodiversity of the key photosynthetic organisms, green algae and cyanobacteria following a precipitation gradient along the west coast of Chile. We are applying polyphasic approach - a combination of microscopy, culture dependent (16S and 18S rRNA, ITS) and culture independent molecular techniques (NGS). First results, based on culturing and light microscopy, showed high diversity of eukaryotic algae in biocrusts from humid regions, followed by semi-arid regions. Lichen dominated biocrusts from arid regions were characterized by a high diversity of green algae, while cyanobacteria were scarcely present. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorous (P) was evaluated using state of the art analytical methods including 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic

  17. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Preparation of synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density proteins using a discontinuous sucrose gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Marie Kristel; Milenkovic, Marija; Salahpour, Ali; Ramsey, Amy J

    2014-09-03

    Neuronal subcellular fractionation techniques allow the quantification of proteins that are trafficked to and from the synapse. As originally described in the late 1960's, proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane can be isolated by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Once synaptic membranes are isolated, the macromolecular complex known as the post-synaptic density can be subsequently isolated due to its detergent insolubility. The techniques used to isolate synaptic plasma membranes and post-synaptic density proteins remain essentially the same after 40 years, and are widely used in current neuroscience research. This article details the fractionation of proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane and post-synaptic density using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Resulting protein preparations are suitable for western blotting or 2D DIGE analysis.

  19. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Three gradients and the perception of flat and curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J E; Millard, R T

    1984-06-01

    Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as one looks from one's feet upward to the horizon. The present article explores three gradients--perspective, compression, and density--and the phenomenal impression of flat and curved surfaces. The perspective gradient is measured at right angles to the axis of tilt at any point in the optic array; that is, when looking down a hallway at the tiles of a floor receding in the distance, perspective is measured by the x-axis width of each tile projected on the image plane orthogonal to the line of sight. The compression gradient is the ratio of y/x axis measures on the projected plane. The density gradient is measured by the number of tiles per unit solid visual angle. For flat surfaces and many others, perspective and compression gradients decrease with distance, and the density gradient increases. We discuss the manner in which these gradients change for various types of surfaces. Each gradient is founded on a different assumption about textures on the surfaces around us. In Experiment 1, viewers assessed the three-dimensional character of projections of flat and curved surfaces receding in the distance. They made pairwise judgments of preference and of dissimilarity among eight stimuli in each of four sets. The presence of each gradient was manipulated orthogonally such that each stimulus had zero, one, two, or three gradients appropriate for either a flat surface or a curved surface. Judgments were made were made for surfaces with both regularly shaped and irregularly shaped textures scattered on them. All viewer assessment were then scaled in one dimension. Multiple correlation and regression on the scale values

  1. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  2. A high-performance gradient insert for rapid and short-T2 imaging at full duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiger, Markus; Overweg, Johan; Rösler, Manuela Barbara; Froidevaux, Romain; Hennel, Franciszek; Wilm, Bertram Jakob; Penn, Alexander; Sturzenegger, Urs; Schuth, Wout; Mathlener, Menno; Borgo, Martino; Börnert, Peter; Leussler, Christoph; Luechinger, Roger; Dietrich, Benjamin Emanuel; Reber, Jonas; Brunner, David Otto; Schmid, Thomas; Vionnet, Laetitia; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this study was to devise a gradient system for MRI in humans that reconciles cutting-edge gradient strength with rapid switching and brings up the duty cycle to 100% at full continuous amplitude. Aiming to advance neuroimaging and short-T 2 techniques, the hardware design focused on the head and the extremities as target anatomies. A boundary element method with minimization of power dissipation and stored magnetic energy was used to design anatomy-targeted gradient coils with maximally relaxed geometry constraints. The design relies on hollow conductors for high-performance cooling and split coils to enable dual-mode gradient amplifier operation. With this approach, strength and slew rate specifications of either 100 mT/m with 1200 mT/m/ms or 200 mT/m with 600 mT/m/ms were reached at 100% duty cycle, assuming a standard gradient amplifier and cooling unit. After manufacturing, the specified values for maximum gradient strength, maximum switching rate, and field geometry were verified experimentally. In temperature measurements, maximum local values of 63°C were observed, confirming that the device can be operated continuously at full amplitude. Testing for peripheral nerve stimulation showed nearly unrestricted applicability in humans at full gradient performance. In measurements of acoustic noise, a maximum average sound pressure level of 132 dB(A) was determined. In vivo capability was demonstrated by head and knee imaging. Full gradient performance was employed with echo planar and zero echo time readouts. Combining extreme gradient strength and switching speed without duty cycle limitations, the described system offers unprecedented options for rapid and short-T 2 imaging. Magn Reson Med 79:3256-3266, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  4. An Overview of the Topological Gradient Approach in Image Processing: Advantages and Inconveniences

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar Belaid, Lamia

    2010-01-01

    Image analysis by topological gradient approach is a technique based upon the historic application of the topological asymptotic expansion to crack localization problem from boundary measurements. This paper aims at reviewing this methodology through various applications in image processing; in particular image restoration with edge detection, classification and segmentation problems for both grey level and color images is presented in this work. The numerical experiments show the efficiency ...

  5. An explicit parameterization for casting constraints in gradient driven topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2011-01-01

    From a practical point of view it is often desirable to limit the complexity of a topology optimization design such that casting/milling type manufacturing techniques can be applied. In the context of gradient driven topology optimization this work studies how castable designs can be obtained...... by use of a Heaviside design parameterization in a specified casting direction. This reduces the number of design variables considerably and the approach is simple to implement....

  6. Refractive index gradient diagnostics: analysis of different optical systems and application to COBRA ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, B A; Greenly, J B; Hammer, D A; Krastelev, E G [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Cuneo, M E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Different optical system variations for refractive index gradient diagnostics with a laser beam probe have been analyzed. A `three-telescope` optical system which permits simultaneous measurement of both the laser beam centroid deflection by a bi-cell photodiode and the spatial Fourier spectrum of the deflected beam by a streak camera has been implemented on the COBRA ion diode. The dynamics of the anode plasma layer was studied with these techniques. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs.

  7. cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Gutiérrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento de 9 especies de palmas cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra producido por mallas de polipropileno negro de 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80% de sombra, más un tratamiento de malla aluminizada de 70%, y uno con plantas a pleno sol. Las especies evaluadas fueron Caryota mitis (cola de pez, Chamaedorea costaricana (pacaya, Chamaedorea tepejilote (tepejilote, Dypsis lutescens (areca, Licuala elegans (licuala, Phoenix roebelenii (fénix, Ptychosperma macarthurii (palma macarthur, Roystonea regia (palma real, y Veitchia merrillii (navideña. Se midió la altura de las plantas, la longitud de las hojas maduras, y el número de hojas cosechadas, durante 5 cosechas por 2 años. En general, la altura de las plantas y la longitud de las hojas fueron menores a 0-40% de sombra, se incrementaron a 50-70%, y decrecieron a 80%. C. mitis, C. tepejilote, L. elegans y P. macarthurii, se comportaron como especies obligadas de sombra y no sobrevivieron a pleno sol. C. costaricana y D. lutescens sobrevivieron a plena exposición solar, y su crecimiento alcanzó valores máximos a 50-60%. P. roebelenii, R. regia, y V. merrillii mostraron un crecimiento reducido a 0-40%, pero éste mejoró bajo los demás niveles de sombra a lo largo del gradiente. En general, 1-2 años es un periodo apropiado para el cultivo de palmas de crecimiento rápido (R. regia, Chamedorea spp., D. lutescens en casas de mallas. Palmas de lento crecimiento (L.elegans pueden permanecer 3-5 años en una casa de sombra. Se discute estrategias para el uso de gradientes de sombra en el tiempo y en el espacio, según la utilidad y los requerimientos de las especies, los requisitos establecidos por el mercado, y el ciclo de producción del material vegetal.

  8. Advanced compositional gradient and compartmentalization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, Jesus A.; Petti, Daniela; Mullins, Oliver [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Acquisition of hydrocarbons samples from the reservoir prior to oil or gas production is essential in order to design production strategies and production facilities. In addition, reservoir compartmentalization and hydrocarbon compositional grading magnify the necessity to map fluid properties vertically and laterally in the reservoir prior to production. Formation testers supply a wealth of information to observe and predict the state of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs, through detailed pressure and fluid analysis measurements. With the correct understanding of the state of fluids in the reservoirs, reserve calculations and adequate development plans can be prepared. Additionally, flow barriers may then be revealed. This paper describes a new Downhole Fluid Analysis technology (DFA) for improved reservoir management. DFA is a unique process that combines new fluid identification sensors, which allow real time monitoring of a wide range of parameters as GOR, fluid density, viscosity, fluorescence and composition (CH{sub 4}, C2- C5, C6 +, CO{sub 2}), free gas and liquid phases detection, saturation pressure, as well WBM and OBM filtrate differentiation and pH. This process is not limited to light fluid evaluation and we extended to heavy oil (HO) reservoirs analysis successfully. The combination of DFA Fluid Profiling with pressure measurements has shown to be very effective for compartmentalization characterization. The ability of thin barriers to hold off large depletion pressures has been established, as the gradual variation of hydrocarbon quality in biodegraded oils. In addition, heavy oils can show large compositional variation due to variations in source rock charging but without fluid mixing. Our findings indicates that steep gradients are common in gas condensates or volatile oils, and that biodegradation is more common in HO than in other hydrocarbons, which generate fluid gradients and heavy ends tars near the OWC, limiting the aquifer activity and

  9. Applications for Gradient Metal Alloys Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Dillon, Robert P.; Suh, Eric J.; Mulder, jerry L.; Gardner, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    assortment of "post-processing" methods to locally alter properties (such as coating, heat treating, work hardening, shot peening, etching, anodizing, among others). Building the final part in an additive process allows for the development of an entirely new class of metals, so-called "functionally graded metals" or "gradient alloys." By carefully blending feedstock materials with different properties in an AM process, hardware can be developed with properties that cannot be obtained using other techniques but with the added benefit of the net-shaped fabrication that AM allows.

  10. Composition gradients across spiral galaxies II. The stellar mass limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.; Tinsley, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    The equivalent width of the Hβ emission from H ii regions in spiral galaxies increases with distance from the nucleus. This W (Hβ) gradient is interpreted in terms of a radial gradient in the temperature of the hottest exciting stars. (T/subu/). From Searle's observations of M101, an increase Δ log T/subu/=0.02--0.13 from the intermediate to outermost spiral arms of M101 is inferred. There is also a radial decrease in the metal abundance (Z) across M101, and the T/subu/ gradient is consistent with the prediction of Kahn's recent theory that the upper mass limit for star formation should be smaller in regions of high Z. It is noted also that, even in the absence of changes in the upper mass limit, a T/subu/ gradient is expected because metal-rich stars of given mass have smaller effective temperatures. Several observational and theoretical improvements are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn, but it is clear that the presence of a T/subu/ gradient may lead to several important systematic changes in the interpretation of gradients in the properties of H ii regions across galaxies. A T/subu/ gradient reduces the Z gradient that is inferred from emission-line ratios, and it may help to explain why O ii is strong in the innermost regions where O iii is weak. A T/subu/ gradient may also partly camouflage a helium abundance gradient

  11. B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  13. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-27

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  14. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  15. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  16. Fractional calculus and morphogen gradient formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Santos Bravo; Abad, Enrique; Lindenberg, Katja

    2012-12-01

    Some microscopic models for reactive systems where the reaction kinetics is limited by subdiffusion are described by means of reaction-subdiffusion equations where fractional derivatives play a key role. In particular, we consider subdiffusive particles described by means of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) model subject to a linear (first-order) death process. The resulting fractional equation is employed to study the developmental biology key problem of morphogen gradient formation for the case in which the morphogens are subdiffusive. If the morphogen degradation rate (reactivity) is constant, we find exponentially decreasing stationary concentration profiles, which are similar to the profiles found when the morphogens diffuse normally. However, for the case in which the degradation rate decays exponentially with the distance to the morphogen source, we find that the morphogen profiles are qualitatively different from the profiles obtained when the morphogens diffuse normally.

  17. Molecular evolution and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, E J; Morgan-Richards, M; Trewick, S A

    2013-06-01

    Species density is higher in the tropics (low latitude) than in temperate regions (high latitude) resulting in a latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). The LBG must be generated by differential rates of speciation and/or extinction and/or immigration among regions, but the role of each of these processes is still unclear. Recent studies examining differences in rates of molecular evolution have inferred a direct link between rate of molecular evolution and rate of speciation, and postulated these as important drivers of the LBG. Here we review the molecular genetic evidence and examine the factors that might be responsible for differences in rates of molecular evolution. Critical to this is the directionality of the relationship between speciation rates and rates of molecular evolution.

  18. Accelerated gradient methods for constrained image deblurring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonettini, S; Zanella, R; Zanni, L; Bertero, M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a special gradient projection method for the image deblurring problem, in the framework of the maximum likelihood approach. We present the method in a very general form and we give convergence results under standard assumptions. Then we consider the deblurring problem and the generality of the proposed algorithm allows us to add a energy conservation constraint to the maximum likelihood problem. In order to improve the convergence rate, we devise appropriate scaling strategies and steplength updating rules, especially designed for this application. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated by means of a computational study on astronomical images corrupted by Poisson noise. Comparisons with standard methods for image restoration, such as the expectation maximization algorithm, are also reported.

  19. Simulation studies on high-gradient experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1992-12-01

    Computer simulation of the characteristics of the dark current emitted from a 0.6 m long S-band accelerating structure has been made. The energy spectra and the dependence of the dark current on the structure length were simulated. By adjusting the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficients, the simulated energy spectra qualitatively reproduced the observed ones. It was shown that the dark current increases exponentially with the structure length. The measured value of the multiplication factor of the dark current per unit cell can be explained if the SEE coefficient is set to 1.2. The critical gradient for dark current capture E cri has been calculated for two structures of 180 cells. They are E cri [MV/m] = 13.1 f and 8.75 f for a/λ = 0.089 and 0.16, respectively, where f is the frequency in GHz, a the iris diameter and λ the wave length

  20. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  1. Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Sørland, Geir Humborstad

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.

  2. Magnon dark modes and gradient memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhu, Na; Marquardt, Florian; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2015-11-16

    Extensive efforts have been expended in developing hybrid quantum systems to overcome the short coherence time of superconducting circuits by introducing the naturally long-lived spin degree of freedom. Among all the possible materials, single-crystal yttrium iron garnet has shown up recently as a promising candidate for hybrid systems, and various highly coherent interactions, including strong and even ultrastrong coupling, have been demonstrated. One distinct advantage in these systems is that spins form well-defined magnon modes, which allows flexible and precise tuning. Here we demonstrate that by dissipation engineering, a non-Markovian interaction dynamics between the magnon and the microwave cavity photon can be achieved. Such a process enables us to build a magnon gradient memory to store information in the magnon dark modes, which decouple from the microwave cavity and thus preserve a long lifetime. Our findings provide a promising approach for developing long-lifetime, multimode quantum memories.

  3. Formulating viscous hydrodynamics for large velocity gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Viscous corrections to relativistic hydrodynamics, which are usually formulated for small velocity gradients, have recently been extended from Navier-Stokes formulations to a class of treatments based on Israel-Stewart equations. Israel-Stewart treatments, which treat the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor τ ij as dynamical objects, introduce new parameters, such as the relaxation times describing nonequilibrium behavior of the elements τ ij . By considering linear response theory and entropy constraints, we show how the additional parameters are related to fluctuations of τ ij . Furthermore, the Israel-Stewart parameters are analyzed for their ability to provide stable and physical solutions for sound waves. Finally, it is shown how these parameters, which are naturally described by correlation functions in real time, might be constrained by lattice calculations, which are based on path-integral formulations in imaginary time

  4. Gradient Measurements of Nitrous Acid (hono)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleffmann, J.; Kurtenbach, R.; Lörzer, J.; Wiesen, P.; Kalthoff, N.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.

    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in photochemical air pollution due to its photodissociation by solar UV radiation into hydroxyl radicals and thus significantly enhances photooxidation processes. Furthermore, HONO is an important indoor pol- lutant, which can react with amines leading to nitrosamines, which are known to be carcinogenic. Despite its importance in atmospheric chemistry the mechanisms lead- ing to HONO formation are still not completely understood at present. Although it is commonly proposed that HONO is formed by heterogeneous processes, i.e. by the conversion of NO2 on wet surfaces, it is still under discussion whether HONO produc- tion is dominated by the surface of particles or by the ground surface. Simultaneous vertical profile measurements of HONO, the precursor NO2 and the aerosol surface area, which could answer this question are not available at present. Accordingly, in the present study night-time HONO, NO2 and particle surface area gradients in the altitude range 10-190 m were measured on the meteorological tower at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe/Germany using a new, very sensitive HONO in- strument (LOPAP), a commercial NOx monitor and a SMPS system. For all gradient measurements during the campaign it was observed that the [HONO]/[NO2] ratio decreased with increasing altitude. In contrast, the particle sur- face area was found to be more or less constant. Accordingly, no correlation between the [HONO]/[NO2] ratio and the particle surface area was observed showing that HONO formation was dominated by processes on ground surfaces and that signifi- cant HONO formation on particle surfaces could be excluded for the measurement site.

  5. High-gradient compact linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

  6. The influence of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict on EEG omega complexity in Panum's limiting case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayun; Jia, Huibin; Yu, Dongchuan

    2018-03-01

    Using behavioral measures and ERP technique, researchers discovered at least two factors could influence the final perception of depth in Panum's limiting case, which are the vertical disparity gradient and the degree of cue conflict between two- and three-dimensional shapes. Although certain event-related potential components have been proved to be sensitive to the different levels of these two factors, some methodological limitations existed in this technique. In this study, we proposed that the omega complexity of EEG signal may serve as an important supplement of the traditional event-related potential technique. We found that the trials with lower vertical gradient disparity have lower omega complexity (i.e., higher global functional connectivity) of the occipital region, especially that of the right-occipital hemisphere. Moreover, for occipital omega complexity, the trials with low-cue conflict have significantly larger omega complexity than those with medium- and high-cue conflict. It is also found that the electrodes located in the middle line of the occipital region (i.e., POz and Oz) are more crucial to the impact of different levels of cue conflict on omega complexity than the other electrodes located in the left- and right-occipital hemispheres. These evidences demonstrated that the EEG omega complexity could reflect distinct neural activities evoked by Panum's limiting case configurations, with different levels of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict. Besides, the influence of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict on omega complexity may be regional dependent. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The EEG omega complexity could reflect distinct neural activities evoked by Panum's limiting case configurations with different levels of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict. The influence of vertical disparity gradient and cue conflict on omega complexity is regional dependent. The omega complexity of EEG signal can serve as an important supplement of the

  7. Applications of seismic spatial wavefield gradient and rotation data in exploration seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Van Renterghem, C.; Sollberger, D.; Häusler, M.; Robertsson, J. O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic spatial wavefield gradient and rotation data have the potential to open up new ways to address long-standing problems in land-seismic exploration such as identifying and separating P-, S-, and surface waves. Gradient-based acquisition and processing techniques could enable replacing large arrays of densely spaced receivers by sparse spatially-compact receiver layouts or even one single multicomponent station with dedicated instruments (e.g., rotational seismometers). Such approaches to maximize the information content of single-station recordings are also of significant interest for seismic measurements at sites with limited access such as boreholes, the sea bottom, and extraterrestrial seismology. Arrays of conventional three-component (3C) geophones enable measuring not only the particle velocity in three dimensions but also estimating their spatial gradients. Because the free-surface condition allows to express vertical derivatives in terms of horizontal derivatives, the full gradient tensor and, hence, curl and divergence of the wavefield can be computed. In total, three particle velocity components, three rotational components, and divergence, result seven-component (7C) seismic data. Combined particle velocity and gradient data can be used to isolate the incident P- or S-waves at the land surface or the sea bottom using filtering techniques based on the elastodynamic representation theorem. Alternatively, as only S-waves exhibit rotational motion, rotational measurements can directly be used to identify S-waves. We discuss the derivations of the gradient-based filters as well as their application to synthetic and field data, demonstrating that rotational data can be of particular interest to S-wave reflection and P-to-S-wave conversion imaging. The concept of array-derived gradient estimation can be extended to source arrays as well. Therefore, source arrays allow us to emulate rotational (curl) and dilatational (divergence) sources. Combined with 7C

  8. Self-induced temperature gradients in Brownian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Jack; Jack, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Brownian systems often surmount energy barriers by absorbing and emitting heat to and from their local environment. Usually, the temperature gradients created by this heat exchange are assumed to dissipate instantaneously. Here we relax this assumption to consider the case where Brownian dynamics on a time-independent potential can lead to self-induced temperature gradients. In the same way that externally imposed temperature gradients can cause directed motion, these self-induced gradients affect the dynamics of the Brownian system. The result is a coupling between the local environment and the Brownian subsystem. We explore the resulting dynamics and thermodynamics of these coupled systems and develop a robust method for numerical simulation. In particular, by focusing on one-dimensional situations, we show that self-induced temperature gradients reduce barrier-crossing rates. We also consider a heat engine and a heat pump based on temperature gradients induced by a Brownian system in a nonequilibrium potential.

  9. Modified conjugate gradient method for diagonalizing large matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Quanlin; Liu, Dunhuan

    2003-11-01

    We present an iterative method to diagonalize large matrices. The basic idea is the same as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, i.e, minimizing the Rayleigh quotient via its gradient and avoiding reintroducing errors to the directions of previous gradients. Each iteration step is to find lowest eigenvector of the matrix in a subspace spanned by the current trial vector and the corresponding gradient of the Rayleigh quotient, as well as some previous trial vectors. The gradient, together with the previous trial vectors, play a similar role as the conjugate gradient of the original CG algorithm. Our numeric tests indicate that this method converges significantly faster than the original CG method. And the computational cost of one iteration step is about the same as the original CG method. It is suitable for first principle calculations.

  10. COMPARISON OF GKS CALCULATED CRITICAL ION TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS AND ITG GROWTH RATES TO DIII-D MEASURED GRADIENTS AND DIFFUSIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, DR; STAEBLER, GM; PETTY, CC; GREENFIELD, CM; LUCE, TC

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The gyrokinetic equations predict that various drift type waves or modes can be unstable in a tokamak. For some of these modes, such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient mode, there exists a critical gradient, above which the mode is unstable. Since the existence of unstable modes can cause increased transport, plasmas which are centrally heated tend to increase in temperature gradient until the modes become unstable. Under some conditions the increased transport can fix the gradient at the critical value. here they present a comparison between the measured ion temperature gradients and the critical gradient as calculated by a gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) code. They also present the maximum linear growth rate as calculated by this code for comparison to experimentally derived transport coefficients. The results show that for low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the measured ion temperature gradient is significantly greater than the GKS calculated critical gradient over a large region of the plasma. This is the same region of the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity is large. For high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges the ion temperature gradient is closer to the critical gradient, but often still greater than the critical gradient over some region. For the best H-mode discharges, the ion temperature is less than or equal to the critical gradient over the whole plasma. In general they find that the position in the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity starts to increase rapidly is where the maximum linear growth rate is greater than the E x B shearing rate

  11. Experimental demonstration of efficient and robust second harmonic generation using the adiabatic temperature gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Steflekova, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Kyoseva, E.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a way of achieving efficient and robust second-harmonic generation. The technique proposed is similar to the adiabatic population transfer in a two-state quantum system with crossing energies. If the phase mismatching changes slowly, e.g., due to a temperature gradient along the crystal, and makes the phase match for second-harmonic generation to occur, then the energy would be converted adiabatically to the second harmonic. As an adiabatic technique, the second-harmonic generation scheme presented is stable to variations in the crystal parameters, as well as in the input light, crystal length, input intensity, wavelength and angle of incidence.

  12. Speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic by diffusive gradients in thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William W.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Panther, Jared G.

    2011-01-01

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for selectively measuring As III utilizes commercially available 3-mercaptopropyl- functionalized silica gel. Deployment of the new technique alongside the Metsorb-DGT for total inorganic arsenic allows the calculation of As III directly and As V...... strength (0.0001-0.75 mol L -1 NaNO 3) and pH (3.5-8.5). Deployment of mercapto-silica DGT and Metsorb DGT in seawater spiked with As III and As V demonstrated the ability of the combined approach to accurately quantify both species in the presence of potential competing ions. Ferrihydrite DGT, which has...

  13. Switching neuronal state: optimal stimuli revealed using a stochastically-seeded gradient algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David

    2014-12-01

    Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: (1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and (2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue.

  14. Identification of small-scale discontinuities based on dip-oriented gradient energy entropy coherence estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Da; Yin, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Locating small-scale discontinuities is one of the most challenging geophysical tasks; these subtle geological features are significant since they are often associated with subsurface petroleum traps. Subtle faults, fractures, unconformities, reef textures, channel boundaries, thin-bed boundaries and other structural and stratigraphic discontinuities have subtle geological edges which may provide lateral variation in seismic expression. Among the different geophysical techniques available, 3D seismic discontinuity attributes are particularly useful for highlighting discontinuities in the seismic data. Traditional seismic discontinuity attributes are sensitive to noise and are not very appropriate for detecting small-scale discontinuities. Thus, we present a dip-oriented gradient energy entropy (DOGEE) coherence estimation method to detect subtle faults and structural features. The DOGEE coherence estimation method uses the gradient structure tensor (GST) algorithm to obtain local dip information and construct a gradient correlation matrix to calculate gradient energy entropy. The proposed DOGEE coherence estimation method is robust to noise, and also improves the clarity of fault edges. It is effective for small-scale discontinuity characterisation and interpretation.

  15. Immersion transmission ellipsometry (ITE) for the determination of orientation gradients in photoalignment layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. C.; Stumpe, J.

    2014-09-01

    The capability of the method of immersion transmission ellipsometry (ITE) (Jung et al. Int Patent WO, 2004/109260) to not only determine three-dimensional refractive indices in anisotropic thin films (which was already possible in the past), but even their gradients along the z-direction (perpendicular to the film plane) is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the determination of orientation gradients in deep-sub-μm films becomes possible by applying ITE in combination with reflection ellipsometry. The technique is supplemented by atomic force microscopy for measuring the film thickness. For a photo-oriented thin film, no gradient was found, as expected. For a photo-oriented film, which was subsequently annealed in a nematic liquid crystalline phase, an order was found similar to the one applied in vertically aligned nematic displays, with a tilt angle varying along the z-direction. For fresh films, gradients were only detected for the refractive index perpendicular to the film plane, as expected.

  16. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  17. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Kaihui; Zhang Yuan; Jiang Dongliang; Zeng Yuping

    2011-01-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  18. Stability of Gradient Field Corrections for Quantitative Diffusion MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Baxter P.; Blaber, Justin; Welch, E. Brian; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-01-01

    In magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, gradient nonlinearity causes significant bias in the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters such as diffusivity, anisotropy, and diffusion direction in areas away from the magnet isocenter. This bias can be substantially reduced if the scanner- and coil-specific gradient field nonlinearities are known. Using a set of field map calibration scans on a large (29 cm diameter) phantom combined with a solid harmonic approximation of the gradient fie...

  19. Minimizing inner product data dependencies in conjugate gradient iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrosendale, J.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of concurrency available in conjugate gradient iteration is limited by the summations required in the inner product computations. The inner product of two vectors of length N requires time c log(N), if N or more processors are available. This paper describes an algebraic restructuring of the conjugate gradient algorithm which minimizes data dependencies due to inner product calculations. After an initial start up, the new algorithm can perform a conjugate gradient iteration in time c*log(log(N)).

  20. Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, J. L.; Foo, N. Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1972-01-01

    Genetic algorithms for mathematical function optimization are modeled on search strategies employed in natural adaptation. Comparisons of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods, which were made on an IBM 1800 digital computer, show that genetic algorithms display superior performance over gradient methods for functions which are poorly behaved mathematically, for multimodal functions, and for functions obscured by additive random noise. Genetic methods offer performance comparable to gradient methods for many of the standard functions.