WorldWideScience

Sample records for days health ways

  1. Day care health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as head lice and scabies are other common health problems that occur in day care centers. You can do a number of ... for the child How to contact your child's health care provider ... sure your child's day care staff knows how to follow that plan.

  2. WORLD HEALTH DAY THEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1970     - Early Detection of Cancer Saves Life.1971     - A Full Life Despite Diabetes.1972     - Your Heart is Your Health.1973     - Health Begins at Home.1974     - Better Food for a Healthier World.1975     - Small Pox - Point of no Return.1976     - Foresight Prevents Blindness.1977     - Immunise and Protect Your Child.1978     - Down With High Blood Pressure.1979     - A Health Child-A Sure Future.1980     - Smoking or Health - The Choice is Yours.1981     - Health for all for by the Year 2000.1982     - Add Years to Life.1983     - Health for all by 2000 - The Count Down has Begun1984     - Children’s Health: Tomorrows Wealth.1985     - Health Youth : Our best Resource.1986     - Health Living - Everyone a Winner.1987     - Immunisation - A Chance for Every Child.1988     - Health For All - All for Health.1989-Let’s Talk Health.1990    - Our Planet - Ourhealth; Think Globally, Act Locally.1991    - Should Disaster Strike - Be Prepared.1992    - Health Beat - The Rhythm of Life.1993    - Handle Life with Care - Prevent Violence and Negligence.1994    - Our Health for a Healthy Life.1995    - Target - 2000 - A World Without Polio.1996    - Healthy Cities for Better Life.1997    - Emerging Infectious Diseases.1998    - Safe Motherhood.1999    - Active Ageing Makes the Difference.2000     - Be a Life Saver, Be a Blood Doner; Blood Saves Life.2001     - Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care.2002     - Move for Health.- Shape the Future of Life, Healthy Environments for Children

  3. Water Matters: Every Day, Everywhere, Every Way. Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschland, Roger B., Ed.

    This booklet examines the subject of fresh water and the ways in which it affects every aspect of human life. The document includes an introduction and seven sections: (1) "Agriculture"; (2) "Transportation"; (3) "Culture"; (4) "Engineering"; (5) "Health and Domestic Use"; (6) "Politics and Economics"; and (7) "Industry." Inside each section is an…

  4. Some Ways to Get a Piece of Pi Day Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice; Ascione, Judith; Barker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of the world, Pi Day is celebrated on March 14 (3.14), but because of the day-month ordering of dates in Australia, and because March is very close to the start of the academic year, Australians prefer to celebrate Pi (Approximation) Day on 22 July (22/7). Thirty-eight Year 8 students (aged 13-14 years) from two local high schools in…

  5. 10 ways to cut 500 calories a day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is to have some healthy snacks ready when hunger hits. Instead of a 3-ounce (85 g) ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  6. 14 ways to burn more calories every day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compare that to the tiny movements involved in online shopping. Do it yourself. Prepackaged foods, snow blowers, riding mowers and other conveniences are all great time-saving inventions. But as things get easier, it ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  7. Epigenomic programing: a future way to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Shenderov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that the ‘central genome dogma’ (i.e. a causal chain going from DNA to RNA to proteins and downstream to biological functions should be replaced by the ‘fluid genome dogma’, that is, complex feed-forward and feed-back cycles that interconnect organism and environment by epigenomic programing – and reprograming – throughout life and at all levels, sometimes also down the generations. The epigenomic programing is the net sum of interactions derived from own metabolism and microbiota as well as external factors such as diet, pharmaceuticals, environmental compounds, and so on. It is a growing body of results indicating that many chronic metabolic and degenerative disorders and diseases – often called ‘civilization diseases’ – are initiated and/or influenced upon by non-optimal epigenomic programing, often taking place early in life. In this context, the first 1,000 days of life – from conception into early infancy – is often called the most important period of life. The following sections present some major mechanisms for epigenomic programing as well as some factors assumed to be of importance. The need for more information about own genome and metagenome, as well as a substantial lack of adequate information regarding dietary and environmental databases are also commented upon. However, the mere fact that we can influence epigenomic health programing opens up the way for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. The authors underline the importance of creating a ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomic Platform’ in order to facilitate interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics as well as in disease epidemiology, prevention and treatment.

  8. The 12 Ways to Health Holiday Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    This song (sung to the tune of The Twelve Days of Christmas) describes how to stay safe and healthy during the holidays and all year long.  Created: 12/14/2007 by CDC Office of Women's Health.   Date Released: 12/23/2007.

  9. 76 FR 62295 - Child Health Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... achieved the Presidential Active Lifestyle Award. I also signed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, making... the first Monday in October as Child Health Day and has requested the President to issue a...

  10. Super Safety and Health Day at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges talks to workers outside the Hazardous Maintenance Facility during Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Safety Day is a full day of NASA-sponsored, KSC and 45th Space Wing events involving a number of health and safety related activities: Displays, vendors, technical paper sessions, panel discussions, a keynote speaker, etc. The entire Center and Wing stand down to participate in the planned events. Safety Day is held annually to proactively increase awareness in safety and health among the government and contractor workforce population. The first guiding principle at KSC is '''Safety and Health First.''' KSC's number one goal is to '''Assure sound, safe and efficient practices and processes are in place for privatized/commercialized launch site processing.'''

  11. Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelko, Holly I.; DeCoster, Vaughn A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of individuals with diabetes who receive services in adult day centers. This exploratory study uses an administrative data set (N = 280) from five programs in central Ohio to examine four areas: demographics, health and mental health, financial and social resources, and disenrollment status. Older…

  12. A Third Way for Health Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Peden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economics has hit the mainstream in the last decade with popular books like Freakonomics and The Undercover Economist reaching the masses. These authors have used their toolkits far beyond the narrow scope of money and finance and answered questions pertaining to anything from social policy to demographics to crime. Their appeal has largely been their ability to explain that small underlying forces can have major impacts, intended or otherwise, on many different areas of society. One recent book following this trend is Nudge, published in 2008 by University of Chicago academics Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein. The book has attracted acclaim from both journals and the press, with The Financial Times naming it as one of the best business books for 2008. Nudge coins the term ‘choice architecture’, referring to the manner in which a range of alternatives is presented, which the authors contend is commonly overlooked as an integral part of many decisions we all face during the course of our day-to-day lives (1. When people take the time to judiciously research all alternatives before them, or use their reflective systems in the parlance of the book, they generally make objectively good decisions. Unfortunately, in practice people cannot or do not take the time to do so and instead use their automatic or gut thinking systems, leading to inferior outcomes. The first section of the book then compellingly demonstrates the evidence of its importance in a multitude of situations. There are many lessons to be learned along the way, applicable to both policy-makers and those who wish to critically examine some of their own choices in life. Among these, lessons is the fact that a large percentage of the population will stick with an easy default option without consideration of better alternatives, even when considering a life-altering decision such as retirement planning. There are even examples of people who fail to take advantage of subsidies to

  13. 'Disaster day': global health simulation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Ahmed, Rayan; Daniels, Alex; Goodall, Jack; O'Kelly, Emily; Fisher, James

    2016-02-01

    As society diversifies and globalisation quickens, the importance of teaching global health to medical undergraduates increases. For undergraduates, the majority of exposure to 'hands-on' teaching on global health occurs during optional elective periods. This article describes an innovative student-led initiative, 'Disaster Day', which used simulation to teach global health to undergraduates. The teaching day began with an introduction outlining the work of Médecins Sans Frontières and the basic principles of resuscitation. Students then undertook four interactive simulation scenarios: Infectious Diseases in a Refugee Camp, Natural Disaster and Crush Injury, Obstetric Emergency in a Low-Income Country, and Warzone Gunshot Wound. Sessions were facilitated by experienced doctors and fourth-year students who had been trained in the delivery of the scenarios. Students completed pre- and post-session evaluation forms that included the self-rating of confidence in eight learning domains (using a five-point Likert scale). Twenty-seven students voluntarily attended the session, and all provided written feedback. Analysis of the pre- and post-session evaluations demonstrated statistically significant improvements in confidence across all but one domains (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Free-text feedback was overwhelmingly positive, with students appreciating the practical aspect of the scenarios. For undergraduates, the majority of exposure to 'hands-on' teaching on global health occurs during optional elective periods Simulation-based teaching can provide students with 'hands-on' exposure to global health in a controlled, reproducible fashion and appears to help develop their confidence in a variety of learning domains. The more widespread use of such teaching methods is encouraged: helping tomorrow's doctors develop insight into global health challenges may produce more rounded clinicians capable of caring for more culturally diverse populations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  14. 8 ways to cut health care costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care include strep throat, bladder infection, or a dog bite. You will save both time and money ... health services. www.healthcare.gov/coverage/preventive-care-benefits . Accessed October 18, 2016. U.S. Preventive Services Taskforce ...

  15. Family Health Services project: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, O M

    1993-01-01

    Nigerians did not readily accept family planning when Family Health Services (FHS) began in 1988. FHS has made much headway in training, IEC (information, education, and communication), and constituency building and advocacy. Its staff have identified obstacles to implementation, especially program sustainability and management structure. Key limits to sustainability of IEC efforts were inadequately trained personnel and inability of trained personnel to apply what they learned at work stations. The Federal Ministry and Social Services' role in the FHS project was not clearly defined. Some private sector factors contributing to a confused management structure were inadequate method mix, high contraceptive cost, poor monitoring of quality of care, and no coordination of family planning training with the public factor. FHS has since decided to focus its efforts on increasing the demand for and availability of modern contraceptives and improving the quality of family planning services of both the public and private sectors. FHS hopes that accomplishing these activities will reduce fertility, morbidity, and mortality. Strategic plans include a regional focus, quality of care, a variety of methods offered, intensification, hospital and clinics, a management information system, contraceptive logistics, distribution regulations, and addressing social, cultural, and behavioral factors. To effectively implement the strategy, USAID and the Federal Ministry held a workshop in 1993 to effect full integration of Nigerian experience in the 2nd phase of the project (FHS II). Participants reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of the first phase and agreed on implementation. For example, nongovernmental organizations should implement FHS II. FHS II includes training, IEC, and commodities/logistics.

  16. [Towards safe motherhood. World Health Day].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, M I

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the 'safe motherhood' initiative is to reduce maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. A strong policy is needed to permit development of national and international programs. The lifetime risk of death from causes related to complications of pregnancy is estimated at 1/16 in Africa, 1/65 in Asia, 1/130 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1/1400 in Europe, and 1/3700 in North America. A minimum of 585,000 women die of maternal causes each year, with nearly 90% of the deaths occurring in Asia and Africa. Approximately 50 million women suffer from illnesses related to childbearing. A principal cause of maternal mortality is lack of medical care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period. Motherhood will become safe if governments, multilateral and bilateral funding agencies, and nongovernmental organizations give it the high priority it requires. Women also die because they lack rights. Their reduced decision-making power and inequitable access to family and social resources prevents them from overcoming barriers to health care. Women die when they begin childbearing at a very young age, yet an estimated 11% of births throughout the world each year are to adolescents. Adolescents have very limited access to family planning, either through legal restrictions or obstacles created by family planning workers. Maternal deaths would be avoided if all births were attended by trained health workers; an estimated 60 million births annually are not. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and, thus, of the 50 million abortions estimated to take place each year would avoid over 200 maternal deaths each day. Unsafe abortions account for 13% of maternal deaths. The evidence demonstrates that rates of unsafe abortion and abortion mortality are higher where laws are more restrictive.

  17. Short Hospitalization system: a new way of interpreting day surgery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Rocco; Franceschini, Francesca; Tomassini, Carlo R

    2016-01-01

    Today's poorer income on the one hand and the more and more unbearable costs on the other, call for solutions to maintain public health through proper and collective care. We need to think of a new dimension of health, to found a modern and innovative approach, which can combine the respect of healthcare rights with the optimization of resources. Worldwide, franchises serving millions of people every year succeed in limiting operating costs and still offer a service and a quality equal to single businesses. Let's imagine every single Day Surgery Unit (DSU), within its own hospital, as a single trade: starting a process of centralized management and subsequent affiliation with other DSUs, they would increase their healthcare offer by means of solid organization, efficiency and foresight that with a strong focus on innovation and continuous updating, thus increasing its range of consumers and containing management costs. The Short Hospitalization System (SHS) is the proposed project, which is not only a type of hospitalization which is different from the ordinary, but also an innovative clinical-organizational model, with an important economic impact, where the management and maximization of the different hospital flows (care, professional, logistical, information), as well as the ability to implement strategies to anticipate them are crucial. The expected benefits are both clinically and socially relevant. Among them: 1) best practice build up; 2) lower impact on daily habits and increased patient satisfaction; 3) reduction of social and health expenditure.

  18. Celebrating UNAM-Oshakati Campus health day/world health day: a community service: professional and personal life experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lusia N. Ndahambelela Pinehas; NN. Shifiona; KKI. Shikongo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The University of Namibia-Oshakati Campus has a tradition to celebrate UNAM Health Day which coincided with the World Health Day annually. The day had always been celebrated within the Oshakati Campus premises. Nurse lecturers from the School of Nursing and Public Health always decide on the activities of the day and they volunteered themselves to take part in the event. The activities conducted were such as blood pressure monitoring, taking of weigh and giving general health edu...

  19. 77 FR 60617 - Child Health Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... allows young adults to stay on their parents' health insurance plan until age 26, which has brought... parents, schools, and community leaders to address childhood obesity. A safe environment in which our...

  20. 78 FR 62309 - Child Health Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ...' health, begin to slow the effects of climate change, and leave a cleaner, more stable environment for..., we have taken steps to help prevent bullying and create a climate in our schools in which all of our... a healthy lifestyle, I am taking action to reduce pollution, safeguard our environment, and limit...

  1. 75 FR 62449 - Child Health Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... adults. Parents and other caregivers set an example of healthy living and lay the foundation for our..., the charge to protect the health of our young people extends beyond the home to our classrooms... address as a Nation, and we all have a role to play. In the last three decades, childhood obesity rates...

  2. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 avr. 2016 ... For more than a decade, IDRC has supported a large number of researchers, research networks, and global institutions in their efforts to build stronger, more equitable health systems. Equipped with strong evidence, IDRC grantees are leading the way in informing policy and changing practices to improve ...

  3. Canadian initiative leading the way for equitable health systems and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... For more than a decade, IDRC has supported a large number of researchers, research networks, and global institutions in their efforts to build stronger, more equitable health systems. Equipped with strong evidence, IDRC grantees are leading the way in informing policy and changing practices to improve ...

  4. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Safety and Health Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sue Smith, a medical clinic employee at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, takes the temperature of colleague Karen Badon during 2009 Safety and Health Day activities Oct. 22. Safety Day activities included speakers, informational sessions and a number of displays on safety and health issues. Astronaut Dominic Gorie also visited the south Mississippi rocket engine testing facility during the day to address employees and present several Silver Snoopy awards for outstanding contributions to flight safety and mission success. The activities were part of an ongoing safety and health emphasis at Stennis.

  5. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  6. Day-to-day inconsistency in parent knowledge: links with youth health and parents' stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Kossek, Ellen Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents the linkages between higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities and positive youth outcomes. This study investigated how day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge of youth activities was linked to youth behavioral, psychological, and physical health and parents' stress. Participants were employees in the Information Technology Division of a Fortune 500 company and their children (N = 129, mean age of youth = 13.39 years, 55% female). Data were collected from parents and youth via separate workplace and in-home surveys as well as telephone diary surveys on eight consecutive evenings. We assessed day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge across these eight calls. Parents differed in their knowledge from day to day almost as much as their average knowledge scores differed from those of other parents. Controlling for mean levels of knowledge, youth whose parents exhibited more knowledge inconsistency reported more physical health symptoms (e.g., colds and flu). Knowledge inconsistency was also associated with more risky behavior for girls but greater psychological well-being for older adolescents. Parents who reported more stressors also had higher knowledge inconsistency. Assessing only average levels of parental knowledge does not fully capture how this parenting dimension is associated with youth health. Consistent knowledge may promote youth physical health and less risky behavior for girls. Yet knowledge inconsistency also may reflect normative increases in autonomy as it was positively associated with psychological well-being for older adolescents. Given the linkages between parental stress and knowledge inconsistency, parent interventions should include stress management components. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible ways for Public Health Surveillance practices evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia; Santos, Dario Nunes Dos; Kemp, Brigina

    2017-10-01

    This is an evaluative and qualitative study that proposes to investigate self-assessment evaluation as a device to analyze Health Surveillance practices through a questionnaire built by researchers, adapted from the Self-Assessment of Improved Access and Primary Care Quality (AMAQ) and available on the FORMSUS platform. Forty-one Health Surveillance workers and managers of a large municipality from São Paulo State evaluated the realms of "management", "teamwork" and their respective sub-realms. Two categories were created to analyze the results: "Management" and "Team" in dialogue with references from Management, Evaluation and Health Surveillance. Most "management" and "teamwork" sub-realms were deemed satisfactory. Self-assessment evaluation through an applied evaluation tool was shown to be a powerful resource for the analysis of Health Surveillance practices in combination with other devices adopted by the Unified Health System (SUS). Unlike usual evaluation processes guided by quantitative markers, this self-assessable evaluative process included subjects and enabled the possibility of incorporating a new look at itself to the way Health Surveillance is carried out and support future management contracts between workers and managers.

  8. Day-to-Day Inconsistency in Parent Knowledge: Links with Youth Health and Parents’ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; McHale, Susan M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Considerable evidence documents the linkages between higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities and positive youth outcomes. This study investigated how day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge of youth activities was linked to youth behavioral, psychological, and physical health as well as parents’ stress. Methods Participants were employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company and their children (N =129, Mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female). Data were collected from parents and youth via separate workplace and in-home surveys as well as telephone diary surveys on 8 consecutive evenings. We assessed day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge across these eight calls. Results Parents differed in their knowledge from day to day almost as much as their average knowledge scores differed from those of other parents. Controlling for mean levels of knowledge, youth whose parents exhibited more knowledge inconsistency reported more physical health symptoms (e.g., colds, flu). Knowledge inconsistency was also associated with more risky behavior for girls but greater psychological well-being for older adolescents. Parents who reported more stressors also had higher knowledge inconsistency. Conclusions Assessing only average levels of parental knowledge does not fully capture how this parenting dimension is associated with youth health. Consistent knowledge may promote youth physical health and less risky behavior for girls. Yet knowledge inconsistency also may reflect normative increases in autonomy as it was positively associated with psychological well-being for older adolescents. Given the linkages between parental stress and knowledge inconsistency, parent interventions should include stress-management components. PMID:25703318

  9. Day

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Neil; Stahl, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Contribution for a publication by Nico Dockx & Clara Meister entitled, 'A Poem A Day'.\\ud \\ud "When in 2012, Nico and I talked about utopias and the upcoming Utopia Station exhibition, our conversation quickly turned towards his poster A Poem a Day (2003). Very soon our verbal exchange turned into an idea, into a plan, into an open invitation to friends, asking them to respond to this idea of a poem for every day of the year. Open in the sense that poetry—especially in daily situations—an hap...

  10. [Modern-day slavery as a public health issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa

    2016-12-01

    Modern-day slave labor is one of the most pernicious and persistent social problems in Brazil. In the light of the need to implement a national occupational health policy, this paper discusses slave labor as a public health concern, highlighting possibilities for broadening strategies for vigilance and comprehensive care for this specific working population. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out based on the "social construction of reality" proposed by Lenoir, Berger and Luckmann. The investigation consisted of a theoretical review of modern-day slave labor on the national and international scene within the scope of the human, social and public health sciences and an analysis of social and political practices to tackle modern-day slave labor was conducted in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Semi-structured individual and group interviews with workers and representatives of social movements and public institutions were organized. The results reveal the theoretical and practical dimensions of slave labor and its relations with the health field and highlight the role and potential of public health in the enhancing of vigilance practices and health care of workers subjected to these chronic social conditions.

  11. [Health agencies and the every day management of bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Taking into account their acquired experience, would not health agencies become the place where biomedical practices will be managed on an every day basis? Would in a near future these agencies have the role to interprete the principles of the bioethics law to adapt them to concrete issues?

  12. May 28 International Day of Action for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 Day of Action for Women's Health focused on the number of deaths which occur as a result of unsafe and illegal abortion. In Argentina, a signature campaign to support decriminalization of abortion enlisted the aid of more than 100 influential citizens. The campaign in Brazil coincided with the introduction of reforms which would decriminalize abortion. In Chile, a nationwide campaign was launched to reinstate therapeutic abortion. The day was commemorated in Colombia with several events which advocated the decriminalization of abortion. Women in Costa Rica demanded being treated as subjects, not objects, of health policies, while Ecuadorian activists spent the day distributing an article analyzing the importance of the day and discussing the health problems of Ecuadorian women, especially those related to overwork, subordinate status, and illegal abortion. A new study was released in Mexico which revealed that four women die every day of pregnancy and child-birth related causes (40% of these are the complications of induced abortion). Nationwide activities were coordinated in Nicaragua including forums, theater presentations, festivals, and a women's march. A labor group joined the campaign in Peru, and efforts in Puerto Rico centered on preventing and surviving breast cancer. Elsewhere in the world, genital mutilation was the topic of a seminar in Canada, women in the Philippines launched a campaign against "needless" maternal mortality, and a Spanish group issued a publication analyzing abortion around the world and discussing the introduction of RU-486 to Spain. The next important date is September 28, when women's health groups in Latin America and the Caribbean will join to call for the legalization of abortion.

  13. World Day for Safety and Health at Work

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    27 April is World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   CERN’s health and safety teams look forward to seeing you at their stands in each of the three restaurants. This year, we cast the spotlight on two topics: • ergonomics • electrical hazards. Come and get tips that will help you to ensure your safety and to stay healthy and, you never know, you might be lucky enough to win a nice prize. Don't forget, Friday, 27 April 2012 from 11:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. in your nearest restaurant!

  14. Health Benefits: Easy Ways to Apply for Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  15. Predicting 30-Day Pneumonia Readmissions Using Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makam, Anil N; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Clark, Christopher; Zhang, Song; Xie, Bin; Weinreich, Mark; Mortensen, Eric M; Halm, Ethan A

    2017-04-01

    Readmissions after hospitalization for pneumonia are common, but the few risk-prediction models have poor to modest predictive ability. Data routinely collected in the electronic health record (EHR) may improve prediction. To develop pneumonia-specific readmission risk-prediction models using EHR data from the first day and from the entire hospital stay ("full stay"). Observational cohort study using stepwise-backward selection and cross-validation. Consecutive pneumonia hospitalizations from 6 diverse hospitals in north Texas from 2009-2010. All-cause nonelective 30-day readmissions, ascertained from 75 regional hospitals. Of 1463 patients, 13.6% were readmitted. The first-day pneumonia-specific model included sociodemographic factors, prior hospitalizations, thrombocytosis, and a modified pneumonia severity index; the full-stay model included disposition status, vital sign instabilities on discharge, and an updated pneumonia severity index calculated using values from the day of discharge as additional predictors. The full-stay pneumonia-specific model outperformed the first-day model (C statistic 0.731 vs 0.695; P = 0.02; net reclassification index = 0.08). Compared to a validated multi-condition readmission model, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services pneumonia model, and 2 commonly used pneumonia severity of illness scores, the full-stay pneumonia-specific model had better discrimination (C statistic range 0.604-0.681; P pneumonia. This approach outperforms a first-day pneumonia-specific model, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services pneumonia model, and 2 commonly used pneumonia severity of illness scores. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:209-216. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  16. Diabetes Dictating Policy: An Editorial Commemorating World Health Day 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara

    2016-06-18

    The 21st century is an era of great challenge for humankind; we are combating terrorism, climate change, poverty, human rights issues and last but not least non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The burden of the latter has become so large that it is being recognized by world leaders globally as an area that it is in need of much greater attention. In light of this concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) dedicated this year's World Health Day (held on April 7, 2016) to raising international awareness on diabetes, the fastest growing NCD in the world. This editorial is an account of the macro politics in place for fighting diabetes, both internationally and nationally. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  17. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  18. The possibilities of day surgery system development within the health policy in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoltés, Vincent; Gavurová, Beáta

    2014-12-01

    In the day surgery system are intertwined elements of state health policy, health care payers' interests, employers of health care system, as well as the interests and wishes of patients. A problem in the health policy is to find a way to regulate ambulatory and short-term surgical procedures, which are hardly distinguishable, and still fulfil the requirements of transparent financing, quality and security. The objective of this paper is to highlight the reasons for the long-term stagnation in Slovakia day surgery and the possibilities of eliminating the structural drivers causing this negative phenomenon. Due to the nature of the analyzed data and desired outcomes, we selected application of correspondence analysis. Results of correspondence analysis provide valuable information necessary for the projection of specialization of one day surgery clinics for that type of procedure, as well as for the support of the new clinics creation (also with the potential state support), the pricing policy, systemic reduction of beds what is connected with reduction of underutilized departments in hospitals, in order to optimize management processes in the healthcare system. Contribution reveals negative aspects which causing a low level of day surgery in Slovakia. Moreover, it reveals the approaches of the different subjects of day surgery. Presented options for setting optimal strategy supporting its development are based on the results of the analysis. Correspondence analysis provided valuable information of present structure of the day surgery system. The determined similarity of the regions and association of specialized fields indicate specific settings of the day surgery system and its components that are inevitable to analyze in the subsequent analytical process. Results of the analysis are very important in order to set up the system measures in the process of its further development, which should be part of the strategic plan of each health system. On conceptual and

  19. Health care financing in Malaysia: A way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has a two-tier health care system consisting of the public and private sectors. The Ministry of Health is the main provider of health care services in the country. The private health care sector provides services on a nonsubsidized, fee-for-service basis, and mainly serves for those who can afford to pay. For financing health care two types of health insurances are available currently: Private and employee based (aka SOCSO. SOCSO and Employee Provident Fund provide some coverage to private-sector employees. There are several challenges in pure Bismarckian model (private insurance etc. like smaller portion of total population will be "economically active," international competition to attract firms, and maintain/increase employment will put downward pressure on labor taxes. How to sustain universal coverage in this context? In a population setting where unemployment is high informal sector, payroll taxes will not be a major source of funds. However, it is possible to create a universal health financing system by transforming the role of budget funding from directly subsidizing provision to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population. The integration of services between the public and private sector is very much needed, at a cost the people can afford. At present, there is no national health insurance scheme in place. Although there are many models proposed, the main question that the policymakers need to be aware of is that of the equity of access to holistic health services for all Malaysians.

  20. Health activism: the way forward to improve health in difficult times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverack, Glenn

    2013-09-01

    Health activism is an action on behalf of a cause, action that goes beyond what is conventional or routine in society. It involves a challenge to the existing order whenever it is perceived to lead to a social injustice or inequality. Today social injustice is killing people on a grand scale and it is timely for health activism to be used as a way forward to improve health during difficult economic and political times. Health activism is essential because it can create the necessary conditions for people to take control over their own lives when others cannot or will not act on their behalf. Health promotion agencies and the practitioners that they employ, professional organisations and researchers can also play an important role. What is clear is that if greedy corporations and complacent governments are not challenged, we will continue to have limited success in improving health.

  1. PRIMARY ORAL HEALTH CARE THE ONLY WAY :22

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My definition of Primary Oral Health Care .:' in a nutshell is: The understandng of the oral' health problems of individuals, families and. Communities, making them aware and appreciate' the problems; and motivate them as individualS, families and communities to participate in solving them taking into consideration their ...

  2. Cracking induction in health libraries: is there a right way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgham-Healey, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    In most instances, inductions are the first time that users will be introduced to health library services. The time available in which to deliver library orientation sessions within a broader, Trust induction programme is often limited, and this can present challenges for health librarians. Inductions are a great marketing tool, and it is important that induction sessions make the right impact. Within a brief window of opportunity, the health librarian must impart key information to the inductees whilst ensuring the session is relevant and memorable. In this article, guest writer Nicola Healey, Library Manager of North Somerset Healthcare Library, discusses the range of approaches she and her colleagues have explored in delivering library inductions, explaining what worked, what did not and what areas still remain for development. H. S. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  3. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be a...

  4. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  5. Health Promoting Schools: A Way Forward for Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bayelsa State Government is assiduously working to improve the learning conditions in its schools. This is being pursued through a free and compulsory education policy. But the Compulsory, Free, Universal Basic Education Act 2004 requires that schools must be health promoting so as to enhance the effectiveness of ...

  6. Integrating ethics in health technology assessment: many ways to Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, B.; Oortwijn, W.; Lysdahl, K. Bakke; Refolo, P.; Sacchini, D.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Gerhardus, A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss appropriate approaches to integrate ethical inquiry in health technology assessment (HTA). METHODS: The key question is how ethics can be integrated in HTA. This is addressed in two steps: by investigating what it means to integrate

  7. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  8. Public-Private health sector mix- way forward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market mechanisms into the public sector.4. These recommendations by ... vate sector.5 Despite this information gap, many developing .... Consumer Choice. This is based on the principle that health care is 'a good' in its own right and, enhancing liberty, allows individuals to select products or services that match their own ...

  9. Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Mary

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

  10. Perception of access to health care by homeless individuals seeking services at a day shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary; Thompson, Lisa; Schmiege, Sarah J; Peifer, Karen; Farrell, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Homeless individuals experience significant physical, mental health and substance abuse issues. This study describes the prevalence of health issues and perceptions of access to care among 300 homeless individuals who use a day shelter. Approximately 43% described a serious/chronic physical health problem, 53% a serious mental health problem, and 49% a substance use disorder. Those reporting a serious problem were more likely to have insurance and to report greater perceived access to care but perceived access to care was less than expected. Having insurance was also related to longer duration of homelessness. Targeting interventions to better match services to homeless individuals is the next challenge for advanced practice psychiatric and other nursing groups. Implications for doctoral level nurses in ways of evaluating models of care for this marginalized group are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual health of Latino migrant day labourers under conditions of structural vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organista, Kurt C; Worby, Paula A; Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya G; Kral, Alex H; Khoury, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the context of the sexual health of Latino migrant day labourers in the USA, challenges to sexual health and ways of coping, with attention to conditions of structural vulnerability permeating the lives of this unique Latino population. Given the limited information about this topic and population, ethnographic research employing in-depth semi-structured interviews with 51 labourers, recruited through purposive sampling in the San Francisco Bay Area, was utilised. The sexual health aspirations of the men are deeply embedded in the core value and practice of Latino familismo or, in this case, the central goal of securing a family headed by men as providers and present husbands/fathers. However, such goals are frequently thwarted by the poverty engendering work and prolonged separations from home that characterise predominantly undocumented day labour in the USA. Resulting goal frustration, combined with pent up sexual urges, often lead to sexual risk in spite of efforts to cope with challenges to sexual health. Unless community-, state- and national-level interventions are developed to mitigate the pronounced structural vulnerability of migrant day labourers, individual level interventions to promote sexual health, and decrease risk and distress, are likely to have diminishing returns.

  12. Health challenges in Africa and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Africa is confronted by a heavy burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Cost-effective interventions that can prevent the disease burden exist but coverage is too low due to health systems weaknesses. This editorial reviews the challenges related to leadership and governance; health workforce; medical products, vaccines and technologies; information; financing; and services delivery. It also provides an overview of the orientations provided by the WHO Regional Committee for Africa for overcoming those challenges. It cautions that it might not be possible to adequately implement those orientations without a concerted fight against corruption, sustained domestic and external investment in social sectors, and enabling macroeconomic and political (i.e. internally secure environment.

  13. Health challenges in Africa and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Barry, Saidou Pathe

    2008-12-18

    Africa is confronted by a heavy burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Cost-effective interventions that can prevent the disease burden exist but coverage is too low due to health systems weaknesses. This editorial reviews the challenges related to leadership and governance; health workforce; medical products, vaccines and technologies; information; financing; and services delivery. It also provides an overview of the orientations provided by the WHO Regional Committee for Africa for overcoming those challenges. It cautions that it might not be possible to adequately implement those orientations without a concerted fight against corruption, sustained domestic and external investment in social sectors, and enabling macroeconomic and political (i.e. internally secure) environment.

  14. Living life the natural way – Wheatgrass and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur Kamboj

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The Human diet is enriched with young parts of plants (so called ―green foods‖, which can improve nutrient balance intake in natural way. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum refers to young grass of the common wheat plant, which belongs to Poaceae family. This is the most commonly found herb in India, although its nativity is currently unknown. This plant is believed to have many nutritional values; it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, laxative, astringent, diuretic, antibacterial and anti-aging properties. Its use in acidity, colitis, kidney malfunctions, atherosclerosis and swelling has been shown to be beneficial. Wheatgrass juice helps in building red blood cells and stimulates healthy tissue cell growth. 100 g of wheatgrass powder is equal to 23 kg of fresh vegetables. Ideally, wheatgrass should be taken about an hour prior to meal. This allows the body to fully metabolize it without competing with other foods, and it may also curb hunger. It is recommended that lot of water (at least a liter should be consumed with the juice to reap its maximum nutritional benefits. Taking wheatgrass as a supplement in the mid-morning or mid-afternoon is a great time for this "green" energy boost.

  15. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  16. Work-Related Health Complaints and Injuries, and Health and Safety Perceptions of Latino Day Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Nelson, Ronald W; White, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    This study describes socio-demographic, health, and work factors as well as health and safety perceptions of day laborers who reported work-related health complaints and injuries. The researchers completed a secondary data analysis of 217 interviews conducted in 2009 with day laborers in a large city. The participants reported 83 health complaints or injuries (38%) that had occurred during the prior 12 months, with 57 of these complaints or injuries resulting in lost work time. Pain and soreness of the back were the most prevalent health complaints or injuries; 66% of participants did not report their injuries, 62% reported no health and safety training, 96% reported they needed personal protective equipment (PPE), and 63% were provided with PPE. Latino day laborers reported a high 12-month prevalence of work-related health complaints and injuries. Ongoing policy work is needed to encourage injury reporting by day laborers and the provision of health and safety training and PPE to this group of workers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Behavioural sciences at university of health sciences: the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.S.; Mukhtar, O.; Tabasum, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of medical ethics with teaching and training and health profession has been informal, largely dependent on role modelling and the social contract of the physicians with the community that they abide by. This study was conducted to examine the effect, if any, of introducing the subject of Behavioural Sciences on students performance in the clinical years viva voce and patient interactions components of the examinations. Methods: A prospective study on four cohorts of students at UHS from 2007 to 2012 (8,155 candidates). Reliability was calculated through Cronbach Alpha. Linear Regression Analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the scores of Basic Medical Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Forensic medicine with the viva voce and Structured Stations marks of the Clinical Sciences in OSCE. Gender and demographics analysis was also done. Results: Cronbach Alpha was 0.47, 0.63, 0.67 and 0.53 for the Papers of Behavioural Sciences from 2007 to 2010 respectively. Poor predictive value of Behavioural Sciences for performance in the clinical years viva voce and OSCE was identified. Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine were statistically significant predictors for the performance of female candidates in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). In Central Punjab, Behavioural Sciences statistically significantly predicted for better performance in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is premature to understand the results of Behavioural Sciences teaching at University of Health Sciences (UHS). We can still safely conclude that it can only have a positive sustained effect on the healthcare delivery systems and patient care in Pakistan if it is integrated within each subject and taught and learned not as a theoretical construct but rather an evaluation of one values within the code of conduct of medical professionalism in the larger context of the societal and cultural norms. (author)

  18. 'Mental health day' sickness absence amongst nurses and midwives: workplace, workforce, psychosocial and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Gallagher, Robyn; Nicholls, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    To examine the workforce, workplace, psychosocial and health characteristics of nurses and midwives in relation to their reported use of sickness absence described as 'mental health days'. The occupational stress associated with the nursing profession is increasingly recognized and nurse/midwifery absenteeism is a significant global problem. Taking a 'mental health day' as sickness absence is a common phenomenon in Australian health care. No previous studies have empirically explored the characteristics of nurses and midwives using such sickness absence. Online cross-sectional survey. Survey comprising validated tools and questions on workplace and health characteristics was distributed to nurses and midwives in New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 - February 2015. Sample characteristics were reported using descriptive statistics. Factors independently predictive of 'mental health day' reportage were determined using logistic regression. Fifty-four percentage of the n = 5041 nurse and midwife respondents took 'mental health days'. Those affected were significantly more likely to be at younger ages, working shifts with less time sitting at work; to report workplace abuse and plans to leave; having been admitted to hospital in previous 12 months; to be current smokers; to report mental health problems, accomplishing less due to emotional problems and current psychotropic medication use. Specific characteristics of nurses and midwives who report taking 'mental health day' sickness absence offer healthcare administrators and managers opportunities for early identification and intervention with workplace measures and support frameworks to promote well-being, health promotion and safety. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Integrating ethics in health technology assessment: many ways to Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Björn; Oortwijn, Wija; Bakke Lysdahl, Kristin; Refolo, Pietro; Sacchini, Dario; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and discuss appropriate approaches to integrate ethical inquiry in health technology assessment (HTA). The key question is how ethics can be integrated in HTA. This is addressed in two steps: by investigating what it means to integrate ethics in HTA, and by assessing how suitable the various methods in ethics are to be integrated in HTA according to these meanings of integration. In the first step, we found that integrating ethics can mean that ethics is (a) subsumed under or (b) combined with other parts of the HTA process; that it can be (c) coordinated with other parts; or that (d) ethics actively interacts and changes other parts of the HTA process. For the second step, we found that the various methods in ethics have different merits with respect to the four conceptions of integration in HTA. Traditional approaches in moral philosophy tend to be most suited to be subsumed or combined, while processual approaches being close to the HTA or implementation process appear to be most suited to coordinated and interactive types of integration. The article provides a guide for choosing the ethics approach that appears most appropriate for the goals and process of a particular HTA.

  20. Pediatric day case surgery: Experience from a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistics (investigations and availability of operation list) and patient's fitness for surgery were statistically significant delay factors (P= 0.001). Conclusion : Parents reported 14 children to be irritable at ... parents are suitable for pediatric day case surgery. There is a need for a day case center to reduce waiting list at UITH.

  1. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  2. 78 FR 17313 - Ninety-Day Waiting Period Limitation and Technical Amendments to Certain Health Coverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... 147 RIN 0938-AR77 Ninety-Day Waiting Period Limitation and Technical Amendments to Certain Health... implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added... no more than 90 days. Other conditions for eligibility under the terms of a group health plan are...

  3. The integration of oral health care into day-to-day care in nursing homes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visschere, Luc; de Baat, Cees; De Meyer, Lize; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; Peeters, Bart; Söderfelt, Bjorn; Vanobbergen, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study explored barriers and enabling factors to the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. Oral health care in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium) is inadequate. Qualitative data were obtained from nurses employed in 13 nursing homes involved in two randomised controlled trials in Flanders-Belgium. Data were collected by focus group and face-to-face interviews during April 2005 and December 2009. All transcripts were analysed with support of NVivo 8 (Version 2008). Transcripts were intuitively analysed in a two-step method. Most revealed barriers were consistent with previous findings in the literature. Newly reported barriers were respect for residents' self-determination, experience based oral health care by nurses, residents' oral health status and nurses' inability to notice residents' oral health status. Demand-driven oral health care was found to be a strong enabling factor. The integration of oral health care into day-to-day care seems to be a major problem due to a multitude of barriers. In future implementation innovations in oral health care an a priori assessment of influencing factors is recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pediatric day case surgery: Experience from a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Paediatric Surgery Unit, 1Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ilorin Teaching ... the need for adoption of day case surgery, which is gaining considerable acceptance in developing countries. ... The average number of outpatient clinic visits before surgery was 2-3 visits (41.2%) with mean.

  5. Global Health and the Demands of the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Stalcup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have two goals in this paper: first, to provide a diagnosis of global health and underline some of its blockages; second, to offer an alternative interpretation of what the demands for those in global health may be. The assumption that health is a "good" that requires no further explanation, and that per se it can serve as an actual modus operandi, lays the foundations of the problem. Related blockages ensue and are described using HIV prevention with a focus on vaginal microbicides as a case study. Taking health as a self-evident, and self-explanatory "good" limits other possible goods; and prevents further inquiry into the actual practices of creating good practices and good measures. We propose that to create conditions under which global health could be reconstructed, "problematization" be taken up as a practice, around a series of questions asked in conjunction with those ever-urgent ones of how to ameliorate the condition of living beings.

  6. Associations between relationship status and day-to-day health behaviors and weight among diverse young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Maclehose, Rich; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown strong positive associations between physical and psychological health outcomes and being in a committed relationship, such as marriage; however, little research has investigated whether being in a committed relationship is protective for day-to-day health behaviors such as dietary patterns and physical activity. This research examined associations between relationship status and day-to-day health behaviors (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity) and weight status among a diverse cohort of young adults. This cross-sectional study used data from Project EAT-III, a 10-year longitudinal population-based study (N = 1,853) of Midwest young adults. Young adult participants had an average age of 25.3 years, and were 45% male and 55% female. Participants were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse, including 48.4% White, 18.6% African American, 5.9% Hispanic, 19.6% Asian, 3.3% Native American, and 4.2% mixed or other race/ethnicity. Results indicated that married men were more likely to be overweight/obese (body mass index ≥ 25) compared with single/casually dating and committed dating/engaged men. Married women were more likely to eat breakfast ≥5 times per week compared with women in other relationship categories. No differences were observed in other health behaviors by relationship status. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Relationship status seems largely unrelated to young adults' participation in physical activity and dietary behaviors. However, findings suggest that being married may be a risk factor for overweight/obesity in young adult men and may be a protective factor for health-related behaviors associated with overweight/obesity such as breakfast intake for young adult women.

  7. 78 FR 78376 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exigent Health and Safety Deficiency Correction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exigent Health and Safety Deficiency... health and safety (EHS) deficiency that the inspector observed that day is listed on the form. The... is to allow for 60 days of public comment. DATES: Comments Due Date: February 24, 2014. ADDRESSES...

  8. 'Have a nice day': consumerism, compassion and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    Plans to implement a quality measurement framework that will rate nurses according to the level of care and compassion they demonstrate have been proposed and discussed in a number of Department of Health documents. From September 2010 degree-level nursing students in Wales will receive regular feedback on their communication skills and whether they are exhibiting sufficient levels of compassion. This article examines the reasons why there have been such moves by both politicians and health professionals to demonstrate, in quantifiable terms, that they are able to measure something that is frequently contextual and subject to individual interpretation. It explores how these moves have been influenced by the disclosure of unacceptable standards of care by the Patients Association report and the enquiry into Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. It also discusses how the adoption of targets to evaluate care and compassion seems to reflect a market-driven and bureaucratic approach to health care that has resulted in a system in which measurability and outcome are considered the most important indicator of quality.

  9. 78 FR 38996 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request; Family Life... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and...

  10. 78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's... allow an additional 30 days for public comment. The NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, may not...

  11. The effect on health of alternate day calorie restriction: eating less and more than needed on alternate days prolongs life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James B; Laub, Donald R; John, Sujit

    2006-01-01

    Restricting caloric intake to 60-70% of normal adult weight maintenance requirement prolongs lifespan 30-50% and confers near perfect health across a broad range of species. Every other day feeding produces similar effects in rodents, and profound beneficial physiologic changes have been demonstrated in the absence of weight loss in ob/ob mice. Since May 2003 we have experimented with alternate day calorie restriction, one day consuming 20-50% of estimated daily caloric requirement and the next day ad lib eating, and have observed health benefits starting in as little as two weeks, in insulin resistance, asthma, seasonal allergies, infectious diseases of viral, bacterial and fungal origin (viral URI, recurrent bacterial tonsillitis, chronic sinusitis, periodontal disease), autoimmune disorder (rheumatoid arthritis), osteoarthritis, symptoms due to CNS inflammatory lesions (Tourette's, Meniere's) cardiac arrhythmias (PVCs, atrial fibrillation), menopause related hot flashes. We hypothesize that other many conditions would be delayed, prevented or improved, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, brain injury due to thrombotic stroke atherosclerosis, NIDDM, congestive heart failure. Our hypothesis is supported by an article from 1957 in the Spanish medical literature which due to a translation error has been construed by several authors to be the only existing example of calorie restriction with good nutrition. We contend for reasons cited that there was no reduction in calories overall, but that the subjects were eating, on alternate days, either 900 calories or 2300 calories, averaging 1600, and that body weight was maintained. Thus they consumed either 56% or 144% of daily caloric requirement. The subjects were in a residence for old people, and all were in perfect health and over 65. Over three years, there were 6 deaths among 60 study subjects and 13 deaths among 60 ad lib-fed controls, non-significant difference. Study subjects were in hospital

  12. Pre-conditions of development of ideas about health and healthy way of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekina N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Directions of development of ideas are examined about a health and healthy method of life on the basic stages of development of human civilization. The deposit of prominent philosophers, teachers, enlighteners in development of ideas of healthy method of life is analysed. It becomes firmly established that on the different stages of development of human society a problem of maintainance and strengthening of health and healthy way of life always were in the highlight of public and state figures. Characteristic for domestic pedagogics was attention to the problem of health from the side of teachers, psychologists, doctors. Directions of forming of health and healthy way of life are selected. The necessity of scientific researches is marked on perfection of methods, facilities and form of physical education.

  13. "Happy feet": evaluating the benefits of a 100-day 10,000 step challenge on mental health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, K T; Bilsborough, S; de Courten, M

    2018-01-24

    An increased awareness of the health benefits of walking has emerged with the development and refinement of accelerometer equipment. Evidence is beginning to highlight the value of promoting walking, particularly focusing on the Japanese mark of obtaining 10,000 steps per day. Workplace based step challenges have become popular to engage large cohorts in increasing their daily physical activity in a sustainable and enjoyable way. Findings are now highlighting the positive health effects of these medium-term programs (typically conducted over a few months) in terms of cardiovascular health, reducing diabetes risk and improving lifestyle factors such as weight and blood pressure. As yet, research has not focused on whether similar improvements in psychological health and wellbeing are present. This study investigated the impact of a 100-day, 10,000 step program on signs of depression, anxiety and stress as well as general wellbeing using standardised psychological scales. The results indicated a small but consistent effect on all of these measures of mental health over the term of the program. This effect appeared irrespective of whether a person reached the 10,000 step mark. These results highlight improved mental health and wellbeing in people undertaking this 100-day 10,000 step program and indicates the efficacy and potential of these programs for a modest, yet important improvement in mental health. Notably, targets reached may be less important than participation itself.

  14. [Health impact assessment: one way to introduce health in all policies. SESPAS Report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, Santiago; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Sanz, Elvira; Aldasoro, Elena; Calderón, Carlos; Zuazagoitia, Juan; Cambra, Koldo

    2010-12-01

    Health impact assessment is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. Current experience shows that health impact assessment could play an important role in the development of the Health in All Policies strategy. This strategy has been extensively used in other European countries and in a wide range of policy and administrative sectors. Health impact assessment is hardly ever mandatory and is frequently carried out separately from other impact assessments. The use of this process in Spain is relatively new, limited and fundamentally based on local level experiences and the screening of regional interventions. The current normative and organizational reform of public health in Spain provides an excellent opportunity to promote the development of health impact assessment. Some of the barriers to the development of this process are related to the biomedical model of health prevailing among health professionals, politicians, and the general population, political disaffection, lack of assessment culture, underdevelopment of community participation processes, and insufficient intersectoral work. Health impact assessment provides an opportunity to move toward improving the population's health and reducing inequalities in health. Consequently, political commitment, as well as investment in education and research, is needed to introduce and develop health impact assessment in all administrative settings and policy sectors. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lette, M.; Bemelmans, W.J.; Breda, J.; Slobbe, L.C.; Dias, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The

  16. Primary oral health care the only way | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary oral health care the only way. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  17. A quick and selected overview of the expert panel on effective ways of investing in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission created the Expert Panel on Effective Ways of Investing in Health (EXPH) in 2012. The EXPH started its activities in July 2013 and ended its first term in May 2016. A personal review of the Expert Panel contributions in its first term is provided.

  18. Mental Health of Two-Way Migrants: From Puerto Rico to the United States and Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Draguns, Juris G.

    The mental health needs of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States and back again are discussed in this paper. Four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered. Often, it is noted, in migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican…

  19. Ways of Doing: Restorative Practices, Governmentality, and Provider Conduct in Post-Apartheid Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bronwyn; Eyles, John; Goudge, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the conduct of post-apartheid health care in a policy context directed toward entrenching democracy, ensuring treatment-adherent patients, and creating a healthy populace actively responsible for their own health. We ask how tuberculosis treatment, antiretroviral therapy, and maternal services are delivered within South Africa's health system, an institutional site of colonial and apartheid injustice, and democratic reform. Using Foucauldian and post-Foucauldian notions of governmentality, we explore provider ways of doing to, for, and with patients in three health subdistricts. Although restorative provider engagements are expected in policy, older authoritarian and paternalistic norms persist in practice. These challenge and reshape, even 'undo' democratic assertions of citizenship, while producing compliant, self-responsible patients. Alongside the need to address pervasive structural barriers to health care, a restorative approach requires community participation, provider accountability, and a health system that does with providers as much as providers who do with patients.

  20. 78 FR 36198 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... ``Optometric Privileges Request Form'' for consideration in this request--pending a review of ways to enhance... under contract) several categories of health care providers including: Physicians (M.D. and D.O...

  1. Postoperative recovery and its association with health-related quality of life among day surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Katarina; Kjellgren, Karin; Unosson, Mitra; Arestedt, Kristofer

    2012-11-13

    Day surgery holds advantages for both the patient and the health care organization. However, recovery beyond the first postoperative week and following different types of surgery has not been explored to any greater degree. The current aims were to prospectively describe postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life among different groups of day surgery patients and to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life 30 days after discharge. A consecutive sample of 607 adult day surgery patients undergoing orthopaedic, gynaecological or general surgery was included. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 using the Swedish Post-discharge Surgery Recovery scale and the Quality of Recovery-23 scale. The EQ-5D was used to assess health-related quality of life preoperatively and 30 days following discharge. A repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to evaluate postoperative recovery from day 1 to day 14 and between different surgical groups. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life. Postoperative recovery improved from day 1 to 14 in all surgical groups (pday 14 compared to the general and the gynaecological patients (pHealth-related quality of life was lower among orthopaedic patients (pday 7 was associated with health-related quality of life 30 days after the day surgery (pday surgical patients seem to favour a closer follow-up in order to support recovery and thereby also positively influence health-related quality of life.

  2. Investigating the ways in which health information technology can promote antimicrobial stewardship: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Coleman, Jamie J; Pontefract, Sarah K; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a threat to health worldwide. Antimicrobial stewardship aims to promote the responsible use of antibiotics and is high on international and national policy agendas. Health information technology has the potential to support antimicrobial stewardship in a number of ways, but this field is still poorly characterised and understood. Building on a recent systematic review and expert roundtable discussions, we take a lifecycle perspective of antibiotic use in hospitals and identify potential targets for health information technology-based interventions to support antimicrobial stewardship. We aim for this work to help chart a future research agenda in this critically important area.

  3. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  4. 78 FR 46994 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Institute of Mental Health Recruitment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Institute of Mental Health Recruitment and Milestone Reporting System Summary: In compliance with the...

  5. Health-related behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents who study asboarders and day-students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Emine Ela; Günay, Osman

    2016-06-23

    Boarders and day-students study together in regional boarding schools. This study was carried out to compare the health and nutritional status of boarders and day-students who study at regional boarding schools in Turkey. A total 634 boarders and 492 day-students in the 4th-8th years of nine boarding schools in Giresun Province of Turkey were included. A questionnaire including 49 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and health and nutritional status was completed by the students. Height and weight measurements of the students were also taken. The chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. The boarders evaluated their health status as worse than the day-students. The proportion of the students having three meals a day was higher among the boarders than the day-students. According to BMI values, 11% of the boarders were evaluated as underweight, 77% as normal, 9.5% as overweight, and 2.5% as obese. These proportions were respectively 15.5%, 67.3%, 12.8%. and 4.5% for the day-students. The boarders have more regular diets and the proportion of normal-weighed boarders was higher than that of the day-students. However, they perceived their health as worse than the day-tudents.

  6. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55–74 years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised for AMI in 2008 in North Carolina and Illinois were used to investigate the association between health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions. Measures The NIA cohort was administered 3 common health literacy assessments (Newest Vital Sign, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, and Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). Health literacy estimates at the census block group level were derived via a predictive model. 30-day readmissions were measured from Medicare claims data using a validated algorithm. Results Fair agreement was found between derived estimates and in-person literacy assessments (Pearson Correlation coefficients: 0.38–0.51; κ scores: 0.38–0.40). Medicare enrollees with above basic literacy according to derived health literacy estimates had an 18% lower risk of a 30-day readmission (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and 21% lower incidence rate of 30-day readmission (IRR=0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) than patients with basic or below basic literacy. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of 30-day readmission was 12% lower (p=0.03), and the incidence rate 16% lower (pliteracy. Conclusions Health literacy, as measured by a predictive model, was found to be a significant, independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. As a modifiable risk factor with evidence-based solutions, health literacy should be considered in readmission reduction efforts. PMID:26068508

  7. Geriatric health care in India - Unmet needs and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Adhikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available India has nearly 120 million elderly people with various physical, psychosocial, economic, and spiritual problems. While the functionally and cognitively fit can access usual health-care facilities provided by the government, these people need active aging program to keep them independent. Health ministry has created geriatric centers and geriatric clinics in most of the states; however, these centers may not serve the functionally and cognitively impaired elderly. There is great need for mobile units, day-care centers and hospices, and need for training of personnel in home nursing. Routine care clinics cannot handle the burden of geriatric population to address their multimorbidity and several other age-related problems. There is a need for a rapid training of health-care professionals of various disciplines in geriatric care. Government must support nongovernmental organizations and other agencies which provide day care, home care, and palliative care so that these services become affordable to all the elderly.

  8. Center Director Bridges opens Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges opens the second Super Safety and Health Day at Kennedy Space Center, an entire day when most normal work activities are suspended to allow personnel to attend safety- and health-related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events included a keynote address, a panel session about related issues, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  9. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lette, M.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.; Breda, J.; Slobbe, L. C. J.; Dias, J.; Boshuizen, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relati...

  10. Ways to implement a health protective educational environment in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykytyuk O.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of organization and creation of health protective educational environment are exposed in higher institute. They foresee creation of the special terms for realization structurally of functional model of organization of students' healthy way of life. A model plugs in itself pedagogical, organizational, material and technical, sanitary-hygenic, informatively-methodical, skilled and financial economic terms. A questionnaire is conducted 95 students of 1-3 courses. It is set that the level of factors of risk for the health of students is high enough: prevalence of smoking is 47%, swizzles use more than 20%. It is discovered that the number of students with active physical activity makes not more than 45%. Most students consider that for the health they are responsible, ready and want to get information on forming of healthy way of life. Principles of organization of health protective behave to the features of organization of health protective of educational environment, nature protective, valeological, sequence, integration, pedagogical support, flexibility.

  11. Availability of Day Care Services for Preschool Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos-Capps, Gina; Godfrey, Athleen B.

    1999-01-01

    Directors of 86 day care centers were surveyed to determine factors affecting the availability of day care services for preschool children with special health care needs. Barriers to admission included restrictive admittance requirements, lack of staff, fear of not meeting a child's needs, and lack of trained personnel. (Author/CR)

  12. Science, research and social change in Indigenous health--evolving ways of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    History tells us of the overwhelming destructive influence of exotic culture, politics and knowledge forms upon the worldview and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. The power of dominant culture to oppress, control and dominate traditional Indigenous ways of knowing and being has been identified as a being a crucial influence on the health status, future hopes and aspirations of Indigenous Australians. Fundamental to this assertion is that the alienating effect of the belief in and application of the scientific method in relation to learning and knowing is a phenomenon that is incompatible with the law and cultural ways of traditional Indigenous people. The establishment of the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE) is predicated upon and responds to a deep need in our community today to synthesise the ideological and epistemological premises of an increasing range of cultures and world views. It recognises that clinical research, for example, is important to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, but also that the way such research is designed and carried out is also crucial to its potential to effect change in and improve the state of Indigenous health in Australia. This paper examines knowledge principles and processes associated with research in Indigenous communities, explores emerging research trends in science and proposes an epistemological framework for synthesis of traditional approaches with those of the scientific paradigm.

  13. Keynote speaker Col. Fitch talks to employee audience at Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Capt. Dennis E. Fitch, a consultant and former pilot instructor with United Airlines, addresses an audience of KSC employees to kick off Super Safety and Health Day at KSC. Fitch related his tale of the catastrophic engine failure in UAL flight 232, which crash landed in Iowa in 1989, and the teamwork that contributed to his survival and the lives of 183 other passengers. For the second time Kennedy Space Center dedicated an entire day to safety and health. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend Super Safety and Health Day activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space-related resources first and foremost. Events also included a panel session about related issues, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  14. Day laborers' life satisfaction: the role of familismo, spirituality, work, health, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2013-07-01

    Limited research exists on day laborers' mental health. This study identifies relevant factors that influence the life satisfaction of 143 predominantly undocumented Latino male day laborers. Findings demonstrated the importance of familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, perceived health, and perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Given the deleterious impact discrimination can have on mental health, we examined whether perceived discrimination's role on life satisfaction would be buffered by familismo, spirituality, work satisfaction, and perceived health. Among these variable, spirituality and perceived health were identified as protective factors against the role of perceived discrimination on life satisfaction. Implications for research and practice with Latino male day laborers are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Health-related quality of life and ways of coping with stress in patients with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladetić, Mirjana; Jančuljak, Davor; Butković Soldo, Silva; Kralik, Kristina; Buljan, Krunoslav

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between the mode of coping and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with migraine. We have also tried to examine the relationship of disease duration and the frequency of attacks with HRQoL and the ways of coping with stress. The research was done on a sample consisting of 106 participants (95 women and 11 men); mean age of 40 years (IQR 28-48) with the migraine lasting for 10 years (IRQ 5-20 years). The average number of attacks, over the last month, was two attacks (IRQ 1-3 attacks). Ways of coping questionnaire were used to estimate the mode of coping with stress and SF-36 questionnaire for HRQoL. The result showed the self-control as the most common way of coping with stress in patients with migraine. They also confirmed the existence of a significant connection of ways of coping with stress and HRQoL in people with migraine. There is a larger number of significant correlations of ways of coping connected with the domains of mental health than with the physical health. Escape/avoidance is significantly negatively correlated with the largest number of HRQoL domains, especially with existence of significant mental health (ρ = -0.447) and role limitation due to the emotional problems (ρ = -0.361). The number of migraine attacks has greater influence on HRQoL in patients with migraine than the disease duration. Our study showed the existence of significant correlations between the ways of coping with stress and HRQoL, especially with mental domains. In some domains, the correlation was even stronger than the one showing the disease duration and the number of attacks. The above-mentioned results suggest the directions in further formulation of psychological interventions that would be helpful for the additional treatment of migraine.

  16. Requiring formal training in preventive health practices for child day care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoff, B Z; Willis, W O

    1991-01-01

    The study was a test of the feasibility of mandating training in preventive health practices for child day care providers in California. Three approaches were taken to determining the feasibility of mandatory training. They were (a) to identify persons and groups with the capability to provide training, (b) to identify systems and networks for communication and collaboration on health issues related to day care at the local level, and (c) to determine the child day care providers' concerns, needs, and future interests regarding child health. Information was collected on relevant courses offered by universities, colleges, and adult education programs; on training offered by child health authorities; and on formal curriculums offered by local and national sources. Day care center and family day care home providers were surveyed to determine their knowledge of child health issues, their concerns, and their future needs. The providers surveyed cared for a total of 14,340 children. Information on local networks was obtained from the surveys, from interviews, and from a special task force that had been set up to advise the State legislature. Study results supported the conclusion that a coordinated system of State-wide training was feasible, given the existing networks of training and educational resources, the number of day care providers who had already been motivated to seek some training in child health practices, and the almost unanimous interest among day care providers in obtaining training. Mandating training in child health for day care providers will require a commitment in the form of new legislation outlining basic requirements and allocating funding. The implementation and costs of such a mandate at the State and local level are discussed.

  17. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  18. 3 CFR 8433 - Proclamation 8433 of October 2, 2009. Child Health Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., impacting their development well into adulthood. On Child Health Day, we recognize the fundamental importance of health care for our Nation's children, and dedicate our collective energies to support their... American. Parents and guardians should lead by example. We must teach our children the importance of...

  19. Health trajectories of family caregivers: associations with care transitions and adult day service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    The study examines family caregivers' health changes over 1 year on four health dimensions and explores the association of differential health trajectories with adult day service (ADS) use and caregiving transitions. The participants were 153 primary caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWDs) who provided information on care situations and their own health at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month interviews. Caregivers showed increasing functional limitations and decreasing bodily pain over time, whereas role limitation and general health perception remained stable. Furthermore, caregivers' trajectories of functional limitation were associated with their extent of ADS use at baseline and their relatives' placement. Health is multidimensional; all dimensions of caregiver health do not change in a uniform manner. The findings underscore the importance of the association of caregiving transitions and caregiver health and the potential health benefits of ADS use for family caregivers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Local Health Departments' Promotion of Mental Health Care and Reductions in 30-Day All-Cause Readmission Rates in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Novak, Priscilla; Barath, Deanna; Goldman, Howard; Mortensen, Karoline

    2018-02-01

    Individuals affected with mental health conditions, including mood disorders and substance abuse, are at an increased risk of hospital readmission. The objective of this study is to examine whether local health departments' (LHDs) active roles of promoting mental health are associated with reductions in 30-day all-cause readmission rates, a common quality metric. Using datasets linked from multiple sources, including 2012-2013 State Inpatient Databases for the State of Maryland, the National Association of County and City Health Officials Profiles Survey, the Area Health Resource File, and US Census data, we employed multivariate logistic models to examine whether LHDs' active provision of mental health preventive care, mental health services, and health promotion were associated with the likelihood of having any 30-day all-cause readmission. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that LHDs' provision of mental health preventive care, mental health services, and health promotion were negatively associated with the likelihoods of having any 30-day readmission for adults 18-64 years old (odds ratios=0.71-0.82, Phealth prevention, promotion, and coordination activities are associated with benefits for residents and for the health care system at large. Additional research is needed to evaluate LHD activities in other states to determine if these results are generalizable.

  1. Discharge on the day of birth, parental response and health and schooling outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2017-09-01

    Exploiting the Danish roll-out of same-day discharge policies after uncomplicated births, we find that treated newborns have a higher probability of hospital readmission in the first month after birth. While these short-run effects may indicate substitution of hospital stays with readmissions, we also find that-in the longer run-a same-day discharge decreases children's 9th grade GPA. This effect is driven by children and mothers, who prior to the policy change would have been least likely to experience a same-day discharge. Using administrative and survey data to assess potential mechanisms, we show that a same-day discharge impacts those parents' health investments and their children's medium-run health. Our findings point to important negative effects of policies that expand same-day discharge policies to broad populations of mothers and children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Days out of role due to common mental and physical disorders: French results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icick, R; Kovess, V; Gasquet, I; Lépine, J-P

    2014-09-01

    The burden of health problems, including mental disorders, can be assessed in several ways such as through healthcare costs or loss of productivity. Their impact on daily activities as a whole has received much less attention, especially in France. Therefore, we undertook the analysis of the French general population data from the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) assessing the number of days out of role due to common mental and physical disorders. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 2894 respondents (45.9% pooled response rate). Presence of ten chronic physical disorders and nine mental disorders was assessed for each respondent along with information about the number of days in the past month each respondent reported being totally unable to work or carry out their other normal daily activities because of problems with either physical or mental health. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate associations of specific conditions and comorbidities with days out of role, after controlling for basic socio-demographics. One thousand four hundred and thirty-six subjects reporting at least one core-symptom of a mental disorder underwent the whole assessment. The mean annual number of days out of role was high among those with at least one mental disorder (24.2±8.3). The population attributable risk proportion (PARP), i.e. the proportion of days out of role that would have been avoided if the considered disorder had remitted, was also estimated. Mental disorders as a whole accounted for 49.5% of the PARP. French data on days out of role from the WHO WMH surveys showed the high burden of mental illness in the general population. These results may have been underestimated, taking into account that subjects who were hospitalized at the time of recruitment, whose disorders might also account for a high proportion of days out of role, could not be assessed with our design. Common health conditions, especially

  3. World health day - 7th april, 2004 "road safety is no accident"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.In 1948, the First World Health Assembly called for the creation of a "World Health Day". Since 1950, World Health Day has been celebrated on the 7th of April of each year. The objective of World Health Day is to raise global awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization (WHO. The Day serves as a launch for a long-term advocacy program for which activities will be undertaken and resources provided well beyond 7th April.To Celebrate the theme of this year "Road Safety is No accident", on 7th April 2004 around the globle, hundreds of organizations hosted events to help raise awareness about road traffic injuries, their grave consequences and enormous casts to society. They alsocontributed to spreading the message that such injuries can be prevented.t '            ■The accident is defined as unexpected, unplanned event envolving injury, disability or death. The accidents occur in almost all countries. The most alarming fact is that accidents kill more young trained adults between 15-24 years of age group of males, mainly among two wheelers. All sorts of accidents

  4. Women's health custom made: building on the 40 days postpartum for Arab women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, G L; Beckerleg, S; Kassem, F; Abu Jafar, A M; Belmaker, I; Abu Saad, K; Shoham-Vardi, I

    2000-09-01

    The 40-day postpartum period is characterised in the Middle East and elsewhere by an observance of seclusion, congratulatory visiting, the reciprocal exchange of gifts and money, and a special diet. Based on primary data from in-depth interviews among the Negev Bedouin in Israel, health enhancing practices are reviewed. The data are a subset from a larger study carried out in this setting. Often postnatal checkups, family planning counselling, and immunization services may not be routinely available or used. It is argued that these health services could be provided at the end of the 40-day period for mother and child, as in a pilot study in Tunisia some years ago. Health service provision would thus build on the health enhancing practices of the 40-day period.

  5. Process evaluation of child health services at outreach sites during health and nutrition day (Mamta Day) in urban slums of Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kedar; Pandya, Chandresh; Chavda, Paragkumar; Solanki, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, "planning of Health and Nutrition Day," "availability of vaccines/logistics," and "direct observation of actual immunization process" at the site using a structured checklist. Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52%) only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47%) sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26%) sites only. Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.

  6. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  7. Historical trauma as public narrative: A conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B.; Thai, Nghi D.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774

  8. Day-to-day discrimination and health among Asian Indians: a population-based study of Gujarati men and women in Metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Bybee, Deborah; Blazevski, Juliane

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between experiences of day-to-day discrimination and two measures of health among Gujaratis, one of the largest ethnic groups of Asian Indians in the U.S. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit (N = 423). Using structural equation modeling, we tested two gender-moderated models of the relationship between day-to-day discrimination and health, one using the single-item general health status and the other using the 4-item emotional wellbeing measure. For both women and men, controlling for socio-demographic and other relevant characteristics, the experience of day-to-day discrimination was associated with worse emotional wellbeing. However, day-to-day discrimination was associated with the single-item self-rated general health status only for men. This study identified not only gender differences in discrimination-health associations but also the importance of using multiple questions in assessing perceived health status.

  9. The impact of mental health disorders on 30-day readmission after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Megan; Rigby, Andrea; Rogers, Ann M; Leslie, Douglas L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2018-03-01

    Mental health disorders are common among bariatric surgery patients. Mental health disorders, particularly depression, have been associated with poorer surgical outcomes, indicating the bariatric surgery patient population warrants special clinical attention. Our study sought to examine the effect of diagnosed mental health disorders on 30-day readmission for those undergoing bariatric surgery in hospitals across Pennsylvania from 2011 to 2014. We used Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council data to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria encompassed patients aged>18 years who underwent bariatric surgery at any hospital or freestanding surgical facility in Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2014. Mental health disorders were identified using predetermined International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Logistic regression was used to model the risk of 30-day readmission and estimate the effect of mental health disorders on 30-day readmission. Of the 19,259 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, 40.3% had a diagnosed mental health disorder; 6.51% of all patients were readmitted within 30 days. Patients with a diagnosed mental health disorder had 34% greater odds of readmission (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.51) relative to patients with no diagnosed mental health disorder. Patients with major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder had 46% greater odds of being readmitted compared with patients with no major depressive disorder/bipolar disorder diagnosis. Study findings imply the need for risk assessment of patients before postoperative discharge. Given that patients with mental health diagnoses are at increased risk of 30-day readmission after bariatric surgery, they may benefit from additional discharge interventions designed to attenuate potential readmissions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Violence exposure is associated with adolescents' same- and next-day mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Russell, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Young people exposed to violence are at increased risk for mental health and behavioral problems. However, very little is known about the immediate, or same-day, associations between violence exposure and adolescents' mental health symptoms or whether daily symptom or behavioral reactivity marks future problems. Young adolescents were assessed three times a day for 30 consecutive days using mobile-phone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) (N = 151 adolescents). Over 12,500 assessments and 4,329 person days were obtained via the EMA. Adolescents were recruited from low-income neighborhoods based on parent-reported risk for externalizing symptoms. Mental health symptoms were assessed via parent and child report at baseline, multiple times per day via EMA assessments of the adolescents, and again 18 months later when 93% of the adolescents were reinterviewed. Results from multilevel models illustrated that young adolescents were more likely to experience symptoms of anger (OR = 1.74, CI: 1.31-2.30), depression (OR = 1.66, CI: 1.26-2.19), and conduct problems (OR = 2.63, CI: 1.71-4.04) on days that they were exposed versus not exposed to violence. Increases in depressive symptoms were also observed on days following violence exposure (OR = 1.46, CI: 1.09-1.97). Adolescents with the highest levels of violence exposure across the 30-day EMA were less behaviorally reactive to violence exposures in daily life, and heightened behavioral reactivity predicted increased risk for substance use across early adolescence. Findings support the need to focus on both the immediate and long-term associations between violence exposure and adolescents' mental health and behavior. Results also suggest that heightened behavioral reactivity during early adolescence may signal emerging substance use problems. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Numeracy, Health Literacy, Cognition, and 30-Day Readmissions among Patients with Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Madeline R; Safford, Monika M; Goggins, Kathryn; Nwosu, Sam K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Wallston, Kenneth A; Mixon, Amanda S; Rothman, Russell L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    Numeracy, health literacy, and cognition are important for chronic disease management. Prior studies have found them to be associated with poorer selfcare and worse clinical outcomes, but limited data exists in the context of heart failure (HF), a condition that requires patients to monitor their weight, fluid intake, and dietary salt, especially in the posthospitalization period. To examine the relationship between numeracy, health literacy, and cognition with 30-day readmissions among patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study is a prospective longitudinal study of adults hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes and/or ADHF. We studied 883 adults hospitalized with ADHF. During their hospitalization, a baseline interview was performed in which demographic characteristics, numeracy, health literacy, and cognition were assessed. Through chart review, clinical characteristics were determined. The outcome of interest was 30-day readmission to any acute care hospital. To examine the association between numeracy, health literacy, cognition, and 30-day readmissions, multivariable Poisson (log-linear) regression was used. Of the 883 patients admitted for ADHF, 23.8% (n = 210) were readmitted within 30 days; 33.9% of the study population had inadequate numeracy skills, 24.6% had inadequate/marginal literacy skills, and 53% had any cognitive impairment. Numeracy and cognition were not associated with 30-day readmissions. Though (objective) health literacy was associated with 30-day readmissions in unadjusted analyses, it was not in adjusted analyses. Numeracy, health literacy, and cognition were not associated with 30-day readmission among this sample of patients hospitalized with ADHF. © 2018 Society of Hospital Medicine

  12. Comparison of self-reported week-day and weekend-day sitting time and weekly time-use: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Watson, Melanie J; Dobson, Annette J; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-09-01

    The study of sedentary behavior is a relatively new area in population health research, and little is known about patterns of sitting time on week-days and weekend-days. To compare self-reported week-day and weekend-day sitting time with reported weekly time spent in other activities. Data were from 8,717 women born between 1973 and 1978 ('younger'), and 10,490 women born between 1946 and 1951 ('mid-age') who completed surveys for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2003 and 2001, respectively. They were asked about time spent sitting on week-days and weekend-days. The women were also asked to report time spent in employment, active leisure, passive leisure, home duties, and studying. Mean week-day and weekend-day sitting times were compared with time-use using analysis of variance. Younger women sat more than mid-aged women, and sitting time was higher on week-days than on weekend-days in both cohorts. There were marked positive associations between week-day and weekend-day sitting times and time spent in passive leisure in both cohorts, and with time spent studying on week-days for the younger women. Week-day sitting time was markedly higher in women who reported >35 h in employment, compared with those who worked day sitting time was higher than weekend-day sitting time, the patterns of the relationships between week-day and weekend-day sitting and time-use were largely similar, except for time spent in employment.

  13. Fair relationships and policies to support family day care educators' mental health: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Lara; Davis, Elise; Cook, Kay; Waters, Elizabeth; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-11-25

    High quality child care is a population health investment that relies on the capacity of providers. The mental health and wellbeing of child care educators is fundamental to care quality and turnover, yet sector views on the relationship between working conditions and mental health and wellbeing are scarce. This paper examines child care educators' and sector key informants' perspectives on how working in family day care influences educator's mental health and wellbeing. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with Australian family day care educators (n = 16) and key informants (n = 18) comprised of representatives from family day care schemes, government and other relevant organisations regarding the relationship between working conditions and educator mental health. Thematic analysis referenced the assumptions and concepts of critical inquiry and used social exchange theory. Educators and key informants reported that educators' mental health was affected by the quality of their relationships with government, family day care schemes, and the parents and children using their services. These social relationships created and contributed to working conditions that were believed to promote or diminish educators' mental health. High quality relationships featured fair exchanges of educator work for key resources of social support and respect; adequate income; professional services; and information. Crucially, how exchanges influenced educator wellbeing was largely contingent on government policies that reflect the values and inequities present in society. Making policies and relationships between educators, government and family day care schemes fairer would contribute strongly to the protection and promotion of educator mental health and wellbeing, and in turn contribute to workforce stability and care quality.

  14. 78 FR 23942 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Ways to...

  15. Days of heroin use predict poor self-reported health in hospitalized heroin users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Tsui, Judith I.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Crooks, Denise; Anderson, Bradley J.; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between substance use behaviors and self-reported health among hospitalized heroin users. Of the 112 participants, 53 (47%) reported good or better health. In multivariable logistic regression models, each day of heroin use in the last month was associated with an 8% lower odds of reporting health as good or better (OR=.92; 95%CI 0.87, 0.97, p < .05). Cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes, alcohol use, unintentional overdose, nor injection drug use were associated with health status. PMID:24045030

  16. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-06-11

    To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Retrospective cohort study. A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55-74 years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised for AMI in 2008 in North Carolina and Illinois were used to investigate the association between health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions. The NIA cohort was administered 3 common health literacy assessments (Newest Vital Sign, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, and Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). Health literacy estimates at the census block group level were derived via a predictive model. 30-day readmissions were measured from Medicare claims data using a validated algorithm. Fair agreement was found between derived estimates and in-person literacy assessments (Pearson Correlation coefficients: 0.38-0.51; κ scores: 0.38-0.40). Medicare enrollees with above basic literacy according to derived health literacy estimates had an 18% lower risk of a 30-day readmission (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and 21% lower incidence rate of 30-day readmission (IRR=0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) than patients with basic or below basic literacy. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of 30-day readmission was 12% lower (p=0.03), and the incidence rate 16% lower (pHealth literacy, as measured by a predictive model, was found to be a significant, independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. As a modifiable risk factor with evidence-based solutions, health literacy should be considered in readmission reduction efforts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  17. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McSherry R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert McSherry,1 Paddy Pearce2 1School of Health and Social Care, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, 2PKP Consulting, Yarm, United Kingdom Abstract: The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks. Keywords: governance

  18. A 7-day recall period for a clinical application of the oral health impact profile questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels; John, Mike T; Feuerstahler, Leah; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Larsson, Pernilla; Peršić, Sanja; Kende, Dóra; Reißmann, Daniel R; Rener-Sitar, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Aims were to investigate and compare the validity and reliability of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) scores referencing 7-day and 1-month recall periods in international prosthodontic patients. A sample of 267 patients (mean age = 54.0 years, SD = 17.2 years, 58 % women) with stable oral health-related quality of life was recruited from prosthodontic treatment centers in Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Slovenia, and Sweden. These patients completed the OHIP on two occasions using a new 7-day recall period and the traditional 1-month recall period. OHIP score validity and reliability were investigated with structural equation models (SEMs) that included OHIP(past 7 days) and OHIP(1 month) latent factors and single indicator measures of global oral health status. The SEMs assessed measurement invariance and the relative validities of the two OHIP latent factors (representing the two recall periods). The SEMs provided cogent evidence for recall period measurement invariance for the two OHIP forms and equal validities (r = .48) with external measures of global oral health status. When assessed in international prosthodontic patients, OHIP scores using the new 7-day recall period were as reliable and valid as the scores using the 1-month recall period. Conceptual advantages make a 7-day recall period a preferred frame of reference in clinical applications of the OHIP questionnaire.

  19. Process evaluation of child health services at outreach sites during health and nutrition day (Mamta Day in urban slums of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health indicators of rural and urban India show a wide variation. Rural areas have received large focus in child health services, but on the flip side, urban areas have been the last to receive such attention. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include one randomly selected outreach session from all the 19 urban primary health centers of Vadodara city from April 2013 to May 2014. Nineteen session sites were observed for the process evaluation of three components of child health care, namely, “planning of Health and Nutrition Day,” “availability of vaccines/logistics,” and “direct observation of actual immunization process” at the site using a structured checklist. Results: Most of the vaccines and logistics were present at all 19 sites visited, but adverse events following immunization kit were observed at ten sites (52% only. Open vial policy, no-touch technique, and immediate cutting of syringe with hub cutter were implemented at all sites; however, completely filled Mamta Card was observed at 9 (47% sites only. All four key messages were given at 5 (26% sites only. Conclusion: Immunization services such as proper vaccine administration with no-touch technique and open vial policy were mainly focused; however, other services such as biomedical waste management, record keeping, and delivery of all four key messages need to be strengthened during Mamta Divas. Strengthening of other child health care services such as growth monitoring, Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses, and referral services is required in urban areas.

  20. Is collectivism good for health promotion? Experiences of day labourers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Makie

    2013-12-01

    Collectivist values such as social trust and reciprocity are usually associated with positive health outcomes. Few studies have explored how collectivism influences individual and community capacity to engage health promotion practices. This paper explores how collectivism excludes people who do not conform to societal expectations and negatively affects individuals and communities as they practise health promotion. Data were collected through interviews with day labourers in Japan. Using critical ethnography, participants' accounts were examined focusing on the normative claims, which were principally about what behaviours are proper, appropriate and conventional among day labourers in order to understand the cultural norms and values that influence their behaviours. Findings show that day labourers are often denied public support and their social disadvantages are ignored when they seek support. Day labourers often accept their exclusions as inevitable because they accept the dominant social norms. These findings indicate that collectivist norms prevent individuals and communities from developing their capacities for health promotion practices. Individual needs tend to be obscured when prioritizing collective interests, which are also used as a tool for justifying inadequate social programmes. In a collectivist society, burdens that should be shared equally by all may not be equitably distributed, falling disproportionately on the disadvantaged. An uncritical adoption of a collectivist ethos in examining health promotion is not warranted and more investigation is needed to determine when collectivism is helpful and when harmful.

  1. [Style of living and health and wholesome ways of behaviour of Ignacy Krasicki (1735-1801)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, J

    1996-01-01

    Basing on example of Ignacy Krasicki, the Bishop of Varmia (1766-1795) and the Archbishop of Gniezno (1795-1801) there has been an attempt made to show a relation between style of living and health and wholesome ways of behaviour, as the complex of issues, which can be a subject of research interest of historians of medicine. Ignacy Krasicki is treated in this case as a peculiar patient, embroiled in various processes of collective living after in the second half of XVIII century, for whom health has been an important value, but not that important to resign the life ambitions. However, to some extent. When stresor project undertaken in order to cross the next grade of career have threatened his health, he recommends "a small dose of resignation" and "a speck of philosophy". In stae of sickness one should obey doctors but the first of all should maintain a mental comfort, cheerfulness, good mood and trust about recovery. In hard life and health situations one should look for support in oneself, and if it does not help, one should trust Providence.

  2. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients' 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital readmission, compared to non

  3. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Nok Lam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results: Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino. Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3

  4. What are the effective ways to translate clinical leadership into health care quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, Robert; Pearce, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    The presence and/or absence of effective leaders in health care can have a stark consequence on the quality and outcomes of care. The delivery of safe, quality, compassionate health care is dependent on having effective clinical leaders at the frontline. In light of the Kirkup and Francis reports, this article explores some ways of translating clinical leadership into health care quality improvement. This is achieved by exploring what is clinical leadership and why and how this is important to health care quality improvement, clinical leadership, and a duty of candor, along with the importance clinical leadership plays in the provision of quality care improvement and outcomes. Clinical leaders are not predefined roles but emerge from the complex clinical setting by gaining an acquired expertise and from how they then internalize this to develop and facilitate sound relationships within a team. Clinical leaders are effective in facilitating innovation and change through improvement. This is achieved by recognizing, influencing, and empowering individuals through effective communication in order to share and learn from and with each other in practice. The challenge for health care organizations in regard to creating organizational cultures where a duty of candor exists is not to reinvent the wheel by turning something that is simple into something complex, which can become confusing to health care workers, patients, and the public. By focusing on the clinical leader's role and responsibilities we would argue they play a crucial and pivotal role in influencing, facilitating, supporting, and monitoring that this duty of candor happens in practice. This may be possible by highlighting where and how the duty of candor can be aligned within existing clinical governance frameworks.

  5. Awareness, perception and practice of stakeholders in India regarding Village Health and Nutrition Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Sandeep K; Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Mishra, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Village Health and Nutrition Day (VHND) is a community-based health service package delivered on a fixed day approach. Services like early registration of pregnancy, regular antenatal care and postnatal care, growth monitoring and referral of sick children, discussion of health topics to generate awareness, and convergence between health and ICDS, are delivered every month at VHND at the Anganwadi Center. This study explores the awareness, perception and practice of service providers, and beneficiaries, regarding VHND. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Odisha during December 2009-November 2010. Personal interviews were conducted at the VHND sessions with 111 beneficiaries and 45 service providers using a semi-structured schedule to know their awareness, perception and practice regarding VHND sessions. Data analysis was done and reported as simple percentages. Most of the health worker females and anganwadi workers considered health awareness as a key component of VHND. 52% of HWFs and 41% of AWWs had misconception about additional roles and responsibilities. 34% of beneficiaries had knowledge regarding fixed day approach of VHND, while 24% did not have knowledge regarding any of its purpose. Only 8% of referral cases had complete knowledge on the reason of referral. There was significant difference in between awareness and practice among the blocks. Service providers' orientation should be improved. Behavior change communication activities should also be increased by the state. Referral cases should be properly counseled. The community believed that such a program should continue with better package and quality of services.

  6. Factors Associated to Health Care Service Use among Latino Day Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyas, Javier Francisco; Negi, Nalini Junko; Valera, Pamela

    2017-07-01

    Latino day laborers (LDLs) are at elevated risks for disease and injury because of the environments in which they work. Despite this recognition, a comprehensive examination of factors related to LDLs' health service use remains unexamined. Using the Andersen model, the current exploratory study examined predisposing (age, education level, location of educational training, legal status, and marital status), enabling (income, trust in medical personnel, whether the respondent has someone they consider their personal doctor, and whether their doctor speaks the same language, perceived barriers to care), and need (self-rated health, number of chronic conditions) variables to predict use of health services among a purposive sample of LDLs ( N = 150). Cross-sectional data were collected in 2012 from 4 day laborer sites in Dallas and Arlington, Texas. Regression results suggest that the strongest predictor of health care use was trust in medical providers (β = .41). LDLs who were U.S legal residents (β = .21), reported multiple chronic conditions (β = .16), and had a doctor who spoke their language (β = .15) reported significantly higher levels of health care usage. In terms of barriers, not being able to pay for services (β = -.23), lacking health care insurance coverage (β = -.22), and being embarrassed or having a family member not approve of utilizing services (β = -.18) were significantly associated with lower health care usage among LDLs. These findings suggest that LDLs are faced with a number of predisposing, enabling, and need factors that comprise health care use.

  7. Heroes or Health Victims?: Exploring How the Elite Media Frames Veterans on Veterans Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhidenour, Kayla B; Barrett, Ashley K; Blackburn, Kate G

    2017-11-27

    We examine the frames the elite news media uses to portray veterans on and surrounding Veterans Day 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. We use mental health illness and media framing literature to explore how, why, and to what extent Veterans Day news coverage uses different media frames across the four consecutive years. We compiled a Media Coverage Corpora for each year, which contains the quotes and paraphrased remarks used in all veterans news stories for that year. In our primary study, we applied the meaning extraction method (MEM) to extract emergent media frames for Veterans Day 2014 and compiled a word frequency list, which captures the words most commonly used within the corpora. In post hoc analyses, we collected news stories and compiled word frequency lists for Veterans Day 2012, 2013, and 2015. Our findings reveal dissenting frames across 2012, 2013, and 2014 Veterans Day media coverage. Word frequency results suggest the 2012 and 2013 media frames largely celebrate Veterans as heroes, but the 2014 coverage depicts veterans as victimized by their wartime experiences. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the prevailing 2015 media frames could be a reaction to 2014 frames that portrayed veterans as health victims. We consider the ramifications of this binary portrayal of veterans as either health victims or heroes and discuss the implications of these dueling frames for veterans' access to healthcare resources.

  8. Marital Status, the Economic Benefits of Marriage, and Days of Inactivity due to Poor Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim P. Stimpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored whether the economic benefits of marriage mediate the association between marriage and health and if that relationship is conditional on the level of shared economic resources. Methods. Pooled, cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001–2006 were analyzed using multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression for the number of days of inactivity due to poor physical or mental health. Results. Persons that were divorced/separated reported the highest average number of days of inactivity (mean = 2.5 within a 30 day period, and married persons reported the lowest number of days of inactivity (mean = 1.4. Multivariate results indicated that widowed persons did not report significantly more days of inactivity than married persons. Income to poverty ratio reduced the size and eliminated statistical significance of the difference between divorced/separated and never married marital statuses compared to married persons. The interaction effect for marital status and income to poverty ratio was statistically significant suggesting that the relationship between marital status and inactivity is conditional on shared income. Conclusion. Marriage confers health protective benefits in part through pooled income relative to other marital statuses.

  9. How do we change the way we do business for the health of our students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    It is time to focus on the linkage to community for preventive care, case-managed care, and follow-up on referrals and resources. As health care reform continues to inch closer every day, schools have to work smarter, not harder, to make a difference in the lives of every child in each and every classroom. Together we can make a difference. I close with this quote from Edward Schor (2007), author of EPSDT and School Readiness: Well-child care seeks to optimize children's health and development, preparing them for school and life beyond. The child health component of Medicaid, EPSDT, was designed with a similar objective, which is reflected in the EPSDT program's comprehensive benefit package, its preventive standard of care, and its case management functions. Given the vulnerability of young children from low-income families to poor health, poor educational attainment, and low-income lifelong productivity or social dependence, comprehensive well-child care represents a good investment for society. EPSDT plays an essential role helping low-income children be ready for school and life beyond. (p. 427).

  10. Advancing Care Within an Adult Mental Health Day Hospital: Program Re-Design and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Mehak, Adrienne; Marangos, Sandy; Kalim, Anastasia; Ungar, Thomas

    2017-11-13

    Day hospital mental health programs provide alternate care to individuals of high acuity that do not require an inpatient psychiatric stay. Ensuring provision of best practice within these programs is essential for patient stabilization and recovery. However, there is scant literature to review when creating such a program. This paper provides an overview of the steps an acute care hospital took when designing and implementing new programming within a day hospital program. Qualitative data was collected following initial program rollout. This data helped to inform the ongoing modification of groups offered, group scheduling and content, as well as ensuring patient satisfaction and adequate skill delivery during the rollout period and beyond. The goal of this paper is to inform health service delivery for other programs when attempting to build or re-design a day hospital program.

  11. Health Inequalities during the First 1000 days in EU and Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Health Inequalities in the First 1000 days – EU and Nordic countries, Iceland University, December 2016 Aileen Robertson, Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College. A healthy start to life is the key to reducing health inequalities across EU and Nordic countries, and important...... benefits. Central governments can initiate joined-up approaches through creating joint priorities and building social safety-nets for the most disadvantaged. This includes honouring pledges concerning the Convention of Rights of Child and other UN Resolutions, including the length of paid maternity leave...

  12. Chemical qualities of water that contribute to human health in a positive way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopps, Howard C.

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis on harmful substances that may occur in potable waters has almost obscured the fact that important beneficial constituents are commonly present.The chemical substances in water that make positive contributions to human health act mainly in two ways: (i) nutritionally, by supplying essential macro and micro elements that the diet (excluding water) may not provide in adequate amounts (for example, Mg, I and Zn); and (ii) by providing macro and micro elements that inhibit the absorption and/or effects of toxic elements such as Hg, Pb and Cd. Specific examples of these beneficial effects will be given, also examples of harmful effects on health that may result from excessive intake of these ordinarily beneficial elements.Because concentrations of the essential macro and micro elements that occur in natural, potable waters vary greatly, depending upon their source, geographic considerations are very important in any studies attempting to relate water quality to health. In this context, the inverse relationship between hard water and cardiovascular disease will be discussed. Specific data relating hardness and Mg and Ca content of potable waters to specific geographic regions of the U.S.A. will be presented. These data show a strong positive correlation between low Mg content and decreased longevity, and between high Ca and Mg content and increased longevity. In the regions considered, increased longevity correlates strongly with decreased cardiovascular mortality, and the decreased longevity with increased cardiovascular mortality.

  13. Representativeness of participants in a cross-sectional health survey by time of day and day of week of data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer; Aresu, Maria; Bécares, Laia; Tolonen, Hanna

    2012-06-01

    General population health examination surveys (HESs) provide a reliable source of information to monitor the health of populations. A number of countries across Europe are currently planning their first HES, or the first after a significant gap, and some of these intend offering appointments only during office hours and/or weekdays, raising concerns about representativeness of survey participants. It is important to ascertain whether personal characteristics of participants vary by time of day and day of week of data collection, in order to determine the association between time and day of interview and physical examination on the results of data collected in HES. Multivariable regression models were applied to national HES in England to examine socio-demographic and health variations in three combined day-time periods of interview and physical examination: weekday daytime; weekday evening; and weekend. The characteristics of participants interviewed or visited by a nurse varied by both time of day and day of the week for age, ethnicity, marital status, income, socio-economic group, economic activity and deprivation. People seen during weekday working hours had higher rates of poor self-reported health, limiting longstanding illness and obesity, and higher alcohol consumption, BMI and systolic blood pressure; adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics eliminated or substantially reduced these differences. People responsible for planning surveys should be aware of participant preference for the timing of data collection and ensure flexibility and choice in times and days offered to optimise participation rates and representativeness.

  14. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  15. The integration of oral health care into day-to-day care in nursing homes: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschere, L. De; Baat, C. de; Meyer, L.; Putten, G.J. van der; Peeters, B.; Soderfelt, B.; Vanobbergen, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored barriers and enabling factors to the implementation of an oral hygiene protocol in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Oral health care in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium) is inadequate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Qualitative data were obtained from nurses employed

  16. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman-MacLaren Michelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress

  17. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, M; Bemelmans, W J E; Breda, J; Slobbe, L C J; Dias, J; Boshuizen, H C

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relative risks. Included diseases are ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer and osteoarthritis. Step two consists of collecting data on the age- and gender-specific prevalence of these diseases. Step three uses the population-attributable prevalence to determine the part of the prevalence of these diseases that is attributable to overweight. Step four calculates the health care costs associated with these diseases. Step five calculates the costs of these diseases that are attributable to overweight. Overweight is responsible for 20-26% of the direct costs of included diseases, with sensitivity analyses varying this percentage between 15-31%. Percentage of costs attributable to obesity and preobesity is about the same. Diseases with the highest percentage of costs due to overweight are diabetes, endometrial cancer and osteoarthritis. Disease costs attributable to overweight as a percentage of total health care expenditures range from 2 to 4%. Data are consistent for all three countries, resulting in roughly a quarter of costs of included diseases being attributable to overweight.

  18. Metropol Health Day Women's Health in a Global Perspective 11 May 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    collaboration where different actors work within silos within their own sectors, but SDGs could provide an opportunity to link sectors to improve gender inequalities, women's health and their rights. POSTIVE SIGNS •Globally - CEDAW (UN committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against women) adopted...... food is key and most food is produced by subsistence farmers in developing countries. Over 80% of these farmers are women. Women are discriminated against and if they had the same rights as men they would be able to produce around 30% more food of nutritious quality. •There is a lack of intersectoral...

  19. Business Use of Residence for Day Care Services. Report Together with Additional Views Submitted by Mr. Ullman, from the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session to Accompany H.R. 3340.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This booklet contains the report from the House of Representatives Committee on Ways and Means on the amendment to the Internal Revenue Code which would allow taxpayers an income tax deduction for the business use of any part of their residence for day care services, whether or not that part is exclusively used for day care. Included in the report…

  20. Day hospital and psychosocial care center: Expanding the discussion of partial hospitalization in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, César Augusto Trinta; Juruena, Mario Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Since the second half of the twentieth century the discussions about mental patient care reveal ongoing debate between two health care paradigms: the biomedical/biopsychosocial paradigm and the psychosocial paradigm. The struggle for hegemony over the forms of care, on how to deal optimally with the experience of becoming ill is underpinned by an intentionality of reorganizing knowledge about the health/disease dichotomy, which is reflected in the models proposed for the implementation of actions and services for the promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation of human health. To discuss the guidelines of care in mental health day hospitals (MHDH) in contrast to type III psychosocial care centers (CAPS III). Review of mental health legislation from 1990 to 2014. A definition of therapeutic project could not be found, as well as which activities and techniques should be employed by these health services. The MHDH and PCC III are services that replace psychiatric hospital admission and are characterized by their complementarity in the care to the mentally ill. Due to their varied and distinctive intervention methods, which operate synergistically, the contributions from both models of care are optimized. Discussions on the best mental health care model reveal polarization between the biomedical/biopsychosocial and psychosocial paradigms. This reflects the supremacy of the latter over the former in the political-ideological discourse that circumscribes the reform of psychiatric care, which may hinder a better clinical outcome for patients and their families.

  1. 78 FR 48177 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: National Institute of Mental Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-19072] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: National Institute of Mental Health Data Access Request... Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institutes of Health...

  2. Latino immigrant day laborer perceptions of occupational safety and health information preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Fuentes, Claudia M; Martinez Pantoja, Leonardo; Tarver, Meshawn; Geschwind, Sandy A; Lara, Marielena

    2016-06-01

    We address immigrant day laborers' experiences with occupational safety in the construction industry in New Orleans, and opinions about content and method of communication for educational interventions to reduce occupational risks. In 2011, we conducted seven focus groups with 48 Spanish-speaking day laborers (8 women, 40 men, 35 years on average). Focus group results are based on thematic analysis. Most employers did not provide safety equipment, threatened to dismiss workers who asked for it, and did not provide health insurance. Attitudes toward accepting unsafe work conditions varied. Women faced lower pay and hiring difficulties than men. Day laborers preferred audio format over written, and content about consequences from and equipment for different jobs/exposures. Day laborers have common occupational experiences, but differences existed by gender, literacy and sense of control over safety. Day laborer information preferences and use of media needs further studying. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:476-485, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Predicting number of hospitalization days based on health insurance claims data using bagged regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Schreier, Günter; Chang, David C W; Neubauer, Sandra; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare administrators worldwide are striving to both lower the cost of care whilst improving the quality of care given. Therefore, better clinical and administrative decision making is needed to improve these issues. Anticipating outcomes such as number of hospitalization days could contribute to addressing this problem. In this paper, a method was developed, using large-scale health insurance claims data, to predict the number of hospitalization days in a population. We utilized a regression decision tree algorithm, along with insurance claim data from 300,000 individuals over three years, to provide predictions of number of days in hospital in the third year, based on medical admissions and claims data from the first two years. Our method performs well in the general population. For the population aged 65 years and over, the predictive model significantly improves predictions over a baseline method (predicting a constant number of days for each patient), and achieved a specificity of 70.20% and sensitivity of 75.69% in classifying these subjects into two categories of 'no hospitalization' and 'at least one day in hospital'.

  4. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees, as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space-related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  5. Convergent innovation for sustainable economic growth and affordable universal health care: innovating the way we innovate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Jha, Srivardhini; Faber, Aida; Struben, Jeroen; London, Ted; Mohapatra, Archisman; Drager, Nick; Lannon, Chris; Joshi, P K; McDermott, John

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces convergent innovation (CI) as a form of meta-innovation-an innovation in the way we innovate. CI integrates human and economic development outcomes, through behavioral and ecosystem transformation at scale, for sustainable prosperity and affordable universal health care within a whole-of-society paradigm. To this end, CI combines technological and social innovation (including organizational, social process, financial, and institutional), with a special focus on the most underserved populations. CI takes a modular approach that convenes around roadmaps for real world change-a portfolio of loosely coupled complementary partners from the business community, civil society, and the public sector. Roadmaps serve as collaborative platforms for focused, achievable, and time-bound projects to provide scalable, sustainable, and resilient solutions to complex challenges, with benefits both to participating partners and to society. In this paper, we first briefly review the literature on technological innovation that sets the foundations of CI and motivates its feasibility. We then describe CI, its building blocks, and enabling conditions for deployment and scaling up, illustrating its operational forms through examples of existing CI-sensitive innovation. © 2014 The New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Marginalisation, discrimination and the health of Latino immigrant day labourers in a central North Carolina community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Villa-Torres, Laura; Taboada, Arianna; Richards, Chelly; Barrington, Clare

    2017-03-01

    The morbidity and mortality of Latino immigrants in the United States (US) stem from a complex mix of policy, culture, discrimination and economics. Immigrants working as day labourers may be particularly vulnerable to the negative influences of these social factors due to limited access to social, financial and legal resources. We aimed to understand how the health of male Latino day labourers in North Carolina, US is influenced by their experiences interacting with their community and perceptions of their social environment. To respond to our research questions, we conducted three focus groups (n = 9, n = 10, n = 10) and a photovoice project (n = 5) with Latino male immigrants between October 2013 and March 2014. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcripts from the discussions in the focus groups and the group discussions with Photovoice participants. We found that men's health and well-being were primarily shaped by their experiences and feelings of discrimination and marginalisation. We identified three main links between discrimination/marginalisation and poor health: (i) dangerous work resulted in workplace injuries or illnesses; (ii) unsteady employment caused stress, anxiety and insufficient funds for healthcare; and (iii) exclusionary policies and treatment resulted in limited healthcare accessibility. Health promotion with Latino immigrant men in new settlement areas could benefit from community-building activities, addressing discrimination, augmenting the reach of formal healthcare and building upon the informal mechanisms that immigrants rely on to meet their health needs. Reforms to immigration and labour policies are also essential to addressing these structural barriers to health for these men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 78 FR 56901 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ....'' The purpose of this notice is to allow an additional 30 days for public comment. The National Cancer... behaviors (but also examining other behaviors such as sleep, sun-safety, and tobacco) in new ways not...

  8. Laying foundations for health: food provision for under 5s in day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Helen; Nelson, Pauline; Marshall, Joyce; Cooper, Mary; Zambas, Helen; Brewster, Kevin; Atkin, Karl

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the food offered to children under 5 years of age in UK day care, the influence of the childcare providers on a child's diet and their attitudes towards this role. A postal survey of a randomised quota sample of childcare providers enquired after the range of food on offer and explored attitudes towards the role of food in health and the role of promoting health. Themes emerging from these data were explored by in-depth interviews with a sample of 18 childcare providers and 7 Local Authority Early Years Service staff. We received 194 (56%) responses to 345 copies of the questionnaire. Half (46%) of nurseries and 23% of childminders provided a fruit or vegetable with the main meal 5 days a week. Only 14% of nurseries and 21% of childminders provided a dairy food (i.e. calcium-rich) at the main meal every day. Almost all the childcare providers saw themselves as responsible for promoting healthy diet, but it was rare for them to have had any formal training in nutrition, while current dietary guidance was perceived as too vague to be useful. The study also highlighted tensions on the issue of food provision between those delivering childcare and parents; further research should explore the parents' perspectives. Nursery staff and childminders should have access to carefully designed advice on nutritionally appropriate food and drink services for under-fives.

  9. Clocking self-regulation: why time of day matters for health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Brett M

    2017-12-01

    Various lines of research have identified a number of factors that can impair a person's ability and motivation to exercise self-control, here self-regulation, in the face of a tempting object (e.g., food, sex, alcohol/drugs, smoking). Each of these in situ factors - the availability of the tempting object, one's desire for it, and impaired affective and cognitive functioning (most notably from sleep-related fatigue, daily 'wear and tear', and intoxication) - makes self-regulation more difficult, and even more so when they co-occur. This integrative paper highlights how time of day modulates the salience of these impairing factors and argues that they are likely to be especially influential on self-regulation at night, or later in one's waking day. As each factor is likely to vary considerably across the 24 hours of a day, so too will one's self-regulatory ability and motivation - although person-level characteristics such as chronotype may shift these time-based considerations. The paper thus emphasises the importance of clocking self-regulation within health psychology research and intervention design. Consideration of when a self-regulation attempt is being made and of how time of day (or night) may be altering both the person and the situation towards risk, will facilitate a more temporally contextualised account of self-regulation.

  10. Bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of lead in soil from Daye City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, F.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, J. B.; Fu, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) in soil from 4 sampling sites of Daye City was studied. Bioaccessibilities of Pb in soil were determined by the method of simplified bioaccessible extraction test (SBET). Since traditional health risk assessment was built on the basis of metal total content, the risk may be overestimated. Modified human health risk assessment model considering bioaccessibility was built in this study. Health risk of adults and children exposure to Pb based on total contents and bioaccessible contents were evaluated. The results showed that bioaccessible content of Pb in soil was much lower than its total content, and the average bioaccessible factor (BF) was only 25.37%. The hazard indexes (HIs) for adults and children calculated by two methods were all lower than 1. It indicated that there were no no-carcinogenic risks of Pb for human in Daye. By comparing with the results, the average bioaccessible HIs for adults and children were lower than the total one, which was due to the lower hazard quotient (HQ). Proportions of non-carcinogenic risk exposure to Pb via different pathways have also changed. Particularly, the most main risk exposure pathway for adults turned from the oral ingestion to the inhalation.

  11. Outcomes of a Freedom of Choice Reform in Community Mental Health Day Center Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Markström, Urban

    2015-11-01

    A freedom-of-choice reform within mental health day center services was evaluated. The reform aimed to (1) facilitate users' change between units and (2) increase the availability of service providers. Seventy-eight users responded to questionnaires about the reform, empowerment, social network, engagement and satisfaction and were followed-up after 15 months. Fifty-four percent knew about the reform. A majority stated the reform meant nothing to them; ~25 % had a negative and ~20 % a positive opinion. Satisfaction with the services had decreased after 15 months. Empowerment decreased for a more intensively followed subgroup. No positive consequences of the reform could thus be discerned.

  12. 77 FR 60129 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... Yvette Roubideaux, Director, Indian Health Service. [FR Doc. 2012-24119 Filed 10-1-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule; Request for Public Comment AGENCY...

  13. [Assessment of the adequacy of health services in day hospital care: experience of an endocrine surgery day care unit at a university polyclinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, C P; De Crea, C; Traini, E; Tondolo, V; Bellantone, R; Damiani, G; Capalbo, G; Volpe, M; Cambieri, A; Catananti, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the appropriateness of the provision of surgical treatment in the day hospital setting and at the same time to evaluate the efficacy of the service provided. The study was conducted on admissions to a day care unit operating in conjunction with the surgery division of a university hospital. The evaluation of appropriateness was carried out using explicit criteria, based on regional regulations and on guidelines drawn up by the Agency for Regional Health Services. The criteria related to the hospital bed equivalent Rotation Index and to the types of DRGs treated and services provided. Efficacy was assessed using the following para-meters: number of US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies; techniques used; age, sex and nodule size; patient distribution by results of diagnostic examination; cytological classification; percentage of patients with complications. We also evaluated the possibility of transferring short-term (2-3 days) surgical admissions from ordinary regimens to the day care setting. The results of this study yield useful synthetic indicators for assessing the appropriateness both of the day care function as a whole and of individual operating units, providing both administrative and medical staff with a useful frame of reference for the planning of health-care management.

  14. Advocacy for Improving Nutrition in the First 1000 Days to Support Childhood Development and Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Georgieff, Michael K

    2018-02-01

    Maternal prenatal nutrition and the child's nutrition in the first 2 years of life (1000 days) are crucial factors in a child's neurodevelopment and lifelong mental health. Child and adult health risks, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may be programmed by nutritional status during this period. Calories are essential for growth of both fetus and child but are not sufficient for normal brain development. Although all nutrients are necessary for brain growth, key nutrients that support neurodevelopment include protein; zinc; iron; choline; folate; iodine; vitamins A, D, B 6 , and B 12 ; and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Failure to provide key nutrients during this critical period of brain development may result in lifelong deficits in brain function despite subsequent nutrient repletion. Understanding the complex interplay of micro- and macronutrients and neurodevelopment is key to moving beyond simply recommending a "good diet" to optimizing nutrient delivery for the developing child. Leaders in pediatric health and policy makers must be aware of this research given its implications for public policy at the federal and state level. Pediatricians should refer to existing services for nutrition support for pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, and toddlers. Finally, all providers caring for children can advocate for healthy diets for mothers, infants, and young children in the first 1000 days. Prioritizing public policies that ensure the provision of adequate nutrients and healthy eating during this crucial time would ensure that all children have an early foundation for optimal neurodevelopment, a key factor in long-term health. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Environment and Health in Children Day Care Centres (ENVIRH) - Study rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Martins, J; Carreiro Martins, P; Viegas, J; Aelenei, D; Cano, M M; Teixeira, J P; Paixão, P; Papoila, A L; Leiria-Pinto, P; Pedro, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Annesi-Maesano, I; Neuparth, N

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is considered an important determinant of human health. The association between exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, house dust mite, molds and bacteria in day care centers (DCC) is not completely clear. The aim of this project was to study these effects. This study comprised two phases. Phase I included an evaluation of 45 DCCs (25 from Lisbon and 20 from Oporto, targeting 5161 children). In this phase, building characteristics, indoor CO2 and air temperature/relative humidity, were assessed. A children's respiratory health questionnaire derived from the ISAAC (International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Children) was also distributed. Phase II encompassed two evaluations and included 20 DCCs selected from phase I after a cluster analysis (11 from Lisbon and 9 from Oporto, targeting 2287 children). In this phase, data on ventilation, IAQ, thermal comfort parameters, respiratory and allergic health, airway inflammation biomarkers, respiratory virus infection patterns and parental and child stress were collected. In Phase I, building characteristics, occupant behavior and ventilation surrogates were collected from all DCCs. The response rate of the questionnaire was 61.7% (3186 children). Phase II included 1221 children. Association results between DCC characteristics, IAQ and health outcomes will be provided in order to support recommendations on IAQ and children's health. A building ventilation model will also be developed. This paper outlines methods that might be implemented by other investigators conducting studies on the association between respiratory health and indoor air quality at DCC. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis Of The Health Care System Of Pakistan: Lessons Learnt And Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurji, Zohra; Premani, Zahra Shaheen; Mithani, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Pakistani health care system is in progress and since last year, Pakistan has tried to make much improvement in its health care delivery system and has brought out many reforms. A systematic search of national and international literature was looked from peerreviewed databases form MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed. There is little strength in health care delivery system in Pakistan like making health policies, participating in Millennium Development Goals program, initiating vertical programs and introducing Public Private Partnership, improving human resource development and infrastructure by making Basic Health Unit and Rural Health Centres. However, these all programs are very limited in its scope and that is the reason that Pakistan's healthcare system is still not very efficient. There are numerous weaknesses like poor governance, lack of access and unequal resources, poor quality of Health Information Management System, corruption in health system, lack of monitoring in health policy and health planning and lack of trained staff. Pakistan is improving very slowly in the health sector for the last five decades as is evident by its health indicators and above mentioned strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the Government needs to take strong initiatives to change the current health care system.

  17. EcoHealth: On the way to London 2010 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-10

    the EcoHealth Association) to be held in London in 2010 will explore emerging areas in the field of ecohealth. These include: energy policy and health; ecological biodiversity as it relates to emerging infectious diseases; and ...

  18. That's Blog Worthy: Ten Ways to Integrate Blogging into the Health Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Blogs are popular, innovative, online platforms for learning. Blogging allows for synthesis of content and helps sustain student engagement in the health education classroom setting. Objectives: Students will define a blog, execute a blog to apply learned health content, and post and respond to other students' health-related blogs. Target…

  19. The Way We Gather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Marta

    2010-01-01

    "The way you make your bed is the way your day will go." The way in which people gather is an extension of the making-the-bed analogy: "The way we gather is the way our school days go." The mindfulness people bring to the little ways they behave with one another sets the tone for the entire organization. When Montessori speaks of allowing the…

  20. The health workforce crisis in Pakistan: a critical review and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Mukhtar, Fatima; Wazir, Salim; Gilani, Irum; Gorar, Zulfikar; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2014-01-01

    Today, the developing world suffers due to the health "workforce crisis." The World Health Report 2006 uses this term to study the current scenario in the developing countries. Human resource planning is a critical activity within the broader sectoral planning, especially when it comes to the health sector. Pakistan faces an acute shortage of different cadres of healthcare workers, which is bound to escalate further because of the high population growth rate, inequitable distribution and out-migration of the healthcare workforce. In the wake of ongoing reforms in the health sector of Pakistan, it is suggested that for the strengthening of health systems, there ought to be a serious thought process involved for developing a human resource plan for the health sector that responds to the needs of the population and the disease burden. A national strategy is imperative to retain, train and incentivize the health workforce. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. Utilizing the metabolic syndrome component count in workers' health surveillance: An example of day-time vs. day-night rotating shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-01-01

    To establish a practical method for assessing the general metabolic health conditions among different employee groups, this study utilized the total count of metabolic syndrome (MetS) elements as a parameter, and performed a retrospective analysis comparing changes of MetS component count (MSC) of 5 years among day-time work (DW) and day-andnight rotating shift work (RSW) employees. The data of personal histories, physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in an electronics manufacturing company. We first defined the arithmetic mean value of MSC as MSC density (MSCD) for the employee group; then we compared the changes of MSCD over 5 years between DW and RSW workers. Occupational, personal and health records were analyzed for the 1077 workers with an initial mean age of 32.4 years (standard deviation (SD): 6.2 years), including 565 RSW workers (52%). The initial MSCDs were 1.26 and 1.12 (p = 0.06) for DW and RSW workers, respectively; after 5 years, the increments of MSCD for DW and RSW workers were 0.10 and 0.39, respectively (p group; MSC, MSCD and their transitional changes can be applied as simple and standardized tools for monitoring metabolic health risk profiles when managing employee health, at both the individual and company levels. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. 25 CFR 36.82 - May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May behavioral health professional(s) provide services... CRITERIA FOR DORMITORY SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.82 May behavioral health professional(s) provide services during the academic school day? Behavioral health professional(s) must average at least...

  3. Oral health and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A longitudinal evaluation of the first 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Laura M; Dandoy, Christopher E; Kramer, Kathi; Pate, Abigail; Flesch, Laura; El-Bietar, Javier; Lane, Adam; Davies, Stella M; Thikkurissy, Sarat

    2018-01-01

    Mucositis is well described after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) but other aspects of oral health such as dental plaque and gingivitis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe dental plaque, gingivitis, and mucositis early after HSCT. We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational study to describe dental plaque, gingivitis, and mucositis in the peritransplant period. We conducted comprehensive oral evaluations that included the Miyazaki tongue coating, modified simplified oral hygiene, modified gingivitis of Suomi and Barbano, and mucosal ulceration indices at baseline on days 0, +7, +14, and +28. Data were collected from 19 patients with a median age of 8.0 years (5.1-12.8) at time of HSCT. Sixteen patients (85%) had plaque accumulation that progressively worsened, 16 (85%) developed severe gingival inflammation, 13 (68%) developed mucositis, and 11 (58%) had oral ulcerations. All oral indices worsened from baseline during the study period. Gingivitis and oral plaque persisted in most patients at day +28 while mucositis and oral ulcerations slightly improved. Gingivitis, dental plaque, mucositis, and oral ulcerations are common after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to ascertain methods that decrease plaque and gingivitis development and severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Enlightenment and measurement - a way to improve health among high school students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    on various health measures. Both quantile regression models and standard ordinary least squares (OLS) models were used to explore the correlations between the students' participation in the health programme and their body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, aerobic fitness, and well-being. Participation...... in the health programme increased BMI and aerobic fitness among students with a BMI or an aerobic fitness value ranging from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile and reduced body fat percentage among students with the highest percentages of body fat. In addition, the health programme led to an increased...

  5. World Sight Day 2013 Memorandum - Farabi Statement on the Prevention of Blindness and Eye Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Sight Day (WSD is held on the 2nd Thursday of October to emphasize the importance of sight and impact of vision impairment. This observance is a joint initiative of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB, the World Health Organization (WHO and other international non-governmental organizations.1 The celebration resonates with Vision 2020 initiative for the control of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. It can promote professional as well as public awareness about sight and vision impairment. This is wise as we know that most cases of visual impairment are preventable or treatable; nonetheless there are more than 280 million people, including 19 million children, who live with visual impairment.2 This is much more a priority for the developing countries because they inhabit 90% of the visually impaired.3 Epidemiological transition has already commenced in the developing world4-7 but they are not ready to take care of the age-related blinding conditions. Non-governmental and community organizations would probably be the ideal entities to organize and celebrate WSD on a national level. But participation from a wide range of state and humanitarian bodies and even leading figures and celebrities is conceivable and welcomed. This should culminate in community initiatives for wanting resources and fund raising, and should influence policy-makers to develop and implement blindness prevention programs. The WHO Action Plan 2013 on the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment has suggested the theme ‘Universal Eye Health’ for WSD 2013. The plan seeks “integration of comprehensive eye care (from promotion to rehabilitation services into health systems”, and expects to address equity challenge. The theme is so ambitious and encompassing that might continue as a consistent one in the next years, focusing on a different aspect of the theme each year. The call to action in 2013 was ‘Get your Eyes

  6. Maintenance and ways of maintainance and strengthening of health of students of institutes of higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyfa A.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of given study was the basing of substance and experimental testing economy of health by students. The developed substance is built on a base of the rules and foundations general system of sanitary physical training in combination with subsidiary and additional resources. Results of pedagogical experiment testify to effectiveness of developed substance in the economy of health by students.

  7. Family support and the child as health promoting agent in the Arctic - "the Inuit way".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth A; Borup, Ina

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the UN's 1990 'Convention on the Right's of the Child' 1990, and the associated definition of health promotion as a community's ability to recognise, define and make decisions on how to create a healthy society, this article describes and analyses how family support networks are conceived and present themselves in perinatal Inuit families. This literature review conducted an initial and secondary search using the keywords and combinations of the keywords: healthy families, health promoting families, resiliency, Arctic, Inuit, Family support, was executed in PubMed, Popline, CSA and CINAHL. The tertiary literature search was then combined with literature gleaned from literature lists, and other relevant articles were selected. Individual members of the family contribute to the health of the family, but the child is often the catalyst for health promotion within the family, not only the siblings to the unborn child, but also the unborn child. Perinatal entities create their own networks that support and develop concepts of family and support systems. Resiliency, kinship and ecocultural process within the family are concomitant to the health of perinatal family and of the children. More research is needed that moves children from being viewed as the receivers of health towards being seen as the promoters of health and an important actor as health promoting agent within the family.

  8. Implementation of ways to effectively integrate health into local environmental planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mette Winge

    2015-01-01

    -2013) included testing of the implementation models, capacity building and expert consultation. The intervention was evaluated in 2012 and 2014 in relation to the most effective mechanisms in relation use of HIA tools, sustainable procedures for integrating a health concern and ensuring HiAP. Evaluation results...... relationship and common language for health relevant for environmental planning. Also, early involvement increased ownership. Simple tools, improving existing planning processes and creating common language for health were key learnings to ensure effective implementation of a health concern in a local planning...... process. Also, proactive approach instead of reactive is preferred. Key messages HIA is useful to improve existing planning procedures together with systematic cross-sectoral collaboration in the planning process to ensure health in all policies HIA is not directly applicable for effectively integrating...

  9. Addressing maternal and child health in post-conflict Afghanistan: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Rai, R K; Alagarajan, M

    2013-09-01

    Afghanistan's maternal and child mortality rates are among the highest in the world. The country faces challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals set for 2015 which can be attributed to multiple causes related to accessibility, affordability and availability of health-care services. This report addresses the challenges in strengthening maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, as well discussing the areas to be prioritized. In order to ensure sound maternal and child health care in Afghanistan, policy-makers must prioritize monitoring and surveillance systems, integrating maternal and child health care with rights-based family planning methods, building human resources, offering incentives (such as the provision of a conditional cash transfer to women) and promoting action-oriented, community-based interventions. On a wider scale, the focus must be to improve the health infrastructure, organizing international collaboration and expanding sources of funding.

  10. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  11. Family environment, coping, and mental health in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New dialogue for the way forward in maternal health: addressing market inefficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Katharine; Ramarao, Saumya; Taboada, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Despite notable progress in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) five, to reduce maternal deaths three-quarters by 2015, deaths due to treatable conditions during pregnancy and childbirth continue to concentrate in the developing world. Expanding access to three effective and low-cost maternal health drugs can reduce preventable maternal deaths, if available to all women. However, current failures in markets for maternal health drugs limit access to lifesaving medicines among those most in need. In effort to stimulate renewed action planning in the post-MDG era, we present three case examples from other global health initiatives to illustrate how market shaping strategies can scale-up access to essential maternal health drugs. Such strategies include: sharing intelligence among suppliers and users to better approximate and address unmet need for maternal health drugs, introducing innovative financial strategies to catalyze otherwise unattractive markets for drug manufacturers, and employing market segmentation to create a viable and sustainable market. By building on lessons learned from other market shaping interventions and capitalizing on opportunities for renewed action planning and partnership, the maternal health field can utilize market dynamics to better ensure sustainable and equitable distribution of essential maternal health drugs to all women, including the most marginalized.

  13. The problem of choice: From the voluntary way to Affordable Care Act health insurance exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    This article takes a genealogical and ethnographic approach to the problem of choice, arguing that what choice means has been reworked several times since health insurance first figured prominently in national debates about health reform. Whereas voluntary choice of doctor and hospital used to be framed as an American right, contemporary choice rhetoric includes consumer choice of insurance plan. Understanding who has deployed choice rhetoric and to what ends helps explain how offering choices has become the common sense justification for defending and preserving the exclusionary health care system in the United States. Four case studies derived from 180 enrollment observations at the Rhode Island health insurance exchange conducted from March 2014-January 2017 and interviews with enrollees show how choice is experienced in this latest iteration of health reform. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 created new pathways to insurance coverage in the United States. Insurance exchanges were supposed to unleash the power of consumer decision-making through marketplaces where health plans compete on quality, coverage, and price. Consumers, however, contended with confusing insurance terminology and difficult to navigate websites. The ethnography shows that consumers experienced choice as confusing and overwhelming and did not feel "in charge" of their decisions. Instead, unstable employment, changes in income, existing health needs, and bureaucratic barriers shaped their "choices." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International cooperation for science and technology development: a way forward for equity in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Priscila Almeida; Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche de

    2015-01-01

    Since 1990, international organizations have been increasingly involved in building an international sub-regime for research, development and innovation in health. This article analyzes the priorities of developing countries in health since the 1990s. It is a descriptive and analytical study that investigates the literature and contributions of key informants. Calling for the end of global inequities in the support for science and technology in health, international organizations recommend that developing countries focus their efforts on neglected diseases and operational research, an insufficient agenda for science and technology cooperation to effectively overcome the vulnerabilities between countries.

  15. The most effective and essential way of improving the oral health status education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chachra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. Two major oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases, are both ancient and widespread. The oral health situation analysis demands that the preventive program be implemented in both the developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering the primary preventive strategies through non dental and dental personnel. Aims and Objectives: To develops the preventive package for improving the oral health status of children utilizing the different communication approaches. To find out the most feasible and effective communication approach for delivering the preventive package. To evaluate the changes produced in terms of various soft and hard core parameters after 6 months of implementation of the oral-health preventive package in the school children of different study groups as compared to control. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on total of 972 children in the age group of 5-16 years who were randomly selected from four schools of Chandigarh and Panchkula to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries and knowledge, attitude, and practice about oral health. Results and Conclusions: The results of various parameters indicate that direct communication through the dentist proved to be the most effective communication approach as compared to the other two indirect communication approaches.

  16. Health policy in the concertación era (1990-2010): Reforms the chilean way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gutierrez, María Soledad; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-06-01

    The Chilean health system has experienced important transformations in the last decades with a neoliberal turn to privatization of the health insurance and healthcare market since the Pinochet reforms of the 1980s. During 20 years of center-left political coalition governments several reforms were attempted to regulate and reform such markets. This paper analyzes regulatory policies for the private health insurance and health care delivery market, adopted during the 1990-2010 period. A framework of variation in market types developed by Gingrich is adopted as analytical perspective. The set of policies advanced in this period could be expected to shift the responsibility of access to care from individuals to the collective and give control to the State or the consumers vis a vis producers. Nevertheless, the effect of the implemented reforms has been mixed. Regulations on private health insurers were ineffective in terms of shifting power to the consumer or the state. In contrast, the healthcare delivery market showed a trend of increasing payers' and consumers' control and the set of implemented reforms partially steered the market toward collective responsibility of access by creating a submarket of guaranteed services (AUGE) with lower copayments and fully funded services. Emerging unintended consequences of the adopted policies and potential explanations are discussed. In sum, attempts to use regulation to improve the collective dimension of the Chilean health system has enabled some progress, but several challenges had persisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does occupational lifting and carrying among female health care workers contribute to an escalation of pain-day frequency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Clausen, T; Aust, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if different frequencies, loads and trunk postures of occupational lifting and carrying increases the risk of sub-chronic (1-30 days last 12 months) low back pain (LBP) to become persistent (>30 days last 12 months) among female health care workers....

  18. "Because we missed the way that we eat at the middle of the day:" Dietary acculturation and food routines among Dominican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg-Shapiro, Pamela; Devine, Carol M

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding of dietary change mechanisms among growing immigrant populations is needed in light of increased risk for diet-related chronic health conditions and inconsistent associations between acculturation and diet. This grounded theory research aimed to understand the lived experiences of interactions between food culture and social, economic, and physical environments in an immigrating population, Dominican women living in the Dominican Republic and New York City. Twenty-nine Dominican women participated in qualitative interviews about food and eating behaviors, life course experiences, and environments. Daily food and eating routines, framed by shopping for, preparation of, and consumption of 'la comida' or the main meal, emerged as dominant themes reflecting differences in women's economic, social, and physical environments. Routines were shaped by employment, household characteristics, and the food environment. Participating women attributed weight gain to changes in their food routines following immigration. The construction, disruption, and reconstruction of food and eating routines in response to differing economic, social, and physical environments in the sending and the receiving cultures provided new insights into the relationship between structural and cultural contexts of food and eating in an immigrant population. A food routines framework provides new insights into behavioral and weight changes with immigration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Staff perspectives: What is the function of adult mental health day hospital programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Ruhig, Megan; Mehak, Adrienne; Deathe van Dyk, Melanie; Cassin, Stephanie E; Ungar, Thomas; Koczerginski, David; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric day hospital (DH) treatment has been offered since the 1930s and is appropriate for individuals experiencing intense psychiatric symptoms without requiring 24-hour inpatient care. No empirical research has examined the specific purpose of DH treatment from the perspectives of healthcare providers within these programs. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study was the first to address the question of the purpose and function of DH treatment from the outlook of frontline workers within this setting, and confirmed anecdotal observations that DH treatment provides an alternative to intensive psychiatric care, and also operates as "bridge" between these intensive services and purely outpatient treatment. Additional information emerged, such as the importance of the name of DH programs avoiding connotations of illness, the benefits and skills that draw patients to these programs, and challenges that staff and patients experience within DH programs (e.g. short length of treatment, barriers to treatment access). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This information can enhance curriculum development within these settings. For example, given the importance of skill building, it is essential to integrate the provision of skill building and coping strategies within these settings. In addition, given that the name of the setting can impact staff (and perhaps service users as well), ensuring that the name of such program highlight wellness and recovery may enable a different type of therapeutic community to develop within these settings. Introduction Despite the benefits of psychiatric day hospitals (DH), research has not addressed staff perspectives of these programs' effectiveness and barriers. Aim To elucidate staff perceptions of Adult Mental Health DH programs at two hospitals in Canada, allowing for improved programming, enhanced structure and increased understanding of DH settings within the continuum of care

  20. Can mHealth Revolutionize the Way We Manage Adult Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Niharika N; Wodajo, Bezawit; Gochipathala, Keerthi; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is the largest driver of chronic preventable diseases, accounting for an estimated $147 billion or 10 percent of total US healthcare costs in 2008. It has been forecasted that 42 percent of Americans will be obese by 2030. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies target and may modify the behavioral factors that lead to obesity to promote a healthy lifestyle. These technologies could potentially reduce the cost and the morbidity and mortality burden of obesity because of their inexpensive and portable nature. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions for adult obesity in the United States. The methodology used in this study was a literature review of 54 articles. Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference reductions, and favorable lifestyle behavior changes were noted across most studies. Existing data and research on efficacy and linked costs indicated that mHealth technologies were more effective than other methods and could be inexpensively delivered remotely to manage adult obesity, offering significant benefits over conventional care. Further studies on the costs and benefits of adapting such mHealth interventions in clinical settings are needed.

  1. Patient learning centre Soppi: A way to promote human-computer interaction in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, Tuija; Nenonen, Heljä; Välimäki, Maritta; Suhonen, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    The Patient Learning Centre was founded in Hyvinkää Hospital in 2000 to support patients and their families' informational needs. In order to evaluate the Learning Centre's effectiveness we started a development project. One of the purposes was to analyze patients' Internet and computer use. The data for the describing survey-research was collected by questionnaires at two occasions. At the end of the project a number of patients who used internet had increased, one third did not use a computer at all. Getting information in discussions with the nurse was however the most important way. To develop user friendly methods in getting information is a challenge.

  2. What are 'third way' governments learning? Health care consumers and quality in England and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Pauline; Hommel, Petra Riemer

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines how consumer information is related to attempts to improve quality of healthcare in England and Germany, both being non-market systems. The paper traces the changes in policy between the first and second electoral terms of the respective 'third way' governments. Both systems are attempting to give consumers more information. But the question is how that information can be used. A degree of convergence can be observed concerning the amount of choice permitted to consumers. In the case of England, the amount of choice consumers have is gradually increasing, while in Germany, attempts are being made to restrict the wide choice of providers in order to cap expenditure.

  3. From Toyota to the bedside: nurses can lead the lean way in health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joyce E; Smith, Amy L; Mastro, Kari A

    2012-01-01

    The advent of health care reform means new pressures on American hospitals, which will be forced to do more with less. In the next decade, increased use of "Lean" principles and practices in hospitals can create real value by reducing waste and improving productivity, costs, quality, and the timely delivery of patient care services. In 2010, the Institute of Medicine recommended that nurses lead collaborative quality improvement efforts and assume a major role in redesigning health care in the United States. In this article, we provide an overview of the use of Lean techniques in health care and 2 case studies of successful, nurse-directed Lean initiatives at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital. The article concludes with some lessons we have learned and implications for nursing education in the future that must include the concepts, tools, and skills required for adapting Lean to the patient care environment.

  4. Competition-based reform of the National Health Service in England: a one-way street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lucy; Attaran, Amir; Hervey, Tamara; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Conservative-led government in the United Kingdom is embarking on massive changes to the National Health Service in England. These changes will create a competitive market in both purchasing and provision. Although the opposition Labour Party has stated its intention to repeal the legislation when it regains power, this may be difficult because of provisions of competition law derived from international treaties. Yet there is an alternative, illustrated by the decision of the devolved Scottish government to reject competitive markets in health care.

  5. THE PRIORITY WAYS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Klimin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article displays the characteristic of a complex of measures on differentiation of powers and obligations between various levels of authority in sphere of public health services, on maintenance of equation of volumes of rendering of medical aid to citizens with volumes of its financing. The special attention is given to an estimation of medical insurance using to improve quality of the medical aid and to preserve the health of the population. In this article the primary goals of a state policy in this sphere are represented.

  6. Health Data for Public Health: Towards New Ways of Combining Data Sources to Support Research Efforts in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgun, A; Bernal-Delgado, E; Kuchinke, W; van Staa, T; Cunningham, J; Lettieri, E; Mazzali, C; Oksen, D; Estupiñan, F; Barone, A; Chène, G

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To present the European landscape regarding the re-use of health administrative data for research. Methods: We present some collaborative projects and solutions that have been developed by Nordic countries, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the UK, to facilitate access to their health data for research purposes. Results: Research in public health is transitioning from siloed systems to more accessible and re-usable data resources. Following the example of the Nordic countries, several European countries aim at facilitating the re-use of their health administrative databases for research purposes. However, the ecosystem is still a complex patchwork, with different rules, policies, and processes for data provision. Conclusion: The challenges are such that with the abundance of health administrative data, only a European, overarching public health research infrastructure, is able to efficiently facilitate access to this data and accelerate research based on these highly valuable resources. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  7. Impact of caregivers' education regarding respiratory infections on the health status of day-care children: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, Ana S; Santos, Rita; Melo, Cristina; Bastos, José M

    2016-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the most common illness in childhood, and caregivers often make an excessive use of medication and medical consultations. It is vital to design and implement educational interventions in order to minimize the burden of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a health education session (HES) about respiratory infections on the indicators of individual health and health care utilization of day-care children. Randomized controlled trial in 10 day-care centres in Porto, including caregivers (parents or legal tutors) of children under 3 years of age. Children's caregivers were randomly distributed into an Intervention Group (IG), who attended a HES, and a Comparison Group (CG). Children's indicators of individual health and health care utilization were evaluated in both groups, during the month after HES. Children whose caregivers attended to the HES had fewer lower respiratory tract infections (IG = 5.8%; CG = 19.0%; P = 0.050) and fewer acute otitis media (IG = 9.5%; CG = 27.0%; P = 0.030), as well as fewer medical consultations (IG = 38.5% versus CG = 61.9%; P = 0.015) and less antibiotic consumption (IG = 11.5% versus CG = 29.5%; P = 0.022). They were also less absent from day care (IG = 21 days versus CG = 59 days; P = 0.037) and their caregivers were less absent from work (IG = 15 days versus CG = 44 days; P = 0.046). Caregivers who attended HES made more use of nasal irrigation (IG = 79.6% versus CG = 53.3%; P = 0.011). The HES about respiratory infections has positively influenced the indicators of individual health and health care utilization of children attending day-care centres in Porto. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Keeping health facilities safe: one way of strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2010-12-01

    The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide

  9. The Effects of Adult Day Services on Family Caregivers’ Daily Stress, Affect, and Health: Outcomes From the Daily Stress and Health (DaSH) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zarit, Steven H.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the effects of use of adult day service (ADS) by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on daily stressors, affect, and health symptoms. Participants were interviewed for 8 consecutive days. On some days, the IWD attended an ADS program and on the other days caregivers provide most or all of the care at home. Methods: Participants were 173 family caregivers of IWDs using an ADS program. Daily telephone interviews assessed care-related stressors, noncare stressors, p...

  10. EcoHealth: On the way to London 2010 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rather, it seeks to “dovetail with either their meetings or with their membership activities to bring a more integrated and diverse group of people together toward solving our most complex global environmental public health ... Consolidation du leadership en recherche en écosanté en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes.

  11. Exploring new ways to extend equity, access to health care in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... Using financing and benefit incidence analysis methods, SHIELD researchers' found that low-income countries should look more closely at various forms of indirect taxation as mechanisms to finance health system. SHIELD research stated that financial barriers to service access must be addressed if ...

  12. A Way Forward: How Higher Education Can Learn from Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite vigorous lobbying by advocacy groups at the federal and state levels, policies, and practices that are structurally very similar to those being opposed currently by university presidents--health care scorecards, value-based payments, and risk-sharing (i.e., "skin in the game" initiatives) are now very much realities in health…

  13. Exploring new ways to extend equity, access to health care in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2012 ... Using financing and benefit incidence analysis methods, SHIELD researchers' found that low-income countries should look more closely at various forms of indirect taxation as mechanisms to finance health system. SHIELD research stated that financial barriers to service access must be addressed if ...

  14. Health Management Information System utilization in Pakistan: challenges, pitfalls and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Muhammad Suleman; Ali, Moazzam

    2011-12-01

    Use of data generated through the Health Management Information System (HMIS) in decision making has been facing various challenges ever since its inception in Pakistan. This descriptive qualitative study attempts to explore the perceptions of health managers to identify the status and issues in use of HMIS. Overall 26 managers (all men, ages ranging from 26 to 49 years; selected from federal level (2), provincial (4) and seven selected districts (20) from all four provinces) were interviewed face to face. The respondents identified a number of hurdles resulting in non-use, misuse and disuse of data. These included limited scope of HMIS, dubious data quality, political motives behind demand of data and an element of corruption in data reporting etc. A great deal of political and administrative will is required to institutionalize transparency in decision making in health management and HMIS is an important tool for doing so. Appropriate legislation and regulations are needed to create a conducive policy environment that would help in changing the existing decision making culture. The effective use of information requires that besides capacity development of district health managers in understanding and use of data, the higher level decision makers are provided with relevant data timely and in an easily understandable form along with the recommended actions pertinent to this data.

  15. Public-Private health sector mix- way forward | Buso | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The debate on Public-Private mix has been around in South Africa (SA) for the past ten years. The debate arose out of a realisation of the weaknesses in the public health parallel with the ever-increasing private sector worldwide. The concept has been referred to in different terminologies, public-private mix, public private ...

  16. A Way to Approach the Strategic Decisions Facing Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Stuart A.; Fargason, Crayton A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Three models of strategic management for academic health centers are detailed: the traditional model, which will become rare; a revised traditional model that offers "boutique" clinical services, biomedical research, and medical education; and the academic services model, focusing on competitive primary and secondary clinical services, health…

  17. New ways to test beta cell functionality in health and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Thomas Vagn

    the final insulin secretion pattern. We show that the first phase of insulin secretion is related to the rate of change of glucose in a non-linear saturable fashion, and that the second phase is due to translocation of glucokinase from an inactive to an active state. Hence, the glucose sensing mechanisms...... plasma glucose has returned to fasting values, hence secretion of insulin continues despite glucose has returned to fasting values, and the increased insulin does not lead to hypoglycaemia. Hence in healthy subjects it appears that the glucose uptake is controlled in such a way as to follow the rate...... of glucose appearance from the meal. Similar conclusions cannot be drawn from the meal profiles of the subjects with type 2 diabetes. The glucose profiles for the subjects with type 2 diabetes seem similar despite different insulin profiles, and it appears that insulin merely follows the glucose profile...

  18. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health

  19. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Sara; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana's vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana's capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana's health innovation system. Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment

  20. Novel ways of improving communication with members of health professional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Pushpa; Tuladhar, Heera

    2014-10-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) supported the Nepal Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (NESOG) to help influence national health policy and practice through FIGO's Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health. An Organizational Capacity Improvement Framework, developed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), was used to evaluate NESOG's initial baseline organizational capacity in 2010. Communication among NESOG members was rated as moderate (39%). Several initiatives, such as the use of high-speed internet access, group SMS texts and emails for information sharing, member profile updates, use of social media, and regular updates to the NESOG website were examples of interventions that resulted in improved participation of members in NESOG's activities. Members were impressively active in reciprocating via Facebook, and via participation in online voting in the NESOG elections (84%). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. New ways of seeing: Health social work leadership and research capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Fiona; Bawden, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Building research capacity amongst social work practitioners is critically important for leaders in the social work profession. To reverse an apparent reluctance to use evidence and engage in research, strong social work leadership in practice organisations is needed. The literature on leadership in health social work is relatively silent regarding research capacity building as a leadership attribute but it is argued in this paper that leadership is crucial. A programme of research capacity building and its outcomes in a health social work department is described, identifying key principles guiding its establishment and tasks undertaken. A transformational leadership style characterised this approach to research capacity building which delivered benefits to the staff and the service.

  2. 77 FR 11558 - Request for Public Comment; 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service; Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... the critically low health professional staff at IHS health care facilities. Any health professional... location is in an isolated area. When an applicant accepts employment at a location, they in turn ``pick-up...

  3. Assessing health impacts of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project: challenges and a way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utzinger, Juerg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D.; Yemadji, N'Diekhor; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H.

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. We found that project scoping was broad, including extensive environmental and social assessments. Innovative features of the project include the high degree of public-private partnerships, and the management of oil revenues for purposes of poverty reduction. The project also addressed occupational and public health issues, and developed and implemented measures to prevent or mitigate potential health impacts. However, there was a disproportionate emphasis on workers' health, particularly on the prevention/mitigation of construction-related injuries, sexually transmitted infections (STIs; mainly HIV/AIDS), and malaria. Health impacts among surrounding communities, and cumulative health impacts in the larger region were not considered in a comprehensive way. Concluding, there is a need for a more systemic approach to HIA and its incorporation within 'Equator Principles', which are increasingly adopted by the international financial community. This process would include clarification of corporate social responsibility beyond the project fence line in the mitigation of health problems at regional levels. Finally, we propose the establishment and running of a longitudinal demographic surveillance system, which--coupled with regular household surveys

  4. Thirty-Day Postoperative Mortality Risk Estimates and 1-Year Survival in Veterans Health Administration Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy; Li, Xinli; Nylander, William; Gunnar, William

    2016-05-01

    For more than 2 decades, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has relied on risk-adjusted, postoperative, 30-day mortality data as a measure of surgical quality of care. Recently, the use of 30-day mortality data has been criticized based on a theory that health care professionals manage patient care to meet the metric and that other outcome metrics are available. To determine whether postoperative mortality data identify a delay in care to meet a 30-day mortality metric and to evaluate whether 30-day mortality risk score groups stratify survival patterns up to 365 days after surgery in surgical procedures assessed by the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). Patients undergoing VASQIP-assessed surgical procedures within the VHA from October 1, 2011, to September 30, 2013, were evaluated. Data on 365-day survival follow-up of 212 733 surgical cases using VHA Vital Status and admission records were obtained with 10 947 mortality events. Data analysis was conducted from September 3, 2014, to November 9, 2015. Survival up to 365 days after surgery for the overall cohort divided into 10 equal groups (deciles). There were 10 947 mortality events identified in a cohort of 212 733 surgical patients. The mean probability of death was 1.03% (95% CI, 1.01%-1.04%). Risk estimate groups in the 212 733 surgical cases analyzed showed significantly different postoperative survival, with consistency beyond the time frame for which they were developed. The lowest risk decile had the highest 365-day survival probability (99.74%; 95% CI, 99.66%-99.80%); the highest risk decile had the lowest 365-day survival probability (72.04%; 95% CI, 71.43%-72.64%). The 9 lowest risk deciles had linear survival curves from 0 to 365 postoperative days, with the highest risk decile having early survival risk and becoming more linear after the first 180 days. Survival curves between 25 and 35 days were consistent for all risk deciles and showed no evidence that

  5. Commercializing Agriculture in Africa: The Environmental, Health and Safety Implications and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Olowogbon, S.T.; Fakayode, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization of agriculture in is a worthy effort in attaining food sufficiency in Africa. However, this needed quest has had an enormous environmental, health and safety implications for the agricultural sector of the continent. This quest has led to intense use of machinery, agrochemicals and other non-environmental friendly methods of farming. This implies there will be greater chances of farm accidents, mishap, fatality, production loss time and other burdens on farmer’s wellbeing on...

  6. Many ways to health: a study of 2,000 rural and urban Taiwan families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A C; Hu, Y H

    1980-01-01

    Over two years the authors led a massive, government-supported survey of 2,000 Taiwanese families, half urban and half rural, to determine what actions the family would take when faced with disease or health problems. The major alternatives of folk healing, Chinese traditional medicine, and Western-oriented approaches were found to be frequently combined, and often supplemented by self diagnosis and self-medication. Thirty Chinese students entered the 2,000 families' homes for lengthy interviews covering a wide range of socio-demographic variables as well as medical behaviors. Cooperation of informants was outstanding, and the plentiful data from this large sample should provide ample ground for future studies and interpretations. The statistics substantially documented some findings suggested by earlier researchers: (a) that 90% of Taiwanese families combine a variety of approaches in warding off and treating illnesses (1); (b) that there is somewhat higher reliance on purely Western methods among young urban nuclear families, and among mainland-born Christians, than in the rural areas (2); and (c) that Taiwanese families avoid bringing mental health problems to medical or psychiatric health facilities (3). The statistics bear out some fairly predictable conclusions, such as: (a) Western medical methods are known and used more widely in the city than in the country (cf. "a" below); (b) there is more ignorance of facilities and medicines of all kinds in the country than in Taipei; and (c) traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat more used in the country than in Taipei. In addition, some fairly startling new developments are worth noting, including that (a) there is less rural/urban difference than expected--97-99% use some Western methods at some times; (b) while almost no one relies solely on folk healing, more city-dwellers use it (as well as massage and acupuncture) than do rural folk; and (c) urban families often go to private doctors, ignorant of their local

  7. Can Health Surveillance be emancipatory? An alternative way of thinking about alternatives in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This article in essay form is an invitation to reflect upon the emancipatory character of health surveillance, a debate that was interrupted in the 1990s. In these times of grave political and institutional crisis in Brazil and in the year of the first National Conference on Health Surveillance (1ª CNVS, acronym in Portuguese), it is particularly appropriate to revive the critical theoretical and epistemological discussions that have grounded the trajectory of Latin American social medicine and public health over the last 40 years. To this end, I draw on aspects of critical thinking on modernity devised by the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos, who postulates three pillars of domination: capitalism, colonialism (or coloniality), and patriarchy. In the current context of a crisis of civilization, rethinking emancipation requires us to refresh our understanding of the meaning of social struggles in terms of their relationship with the knowledges and epistemologies undermined by modern civilization and still present in the Global South, whether in spaces occupied by indigenous peoples and poor farmers or in urban peripheries.

  8. Utilizing the metabolic syndrome component count in workers’ health surveillance: An example of day-time vs. day-night rotating shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To establish a practical method for assessing the general metabolic health conditions among different employee groups, this study utilized the total count of metabolic syndrome (MetS elements as a parameter, and performed a retrospective analysis comparing changes of MetS component count (MSC of 5 years among day-time work (DW and day-andnight rotating shift work (RSW employees. Material and Methods: The data of personal histories, physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in an electronics manufacturing company. We first defined the arithmetic mean value of MSC as MSC density (MSCD for the employee group; then we compared the changes of MSCD over 5 years between DW and RSW workers. Occupational, personal and health records were analyzed for the 1077 workers with an initial mean age of 32.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 6.2 years, including 565 RSW workers (52%. Results: The initial MSCDs were 1.26 and 1.12 (p = 0.06 for DW and RSW workers, respectively; after 5 years, the increments of MSCD for DW and RSW workers were 0.10 and 0.39, respectively (p < 0.01. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with DW co-workers, final results indicated that the workers exposed to RSW have 1.7-fold increased risk of elevated MSCD (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28–2.25, p < 0.01; and are 38% less likely (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45–0.86, p < 0.01 to attain decreased MSCD. Conclusions: These observations demonstrate that changes of MSCD are significantly different between DW and RSW workers, and are increasingly associated with RSW exposure. In conclusion, MSCD can represent the general metabolic health conditions of a given employee group; MSC, MSCD and their transitional changes can be applied as simple and standardized tools for monitoring metabolic health risk profiles when managing employee health

  9. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J; Petukhova, M; Vilagut, G; Chatterji, S; Heeringa, S; Üstün, T B; Alhamzawi, A O; Viana, M C; Angermeyer, M; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Hu, C-y; Karam, E G; Kovess, V; Levinson, D; Medina-Mora, M E; Nakamura, Y; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Tsang, A; Williams, D R; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Days out of role because of health problems are a major source of lost human capital. We examined the relative importance of commonly occurring physical and mental disorders in accounting for days out of role in 24 countries that participated in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 62 971 respondents (72.0% pooled response rate). Presence of ten chronic physical disorders and nine mental disorders was assessed for each respondent along with information about the number of days in the past month each respondent reported being totally unable to work or carry out their other normal daily activities because of problems with either physical or mental health. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate associations of specific conditions and comorbidities with days out of role, controlling by basic socio-demographics (age, gender, employment status and country). Overall, 12.8% of respondents had some day totally out of role, with a median of 51.1 a year. The strongest individual-level effects (days out of role per year) were associated with neurological disorders (17.4), bipolar disorder (17.3) and post-traumatic stress disorder (15.2). The strongest population-level effect was associated with pain conditions, which accounted for 21.5% of all days out of role (population attributable risk proportion). The 19 conditions accounted for 62.2% of all days out of role. Common health conditions, including mental disorders, make up a large proportion of the number of days out of role across a wide range of countries and should be addressed to substantially increase overall productivity.

  10. Relational conceptions of paternalism: a way to rebut nanny-state accusations and evaluate public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M; Entwistle, V A; Little, M

    2015-08-01

    'Nanny-state' accusations can function as powerful rhetorical weapons against interventions intended to promote public health. Public health advocates often lack effective rebuttals to these criticisms. Nanny-state accusations are largely accusations of paternalism. They conjure up emotive concern about undue governmental interference undermining peoples' autonomy. But autonomy can be understood in various ways. We outline three main conceptions of autonomy, argue that these that can underpin three different conceptions of paternalism, and consider implications for responses to nanny-state accusations and the assessment of public health interventions. Detailed conceptual analysis. The conceptions of paternalism implicit in nanny-state accusations generally depend on libertarian conceptions of autonomy. These reflect unrealistic views of personal independence and do not discriminate sufficiently between trivial and important freedoms. Decisional conceptions of paternalism, like their underlying decisional conceptions of autonomy, have limited applicability in public health contexts. Relational conceptions of paternalism incorporate relational conceptions of autonomy, so recognize that personal autonomy depends on socially shaped skills, self-identities and self-evaluations as well as externally structured opportunities. They encourage attention to the various ways that social interactions and relationships, including disrespect, stigmatization and oppression, can undermine potential for autonomy. While nanny-state accusations target any interference with negative freedom, however trivial, relational conceptions direct concerns to those infringements of negative freedom, or absences of positive freedom, serious enough to undermine self-determination, self-governance and/or self-authorization. Relational conceptions of autonomy and paternalism offer public health policymakers and practitioners a means for rebutting nanny-state accusations, and can support more nuanced

  11. Association between health literacy and 30-day healthcare use after hospital discharge in the heart failure population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah R; Liebl, Michael G; McComb, Meghan N; Chau, Jason Q; Wilson, Allison A; Achi, May; Garey, Kevin W; Wallace, David

    Low health literacy increases the risk for hospital readmissions. Despite this, the measurement and use of health literacy to guide discharge counseling and planning in heart failure patients is not commonly performed. A short 3-Question Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) is available and takes less than three minutes to complete, but has never been evaluated to help determine whether health literacy affects healthcare use after discharge in patients with heart failure. The purpose of this study was to assess 30-day readmissions and emergency department visits based on health literacy evaluated by the BHLS in an acute care heart failure population. This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at a large quaternary health system. Hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of heart failure were assessed for health literacy using the BHLS. Unplanned healthcare use after discharge including 30-day, all-cause ED visits and hospital readmissions was assessed using univariate and logistic regression models. Two hundred and sixty four patients aged 66.6 ± 14.3 (mean ± SD) years met inclusion/exclusion criteria of whom 175 (66.3%) had a BHLS score >9 (adequate health literacy) and 89 (33.7%) had a BHLS score ≤9 (low health literacy). Predictors of low health literacy included older age (p = 0.019), lower education level (p health literacy was independently associated with 30-day healthcare use after hospital discharge (OR:1.80; 95% CI: 1.04-3.11; p = 0.035). Using a short, 3-question validated survey instrument, it was demonstrated that low health literacy was associated with increased 30-day unplanned healthcare use after discharge in this heart failure population. These results provide a clinically useful, easily incorporated tool that could identify high-risk patients at need for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to the utilization of adult mental health services by Australia's Indigenous people: seeking a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Pyett, Priscilla; Oakley-Browne, Mark A; Gruis, Hilton; Waples-Crowe, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Mental disorders are the second leading cause of disease burden among Australia's Indigenous people after cardiovascular disease. Yet Indigenous people do not access mental health services in proportion to their need. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people seeking mental health services in Australia and identifies key elements in the development and maintenance of partnerships for improved service delivery and future research. The process of seeking help for mental illness has been conceptualized as four consecutive steps starting from recognizing that there is a problem to actually contacting the mental health service. We have attempted to explore the factors affecting each of these stages. While people in the general population experience barriers across all four stages of the process of seeking treatment for a mental disorder, there are many more barriers for Indigenous people at the stage of actually contacting a mental health service. These include a history of racism and discrimination and resultant lack of trust in mainstream services, misunderstandings due to cultural and language differences, and inadequate measures to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness. Further research is required to understand the mental health literacy of Indigenous people, their different perceptions of mental health and well-being, issues around stigma, and the natural history of mental illness among Indigenous people who do not access any form of professional help. Collaborations between mainstream mental health services and Aboriginal organizations have been promoted as a way to conduct research into developing appropriate services for Indigenous people.

  13. The oral health status of older patients in acute care on admission and Day 7 in two Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Jennifer Mary; Wright, Clive; Sharma, Anita; D'Souza, Mario; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-09-01

    to determine the oral health status of older patients in acute care wards at admission and after 7 days. a prospective descriptive study was conducted in two acute tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Oral health was assessed on admission (within 24 h) and Day 7 using the Oral Health Assessment Tool. a total of 575 patients were admitted under the Geriatric teams at the two hospitals. Four hundred and thirty-five (76%) patients had oral cleanliness (debris) scores in the 'not healthy' range with food particles, tartar or plaque evident in at least one area in most areas of the mouth, teeth or dentures. At Day 7 206 were reassessed. One hundred and forty-nine patients (73%) were in the 'not healthy' range and of these 127 (62%) had the same score as on admission. poor oral health is common in older people admitted to hospital acute care wards and does not improve over a 7-day period. Given the link between oral health and general health the next steps are to determine how oral health can be improved in this setting and see whether this leads to better patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Commentary: Work with young people is leading the way in the new paradigm for mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Weare, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    This paper is part of a special edition on mental health in schools, to which the major international theorists and practitioners, from Europe, the US and Australia, contributed. This paper was an invited commentary on the rest of the papers in the edition. Its basic thesis is that most work that goes under the banner of so-called ‘mental health’ tends to remain stuck in a medicalised, illness-focused, individualistic paradigm. This paper outlines the beginnings that can be discerned of a wid...

  15. Scientific days on electromagnetic fields: from dosimetry to human health - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiart, J.; Ghanmi, A.; Picon, O.; Conil, E.; Varsier, N.; Hadjem, A.; Sudret, B.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Gaudaire, F.; De Seze, R.; Jawad, O.; Lautru, D.; Dricot, J.M.; Horlin, F.; De Doncker, P.; Drissaoui, A.; Musy, F.; Nicolas, L.; Perrussel, R.; Scorretti, R.; Voyer, D.; Jala, M.; Moulines, E.; Levy-Leduc, C.; Mahfouz, Z.; Gati, A.; Fouad Hanna, V.; Leveque, P.; Arnaud-Cormos, D.; Zhadobov, M.; Jarrige, P.; Gaborit, G.; Kohler, S.; Ticaud, N.; Duvillaret, L.; Guelilia, Z.; Loison, R.; Gillard, R.; Laisne, A.; Favet, D.; Benadhira, R.; Mir, L.; Nadi, M.; Kourtiche, D.; Gazeau, F.; Wilhelm, C.; Delemotte, L.; Breton, M.; Tarek, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Yardin, C.; Perrin, A.; Le Drean, Y.; Sauleau, R.; Lambrozo, J.; Selmaoui, B.; Ghosn, R.; Thuroczy, G.; Villegier, A.S.; Loos, N.; Brenet-Dufour, V.; Liabeuf, S.; Bach, V.; Moretti, D.; Lewis, N.; Garenne, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Haro, E.; Lagroye, I.; Bornat, Y.; Boutaib, Y.; Saighi, S.; Renaud, S.; Veyre, B.; Schuz, J.; Deltour, I.; Van Deventer, E.; Vecchia, P.; Merckel, O.; Bellaouel, A.; Demaret, P.; Donati, P.; Jovanovic, D.; Chauvin, S.; Desreumaux, J.P.; Fouquet, L.; Picard, D.; Massardier-Pilonchery, A.; Hours, M.; Bergeret, A.; Person, C.; Toutain, Y.; Butet, R.; Berrahma, K.; Balderelli, I.; Stelmaszyk, V.; Cretallaz, C.; Lamproglou, I.; Amourette, C.; Diserbo, M.; Fauquette, W.; Martigne, P.; Collin, A.; Lagroye, I.; Ait Aissa, S.; Hurtier, A.; Taxile, M.; Le Montagner, L.; Athane, A.; Duleu, S.; Percherancier, Y.; Geffard, M.; Ruffie, G.; Billaudel, B.; Veyret, B.; Pelletier, A.; Delanaud, S.; Libert, J.P.; Schunck, T.; Bieth, F.; Soubere Mahamoud, Y.; Le Quement, C.; Ferrand, G.; Le Guevel, R.; Carton, P.H.; Luong, M.; Tanvir, S.; Selmaoui, B.; Silva Pires-Antonietti, V.; Sonnet, P.; Pulvin, S.; Kuster, O.; Tetelin, C.

    2012-04-01

    This document brings together the available presentations (articles and slides) given at the URSI scientific days on electromagnetic fields: dosimetry, peoples' exposure, biological and health risks, risk management, and medical uses. 48 presentations are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Stochastic dosimetry: variability challenge; 2 - How to estimate the exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic field in an epidemiological study?; 3 - Joint analysis of population exposure and radio coverage of GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks; 4 - Study of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) sensitiveness to phone positions near the head for 2 GSM mobile phones; 5 - Statistical Study of SAR under Wireless Channel - Exposure in Indoor Environment; 6 - Uncertainty propagation in numerical dosimetry: how to reduce calculation costs?; 7 - Use of a simplified pregnant woman model for foetus exposure analysis; 8 - SAR estimation using multi-exposure with a mobile phone; 9 - State-of-the-art in experimental dosimetry (RF and pulses); 10 - Mm-waves dosimetry: issues, stakes and actual solutions; 11 - Use of DG-FDTD for a dosimetry calculation in a strongly multi-scale problem: determination of the eye-SAR near a HF/VHF vehicle-borne source; 12 - Dosimetric measurements with a fiber-type electro-optical sensor; 13 - Partial experimental evaluation of basic restrictions in the HF/VHF range; 14 - Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation Stimulation (rTMS) in psychiatry: present day situation and perspectives; 15 - Medical applications of electric fields; 16 - Measurements for life: new perspectives? 17 - Nano-particles and magnetic stimuli for medical imaging and therapy; 18 - Molecular Insights into electroporation and siRNA electro-transfer through model cell membranes; 19 - State of knowledge on electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity (HS-CEM); 20 - Experimentation methodology: from results to interpretation; 22 - Mm waves - update on biological effects at 40-60 GHz; 23

  16. How to Lead the Way Through Complexity, Constraint, and Uncertainty in Academic Health Science Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieff, Susan J; Yammarino, Francis J

    2017-05-01

    Academic medicine is in an era of unprecedented and constant change due to fluctuating economies, globalization, emerging technologies, research, and professional and educational mandates. Consequently, academic health science centers (AHSCs) are facing new levels of complexity, constraint, and uncertainty. Currently, AHSC leaders work with competing academic and health service demands and are required to work with and are accountable to a diversity of stakeholders. Given the new challenges and emerging needs, the authors believe the leadership methods and approaches AHSCs have used in the past that led to successes will be insufficient. In this Article, the authors propose that AHSCs will require a unique combination of old and new leadership approaches specifically oriented to the unique complexity of the AHSC context. They initially describe the designer (or hierarchical) and heroic (military and transformational) approaches to leadership and how they have been applied in AHSCs. While these well-researched and traditional approaches have their strengths in certain contexts, the leadership field has recognized that they can also limit leaders' abilities to enable their organizations to be engaged, adaptable, and responsive. Consequently, some new approaches have emerged that are taking hold in academic work and professional practice. The authors highlight and explore some of these new approaches-the authentic, self, shared, and network approaches to leadership-with attention to their application in and utility for the AHSC context.

  17. Choosing a Doctor: Does Presentation Format Affect the Way Consumers Use Health Care Performance Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Patricia; Goodall, Stephen; Street, Deborah J; Greene, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    Choosing a new health service provider can be difficult and is dependent on the type and clarity of the information available. This study examines if the presentation of service quality information affects the decisions of consumers choosing a general medical practice. The aim was to examine the impact of presentation format on attribute level interpretation and relative importance. A discrete choice experiment eliciting preferences for a general medical practice was conducted using four different presentation formats for service quality attributes: (1) frequency and percentage with an icon array, (2) star ratings, (3) star ratings with a text benchmark, and (4) percentage alone. A total of 1208 respondents from an online panel were randomised to see two formats, answering nine choices for each, where one was a dominated choice. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of presentation format on the probability of choosing a dominated alternative. A generalised multinomial logit model was used to estimate the relative importance of the attribute levels. The probability of incorrectly choosing a dominated alternative was significantly higher when the quality information was presented as a percentage relative to a frequency with icon array, star rating or bench-marked star rating. Preferences for a practice did not differ significantly by presentation format, nor did the probability of finding the information difficult to understand. Quantitative health service quality information will be more useful to consumers if presented by combining the numerical information with a graphic, or using a star rating if appropriate for the context.

  18. The importance of order and complements: a new way to understand the Dutch and German health insurance reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helderman, Jan-Kees; Stiller, Sabina

    2014-08-01

    This article adds to recent theorizing on gradual institutional change by focusing on how institutional displacement occurs through sequential patterns of change. It argues that under certain conditions, reformist political actors may achieve systemic reform through sequences of incremental reforms. We illustrate our argument through a comparative analysis of systemic health care reforms in two Bismarckian health insurance systems, the Netherlands and Germany. These reforms involved further universalization of health care insurance combined with regulated competition to enhance efficiency. The analyses show that reformist actors anticipated institutional drift and that they employed layering and conversion over time to pave the way for institutional displacement. In the Netherlands, successive sequences complemented each other so that over time the former bifurcated insurance system could be replaced by a universal system. In Germany, successive sequences did not complement each other, and bifurcation is still in place. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  19. Gaming Your Way to Health: A Systematic Review of Exergaming Programs to Increase Health and Exercise Behaviors in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J; Langdon, Rebecca R

    2017-06-01

    Adults who are not engaged by traditional exercise methods require a strategy to achieve and maintain sufficient physical activity for health benefits. Exergames, or active videogames, may motivate some adults to engage in physical activity. This review explored the use of exergaming to promote physical activity behaviors and health in adults. A systematic literature review of the use of exergaming was conducted. The review included experimental studies with a nonclinical adult population, which measured changes in physical activity behaviors and changes in anthropometric healthy weight indicators. From an initial search that yielded 1644 results, nine articles were found to satisfy the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Exergaming provided a novel method for increasing or substituting physical activity in the short term. Although low participation was not associated with anthropometric changes, significant healthy anthropometric changes were associated with moderate to high exergaming participation. Exergaming may be employed as an effective exercise behavior change strategy in the short term and may have positive health benefits if recommendations are made regarding intensity and duration of play for optimal health outcomes. However, additional research is required to evaluate the effectiveness of exergaming as a long-term health promotion strategy.

  20. Community mental health teams for older people in England: Variations in ways of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Hilde; Worden, Angela; Wilberforce, Mark; Brand, Christian; Tucker, Sue; Abendstern, Michele; Challis, David

    2018-03-01

    Integrated community mental health teams (CMHTs) are a key component of specialist old age psychiatry services internationally. However, in England, significant shifts in policy, including a focus on dementia and age inclusive services, have influenced provision. This study portrays teams in 2009 against which subsequent service provision may be compared. A bespoke national postal survey of CMHT managers collected data on teams' structure, composition, organisation, working practices, case management, and liaison activities. A total of 376 CMHTs (88%) responded. Teams comprised a widespread of disciplines. However, just 28% contained the full complement of professionals recommended by government policy. Over 93% of teams had a single point of access, but some GPs bypassed this, and 40% of teams did not accept direct referrals from care homes. Initial assessments were undertaken by multiple disciplines, and 71% of teams used common assessment documentation. Nevertheless, many social workers maintained both NHS and local authority records. In 92% of teams, nominated care coordinators oversaw the support provided by other team members. However, inter-agency care coordination was less prevalent. Few teams offered the range of outreach/liaison activities anticipated in the national dementia strategy. Compared with previous studies, teams had grown and changed, with a clear increase in non-medical practitioners, particularly support workers. Measures to facilitate integrated care within CMHTs (eg, common access and documentation) were widespread, but integration across health and social care/primary and secondary services was less developed. Consideration of barriers to further integration, and the impact of current reforms is potentially fruitful. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Does marriage explain murders in a society? In what way is divorce a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul Andrew; Hudson-Davis, Angela; Sharpe-Pryce, Charlene; Clarke, Jeffery; Solan, Ikhalfani; Rhule, Joan; Francis, Cynthia; Watson-Coleman, Olive; Sharma, Anushree; Campbell-Smith, Janinne

    2014-01-01

    Like medicine, public health practitioners seek to understand causes of mortality, practices of humans and issues that can change population conditions, in order to preserve and care for life. The murder pandemic has been such in Jamaica that the World Bank sponsored a qualitative study on crime in urban areas in Jamaica in the late 1990s to provide a platform to guide policy intervention and programmes. As a result this study will fill the gap in the literature by providing the evidence to support that divorce and marriage are public health concerns from the perspective of murders. To evaluate the role of divorce and marital relationships on murders. The data for this study are taken from various Jamaica Government Publications. The period for this work is from 1950 through 2013. Data were recorded, stored and retrieved using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, Version 21.0. The level of significance that is used to determine statistical significance is less than 5% (0.05). Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses and curve estimations were used to determine models and best fitted models. On average, annually, 523 Jamaicans are murdered (± 484), with there being 9,531 marriages (± 22,747) and 904 divorces (± 468). Logged marriage rate and divorce rate are factors of murder rate, with both independent factors accounting for 82.2% of the variability in the murder rate. Both factors are positively correlated with the murder rate, with the divorce rate accounting for most of the variance in the murder rate (R2 = 79.2%). Death can be extremely devasting to families, however, murder among married couples can severely disrupt the lives of both families along with any children from such relationship.

  2. A family involvement and patient-tailored health management program in elderly Korean stroke patients' day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a family involvement and functional rehabilitation program in an adult day care center on elderly Korean stroke patients' perceived health, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and cost of health services, and on family caregivers' satisfaction. Using one-group pre- and posttest design, dyads consisting of 19 elderly stroke patients and family caregivers participated in 12-week intervention, including involvement of family caregivers in day care services and patient-tailored health management. Outcomes of patients and caregivers were significantly improved (all p health services did not decrease significantly. This program improved functional levels and health perception of elderly stroke patients and caregivers' satisfaction. However, results must be interpreted with caution, because this was only a small, single-group pilot study. This program may be effective for elderly stroke patients and their caregivers. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. FDI-Unilever Brush Day & Night partnership: 12 years of improving behaviour for better oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kathryn; Aymerich, Marie-Anne; Horn, Virginie

    2018-03-24

    Twelve years ago, FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care began a partnership to raise awareness of oral health globally. This aim reflects FDI's mission to "lead the world to optimal oral health", and one of the goals set by the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan "to improve health and well-being for more than 1 billion" by 2020. This partnership has developed a series of public health programmes to improve the brushing habits of targeted populations through health promotion and educational campaigns worldwide. Building on the success of the first two phases of the partnership, the third phase (Phase III), named Brush Day & Night, aimed to educate children in brushing twice-daily with fluoride toothpaste via a 21 Day school programme. This article reports the main outcomes of the past 12 years of this partnership, in particular the key outreach and figures of Phase III evaluation. School programmes were implemented in 10 countries, where local teams collected data from children aged between 2 and 12 years to monitor their oral health behaviours using specific indicators. In addition to the school programme, the World Oral Health Day was used as a vehicle to convey oral health awareness to influential governing bodies and the public. As a result, over 4 million people were directly reached by the programme in 2016. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Towards critical digital health studies: Reflections on two decades of research in health and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I provide some reflections on critical digital health research in the context of Health's 20th anniversary. I begin by outlining the various iterations of digital technologies that have occurred since the early 1990s--from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 to Web 3.0. I then review the research that has been published on the topic of digital health in this journal over the past two decades and make some suggestions for the types of directions and theoretical perspectives that further sociocultural and political research could tackle. My concluding comments identify four main areas for further research: (1) devices and software, (2) data materialisations, (3) data practices and (4) data mobilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Discharge on the day of birth, parental response and health and schooling outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    Exploiting the Danish roll-out of same-day discharge policies, we find that treated newborns have a higher probability of first-month hospital readmission. This result may suggest that parents substitute postpartum hospital stays with readmissions. However, a same-day discharge also increases the...

  6. An Evaluation of Health and Safety Hazards in Family Based Day Care Homes in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Hernando; Haynes, Sonia; Michael, Karen; Burstyn, Igor; Jandhyala, Malica; Palermo, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, Family Day Care Homes (FDCH) are private residences used to care for up to six children in a 24 h period. These homes are often times the most affordable alternative to day care centers parents have in low-income communities. The aims of this study were to evaluate FDCH providers' knowledge of hazards and their understanding of…

  7. Dental health in children with type I diabetes mellitus and ways of its improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Iordanishvili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a somatic disease on the status of the hard tissues of the teeth and periodontium and the level of individual oral hygiene were evaluated during one-year follow-up of the dental status in 59 children (31 boys, 28 girls aged 5 to 7 years, of whom 34 children had diabetes mellitus. Upon completion of oral cavity sanation, the children used R.O.C.S. «Kids» toothbrushes with extra-soft bristle and R.O.C.S. PRO Kids «Wild berries» toothpaste for oral care. The children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were established to more frequently suffer from inflammatory periodontal abnormality than the healthy children and dental caries in the former was more intensive than in the children without somatic diseases. To maintain their dental health, the diabetic children should undergo quarterly professional therapeutic and prophylactic measures, by using oral care products in accordance with the patients’ age.

  8. Impacts of flood on children and adults’ health and ways to sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S.; Ebenehi, I. Y.; Adaji, A.; Seow, T. W.; Chan, N. W.; Goh, K. C.; Rahim, M. H. I. Abd

    2017-11-01

    One of the events that will remain fresh in the minds of Kelantanese is the 2014 massive flood that occurred at the end of that year. Heavy rains fell initiating vast flooding in most areas of Kelantan leading to great destruction of livelihood of local communities. Natural hazard such as floods are not only caused by natural processes but also by human activities. The flood recorded severe fatalities, injuries and exposed many vulnerable to diseases. This paper through critical review of literature considered the long-term impact of floods on human’s health as the effects could meaningfully contribute to the worldwide burden of disease. Also, its outcomes are relentless hence need to be adequately comprehended and addressed through sustainability. This study revealed vulnerability to flood inclined ailments as psychological distress in the survivors is liable for a quota of all physical ailments. Hence, sustainable approach to flood preparedness and prevention is instantly needed. Accolades should be given to the Malaysian government for taken bold steps in that direction in recent time but success will be achieved if implementation is in compliance with sustainability agenda spelt in the New Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.

  9. The ethological approach as a new way of investigating behavioural health in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2011-04-01

    From an interdisciplinary perspective, the goal of our research in human ethology is to investigate the adaptive dynamics of small groups in isolation and confinement with a particular emphasis on unexplored environments, from circumpolar missions on earth to interplanetary missions in space. The ethological observations were designed to monitor the polar teams on the Subantarctic islands, the Antarctic continent and the Arctic Ocean. The working hypothesis viewed the periodic changes in the groups' organization as optimal behavioural strategies in extreme living and working conditions. The general methodological feature is a quantitative description of observable events based on the motor activity of individuals, interactions and communications among individuals and spatial mapping in collective areas. We observed group organization, group disorganization and group reorganization over extended time periods in the polar stations. Cultural grouping and gender-based individualities were observed as well. Focusing on the Tara Expedition in the Arctic, we observed variations in spatial indicators, including inter-individual positions, and in temporal indicators, like collective times, as behavioural strategies for preventing the monotony of social life. The ethological approach, using non-invasive techniques of observation, description and quantification of spontaneous human behaviour, offers an innovative and complementary tool for sociocultural approaches, enhancing the knowledge of contemporary circumpolar micro-societies. With the changing of environmental context, the Arctic natives would undertake changes in their group organization for maintaining their behavioural health. Such social adaptation could be investigated with this new approach in the field.

  10. Initial experience using a femtosecond laser cataract surgery system at a UK National Health Service cataract surgery day care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alexander C; Dhallu, Sandeep K; Maurino, Vincenzo; Wilkins, Mark R

    2016-07-27

    To describe the initial outcomes following installation of a cataract surgery laser system. National Health Service cataract surgery day care unit in North London, UK. 158 eyes of 150 patients undergoing laser-assisted cataract surgery. Laser cataract surgery using the AMO Catalys femtosecond laser platform. intraoperative complications including anterior and posterior capsule tears. docking to the laser platform, successful treatment delivery, postoperative visual acuities. Mean case age was 67.7±10.8 years (range 29-88 years). Docking was successful in 94% (148/158 cases), and in 4% (6/148 cases) of these, the laser delivery was aborted part way during delivery due to patient movement. A total of 32 surgeons, of grades from junior trainee to consultant, performed the surgeries. Median case number per surgeon was 3 (range from 1-20). The anterior capsulotomy was complete in 99.3% of cases, there were no anterior capsule tears (0%). There were 3 cases with posterior capsule rupture requiring anterior vitrectomy, and 1 with zonular dialysis requiring anterior vitrectomy (4/148 eyes, 2.7%). These 4 cases were performed by trainee surgeons, and were either their first laser cataract surgery (2 surgeons) or their first and second laser cataract surgeries (1 surgeon). Despite the learning curve, docking and laser delivery were successfully performed in almost all cases, and surgical complication rates and visual outcomes were similar to those expected based on national data. Complications were predominately confined to trainee surgeons, and with the exception of intraoperative pupil constriction appeared unrelated to the laser-performed steps. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. 75 FR 3906 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction...: 0917-NEW, ``Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.'' Type of Information Collection...

  12. 77 FR 69865 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection; Request for Public Comment: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Health Service (CHS) Program, located in the Office of Resource Access and Partnerships, needs this... by the CHS provider(s) to have providers validate services provided; to process payments for health care services performed by such providers; and to serve as a legal document for health and medical care...

  13. Unmet Needs of Children with Special Health Care Needs in a Specialized Day School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruda, Mary M.; Kelly, Mary; Newinsky, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) represent a significant component of the pediatric population. They often present to schools with multiple and increasingly complex health issues, including medical technology dependency. Their daily variation in health status requires close monitoring and communication among caregivers. Limited…

  14. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid hinders integration of behavioral health into the medical home model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dylan H; Jones, Erynne E

    2016-02-01

    The potential expansion of insurance coverage through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 can facilitate the reduction of access barriers and improved quality for behavioral health care. More than 5 million of the newly insured are expected to have mental health and substance use disorders. In addition, state and federal efforts to integrate behavioral and medical health needs through patient-centered medical home models and innovations in payment strategies provide an unprecedented opportunity to use federal financial support to improve not only access to care, but also improve quality through active care coordination, use of interdisciplinary teams, colocating services, and engaging in warm hand-offs between providers in the same setting. These potential advances are hindered in 24 different states because of Medicaid payment policy, with 7 explicitly limiting the ability to reimburse for physical health and behavioral health services on the same day for all providers. Without the ability for providers to be reimbursed for different services on the same day to improve behavioral and medical health care coordination, these states could be limited in their ability to improve care via patient-centered approaches and interdisciplinary team-based care that would involve physicians, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. Limits on same-day billing in Medicaid programs could impact up to 36.7 million people in 24 states, which is approximately 52.6% of all Medicaid enrollees. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Interactive Two-Way mHealth Interventions for Improving Medication Adherence: An Evaluation Using The Behaviour Change Wheel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nicole; Guo, Michael; Amico, K Rivet; Atkins, Lou; Lester, Richard T

    2018-04-12

    Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory. However, mechanisms of action have not been well defined. The Behavior Change Wheel is a comprehensive framework for behavior change that includes an all-encompassing model of behavior known as Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior and is complemented by a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Evaluating mHealth interventions for medication adherence using these tools could provide useful insights that may contribute to optimizing their integration into the healthcare system and successful scaling-up. This study aimed to help address the current knowledge gap regarding how two-way mHealth interventions for medication adherence may work by applying the Behavior Change Wheel to characterize WelTel: an interactive digital health outreach platform with robust evidence for improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy. To characterize how WelTel may promote medication adherence, we applied the Behavior Change Wheel to systematically (1) generate a behavioral diagnosis through mapping known antiretroviral therapy adherence barriers onto the Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior model of behavior, (2) specify the behavior change techniques that WelTel delivers, (3) link identified behavior change techniques to corresponding intervention functions of the Behavior Change Wheel, and (4) connect these behavior change techniques and intervention functions to respective Capability Opportunity Motivation-Behavior influences on behavior to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our

  16. Care Transitions and Adult Day Services Moderate the Longitudinal Links between Stress Biomarkers and Family Caregivers' Functional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Almeida, David M; Rovine, Michael J; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-01-01

    Stress biomarkers have been linked to health and well-being. There are, however, few studies on how dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system actually affects functional health of family caregivers of persons with dementia. Further, it is not clear whether and how factors affecting caregiving stressor exposures such as care transitions and adult day services (ADS) use may affect such association. First, to examine the association of daily stress biomarkers and functional health over time among family caregivers of persons with dementia. Second, to examine effects of care transitions and ADS use on the association between baseline stress biomarkers and functional health over time. At baseline, caregivers provided 5 saliva samples each day during an 8-day diary study, where all caregivers were having a varying number of ADS days per week. There were 2 longitudinal follow-ups at 6 and 12 months on ADS use, care transitions, and caregivers' functional health. The average daily total output across days was computed at baseline for salivary cortisol, the sulfated form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-s), and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), which were used as predictors of caregivers' longitudinal functional limitation trajectories. Care transitions and total number of ADS days per week at baseline were considered as moderators of the associations between stress biomarkers and health over time. The associations between functional limitation trajectories and daily total outputs of cortisol and sAA were modified by ADS use and care transitions. Among caregivers who experienced a transition, and who used less than average ADS days per week, lower daily cortisol total output and lower daily sAA total output were associated with increasing functional limitations. Caregivers who experienced a transition but used greater than average ADS days per week did not show such patterns of association. No significant effect was found for DHEA

  17. Thirty-Day Hospital Readmission for Medicaid Enrollees with Schizophrenia: The Role of Local Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alisa B; Epstein, Arnold M; McGuire, Thomas G; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Frank, Richard G

    2015-09-01

    Examining health care system characteristics possibly associated with 30-day readmission may reveal opportunities to improve healthcare quality as well as reduce costs. Examine the relationship between 30-day mental health readmission for persons with schizophrenia and county-level community treatment characteristics. Observational study of 18 state Medicaid programs (N=274 counties, representing 103,967 enrollees with schizophrenia 28,083 of whom received more than 1 mental health hospitalization) using Medicaid administrative and United States Area Health Resource File data from 2005. Medicaid is a federal-state program and major health insurance provider for low income and disabled individuals, and the predominant provider of insurance for individuals with schizophrenia. The Area Health Resource File provides county-level estimates of providers. We first fit a regression model examining the relationship between 30-day mental health readmission and enrollee characteristics (e.g., demographics, substance use disorder [SUD], and general medical comorbidity) from which we created a county-level demographic and comorbidity case-mix adjuster. The case-mix adjuster was included in a second regression model examining the relationship between 30-day readmission and county-level factors: (i) quality (antipsychotic/visit continuity, post-hospital follow-up); (ii) mental health hospitalization (length of stay, admission rates); and (iii) treatment capacity (e.g., population-based estimates of outpatient providers/clinics). We calculated predicted probabilities of readmission for significant patient and county-level variables. Higher county rates of mental health visits within 7-days post-hospitalization were associated with lower readmission probabilities (e.g., county rates of 7-day follow up of 55% versus 85%, readmission predicted probability (PP) [95%CI]=16.1% [15.8%-16.4%] versus 13.3% [12.9%-13.6%]). In contrast, higher county rates of mental health hospitalization

  18. Developing an Oral Health Program for 4-5 year old children: promoting health at day-care

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Martín, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Oral affections represent one of the most important problems of health in our society. Early childhood caries can be prevented by healthy habits and the school age is a perfect moment to acquire that knowledge. Various scientists and organizations have determined the need of promoting oral health at a young age and nurses are health professionals who play an important role providing expertise and leading change towards health. This paper is a health promotion initiative which focuses on c...

  19. Study abroad programs: creating awareness of and changing attitudes to nursing, health and ways of living in other cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, C; Inglis, A; Kristy, S

    1997-12-01

    Multicultural society requires nurses to care for individuals and families with different cultural and religious values to their own. Study abroad programs for nursing students enable the students to be exposed to nursing, health and ways of living in other cultures. Students undertook a program at Chiang Mai University, Thailand through an international university linkage arrangement during 1997. Student concerns, expectations and perceived benefits of study abroad experiences were investigated in this non-experimental descriptive study, which involved a serial interview process incorporating three interviews before, during and after the program. Students undertaking the program acknowledged that they gained increased confidence and an understanding of different cultures. It was concluded that students did develop an increased awareness of and experienced attitudinal changes towards the cultures and health care needs of the country visited.

  20. [A methodological approach to assessing the quality of medical health information on its way from science to the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serong, Julia; Anhäuser, Marcus; Wormer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    A current research project deals with the question of how the quality of medical health information changes on its way from the academic journal via press releases to the news media. In an exploratory study a sample of 30 news items has been selected stage-by-stage from an adjusted total sample of 1,695 journalistic news items on medical research in 2013. Using a multidimensional set of criteria the news items as well as the corresponding academic articles, abstracts and press releases are examined by science journalists and medical experts. Together with a content analysis of the expert assessments, it will be verified to what extent established quality standards for medical journalism can be applied to medical health communication and public relations or even to studies and abstracts as well. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. #WaysToRelax: developing an online alcohol-related health promotion animation for people aged 55 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Nyssa; Savic, Michael; Manning, Victoria; Lubman, Daniel

    2017-04-27

    Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older) is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1) thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2) a review of health promotion literature, and 3) consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers. The research phase highlighted that people aged 55 and older were concerned that their reliance on alcohol use to manage stress had become a habit they wanted to shift. Alongside this, the literature showed that people aged 55 and older were often dismissive of conventional health promotion activities, and pointed to the benefits of conveying health promotion messages through animation. In response, we developed an animation to stimulate reflection and thought about other ways to relax and manage stress. We drew on health promotion principles to ensure that the animation had a positive message and was engaging without being ageist or paternalistic. It was further refined with input from consumers and carers, who thought the animation was appropriate, appealing and useful. Future activities will include further dissemination and evaluation of the animation and associated activities.

  2. Health begins at home: reflections on the theme of W.H.O. day 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C D

    1973-01-01

    Health depends more on the physical, mental, and social conditions of the home than on the nearness of medical institutions with modern facilities. Diseases that could be prevented by good homes and good health prove either fatal or damaging to a majority of the world's population. To improve home conditions a stable government, economic development, and health and education services are necessary. Rather than the traditional separation of preventive and curative programs, health services must be comprehensive in order to identify special problems and risks and to rate priorities. These services must include special care and education for at-risk groups, training of staff to provide continuous care for all ages both within and outside of institutions, and an organized vital and health statistics system that can be used to guide policy and evaluate progress. Maternal and child health services can fulfill a particularly significant task by reaching individual homes and identifying, treating, and preventing disease.

  3. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferri P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paola Ferri,1 Matteo Guadi,1 Luigi Marcheselli,1 Sara Balduzzi,1 Daniela Magnani,1 Rosaria Di Lorenzo2 1Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 2Department of Mental Health, AUSL di Modena, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Modena, Italy Background: Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance.Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the “Standard Shift Work Index,” validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed.Results: The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way.Conclusion: Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects. Keywords: shift work, night work

  4. Incorporation of social sciences and humanities in the training of health professionals and practitioners in other ways of knowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Moreno-Leguizamon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It would appear that education in health sciences is currently focused primarily on instilling effective scientific, cognitive and technical competencies in health professionals and practitioners; it is not according the same level of importance to personal, relational, ethical and moral competencies. This review supports the quest for greater balance in biomedical and healthcare education by incorporating social sciences and humanities. It also argues that this is an urgent teaching and training task, especially in the developing world (Africa, Latin America and Asia. It is of critical importance to understand that matters of health and disease/illness are not only about the ‘disease in the body’ but also about the ‘disease in the body of the person suffering’, and that these two ways of knowing (epistemologies or world-views have different implications in the health sciences education process. Lastly, as an ethics of care, the understandings afforded by these more inclusive approaches of the social sciences and humanities should not be a privilege confined to medical schools.

  5. Reconstructing and developing the health system - the first 1 000 days

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provide leadership and guidance to the National Health. System in its efforts to promote and monitor the health of ... care for children and pregnant women was introduced in. June 1994. This was extended to all South African ... The implementation of this decision has resulted in the creation of a significantly smaller national ...

  6. 2013 Annual National Digital Rectal Exam Day: impact on prostate health awareness and disease detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Chua

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Overall, the 2013 “Mag-paDRE” among the 10 training institutions was effective in promoting prostate health awareness. A need to modify the preactivity information dissemination by these institutions can be done to further increase the attendance of targeted population of the prostate health awareness program.

  7. Court-Mandated Counseling for Men Who Batter: A Three-Day Workshop for Mental Health Professionals. Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Anne L.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a written tool for those participating in a 3-day workshop designed to train mental health professionals from diverse settings and communities to counsel court-mandated batterers. The manual consists of: (1) an outline of the workshop; (2) an introduction; (3) six chapters/sections; (4) notes; and (5) three…

  8. The effect of regular walking and alternate day fasting on health-related factors in overweight and obese females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Seighali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a complex health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular walking with alternate day fasting (ADF on health-related factors of overweight and obese females.‎  Methods: 30 healthy inactive, overweight and obese women were divided randomly into three equal groups.  The groups were: control group (BMI: 30.72±4.40 kg/m2; the experimental group I: ADF along with regular walking with 50% to 65% maximal heart rate (BMI: 28.69 ±2.81 kg/m2 and the experimental group II: ADF (BMI: 30.56 ±3.66 kg/m2. Participants were under the diet for six weeks. The diet ADF means that, they had days of fasting and free day (with regular walking, alternately. Two days before and two days after the end of the study, the participants’ fasting blood sugar were measured after 12 hours. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and body composition were assessed in the same day. The collected data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. Results: Body mass index in both experimental groups had significant decrease‎ (P

  9. A 1-day course to improve the teaching effectiveness of health professions faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Susan M; Fujisaki, Brad S; Davis, Shawn E; Maclean, Linda Garrelts

    2012-02-10

    To determine the effect of a 1-day teaching-methods course for pharmacy and nursing faculty members on teaching proficiency and perceptions of effective teaching. A 1-day teaching-methods course was created and presented to 12 pharmacy and nursing faculty members. Participants' teaching sessions were video-recorded pre- and post-course. A panel of educators evaluated pre- and post-course video-recorded teaching presentations to assess teaching effectiveness. Participants completed pre- and post-course self-evaluations and surveys. Panelists' assessments confirmed significant improvement in 7 of 10 domains. Perceptions of teaching efficacy and proficiency to teach effectively improved after completion of the course. A 1-day teaching-methods course, requiring minimal resources, is a valuable development resource that can improve teaching effectiveness through enhanced communication and teaching techniques. Because effective teaching is positively correlated with students' learning, training seminars can be integral to comprehensive quality improvement.

  10. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  11. Day-night contrast as source of health for the human circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles

    2014-04-01

    Modern societies are characterized by a 24/7 lifestyle (LS) with no environmental differences between day and night, resulting in weak zeitgebers (weak day light, absence of darkness during night, constant environmental temperature, sedentary LS and frequent snacking), and as a consequence, in an impaired circadian system (CS) through a process known as chronodisruption. Both weak zeitgebers and CS impairment are related to human pathologies (certain cancers, metabolic syndrome and affective and cognitive disorders), but little is known about how to chronoenhance the CS. The aim of this work is to propose practical strategies for chronoenhancement, based on accentuating the day/night contrast. For this, 131 young subjects were recruited, and their wrist temperature (WT), activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. Subjects with high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) for each variable were selected to analyze the HC effect in activity, body position, environmental temperature, light exposure and sleep would have on WT. We found that HC showed better rhythms than LC for every variable except sleep. Subjects with HC and LC for WT also demonstrated differences in LS, where HC subjects had a slightly advanced night phase onset and a general increase in day/night contrast. In addition, theoretical high day/night contrast calculated using mathematical models suggests an improvement by means of LS contrast. Finally, some individuals classified as belonging to the HC group in terms of WT when they are exposed to the LS characteristic of the LC group, while others exhibit WT arrhythmicity despite their good LS habits, revealing two different WT components: an exogenous component modified by LS and another endogenous component that is refractory to it. Therefore, intensifying day/night contrast in subject's LS has proven to be a feasible measure to chronoenhance the CS.

  12. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity...... will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer...

  13. The emerging health paradigm in the 21st century: the formative first 1000 days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel De Angulo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th Century Western society's thinking regarding health and wellbeing underwent profound and rapid changes. Towards the end of the century, a health paradigm based on social health determinants emerged, providing a strong foundation for influencing priorities in global health. In this paper we will present evidence that supports a new paradigm. It avers that human health and development is founded on infants’ brain architecture and their capacity to transform the brains and lives of adults. Neuroscience now shows how the brain architecture of the person becomes established during the intrauterine period and the first two to three years of life. This brain architecture determines the capacity of the organism to self-regulate its biological, emotional, cognitive, and interactional processes with the environment. The more robust this brain architecture, the more potential and capability that individual has to enjoy physical, emotional, and mental health as well as his/her capacity to contribute to the health and wellbeing of others. We hold that the transformative value of infants to society is biblical. This new understanding can generate a shift towards a focus on early infancy as the best strategy to foster development of healthy and sustainable societies.

  14. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  15. Discharge on the day of birth, parental response and health and schooling outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Exploiting the Danish roll-out of same-day discharge policies after uncomplicated births, we find that treated newborns have a higher probability of hospital readmission in the first month after birth. While these short-run effects may indicate substitution of hospital stays with readmissions, we...

  16. Health status of children aged under two years cared for in day-care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As a result of the increasing numbers of Nigerian women in the labour force and also the gradual disintegration of the extended family system, a demand for alternative means of caring for children is being created. Day-care as an alternative source of childcare has now become a necessity rather than an option ...

  17. 78 FR 7436 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... providers under contract with the IHS. Affected Public: Patients, health and medical care providers or... the information collected in a useful and timely fashion; (c) the accuracy of the public burden...

  18. 78 FR 2412 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... treatment, payment and healthcare operations. Under the provision individuals may initiate a written... information are filed in the IHS medical, health and billing record, a Privacy Act System of Records Notice...] BILLING CODE 4165-16-P ...

  19. 2013 Annual National Digital Rectal Exam Day: impact on prostate health awareness and disease detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Michael E.; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M.; Morales Jr, Marcelino L.; Roque, Aristotle Bernard Maniego; Domingo, John Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: “Mag-paDRE” is a yearly prostate health public awareness program initiated by the Philippine Urological Association. This study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical data of the participants in the 2013 “Mag-paDRE” program and to identify factors that will further improve prostate health public awareness. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken to collect and assess the demographic data, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and digital rectal examinati...

  20. Health Impacts of Religious Practices and Beliefs Associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego Cordero, Rocío; Badanta Romero, Bárbara

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the relationship between lifestyle marked by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and health. PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WOS y Scopus were the databases used for this literature review, with these descriptors: "Mormons", "mormons religion", "health". Inclusion criteria were articles with full text available, published between 2005 and 2016, in English or Spanish language. Results show that following the restrictive Mormon doctrine generates beneficial effects for the health. Habits related to toxics and food, as well as social support, from family and Mormon community are an important basis for good health. On the other hand, not following the prescriptions or leaving the group, opposed sexual identities or not fulfilling the roles associated with women are associated with worse mental and physical health.

  1. Duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station - a cost-effective way to manage routine plant health physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, D.G.; Carey, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department

  2. Religious Affiliation Influences on the Health Status and Behaviours of Students Attending Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Bevan Adrian; Morton, Darren Peter; Kent, Lillian Marton; Gane, Alva Barry; Butler, Terry Leslie; Rankin, Paul Meredith; Price, Kevin Ross

    2017-09-14

    Students attending Seventh-day Adventist (Adventist) schools in Australia have been shown to have better health status and behaviours compared to secular norms, yet these schools cater for a high percentage of non-Adventist students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of religious affiliation (Adventist/non-Adventist) on the health status and behaviours of students attending Adventist secondary schools in Australia. The sample included 1734 students who responded to a health and lifestyle survey that captured demographic details, self-reported height and weight, self-reported health status, mental health and select health behaviours. Students who identified themselves as Adventist reported significantly better health behaviours than the non-Adventist students in several behavioural domains, especially among the male students. However, this did not translate to a difference in health status. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms responsible for the potential health advantage of Adventist students, which may include family or church religious influences.

  3. Substance Use and Mental Health Outcomes for Comorbid Patients in Psychiatric Day Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Magura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to determine treatment outcomes for patients who present with drug use vs. those presenting with no drug use at admission to a psychiatric day treatment program. Consecutively admitted patients completed confidential interviews which included psychological distress and quality of life measures and provided urine specimens for toxicology at admission and six month follow-up. Subjects positive by past 30 day self-report or urinalysis were categorized as drug users. Major psychiatric diagnoses were: major depression 25%; bipolar, 13%; other mood 13%; schizoaffective 13%; schizophrenia 13%. Drug use at admission was: cocaine 35%; marijuana 33%; opiates 18%, (methamphetamines, 6% For each of these drugs, the percentage of patients positive at admission who remitted from using the drug significantly exceeded the percentage negative at baseline who initiated using the drug. Overall, there were significant decreases in psychological distress and significant improvement on quality of life, but no change on positive affect. There were no significant differences between drug users and non-drug users on symptom reduction and improvement in quality of life. Psychiatric day treatment appears to benefit comorbid patients by reducing the net number of patients who actively use certain common drugs and by improving psychological status and quality of life to the same degree as for non-drug using patients.

  4. Investigation and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils from partial areas of Daye city, china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M. S.; Li, F.; Zhang, J. D.; Lin, S. Y.; Zhuang, Z. Y.; Wu, Z. X.

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metals (Cu and Pb) in four sampling sites from parts areas of Daye city were collected. Concentrations of Cu and Pb in soils in sampling sites were detected, the enrichment degree was measured by geo-accumulation index, and the human health risks were calculated by applying the human health risk assessment model. The results show that the concentrations of Cu and Pb of soils in some areas are much more than Daye City, Hubei Province soil background value. The concentration of Cu and Pb in Xiaganwan soil sample has a higher value and the concentration of Cu (110.17 mg·kg-1) exceeds the soil environmental quality standards. The values of Igeo of Cu and Pb in the soil in some areas of Daye city are 1 except Xiaganwan sample is 2. For human health risk assessment, the non-cancer risk of Cu in three routes of exposure is less than Pb. The non-cancer risk both adults and children are less than 1 and show a general trend of HQ in oral ingestion exposure pathway > HQ in inhalation exposure pathway>HQ in skin contact exposure pathway. It will not cause significant non-carcinogenic health effects on the human body.

  5. 77 FR 72871 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... data collection projects, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) The quality, utility, and clarity of the...

  6. 2013 Annual National Digital Rectal Exam Day: impact on prostate health awareness and disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Morales, Marcelino L; Roque, Aristotle Bernard Maniego; Domingo, John Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    "Mag-paDRE" is a yearly prostate health public awareness program initiated by the Philippine Urological Association. This study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical data of the participants in the 2013 "Mag-paDRE" program and to identify factors that will further improve prostate health public awareness. A descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken to collect and assess the demographic data, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and digital rectal examination findings of the participants in the "Mag-paDRE" conducted in the 10 Philippine Board of Urology (PBU) different accredited training institutions. Descriptive statistics was used to report the proportion of Filipino men aged 40 or older who presented for their first prostate health evaluation. Clinical profile were reviewed and summarized. The study protocol was registered in the Clinicaltrial.gov under Identifier NCT01886547. A total of 925 participants from the 10 PBU accredited training institutions were assessed. Among the 10 training institutions the large tertiary government owned medical center had the highest number of participants and target participants recruited; while the private sectors owned tertiary hospitals have the highest proportion of target participants and cases. According to the predetermined definition of this study, 614 (66%) were considered the target population for the "Mag-paDRE" program. The mean age of the target participants was 58.9±9.9. Only 360 of 614 (59%) were new case, 118 (32.7%) had severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 223 (62%) had moderate LUTS, 19 (5.3%) were asymptomatic but with hard prostates, palpable prostate nodules or prostate tenderness. The most bothersome symptoms were incomplete bladder emptying (30.2%), and frequency (22.9%). Overall, the 2013 "Mag-paDRE" among the 10 training institutions was effective in promoting prostate health awareness. A need to modify the preactivity information dissemination by these institutions can be

  7. The Effects of Adult Day Services on Family Caregivers’ Daily Stress, Affect, and Health: Outcomes From the Daily Stress and Health (DaSH) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Klein, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the effects of use of adult day service (ADS) by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on daily stressors, affect, and health symptoms. Participants were interviewed for 8 consecutive days. On some days, the IWD attended an ADS program and on the other days caregivers provide most or all of the care at home. Methods: Participants were 173 family caregivers of IWDs using an ADS program. Daily telephone interviews assessed care-related stressors, noncare stressors, positive events, affect, and health symptoms. Multilevel models with data nested within persons were used to examine effects of ADS use on daily stressor exposure, affect, and health symptoms. Results: Caregivers had lower exposure to care-related stressors on ADS days, more positive experiences, and more noncare stressors. ADS use lowered anger and reduced the impact of noncare stressors on depressive symptoms. Implications: The findings demonstrate that stressors on caregivers are partly lowered, and affect is improved on ADS days, which may provide protection against the effects of chronic stress associated with caregiving. PMID:23690056

  8. The Koorie Men's Health Day: an innovative model for early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton; Lampitt, Berwyn

    2014-02-01

    To describe the design, implementation and outcomes of an innovative model for the early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men. Through a collaborative effort between a University' Department of Rural and Indigenous Health, an Aboriginal organisation and a regional mental health service, an all-male team was set up which consisted of a doctor, a mental health nurse and four key individuals from the local Aboriginal community. Invitations to attend a Koorie Men's Health Day were distributed via flyers and posters. Using an assembly line technique and avoiding any reference to the term 'mental', all participants underwent a complete medical examination, a blood test for diabetes and a psychological assessment using the Kessler-10 schedule. The event was attended by 20 men. Of the 17 participants whose data were available, seven scored significantly (25 or higher) on the psychological assessment and were offered follow-up. When conducted on a regular basis, the Koorie Men's Health Day could be a useful method for the early detection of mental illness among rural Aboriginal men in Australia. Further research is needed to study the feasibility and sustainability of the model in different settings.

  9. [Health services research under internal (urological) control: utopia or order of the day?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A

    2014-12-01

    Health services research investigates the structures and processes of the healthcare system under routine daily conditions. Comprehensive scientific knowledge of healthcare services research is necessary to accomplish a management tailored to the needs of the complex healthcare system. Under, over and incorrect supply should be avoided and healthcare provision should be further developed in line with supply and demand while remaining financially feasible. Additionally, cooperation should be structurally constructed across sectorial boundaries of health services resulting in the development of a transparent manageable process. A special focus in urology in this process is initially the representation of the quality of results in the reality of treatment of the most commonly occurring urological tumors. The organizational structures and technical instrumentation for these challenges are only rudimentary and the necessary measures are currently also not financially sustained.

  10. The impact of a peer-led participatory health and safety training program for Latino day laborers in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quintin; Ochsner, Michele; Marshall, Elizabeth; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen

    2010-06-01

    Immigrant Latino day laborers working in residential construction are at particularly high risk of fatal and non-fatal traumatic injury and benefit from targeted training. To understand the impact of a participatory, peer-facilitated health and safety awareness training customized to the needs of Latino day laborers. Baseline surveys exploring exposures, PPE use, attitudes, work practices and work-related injuries were collected from more than 300 New Jersey Latino day laborers in construction prior to their participation in a one day (minimum of six hour) Spanish language health and safety training class. The classes, led by trained worker trainers, engaged participants in a series of tasks requiring teamwork and active problem solving focused on applying safe practices to situations they encounter at their worksites. Follow-up surveys were difficult to obtain among mobile day laborers, and were collected from 70 men (22% response rate) 2-6 months following training. Chi-square analysis was used to compare pre- and post-intervention PPE use, self protective actions, and self-reported injury rates. Focus groups and in-depth interviews addressing similar issues provided a context for discussing the survey findings. At baseline, the majority of day laborers who participated in this study reported great concern about the hazards of their work and were receptive to learning about health and safety despite limited influence over employers. Changes from baseline to follow-up revealed statistically significant differences in the use of certain types of PPE (hard hats, work boots with steel toes, safety harnesses, and visible safety vests), and in the frequency of self-protective work practices (e.g., trying to find out more about job hazards on your own). There was also a suggestive decrease in self-reported injuries (receiving an injury at work serious enough that you had to stop working for the rest of the day) post-training based on small numbers. Sixty-six percent of

  11. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  12. [Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in Mexico: a present-day public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón Romero, C; García Manzo, N T; Escobedo de la Peña, J; Hernández Ramos, J M; Olvera Alvarez, J; Cabral Soto, J

    1996-01-01

    Amebiasis still remains as a major public health problem in the world. It is one of the most common reasons for medical consult. There are more than half a million cases of amebiasis just at the Mexican Institute of the Social Security. There is still a lack of epidemiologic information on amebiasis in Mexico. To describe the secular trend fro amebiasis and for amebic liver abscess in the Mexican population, as well as in those covered by IMSS Solidaridad. An ecologic trend study was carried on. Incidence rate of amebiasis in all of its forms of presentation, and of amebic liver abscess, were plotted against each year for the 1986-1994 period. Amebiasis incidence in all of its forms of presentation showed a stable trend in this period, as it was seen with amebic liver abscess. Amebiasis is more common in the first years of life. On the contrary, amebic liver abscess showed an inverted 'J' pattern; its occurrence is higher in the extreme years of life. Fatality rates have shown a descendent trend. Amebiasis reflects socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and the fact that Mexican is still an endless culture. There is a need to promote health education, better diagnostic procedures and detection of asymptomatic carriers. Health policies for mothers that are asymptomatic carriers should be reviewed, due to the high rates of amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in children under one year of age.

  13. Using Telehealth to Reduce All-Cause 30-Day Hospital Readmissions among Heart Failure Patients Receiving Skilled Home Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa; Asdornwised, Usavadee; Dempsey, Mary Louise; Huffenberger, Ann; Jost, Sandra; Flynn, Danielle; Norris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of all-cause hospital readmission among heart failure (HF) patients is a national priority. Telehealth is one strategy employed to impact this sought-after patient outcome. Prior research indicates varied results on all-cause hospital readmission highlighting the need to understand telehealth processes and optimal strategies in improving patient outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe how one Medicare-certified home health agency launched and maintains a telehealth program intended to reduce all-cause 30-day hospital readmissions among HF patients receiving skilled home health and report its impact on patient outcomes. Using the Transitional Care Model as a guide, the telehealth program employs a 4G wireless tablet-based system that collects patient vital signs (weight, heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygenation) via wireless peripherals, and is preloaded with subjective questions related to HF and symptoms and instructional videos. Year one all-cause 30-day readmission rate was 19.3%. Fiscal year 2015 ended with an all-cause 30-day readmission rate of 5.2%, a reduction by 14 percentage points (a 73% relative reduction) in three years. Telehealth is now an integral part of the University of Pennsylvania Health System's readmission reduction program. Telehealth was associated with a reduction in all-cause 30-day readmission for one mid-sized Medicare-certified home health agency. A description of the program is presented as well as lessons learned that have significantly contributed to this program's success. Future expansion of the program is planned. Telehealth is a promising approach to caring for a chronically ill population while improving a patient's ability for self-care.

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L. Fleming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the present-day global and regional distributions (2010–2014 and trends (2000–2014 for five ozone metrics relevant for short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics, calculated by the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report, are: 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone (4MDA8; number of days with MDA8 > 70 ppb (NDGT70, SOMO35 (annual Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb and two seasonally averaged metrics (3MMDA1; AVGMDA8. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites worldwide, which were classified as urban or non-urban based on population and nighttime lights data. Present-day distributions of 4MDA8 and NDGT70, determined predominantly by peak values, are similar with highest levels in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. For the other three metrics, distributions are similar with North–South gradients more prominent across Europe and Japan. Between 2000 and 2014, significant negative trends in 4MDA8 and NDGT70 occur at most US and some European sites. In contrast, significant positive trends are found at many sites in South Korea and Hong Kong, with mixed trends across Japan. The other three metrics have similar, negative trends for many non-urban North American and some European and Japanese sites, and positive trends across much of East Asia. Globally, metrics at many sites exhibit non-significant trends. At 59% of all sites there is a common direction and significance in the trend across all five metrics, whilst 4MDA8 and NDGT70 have a common trend at ~80% of all sites. Sensitivity analysis shows AVGMDA8 trends differ with averaging period (warm season or annual. Trends are unchanged at many sites when a 1995–2014 period is used; although fewer sites exhibit non-significant trends. Over the longer period 1970–2014, most Japanese sites exhibit positive 4MDA8/SOMO35 trends. Insufficient data exist to characterize ozone trends for the rest of Asia and other world regions.

  15. Walk this way: validity evidence of iphone health application step count in laboratory and free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Markus J; Wunderlich, Kelly; Zhao, Yingying; Faulkner, Guy

    2018-08-01

    Several attempts have been made to demonstrate the accuracy of the iPhone pedometer function in laboratory test conditions. However, no studies have attempted to evaluate evidence of convergent validity of the iPhone step counts as a surveillance tool in the field. This study takes a pragmatic approach to evaluating Health application derived iPhone step counts by measuring accuracy of a standardized criterion iPhone SE and a heterogeneous sample of participant owned iPhones (6 or newer) in a laboratory condition, as well as comparing personal iPhones to accelerometer derived steps in a free-living test. During lab tests, criterion and personal iPhones differed from manually counted steps by a mean bias of less than ±5% when walking at 5km/h, 7.5km/h and 10km/h on a treadmill, which is generally considered acceptable for pedometers. In the free-living condition steps differed by a mean bias of 21.5% or 1340 steps/day when averaged across observation days. Researchers should be cautioned in considering the use of iPhone models as a research grade pedometer for physical activity surveillance or evaluation, likely due to the iPhone not being continually carried by participants; if compliance can be maximized then the iPhone might be suitable.

  16. The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior to 18 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Grahn, B H; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-06-01

    The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior was determined in hens and toms raised to 18 wk of age. Birds were allocated to one of 4 lighting treatments (trt) providing 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h of day length. Two time-replicated trials were completed with each, providing 2 rooms per lighting trt and each room having 3 hen (n = 720) and 3 tom (n = 480) pens. Data collection included gait score (GS), the incidence of footpad dermatitis (FPD), breast buttons and blisters, ocular size and pressure (males only), and behavioral observations (males only). Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3 based on a completely randomized design nested within 4 lighting trt. Regression analysis established relationships between response criteria and day length. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and trends noted at P ≤ 0.10. Gait score, FPD, and the incidence of breast buttons and blisters were assessed on 5 birds per pen at 11 and 17 wk of age. Average GS increased linearly with day length at 11 and 17 wk for both hens and toms, but the effect was larger in toms. Day length did not affect FPD, but more lesions and severe scores were found for hens than toms. The presence of breast buttons and blisters increased linearly with day length (11 wk) with the effect on blisters predominately seen in toms. Eye weight and size increased with increasing day length at 12 and 18 wk. Ocular pressure was not affected by day length. Infrared cameras recorded tom behavior over a 24 h period, and behaviors were classified over 10-min intervals using a scan sampling technique at 11 and 17 wk. Alterations in behavioral repertoire were observed with a linear increase in inactive resting and a linear decrease in standing, walking, preening, and environmental and feather pecking behaviors with increased day length. To conclude, day length affected bird mobility and incidence of breast blisters in an age- and gender-specific manner, and time

  17. Internal contamination: what challenges for tomorrow? Proceedings of the Research and Health Section technical day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Philippe; Lecoix, Geraldine; Menetrier, Florence; Menetrier, Florence; Leiterer, Alexandra; Gremy, Olivier; Mougnard, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Paquet, Francois; Davesne, Estelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Metivier, Henri; Abergel, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The Research and Health Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the radiation protection aspects of dismantlement, from the dismantling work to the risk, the measurement of body contamination, the potentially harmful health effects, the available medical treatments, the actual needs and the developments in progress. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Situation: what radionuclides, what situations? (Philippe BERARD, CEA); 2 - Dismantling workplace experience feedback with internal contamination hazard (Philippe MOUGNARD, AREVA); 3 - Experience feedback on internal exposure monitoring at power plants in France (Michele GONIN, EDF); 4 - Evolution of routine and intervention measurement methods (Geraldine LECOIX, CEA); 5 - Evolution of radiation dose calculation models (Francois PAQUET, IRSN); 6 - Taking uncertainties into account in internal contamination monitoring protocols (Estelle DAVESNE, IRSN); 7 - Radionuclides behaviour and effects in men (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 8 - The plutonium case (Henri METIVIER, SFRP); 9 - Cesium-137 and internal contamination: status and perspectives (Jean-Marc BERTHO, IRSN); 10 - Iodine and thyroid (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 11 - Actual treatments and research pathways (Alexandra LEITERER, CEA); 12 - Radionuclide contamination treatment: new developments in the US (Rebecca ABERGEL, Berkeley USA); 13 - Internal contaminations treatment: French recent effort for its improvement (Olivier GREMY, CEA)

  18. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Recovery Concept, "A Meaningful Day," in Community Mental Health Services for Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Neely A L; Smith, Kelly; Pope, Alicia; Alolayan, Yazeed; Broussard, Beth; Haynes, Nora; Compton, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    The recovery concept encompasses overcoming or managing one's illness, being physically and emotionally healthy, and finding meaningful purpose through work, school, or volunteering, which connects one to others in mutually fulfilling ways. Using a mixed-methods approach, we studied the emphasis on "a meaningful day" in the new Opening Doors to Recovery (ODR) program in southeast Georgia. Among 100 participants, we measured the meaningful day construct using three quantitative items at baseline (hospital discharge) and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up, finding statistically significant linear trends over time for all three measures. Complementary qualitative interviews with 30 individuals (ODR participants, family members, and ODR's Community Navigation Specialists and program leaders) revealed themes pertaining to companionship, productivity, achieving stability, and autonomy, as well as the concern about insufficient resources. The concept of "a meaningful day" can be a focus of clinical attention and measured as a person-centered outcome for clients served by recovery-oriented community mental health services.

  19. Days Out of Role Due to Mental and Physical Conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relative contributions of mental and physical conditions to days out of role among adults aged 18 years and above in Singapore.The Singapore Mental Health Study was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a nationally representative sample of residents aged 18 years or older. Diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. Days out of role were assessed using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate individual-level and societal-level effects of disorders.Overall, 8.7% of respondents reported at least one day out of role, with a mean of 5.8 days. The most disabling conditions at the individual level were cancer (118.9 additional days, cardiovascular diseases (93.5, and bipolar disorder (71.0. At the societal level, cardiovascular diseases contributed the highest population attributable risk proportion (45%, followed by cancer (39.3%, and hypertension (13.5%.Mental and physical conditions are linked to significant losses in productivity for society as well as role disability for individuals, underscoring the need to enhance prevention and intervention efforts to increase overall productivity and improve individual functioning.

  20. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Chun-Hai Fung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global Handwashing Day (GHD is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users’ reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD 2012 as an example. Methods: We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for “handwashing”. We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. Results: We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Discussion: Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns.

  1. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  2. Un modelo de atención en salud al pueblo Wayúu en la frontera colombo-venezolana A health care model for the Wayúu people on the colombian-venezuelan border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Duarte Gómez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En reuniones y talleres con comunidades wayúu y funcionarios de gobierno de Colombia y Venezuela, tras validar el diagnóstico de salud y sus determinantes, se identificaron componentes para un modelo de atención binacional en salud destinado al pueblo wayúu que habita la frontera entre ambos países. Si bien ha habido avances en la atención sanitaria intercultural en ambos países, todavía hace falta fortalecer algunos aspectos de la legislación y la organización de los servicios para hacer posible la garantía del derecho a la salud. Se debe asegurar la asignación de nuevos recursos nacionales - o la redistribución de los actuales- y la gestión de recursos internacionales para ejecutar un proyecto piloto en el corto plazo e implementar el modelo en el mediano plazo.At meetings and workshops with Wayúu communities and government officials from Colombia and Venezuela, after validating the analysis of the health situation and its determinants, the components of a binational health care model for the Wayúu people living on the border between the two countries were identified. Although both countries have made progress in intercultural health care, some aspects of their legislation and service organization still need to be strengthened to make the guaranteed right to health a reality. The allocation of new national resources-or the redistribution of current resources-should be ensured, as well as the management of international resources for conducting a short-term pilot project and implementing the model in the medium term.

  3. Health resource utilization and costs during the first 90 days following robot-assisted hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolu, Vani; Pathak, Prathamesh

    2017-08-07

    To compare health resource utilization, costs and readmission rates between robot-assisted and non-robot-assisted hysterectomy during the 90 days following surgery. The study used 2008-2012 Truven Health MarketScan data. All patients admitted as inpatients with a CPT code for hysterectomy between January 2008 and September 2012 were identified and the first hysterectomy-related admission in each patient was included. Patients were categorized based on the route of their hysterectomy and the use of laparoscopy as: total abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy (VH), laparoscopy-assisted supracervical hysterectomy, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy' and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). Hospitalization costs, including hospital, physician, pharmacy and facility costs, were calculated for the index admissions and for the 90-day follow-up periods. Health resource utilization was determined in terms of inpatient readmissions, outpatient visits, and emergency room visits, RESULTS: There were 302,923 hysterectomies performed over 5 years for benign indications in the inpatient setting (55% abdominal, 17% vaginal, and 28% laparoscopic). Concurrent use of robot assistance steadily increased and was reported in 50% of TLH procedures in 2012. The rates of readmission overall were 4.9% for robot-assisted procedures and 4.3% for procedures without robot assistance (OR 0.89, CI 0.82-0.97). Readmission rates were lowest for VH (3.2%) and highest for TLH (5.6%). Following robot-assisted hysterectomy and VH, 8.3% and 4.6% of patients, respectively, had more than ten outpatient visits in the 90-day follow-up period. The average total cost for 90 days was $16,820 for robot-assisted hysterectomy and $13,031 for procedures without robot assistance. Of the additional costs for robot-assisted surgery, 25% were incurred in the 90-day follow-up period. The study using private insurance data found that robot-assisted hysterectomy was associated with higher health

  4. Working 9-5: Causal Relationships Between Singers' "Day Jobs" and Their Performance Work, With Implications for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Irene; Wilson, Pat H

    2017-03-01

    It is acknowledged generally that professional contemporary commercial music (CCM) singers engage in supplementary employment ("the day job") to achieve and maintain a reliable living wage. In this paper, consideration is given to the impact of such nonperformance employment on CCM's sustainable vocal health. Collected data from a survey of 102 professional contemporary gig singers were analysed using descriptive statistical procedures from the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Although these data provided descriptions of the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, the inclusion of open format questions encouraged participants to report details of their "lived" experience. Additionally, a meta-analysis of a range of associated literature was undertaken. Sixty-five participants (N = 102) reported that in addition to their heavy performance voice use, they were employed in "other" work (the "day job") where their speaking voice loads were high. In responding to open-ended questions, many proffered written comments that were unprompted. The collected data from this element of the research study are reported here. We propose that at least some causal factors of singers' reported voice problems may lie in the misuse or overuse of their everyday speaking voice (as demanded by their "day job") rather than a misuse of their singing voice. These findings have practical application to all whose concern is care for the vocal or emotional health and performance longevity of professional singers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Ways of spending free time by students of the Medical University of Gdansk in relation to their health behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdak-Haasa, Ewa; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Pegiel-Kamrat, Jolanta

    2002-01-01

    Problems connected with the issue of free time are the field of interest for social, and medical scientists and economists. Medical students are perceived by others as well as by themselves as the group with free time deficiency. An inquiry was conducted on subject of some aspects of free time and healthy lifestyle in practice of VIth year students of Faculty of Medicine and 1st year students of Medical Analysis at the Medical University of Gdansk. One of the questions in the inquiry was direct question about the ways of spending free time. There were differences in forms of spending free time between students of Faculty of Medicine and students of Medical Analysis. Among the first group examined the most, about 46%, points to recreational sport as the form of spending free time; quite a lot people read books, and about 40% of them sleep. Medical Analysis students asked the same question answer that they study during their free time--almost 41%, they also go for walks and listen to the radio. On the grounds of the answer about practicing recreational sport we can assume that for the greatest part of the students such activities have become an obligatory part of their lifestyle and not everybody classifies them among free time activities. Students of both inquired groups fill their free time with number of activities, among which we can find those involving rest, health or entertainment.

  6. Religious Engagement in a Risky Family Model Predicting Health in Older Black and White Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R; Lee, Jerry W; Haviland, Mark G; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-11-01

    In a structural equation model, associations among latent variables - Child Poverty, Risky Family exposure, Religious Engagement, Negative Social Interactions, Negative Emotionality, and Perceived Physical Health - were evaluated in 6,753 Black and White adults aged 35-106 years (M = 60.5, SD = 13.0). All participants were members of the Seventh-day Adventist church surveyed in the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (BRHS). Child Poverty was positively associated with both Risky Family exposure (conflict, neglect, abuse) and Religious Engagement (intrinsic religiosity, religious coping, religiousness). Risky Family was negatively associated with Religious Engagement and positively associated with both Negative Social Interactions (intrusive, failed to help, insensitive, rejecting) and Negative Emotionality (depression, negative affect, neuroticism). Religious Engagement was negatively associated with Negative Emotionality and Negative Social Interactions at a given level of risky family. Negative Social Interactions was positively associated with Negative Emotionality, which had a direct, negative effect on Perceived Physical Health. All constructs had indirect effects on Perceived Physical Health through Negative Emotionality. The effects of a risky family environment appear to be enduring, negatively affecting one's adult religious life, emotionality, social interactions, and perceived health. Religious engagement, however, may counteract the damaging effects of early life stress.

  7. Exploring relationships among social integration, social isolation, self-rated health, and demographics among Latino day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Kenneth C; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Atkinson, John S; Taylor, Wendell C

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates social integration and social isolation are related to health, and Latino day laborers (LDLs) tend to be socially isolated and, thus, at high risk for adverse health consequences. relationships among social isolation, social integration, self-rated health (SRH), and demographics were examined in a sample of LDLs to contribute to the literature on social networks and health in this and other migrant populations. We analyzed data from 324 LDLs who participated in Proyecto SHILOS (Salud del Hombre Inmigrante Latino), a Houston-based survey of Latino immigrant men's health. Based on the literature, we hypothesized SRH would be (1) positively associated with social integration and (2) negatively associated with social isolation. All proposed measures were first entered into a correlation matrix to identify significant bivariate relationships (p ≤ .05, two-tailed). Associations between variables that were directly correlated with SRH and variables that were, in turn, proximally associated with these variables were then used to develop a structural equation path model of SRH. Individual paths in the model were measured for significance, and goodness of fit was assessed by the model chi-square, the Comparative Fit Index, and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. Inconsistent with the first hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social integration, as measured by the number of trusted friends. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social isolation, as measured by needing someone to talk to. More frequent contact with family was also negatively associated with social isolation. Our findings suggest social integration may not always protect and promote health. Therefore, assessing the quality of LDLs' different relationships, not just the quantity, is vital. Future studies should further analyze the effects that social resources have on perceptions of social isolation and health in LDLs and other

  8. Adult Day Center Programs and Their Associated Outcomes on Clients, Caregivers, and the Health System: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Demaio, Peter; Lange, Ariella; Wilson, Michael G

    2017-11-10

    Adult day centers (ADCs) offer a heterogeneous group of services that provide for the daily living, care, nutritional, and social needs of older adults. We sought to conceptually map and identify key gaps and findings from literature focused on ADCs, including the types of programs that exist and their associated outcomes on improving health and strengthening health systems. We conducted a scoping review by searching 5 databases for studies evaluating the outcomes of ADCs specifically for community-dwelling older adults. Included studies were conceptually mapped according to the methods used, type of outcome(s) assessed, study population, disease focus, service focus, and health system considerations. The mapping was used to derive descriptive analyses to profile the available literature in the area. ADC use has positive health-related, social, psychological, and behavioral outcomes for care recipients and caregivers. There is a substantial amount of literature available on some ADC use outcomes, such as health-related, satisfaction-related and psychological and behavioral outcomes, while less research exists on issues of accessibility and cost-effectiveness. As the population ages, policymakers must carefully consider how ADCs can best serve each user and their caregivers with their unique circumstances. ADCs have the potential to help shape health system interventions, especially those targeting caregivers and people requiring long-term care support. Due to the variation among types of ADC programs, future research on ADCs should consider different characteristics of ADC programs to better contextualize their results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Global Ozone Distribution relevant to Human Health: Metrics and present day levels from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; Doherty, R. M.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Cooper, O. R.; Malley, C.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Pinto, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M. G.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using stations from the TOAR surface ozone database, this study quantifies present-day global and regional distributions of five ozone metrics relevant for both short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites globally, and re-classified for this project as urban or non-urban using population densities and night-time lights. National surface ozone limit values are usually related to an annual number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-hour running mean (MDA8), with many countries not even having any ozone limit values. A discussion and comparison of exceedances in the different ozone metrics, their locations and the seasonality of exceedances provides clues as to the regions that potentially have more serious ozone health implications. Present day ozone levels (2010-2014) have been compared globally and show definite geographical differences (see Figure showing the annual 4th highest MDA8 for present day ozone for all non-urban stations). Higher ozone levels are seen in western compared to eastern US, and between southern and northern Europe, and generally higher levels in east Asia. The metrics reflective of peak concentrations show highest values in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. A number of the metrics show similar distributions of North-South gradients, most prominent across Europe and Japan. The interquartile range of the regional ozone metrics was largest in East Asia, higher for urban stations in Asia but higher for non-urban stations in Europe and North America. With over 3000 monitoring stations included in this analysis and despite the higher densities of monitoring stations in Europe, north America and East Asia, this study provides the most comprehensive global picture to date of surface ozone levels in terms of health-relevant metrics.

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables Grown on the Contaminated Soils in Daye City of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health, especially to the residents whom live near metal or metalloid mines. In this study, 18 topsoil and 141 vegetable samples were collected from the contaminated areas in Daye City Hubei Province, China and the concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were analyzed. A self-designed questionnaire was assigned to obtain the exposure scenario and the USEPA health risk assessment model was adopted to assess two type of risks (non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks of vegetables to humans. The results showed that the average contents of metal(loids in soils exceeded the background value of Daye City. The average contents of metal(loids, especially As, Cd, Pb, in three kinds of vegetables were significantly higher than the permissible values based on Chinese national standard. Leafy vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and the transfer factors of As (0.015, Cd (0.080 and Pb (0.003 were comparable to leguminous and fruit vegetables. Leguminous vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of Cu (0.032 and Zn (0.094 than leafy and fruit vegetables. The transfer factors from soil to plants follows a decreasing order as Cd (0.068, Zn (0.047 > Cu (0.023 > As (0.006, Pb (0.002. Furthermore, health risk assessment revealed the following results: the non-carcinogenic risk decreased in the order of children, adult, adolescent, while the carcinogenic risk followed a decreasing order of adult, adolescent, children; the calculated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the metal(loids by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > leguminous vegetables. The relatively

  11. Negotiating old and new ways: contextualizing adapted health care-seeking behaviors of Korean immigrants in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Young

    2013-01-01

    Korean immigrants have been identified as one of the most disadvantaged ethnic groups in terms of health insurance coverage and health care access in the U.S.A. Korean immigrants enjoyed access to primary and preventive care services in their home country. This study explores how Korean immigrants' health-seeking behaviors are reconstructed by contextualizing their health care experience and adaptation process in Hawaii. Face-to-face individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 recently arrived Korean immigrant adults in Hawaii, who were selected by a purposive sampling method. A diminution of seeking professional health care services after immigration was the prominent change in their health care behaviors. They delayed seeking primary care, underused preventive care, extended self-diagnosis and self-treatment, and practiced more treatment- and emergency-oriented care. New immigrants also adopted ethnic enclave health care and transnational health care as alternative strategies to meet their health care needs given the structural and cultural constraints. Sociocultural contexts of both home and host countries shaped the behavioral changes and adoption of alternative health care strategies, interplaying with an individual's characteristics. Lack of health insurance and unfamiliarity with the health care system were the most important factors in the decision whether to and when to seek professional health care, while the lack of English proficiency and cultural concerns were the major determinants of where to get health care. The study suggested that efforts should be concentrated to minimize structural barriers to health insurance and to improve health care access through policy interventions. Ethnic networks and ethnic media could be used as an effective informational reservoir for introducing various health care resources, disseminating information, and navigating new immigrants to the health system and services. Utilizing ethnic health care facilities

  12. Feasibility and acceptance of exercise recommendations (10,000 steps a day) within routine German health check (Check-Up 35/GOÄ29)-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christine; Schlepper, Stefanie; Bauer, Carina; Ferrari, Nina; Frank, Stefan; Gartner, Lena; Gehring, Svenja; Henke, Rudolf; Lehmacher, Walter; Steffen, Hans-Michael; Schindler-Marlow, Sabine; Sternal, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of exercise to prevent non-communicable diseases are well-documented. Limited data exists to promote physical activity in healthy but sedentary and/or overweight people. Brief interventions within routine German health checks may be an effective way to reach these patients. The quasi-experimental, multi-center prospective feasibility study is designed for general practices in Cologne (intervention group) and Düsseldorf (control group), up to 20 per region. Eight to 10 inactive and/or overweight patients per practice will be recruited for a total of 300. General practitioners and at least one of their nurses for the intervention group will be trained in motivational interviewing and familiarized with low-threshold recommendations for exercise (activities of daily life (ADL), target of 10,000 steps/day) and additional tools (pedometers, activity diaries). Participants in the control group will only receive general advice (150 min of exercise/week). The primary aims are to evaluate the feasibility of this intervention and to determine whether it is possible to reach a mean increase of 1000 steps/day in the target group within 6 months. Secondary objectives focus on the number of patients who reach a target of 10,000 steps/day and their improvements in quality of life and decrease in body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure. The study will assess whether it is feasible to run brief interventions within the GP setting can promote an active lifestyle in overweight and/or inactive patients.

  13. Same-Day Integrated Mental Health Care and PTSD Diagnosis and Treatment Among VHA Primary Care Patients With Positive PTSD Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Sripada, Rebecca K; Mach, Jennifer; McCarthy, John F

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether same-day integrated mental health services are associated with increased diagnosis and treatment initiation among primary care patients with positive posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screens. Data were from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) primary care patients with a positive PTSD screen (N=21,427). Patients were assessed for PTSD diagnosis and treatment initiation on the screening day and ≤ 7 days, ≤ 12 weeks, ≤ 6 months, and ≤ 1 year after screening positive. The service setting on screening day was categorized as primary care only, same-day primary care-mental health integration (PC-MHI), or same-day specialty mental health care. Multivariable generalized estimating equations logistic regression was used to estimate associations between category of screening day services and diagnosis and treatment initiation, with adjustment for demographic characteristics, prior psychiatric diagnoses, prior VHA service utilization, and PTSD screen score. Of the 21,427 patients with positive PTSD screens, 10,809 (50.4%) received a diagnosis within one year of screening positive. Same-day PC-MHI services were associated with greater odds of PTSD diagnosis, both on the same day as (odds ratio [OR]=2.23) and one year (OR=1.67) after screening positive compared with primary care-only services (pprimary care only (pmental health services may help facilitate PTSD diagnosis and treatment initiation after a positive screen.

  14. Valve's Way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Dobrajska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Puranam and Håkonsson (2015) challenge us to ponder what we as organization design theorists make of Valve’s way (see also Jeppesen, 2008). We believe that Valve, in spite of its radical vision, does not represent a challenge to fundamental organization design theory and that it is questionable...

  15. Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation - a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyeflaten, Irene; Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Braathen, Tore Norendal; Lie, Stein Atle; Brage, Søren; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-05-23

    Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation. One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome. Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work. The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.

  16. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  17. Women and kidney disease: reflections on World Kidney Day 2018: Kidney Health and Women's Health: a case for optimizing outcomes for present and future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Alrukhaimi, Mona; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zakharova, Elena; Levin, Adeera

    2018-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ∼10% of the world's adult population: it is one of the top 20 causes of death worldwide and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women's Day coincide in 2018, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women's health, and specifically their kidney health, on the community and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply these learnings more broadly. Girls and women, who make up ∼50% of the world's population, are important contributors to society and their families. Gender differences continue to exist around the world in access to education, medical care and participation in clinical studies. Pregnancy is a unique state for women, offering an opportunity for the diagnosis of kidney disease, and also a state where acute and chronic kidney diseases may manifest and that may impact future generations with respect to kidney health. There are various autoimmune and other conditions that are more likely to impact women with profound consequences for childbearing and on the fetus. Women have different complications on dialysis than men and are more likely to be donors than recipients of kidney transplants. In this editorial we focus on what we do and do not know about women, kidney health and kidney disease and what we might learn in the future to improve outcomes worldwide. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 19491 - Walking as a Way for Americans To Get the Recommended Amount of Physical Activity for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ..., Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for....D., Chief, Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and.... Correlates of adults' participation in physical activity: Review and update, 1996-2001. Med Sci Sports Exerc...

  19. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  20. The Impact of Rurality on 30-Day Preventable Readmission, Illness Severity, and Risk of Mortality for Heart Failure Medicare Home Health Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Carlson, Erin; Popoola, Taiye; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of rurality on 30-day preventable readmission, and the illness severity and risk of mortality for 30-day preventable readmissions. We analyzed heart failure Medicare beneficiaries who received home health services for postacute care after hospital discharge in 2009. The study was a cross-sectional design with the unit of analysis as the home health episode for postacute care. Data sources included the following: Medicare Beneficiary Summary File, Medicare Provider Analysis Review, Outcome Assessment Information Set, Home Health Agency Research Identifiable File, and Area Health Resources File. The dependent variables were 30-day preventable readmission, and the extreme/major level of illness severity and of risk of mortality for a 30-day preventable readmission. The key independent variable was rurality defined as remote rural, adjacent rural, and micropolitan areas, with urban areas in the reference group. Home health beneficiaries in remote rural areas had 27% lower 30-day preventable readmission than those in urban areas. Home health beneficiaries in adjacent rural areas were 33% less likely to have high illness severity at readmission due to a preventable condition than those in urban areas. Geographical location affects preventable readmission and illness severity of preventable readmission. Patients' geographic location along with patients' risk factors should be taken into consideration in the risk adjustment model for the financial incentive program that penalizes home health agencies with high preventable readmissions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Analysis of weight change and Borg rating of perceived exertion as measurements of runner health and safety during a 6-day, multistage, remote ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Jeremy; Worthing, Robert; Black, Trevor; Grant, William D; Kotlyar, Timur; Wojcik, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of using weight change and Borg score as tools for monitoring runner health and safety during a multistage, remote ultramarathon. Observational cohort study of feasibility on nonblinded event participants. Six-day, multistage, remote ultramarathon in Utah. Twenty-seven athletes in the 2012 Desert R.A.T.S. (Race Across the Sand) ultramarathon. Participant weight, health conditions that limited race participation, such as fatigue or exhaustion, and Borg score were reviewed. Inability to complete a stage of the race (Did Not Finish status) or development of a clinically significant health condition during the race. Potential prognostic risk factors, such as a high Borg score and weight loss, were analyzed. An overall decrease in weight was observed over the course of the event. Median percent weight changes were losses of 2.96% (day 1), 7.42% (day 2), 2.21% (day 4), and 3.35% (day 6). There was no statistically significant difference in percent weight change between the 14 runners who finished the race and the 13 runners who did not finish the race (U = 73; z = 0.189; P = 0.85). Runners' ability to complete the race was related to the development of adverse health conditions (P = 0.004). Median Borg scores reported were 15 (day 1), 17 (day 2), 13 (day 3), 16 (day 4), and 15 (day 6). Only 2 racers who finished the entire event without adverse events ever gave a Borg score of ≥ 18. The feasibility of weight change as a tool for monitoring runner health and safety in this setting is limited, but the Borg rating of perceived exertion warrants further study as a potential field expedient tool for monitoring runner health and safety during a multiday, remote ultramarathon.

  2. What can we talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom? Sami patients' experiences of language choice and cultural norms in mental health treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Dagsvold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Sami in Norway have a legal right to receive health services adapted to Sami language and culture. This calls for a study of the significance of language choice and cultural norms in Sami patients’ encounters with mental health services. Objectives: To explore the significance of language and cultural norms in communication about mental health topics experienced by Sami patients receiving mental health treatment to enhance our understanding of linguistic and cultural adaptation of health services. Methods: Data were collected through individual interviews with 4 Sami patients receiving mental health treatment in Northern Norway. A systematic text reduction and a thematic analysis were employed. Findings: Two themes were identified:(I Language choice is influenced by language competence, with whom one talks and what one talks about.Bilingualism was a resource and natural part of the participants’ lives, but there were limited possibilities to speak Sami in encounters with health services. A professional working relationship was placed on an equal footing with the possibility to speak Sami.(II Cultural norms influence what one talks about, in what way and to whom.However, norms could be bypassed, by talking about norm-regulated topics in Norwegian with health providers. Conclusion: Sami patients’ language choice in different communication situations is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Sami patients have varying opinions about and preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. Bilingualism and knowledge about both Sami and Norwegian culture provide latitude and enhanced possibilities for both patients and the health services. The challenge for the health services is to allow for and safeguard such individual variations within the cultural framework of the patients.

  3. The role of social support and acculturative stress in health-related quality of life among day laborers in Northern San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Hugo; Castañeda, Sheila F; Talavera, Gregory A; Lindsay, Suzanne P

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that Latino day laborers experience higher levels of acculturative stress than Latinos in employment sectors in the US. Given the stress-buffering role that social support plays in minimizing the negative physical and mental health outcomes of stress, this study examined this relationship in a sample of 70 Latino Day laborers in the northern San Diego area(100% male, mean age = 27.7, SD = 9.1). Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that there was a significant interaction effect between social support and acculturative stress (P = 0.025) on physical health, indicating that higher levels of social support buffered the negative effects of acculturative stress on physical health.Acculturative stress and social support were not associated with mental health status. Overall, these findings suggest that fostering social support may be an essential strategy for promoting health among Latino male day laborers.

  4. "The way the country has been carved up by researchers": ethics and power in north-south public health research.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Aisling M; Brugha, Ruairi F; Byrne, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the recognition of power as being central to health research collaborations between high income countries and low and middle income countries, there has been insufficient detailed analysis of power within these partnerships. The politics of research in the global south is often considered outside of the remit of research ethics. This article reports on an analysis of power in north-south public health research, using Zambia as a case study. METHODS: Primary data were co...

  5. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, G; Ainsworth, J; Cunningham, J; Dobbs, C; Jones, K H; Kalra, D; Lea, N C; Sethi, N

    2015-11-01

    To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linkage, a principled, proportionate, risk-based approach to governance is advocated. In light of the considerable value of data linkage to health and well-being, the United Kingdom aspires to design and deliver good governance in health-related research. A string of projects have been asking: what does good governance look like in data linkage for health research? It is argued here that considerable progress can and must be made in order to develop the UK's contribution to future health and wealth economies, particularly in light of mis-start initiatives such as care.data in NHS England. Discussion centres around lessons learned from previous successful health research initiatives, identifying those governance mechanisms which are essential to achieving good governance. This article suggests that a crucial element in any step-increase of research capability will be the adoption of adaptive governance models. These must recognise a range of approaches to delivering safe and effective data linkage, while remaining responsive to public and research user expectations and needs as these shift and change with time and experience. The targets are multiple and constantly moving. There is not--nor should we seek--a single magic bullet in delivering good governance in health research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  7. Evaluation of personnel blood pressure and its risk factors in university affiliated medical centers: Iran's Health Day 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Isfeedvajani, Mohsen; Karimi Zarchi, Ali Akbar; Musavi Heris, Abbas; Sajjadi, Fatema; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a risk factor for life threatening diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents, coronary artery diseases, congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes including obesity has increased over the past few years in Iran. The first step for modification of cardiovascular diseases in a defined population is to assess the prevalence of their risk factors. This study was conduceted to assess personnel blood pressure and its risk factors in one of the medical universities of Tehran in the Health Day of 2013. This cross sectional study was performed from May 19, 2013 to May 24, 2013 (I.R. of Iran's Health Weak) in one of the medical universities of Tehran. Participants completed voluntarily a researcher-made questionnaire which composed of demographic characteristics and variables about risk factors and preventive factors of cardiovascular diseases such as smoking, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, physical exercise status and so on. Blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer and weight and height were measured by a ground analogue scale. Of 195 persons participated in this study, 180 persons (92.3%) were male. The mean age of participants was 33.75 (±9.87) yr. The mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 114.44 (±8.67) mmHg and 73.06 (±8.45) mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, prehypertension and hypertension was 41.7%, 17.8%, 40.4% and 11.7% respectively. Only 8 persons (5.6%) were cigarette smokers. Despite the low prevalence of hypertension in our samples, the high prevalence of prehypertension and overweight need great attention. Interventions like life style modification could be effective in prevention of hypertension.

  8. The Long Way From Government Open Data to Mobile Health Apps: Overcoming Institutional Barriers in the US Federal Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergel, Ines

    2014-12-23

    Government agencies in the United States are creating mobile health (mHealth) apps as part of recent policy changes initiated by the White House's Digital Government Strategy. The objective of the study was to understand the institutional and managerial barriers for the implementation of mHealth, as well as the resulting adoption pathways of mHealth. This article is based on insights derived from qualitative interview data with 35 public managers in charge of promoting the reuse of open data through Challenge.gov, the platform created to run prizes, challenges, and the vetting and implementation of the winning and vendor-created apps. The process of designing apps follows three different pathways: (1) entrepreneurs start to see opportunities for mobile apps, and develop either in-house or contract out to already vetted Web design vendors; (2) a top-down policy mandates agencies to adopt at least two customer-facing mobile apps; and (3) the federal government uses a policy instrument called "Prizes and Challenges", encouraging civic hackers to design health-related mobile apps using open government data from HealthData.gov, in combination with citizen needs. All pathways of the development process incur a set of major obstacles that have to be actively managed before agencies can promote mobile apps on their websites and app stores. Beyond the cultural paradigm shift to design interactive apps and to open health-related data to the public, the managerial challenges include accessibility, interoperability, security, privacy, and legal concerns using interactive apps tracking citizen.

  9. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK. Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. Methods The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. Results The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all

  10. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Jeffery, Elizabeth; Morbey, Roger; House, Thomas; Elliot, Alex J; Harcourt, Sally; Smith, Gillian E

    2017-05-19

    As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all these effects, which led to misleading smoothing

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, S. A.; Aziz, A. A.; John, J.; Ismail, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary c...

  12. The water exercise improves health-related quality of life of frail elderly people at day service facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Kaneda, Koichi; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nomura, Takeo

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of water exercise at a day service facility and the effects of water exercise frequency on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Participants (n = 30) were randomly separated into three groups: two indicating exercise frequency, at once-weekly or twice-weekly, and a control group. One-hour exercise intervention sessions were carried out once or twice a week, accordingly, for 24 weeks. The water exercise session comprised a warm-up on land, activities of daily living (ADL) exercises, stretching, strength training, and relaxation in water. HRQL was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and ADL disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. Significant differences were found between pre- and 6 months in both the once- and twice-weekly groups in HRQL (p service facility improved participants' HRQL for 6 months by improving exercise habits and ADL disability. Furthermore, the HRQL change differed according to exercise frequency: twice-weekly exercise showed more rapid improvement than once-weekly.

  13. An investigation of the ways in which public health nutrition policy and practices can address climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulda, Heidi; Coveney, John; Bentley, Michael

    2010-03-01

    To develop a framework to guide action in the public health nutrition workforce to develop policies and practices addressing factors contributing to climate change. Action/consultative research. Interviews - South Australia, questionnaire - Australia. Interviews - key informants (n 6) were from various government, academic and non-government positions, invited through email. Questionnaire - participants were members of the public health nutrition workforce (n 186), recruited to the study through emails from public health nutrition contacts for each State in Australia (with the exception of South Australia). Support by participants for climate change as a valid role for dietitians and nutritionists was high (78 %). However, climate change was ranked low against other public health nutrition priorities. Support of participants to conduct programmes to address climate change from professional and work organisations was low. The final framework developed included elements of advocacy/lobbying, policy, professional recognition/support, organisational support, knowledge/skills, partnerships and programmes. This research demonstrates a need for public health nutrition to address climate change, which requires support by organisations, policy, improved knowledge and increased professional development opportunities.

  14. Fix These First: How the World's Leading Companies Point the Way Toward High Reliability in the Military Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Brad; Richter, Jason; Brezinski, Paul

    The 2014 Military Health System Review calls for healthcare system leaders to implement effective strategies used by other high-performing organizations. The authors state, " the [military health system] MHS can create an optimal healthcare environment that focuses on continuous quality improvement where every patient receives safe, high-quality care at all times" (Military Health System, 2014, p. 1). Although aspirational, the document does not specify how a highly reliable health system is developed or what systemic factors are necessary to sustain highly reliable performance. Our work seeks to address this gap and provide guidance to MHS leaders regarding how high-performing organizations develop exceptional levels of performance.The authors' expectation is that military medicine will draw on these lessons to enhance leadership, develop exceptional organizational cultures, onboard and engage employees, build customer loyalty, and improve quality of care. Leaders from other segments of the healthcare field likely will find this study valuable given the size of the military healthcare system (9.6 million beneficiaries), the United States' steady progression toward population-based health, and the increasing need for highly reliable systems and performance.

  15. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  16. Day Care--A National Priority. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on Examining Ways of Finding Affordable, Quality Day Care For Working Mothers and Fathers (Cleveland, Ohio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Testimony of parents, day care providers, and experts concerning the importance of day care is recorded in this document. The thrust of parents' testimony was that day care is a necessity, not a luxury. Providers' testimony argues that current levels of funding for day care do not allow for the delivery of high quality services. Increased federal…

  17. Time to Review the Role of Surrogate End Points in Health Policy: State of the Art and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Buyse, Marc; Drummond, Michael; Rasi, Guido; Saad, Everardo D; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of medicines, medical devices, and other health technologies should be proved in trials that assess final patient-relevant outcomes such as survival or morbidity. Market access and coverage decisions are, however, often based on surrogate end points, biomarkers, or intermediate end points, which aim to substitute and predict patient-relevant outcomes that are unavailable because of methodological, financial, or practical constraints. We provide a summary of the present use of surrogate end points in health care policy, discussing the case for and against their adoption and reviewing validation methods. We introduce a three-step framework for policymakers to handle surrogates, which involves establishing the level of evidence, assessing the strength of the association, and quantifying relations between surrogates and final outcomes. Although the use of surrogates can be problematic, they can, when selected and validated appropriately, offer important opportunities for more efficient clinical trials and faster access to new health technologies that benefit patients and health care systems. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environment and Health in Children Day Care Centres (ENVIRH – Study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Araújo-Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ is considered an important determinant of human health. The association between exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, house dust mite, molds and bacteria in day care centers (DCC is not completely clear. The aim of this project was to study these effects. Methods – study design: This study comprised two phases. Phase I included an evaluation of 45 DCCs (25 from Lisbon and 20 from Oporto, targeting 5161 children. In this phase, building characteristics, indoor CO2 and air temperature/relative humidity, were assessed. A children's respiratory health questionnaire derived from the ISAAC (International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Children was also distributed. Phase II encompassed two evaluations and included 20 DCCs selected from phase I after a cluster analysis (11 from Lisbon and 9 from Oporto, targeting 2287 children. In this phase, data on ventilation, IAQ, thermal comfort parameters, respiratory and allergic health, airway inflammation biomarkers, respiratory virus infection patterns and parental and child stress were collected. Results: In Phase I, building characteristics, occupant behavior and ventilation surrogates were collected from all DCCs. The response rate of the questionnaire was 61.7% (3186 children.Phase II included 1221 children. Association results between DCC characteristics, IAQ and health outcomes will be provided in order to support recommendations on IAQ and children's health. A building ventilation model will also be developed. Discussion: This paper outlines methods that might be implemented by other investigators conducting studies on the association between respiratory health and indoor air quality at DCC. Resumo: Antecedentes: A qualidade do ar interior (IAQ é considerada um determinante importante da saúde humana. A associação entre a exposição a compostos orgânicos voláteis, partículas, ácaros, bolores e bactérias em

  19. Environment and Health in Children Day Care Centres (ENVIRH – Study rationale and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Araújo-Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ is considered an important determinant of human health. The association between exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, house dust mite, molds and bacteria in day care centers (DCC is not completely clear. The aim of this project was to study these effects. Methods – study design: This study comprised two phases. Phase I included an evaluation of 45 DCCs (25 from Lisbon and 20 from Oporto, targeting 5161 children. In this phase, building characteristics, indoor CO2 and air temperature/relative humidity, were assessed. A children's respiratory health questionnaire derived from the ISAAC (International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Children was also distributed. Phase II encompassed two evaluations and included 20 DCCs selected from phase I after a cluster analysis (11 from Lisbon and 9 from Oporto, targeting 2287 children. In this phase, data on ventilation, IAQ, thermal comfort parameters, respiratory and allergic health, airway inflammation biomarkers, respiratory virus infection patterns and parental and child stress were collected. Results: In Phase I, building characteristics, occupant behavior and ventilation surrogates were collected from all DCCs. The response rate of the questionnaire was 61.7% (3186 children.Phase II included 1221 children. Association results between DCC characteristics, IAQ and health outcomes will be provided in order to support recommendations on IAQ and children's health. A building ventilation model will also be developed. Discussion: This paper outlines methods that might be implemented by other investigators conducting studies on the association between respiratory health and indoor air quality at DCC. Resumo: Antecedentes: A qualidade do ar interior (IAQ é considerada um determinante importante da saúde humana. A associação entre a exposição a compostos orgânicos voláteis, partículas, ácaros, bolores e bactérias em

  20. There is a long way to go: a nationwide survey of professional training for mental health practitioners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong; Liu, Yanmei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Qian, Mingyi; Huang, Xiting

    2010-04-01

    This nationwide survey of professional training for mental health practitioners (i.e., psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists, and the counselors working in industry, prisons, and schools) investigated sociodemographic characteristics, training experiences, and training perceptions of mental health service providers in China. Participants included service providers recruited from hospitals, universities, high/middle schools, private mental health service organizations and counseling centers operated by government, prisons or corporations from 25 provinces and four cities directly under the Central Government in China. In order to obtain a broad and representative sample, stratified multi-stage sampling procedures were utilized. From a total of 2000 questionnaire packets distributed via regular mail, the final sample comprised of 1391 respondents (525 men, 866 women). About 70% of the sample had a bachelor's level education or lower degree, only 36.4% majored in psychology, and nearly 60% were employed part time. Fewer than half of participants were certified and nearly 40% reported no affiliation with any 'professional' association. Training and continuing education programs were reported to be primarily short term and theory-based with limited assessment and follow-up. A high proportion of respondents reported having received no supervision or opportunities for case conferences or consultations. With respect to perceptions of and satisfaction with training, many agreed that training had been very helpful to their work but quality of supervision and the capability of supervisors were common issues of concern. In light of these findings, three general recommendations were made to improve the quality of training among mental health service providers in China. First, increased input from professional organizations of various disciplines involving mental health service provision is needed to guide training and shape policy. Second, universities and

  1. Oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day centre for individuals with special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindayomi Yinka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health condition of individuals with special health care needs have been reported in literature to be influenced by various sociodemographic factors, including living conditions and severity of impairment. This study was carried out to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day institution for those with special needs. Methods This study was carried out as part of an oral health screening program organized by the institution and consent was obtained from parents and guardians before the screening. All information was supplied by the parents during the screening using a questionnaire completed by the dentist. Oral examination was carried out on all consenting subjects in attendance on the days of screening in the school clinic with parents and teachers in attendance, using standard World Health Organisation oral health indices to assess dental caries, oral hygiene status, malocclusion and other oral health parameters. Results Fifty-four subjects aged 3–26 years (mean 12.28 ± 6.82 years and comprising 72.2% males and 27.8% females participated in the study. Over 90% were from parents of high and middle level educational background. Thirty-six (66.7% were caries free, with a mean dmft score of 0.7 ± 1.77 and mean DMFT score of 0.4 ± 1.44 with no significant difference across gender (p = 0.5 and parents' educational status (p = 0.43. The mean OHI-S of the total population in this study was 1.36 ± 0.16. Females had a mean score of 0.88 ± 1.10 while males had a mean score of 1.55 ± 1.24 with no significant difference (p = 0.6. Twenty-five (46.3% had good oral hygiene, 17 (31.5% had fair oral hygiene and 12 (22.2% had poor oral hygiene, with no significant difference across gender (p = 1.11 and age groups (p = 0.07. Fifteen (27.8% had gingivitis with no significant difference across age groups (p = 0.17. Forty-five (83.3% had Angle's class I malocclusion, 6

  2. Consequences of lack of specialists in radiation protection in health services and the different ways to overcome it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoardi, Roberto; Acosta, Norma B.; Velez, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    In Argentina, most medical physicists are almost exclusive dedicated to radiotherapy and nuclear medicine to a lesser extent, due to standards where is required the physicist presence. The behavior is not the same in the area of diagnostic radiology where there is no standard to regulate it. The proposal elements to achieve sustainable development in the Medical Physics can be resumed like this: 1) the acceptance of the physicist as the health professional; 2)the request of it incorporation in the control of the Health Ministry (X-ray and ionizing radiations); 3) definition of the professional profiles to have the accreditation and certification of the specialists; 4) effort on the training of specialists in the areas where there is not this human resource

  3. "The way the country has been carved up by researchers": ethics and power in north-south public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aisling; Brugha, Ruairi; Byrne, Elaine

    2016-12-12

    Despite the recognition of power as being central to health research collaborations between high income countries and low and middle income countries, there has been insufficient detailed analysis of power within these partnerships. The politics of research in the global south is often considered outside of the remit of research ethics. This article reports on an analysis of power in north-south public health research, using Zambia as a case study. Primary data were collected in 2011/2012, through 53 in-depth interviews with: Zambian researchers (n = 20), Zambian national stakeholders (n = 8) and northern researchers who had been involved in public health research collaborations involving Zambia and the global north (n = 25). Thematic analysis, utilising a situated ethics perspective, was undertaken using Nvivo 10. Most interviewees perceived roles and relationships to be inequitable with power remaining with the north. Concepts from Bourdieu's theory of Power and Practice highlight new aspects of research ethics: Northern and southern researchers perceive that different habituses exist, north and south - habituses of domination (northern) and subordination (Zambian) in relation to researcher relationships. Bourdieu's hysteresis effect provides a possible explanation for why power differentials continue to exist. In some cases, new opportunities have arisen for Zambian researchers; however, they may not immediately recognise and grasp them. Bourdieu's concept of Capitals offers an explanation of how diverse resources are used to explain these power imbalances, where northern researchers are often in possession of more economic, symbolic and social capital; while Zambian researchers possess more cultural capital. Inequities and power imbalances need to be recognised and addressed in research partnerships. A situated ethics approach is central in understanding this relationship in north-south public health research.

  4. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  5. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Boyes, Mark; Parsons, Richard; Joosten, Annette; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure’s accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children’s mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted. PMID:26771673

  6. Is Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Community Sample the Optimal Way to Assess Mental Health Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Boyes, Mark; Parsons, Richard; Joosten, Annette; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    An important characteristic of a screening tool is its discriminant ability or the measure's accuracy to distinguish between those with and without mental health problems. The current study examined the inter-rater agreement and screening concordance of the parent and teacher versions of SDQ at scale, subscale and item-levels, with the view of identifying the items that have the most informant discrepancies; and determining whether the concordance between parent and teacher reports on some items has the potential to influence decision making. Cross-sectional data from parent and teacher reports of the mental health functioning of a community sample of 299 students with and without disabilities from 75 different primary schools in Perth, Western Australia were analysed. The study found that: a) Intraclass correlations between parent and teacher ratings of children's mental health using the SDQ at person level was fair on individual child level; b) The SDQ only demonstrated clinical utility when there was agreement between teacher and parent reports using the possible or 90% dichotomisation system; and c) Three individual items had positive likelihood ratio scores indicating clinical utility. Of note was the finding that the negative likelihood ratio or likelihood of disregarding the absence of a condition when both parents and teachers rate the item as absent was not significant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SDQ is not optimised for use in community samples and that further psychometric evaluation of the SDQ in this context is clearly warranted.

  7. The effect of Massachusetts health reform on 30 day hospital readmissions: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; McCormick, Danny; Manze, Meredith G; Chu, Chieh; Kressin, Nancy R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To analyse changes in overall readmission rates and disparities in such rates, among patients aged 18-64 (those most likely to have been affected by reform), using all payer inpatient discharge databases (hospital episode statistics) from Massachusetts and two control states (New York and New Jersey). Design Difference in differences analysis to identify the post-reform change, adjusted for secular changes unrelated to reform. Setting US hospitals in Massachusetts, New York, and New Jersey. Participants Adults aged 18-64 admitted for any cause, excluding obstetrical. Main outcome measure Readmissions at 30 days after an index admission. Results After adjustment for known confounders, including age, sex, comorbidity, hospital ownership, teaching hospital status, and nurse to census ratio, the odds of all cause readmission in Massachusetts was slightly increased compared with control states post-reform (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.04, P<0.05). Racial and ethnic disparities in all cause readmission rates did not change in Massachusetts compared with control states. In analyses limited to Massachusetts only, there were minimal overall differences in changes in readmission rates between counties with differing baseline uninsurance rates, but black people in counties with the highest uninsurance rates had decreased odds of readmission (0.91, 0.84 to 1.00) compared with black people in counties with lower uninsurance rates. Similarly, white people in counties with the highest uninsurance rates had decreased odds of readmission (0.96, 0.94 to 0.99) compared with white people in counties with lower uninsurance rates. Conclusions In the United States, and in Massachusetts in particular, extending health insurance coverage alone seems insufficient to improve readmission rates. Additional efforts are needed to reduce hospital readmissions and disparities in this outcome. PMID:24687184

  8. The effect of an occupational therapy mental health day treatment centre on the use of inpatient services in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Riekie; Plastow, Nicola; Botha, Ulla; Niehaus, Djh; Koen, Liezl

    2018-04-27

    The aim of this study was to determine whether attendance at an occupational therapy-led day treatment centre for mental health care users affects the use of inpatient services in South Africa. A retrospective pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental study design was used to compare admissions and days spent in hospital during the 24 months before and after attendance at the centre, using the hospital's electronic records. Total population sampling yielded data for 44 mental health care users who made first contact with the service between July 2009 and June 2010. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant decrease in the number of admissions (z = -4.093, p = 0.00) and the number of days spent in hospital (z = -4.730, p = 0.00). Participants were admitted to psychiatric care 33 times less in the 24 months' post-intervention, indicating a medium effect (r = 0.436). They also spend 2569 days less in hospital, indicating a large effect (r = 0.504). The findings suggest that an occupational therapy-led day treatment centre could be effective in reducing the use of inpatient mental health services in South Africa. Implications for Rehabilitation Attendance at an occupational therapy-led community day treatment centre decreases the number of admissions and number of days spent in hospital and is therefore beneficial to mental health care users and service providers. The study indicates that the successful implementation of a community day treatment centre for mental health care users on the grounds of a tertiary hospital by utilising existing resources is possible.

  9. Evaluation of methods to estimate missing days' supply within pharmacy data of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kirsten J; Newcomb, Craig W; Roy, Jason A; Carbonari, Dena M; Saine, M Elle; Cardillo, Serena; Bhullar, Harshvinder; Gallagher, Arlene M; Lo Re, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which days' supply data are missing in pharmacoepidemiologic databases and effective methods for estimation is unknown. We determined the percentage of missing days' supply on prescription and patient levels for oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and evaluated three methods for estimating days' supply within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and The Health Improvement Network (THIN). We estimated the percentage of OAD prescriptions and patients with missing days' supply in each database from 2009 to 2013. Within a random sample of prescriptions with known days' supply, we measured the accuracy of three methods to estimate missing days' supply by imputing the following: (1) 28 days' supply, (2) mode number of tablets/day by drug strength and number of tablets/prescription, and (3) number of tablets/day via a machine learning algorithm. We determined incidence rates (IRs) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using each method to evaluate the impact on ascertainment of exposure time and outcomes. Days' supply was missing for 24 % of OAD prescriptions in CPRD and 33 % in THIN (affecting 48 and 57 % of patients, respectively). Methods 2 and 3 were very accurate in estimating days' supply for OADs prescribed at a consistent number of tablets/day. Method 3 was more accurate for OADs prescribed at varying number of tablets/day. IRs of AMI were similar across methods for most OADs. Missing days' supply is a substantial problem in both databases. Method 2 is easy and very accurate for most OADs and results in IRs comparable to those from method 3.

  10. [Interdisciplinary healthcare centres--a way of organising healthcare in the future from a health insurer's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecke, Torsten L; Hoyer, Jens Martin

    2009-01-01

    The German healthcare system modernization act enables healthcare providers to fund interdisciplinary healthcare centres. The Techniker Krankenkasse (TK) is a statutory health sickness fund that has contracted with some of the interdisciplinary healthcare centres named ATRIO-MED to achieve high-quality medical care and healthcare management. A range of patient-centred services is described in the cooperation agreement; in addition to central medical patient records one of the core competencies includes integrated pathways for defined diagnosis. The concept of the interdisciplinary healthcare centre is highly accepted among patients. It will serve as a platform for future TK healthcare policies.

  11. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children's sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Lauer, Romy; Traub, Meike; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2016-12-12

    Based on the World Health Organization's global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children's sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children's sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Data from 1943 children (1 st grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2 nd grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old) were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children's sick days (-3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013), and maternal days off work (-0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019). The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = -0.83, p = 0.003). The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children's visits to a physician and paternal days off work. School-based health promotion slightly reduces sick days in first grade children. Subsequently, parents may not

  12. Effects of statewide health promotion in primary schools on children’s sick days, visits to a physician and parental absence from work: a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the World Health Organization’s global school health initiative we investigate intervention effects of statewide health promotion in schools on the numbers of children’s sick days and visits to a physician, and parental days off work due to child illness. Methods Cluster-randomized trial with 1-year follow-up in primary schools in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measurements of first and second grade school children were taken by trained staff. Parents filled in questionnaires for information about socio-demographics, health-related variables, numbers of children’s sick days, visits to a physician, and days parents had to stay off work to care for a sick child. Longitudinal differences in the outcome variables were calculated between baseline and follow-up. Intraclass correlation coefficients were determined to quantify a possible clustering of data in schools. Accordingly, linear models and linear mixed models were applied to identify relationships and ascertain significances. Results Data from 1943 children (1st grade n = 1024, 6.6 ± 0.4 years old; 2nd grade n = 919, 7.6 ± 0.4 years old were available at baseline. Unadjusted differences regarding both grades were found between mean longitudinal changes in intervention and control group in children’s sick days (−3.2 ± 7.1 vs. -2.3 ± 5.6, p = 0.013, and maternal days off work (−0.9 ± 2.4 vs. -0.5 ± 2.8, p = 0.019. The intervention effect on sick days was adjusted in a linear regression for baseline values, gender and migration background and confirmed for first grade children (B = −0.83, p = 0.003. The intervention effect on maternal days off work lost its significance after adjusting for baseline values. No significant differences were detected in the numbers of children’s visits to a physician and paternal days off work. Conclusions School-based health promotion

  13. Paving the Way to Change for Youth at the Gap between Child and Adolescent and Adult Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sabina

    2017-06-01

    By 2020 mental illness will be one of the 5 most common illnesses causing morbidity, mortality and disability among youth. At least 20% of Canadian youth have a psychiatric disorder the impact of which can dramatically alter their life trajectory. Focus on the factors contributing to this problem is crucial. Lack of coordination between child and adolescent mental health systems (CAMHS) and adult mental health systems (AMHS) and consequent disruption of care during this vulnerable time of transition is one such factor. Reasons for and the impact of this divide are multilayered, many of which are embedded in outdated, poorly informed approaches to care for this population in transition. This paper considers the etiology behind these reasons as potential foci for change. The paper also briefly outlines recent initiatives ongoing in Canada and internationally that reflect appreciation of these factors in the attempt to minimize the gap in service provision for youth in transition. The need to continue with research and program development endeavours for youth with mental illness whereby access to services and readiness for transition is no longer determined by age is strongly supported.

  14. Remote school gardens: exploring a cost-effective and novel way to engage Australian Indigenous students in nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Andrew; Wetten, Alexander; Feeney, Camilla; Taylor, Sally; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2014-06-01

    This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of a novel, low-cost program to get remote schools started in gardening and nutrition activities, for a lower cost than existing models, and without on-the-ground horticultural support. A multi-site, mixed methods case study was undertaken, in which four remote schools were shipped gardening materials and a nutrition and cooking resource, and provided with horticultural support by phone and email. A support register and teacher surveys were used for four months of evaluation. The study demonstrated that the program is feasible, and may be associated with an increase from baseline in student's time spent cooking, gardening and on related classroom activities. The program was delivered economically without the need for on-the-ground staff, in a manner that was acceptable to teachers. This model may have application in remote schools throughout Australia, where there is a need to alter health impacting behaviours in high-risk populations. Lengthier program evaluation times and further resource development may be worth investigating in the future. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Implementation intention and action planning interventions in health contexts: state of the research and proposals for the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on two planning intervention techniques in health behaviour research, implementation intentions and action planning, and to develop evidence-based recommendations for effective future interventions and highlight priority areas for future research. We focused our review on four key areas: (1) definition and conceptualisation; (2) format and measurement; (3) mechanisms and processes; and (4) design issues. Overall, evidence supports the effectiveness of planning interventions in health behaviour with advantages including low cost and response burden. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the effects across studies and relatively few registered randomised trials that include objective behavioural measures. Optimally effective planning interventions should adopt "if-then" plans, account for salient and relevant cues, include examples of cues, be guided rather than user-defined, and include boosters. Future studies should adopt randomised controlled designs, report study protocols, include fidelity checks and relevant comparison groups, and adopt long-term behavioural follow-up measures. Priority areas for future research include the identification of the moderators and mediators of planning intervention effects. Future research also needs to adopt "best practice" components of planning interventions more consistently to elucidate the mechanisms and processes involved. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Organization of health care for the patients with benign diseases: the problem of one-day hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kochorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analises the volume of medical care to the citizens of St. Petersburg, suffering with benign diseases and hospitalized for one day. It is shown,that the level of one-day hospitalization is a marker of not approved hospitalization and unreasonable spending of funds in the state system of obligatory insurance.

  17. Impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost: A crucial way to communicate the health risks of air pollution to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Guoxing

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies have explored the impacts of exposure to sustained high levels of air pollution (air pollution wave) on mortality. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of air pollution wave has been increasing in highly polluted regions recently, understanding the impacts of air pollution wave is crucial. In this study, air pollution wave was defined as 2 or more consecutive days with air pollution index (API) > 100. The impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost (YLL) due to non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory deaths were evaluated by considering both consecutive days with high levels of air pollution and daily air pollution levels in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. The results showed the durational effect of consecutive days with high levels of air pollution was substantial in addition to the effect of daily air pollution. For instance, the durational effect was related to an increase in YLL of 116.6 (95% CI: 4.8, 228.5) years from non-accidental deaths when the air pollution wave was sustained for 4 days, while the corresponding daily air pollution's effect was 121.2 (95% CI: 55.2, 187.1) years. A better interpretation of the health risks of air pollution wave is crucial for air pollution control policy making and public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In what ways does the mandatory nature of Victoria's municipal public health planning framework impact on the planning process and outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Prue; Lin, Vivian; Sainsbury, Peter; Wise, Marilyn; Keating, Tom; Roger, Karen

    2007-03-22

    Systems for planning are a critical component of the infrastructure for public health. Both in Australia and internationally there is growing interest in how planning processes might best be strengthened to improve health outcomes for communities. In Australia the delivery of public health varies across states, and mandated municipal public health planning is being introduced or considered in a number of jurisdictions. In 1988 the Victorian State government enacted legislation that made it mandatory for each local government to produce a Municipal Public Health Plan, offering us a 20-year experience to consider. In-depth interviews were undertaken with those involved in public health planning at the local government level, as part of a larger study on local public health infrastructure and capacity. From these interviews four significant themes emerge. Firstly, there is general agreement that the Victorian framework of mandatory public health planning has led to improvements in systems for planning. However, there is some debate about the degree of that improvement. Secondly, there is considerable variation in the way in which councils approach planning and the priority they attach to the process. Thirdly, there is concern that the focus is on producing a plan rather than on implementing the plan. Finally, some tension over priorities is evident. Those responsible for developing Municipal Public Health Plans express frustration over the difficulty of having issues they believe are important addressed through the MPHP process. There are criticisms of Victoria's system for public health planning at the local government level. Some of these issues may be specific to the arrangement in Victoria, others are problems encountered in public health planning generally. In Victoria where the delivery structure for public health is diverse, a system of mandatory planning has created a minimum standard. The implementation of the framework was slow and factors in the broader

  19. The Role of Health Information Sources in Decision-Making Among Hispanic Mothers During Their Children’s First 1000 Days of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Shaniece; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Perkins, Meghan; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Objective This qualitative research aimed to explore how health information sources inform decision-making among Hispanic mothers during their children’s first 1000 days of life (conception-age 24 months), and to generate appropriate health information sources and communication strategies for future interventions. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < 2 years old. Domains included interpersonal and media sources, source trus...

  20. Dinosaur Day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  1. A Wimba Way, A Wimba Way

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Charlotte; Miller, Katherine; Taylor, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Wimba Classroom, like other online teaching tools, gives us a way to connect to our learners at a distance. This software can be used to share desktops, PowerPoint presentations, polls and more. Come and see a demonstration of the software and hear how we’re using Wimba Classroom to teach health care practitioners in a distance education program, undergraduate students in a first-year biology course and participants in an online RefWorks workshop. We’ll also talk about our “Train the Trainer”...

  2. Review Essay: "If Somebody's with Something Every Day They've Gotta Learn Something—Or They're Just Out to Lunch": The Dialectics of Ethnography as a Way of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnography: A Way of Seeing addresses itself to students in anthropology and researchers in other professional fields, intending to help them in understanding what is distinctive about ethnography as a discipline rather than merely being another fieldwork technique. Although I contest the claim to the particular audience—experienced researchers will much more appreciate the different points Harry Wolcott makes—I found this a highly enjoyable book, the textual nature of which I attempted to reflexively capture in this review. Drawing on my own fieldwork in a fish hatchery as an interpretive horizon and on the techniques of ethnographic writing, I articulate a dialectical framework that allows readers to situate a number of contradictions that have become salient during my reading. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0303142

  3. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  4. The Effects of the Practice of the Newstart Health Regimen on Faculty Stress among Faculty at Seventh-Day Adventist Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, George; Cort, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing an availability sample of (n = 124) faculty from three postsecondary Seventh-day Adventists institutions that promote a healthy lifestyle philosophy encapsulated in the acronym NEWSTART, this study explored effects of this health/religious regimen on faculty stress among this group. The findings reported in this paper indicate that three…

  5. Income or living standard and health in Germany: different ways of measurement of relative poverty with regard to self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Andress, Hans-Juergen; Janssen, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Current study introduces the living standard concept as an alternative approach of measuring poverty and compares its explanatory power to an income-based poverty measure with regard to subjective health status of the German population. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (2001, 2003 and 2005) and refer to binary logistic regressions of poor subjective health status with regard to each poverty condition, their duration and their causal influence from a previous time point. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, initially the indicators were considered separately in regression models and subsequently, both were included simultaneously. The analyses reveal a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. An inadequate living standard in 2005, longer spells of an inadequate living standard between 2001, 2003 and 2005 as well as an inadequate living standard at a previous time point is significantly strongly associated with subjective health than income poverty. Our results challenge conventional measurements of the relationship between poverty and health that probably has been underestimated by income measures so far.

  6. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol

    2018-04-01

    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Short Health Scale: A Simple, Valid, Reliable, and Responsive Way of Measuring Subjective Health in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Anne L; Peterson, Emma; Ringström, Gisela; Törnblom, Hans; Hjortswang, Henrik; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Short Health Scale (SHS) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Subjective health assessment is central when treating patients with IBS. The "Short Health Scale" is a quick 4-item questionnaire covering most aspects of subjective health that has been validated for inflammatory bowel disease. To test validity, 451 patients with IBS (mean age, 38 y; 81% females) completed the SHS and questionnaires assessing IBS symptom severity (IBS-SSS), gastrointestinal (GI)-specific anxiety (VSI), and quality of life (IBSQOL). To evaluate reliability and responsiveness to changes, the questionnaires were repeated after 2 weeks in 18 patients, and after 12 weeks in 212 patients who had completed a patient-education program. Validity was documented with (1) gradually increasing mean scores for all 4 SHS items with increasing IBS-SSS (Psubjective health assessment tools [item 1 (symptom burden): ρ=0.67, item 2 (daily function): ρ=-0.44 to -0.46, item 3 (disease-related worry): ρ=-0.51 to 0.57, item 4 (general well-being): ρ=-0.34 to -0.46, P0.7 and intraclass correlations >0.7). Responsiveness was good with responders to the patient-education program (IBS-SSS reduction ≥50 points) having significant reductions in 3 of the SHS items (P<0.05), and borderline change for the fourth SHS item (P=0.06). SHS is a health measure that shows promising evidence of validity, reliability, and responsiveness in IBS patients. It is quickly completed and evaluated, which supports its usefulness in the busy clinical practice.

  8. 75 FR 65357 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Office of Urban Indian Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... reporting on annual trends. Affected Public: Title V funded urban Indian health programs. Type of... information collected in a useful and timely fashion; (c) the accuracy of public burden estimate (the...

  9. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500 on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    Full Text Available For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05, and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05. Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  10. "I don't eat a hamburger and large chips every day!" A qualitative study of the impact of public health messages about obesity on obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blood R Warwick

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are a society that is fixated on the health consequences of 'being fat'. Public health agencies play an important role in 'alerting' people about the risks that obesity poses both to individuals and to the broader society. Quantitative studies suggest people comprehend the physical health risks involved but underestimate their own risk because they do not recognise that they are obese. Methods This qualitative study seeks to expand on existing research by exploring obese individuals' perceptions of public health messages about risk, how they apply these messages to themselves and how their personal and social contexts and experiences may influence these perceptions. The study uses in depth interviews with a community sample of 142 obese individuals. A constant comparative method was employed to analyse the data. Results Personal and contextual factors influenced the ways in which individuals interpreted and applied public health messages, including their own health and wellbeing and perceptions of stigma. Individuals felt that messages were overly focused on the physical rather than emotional health consequences of obesity. Many described feeling stigmatised and blamed by the simplicity of messages and the lack of realistic solutions. Participants described the need for messages that convey the risks associated with obesity while minimising possible stigmatisation of obese individuals. This included ensuring that messages recognise the complexity of obesity and focus on encouraging healthy behaviours for individuals of all sizes. Conclusion This study is the first step in exploring the ways in which we understand how public health messages about obesity resonate with obese individuals in Australia. However, much more research - both qualitative and quantitative - is needed to enhance understanding of the impact of obesity messages on individuals.

  11. The Role of Health Information Sources in Decision-Making Among Hispanic Mothers During Their Children's First 1000 Days of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Goldman, Roberta E; Perkins, Meghan; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-11-01

    This qualitative research aimed to explore how health information sources inform decision-making among Hispanic mothers during their children's first 1000 days of life (conception-age 24 months), and to generate appropriate health information sources and communication strategies for future interventions. We conducted seven focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children decision-making. We used immersion/crystallization process for analysis. Trusted health information sources included health care providers, female and male family members, BabyCenter.com and other Internet sources, selected social media, and television. Some immigrant women reported preferring the Internet citing less established local support networks. Women highlighted the importance of validating health information through checking multiple sources for consistency and resolving contradictory information. Mothers expressed interest in receiving reliable website links from healthcare professionals and outreach to extended family. Cultural factors, including immigration status, are important in understanding the use of health information sources and their role in decision-making about pregnancy and child health among Hispanic mothers. Healthcare providers and public health professionals should consider Hispanic mothers health information environment and provide culturally-relevant communication strategies and interventions during this high information-seeking time period.

  12. Quasi-experimental Study of Systematic Screening for Family Planning Services among Postpartum Women Attending Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Kumar, Somesh; Sethi, Reena; Charurat, Elaine; Lalchandani, Kamlesh; Schuster, Anne; Sood, Bulbul

    2018-01-25

    Systematic screening helps increase family planning uptake through integration with other services, including immunization. Though successfully demonstrated at health facilities, this strategy has not been demonstrated in communities. This study assessed the effectiveness of systematic screening to increase postpartum family planning use during community health days in India without adversely affecting immunization services. The study was conducted during 180 individual Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India. All health workers were trained in postpartum family planning counseling. Intervention providers were also trained in systematic screening. 217 postpartum women aged 15-49 years participated in baseline and endline exit interviews and routine service statistics were analyzed from 2,485 facility visits at affiliated health centers. No difference in family planning service use was found in the intervention group, but significantly fewer interviewed women reported receiving family planning services at endline in the comparison group (p = 0.014). Family planning acceptance at affiliated health centers increased significantly in intervention areas (p family planning services when integrated with community-based services in Jharkhand.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, S A; Aziz, A A; John, J; Ismail, N M

    2010-01-01

    The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  15. Strengthening integration of clinical and public health systems to prevent maternal-child obesity in the First 1,000Days: A Collective Impact approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Lamb, Tiffany; Boudreau, Alexy Arauz; Matathia, Sarah; Tiburcio, Etna; Perkins, Meghan E; Roche, Brianna; Kotelchuck, Milton; Shtasel, Derri; Price, Sarah N; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-02-01

    Obesity interventions may be most effective if they begin in the earliest stages of life, support changes across family, clinical, and public health systems, and address socio-contextual factors. The First 1000Days is a systematic program starting in early pregnancy lasting through the first 24months of infancy to prevent obesity among low-income mother-infant pairs in three community health centers in Massachusetts. The program uses a Collective Impact approach to create the infrastructure for sustained, system-wide changes for obesity prevention across early life clinical and public health services, including Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Adult Medicine, Behavioral Health, Nutrition, Community Health, the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, and the Maternal, Infant and Childhood Home Visiting program. Program components include 1) staff and provider training; 2) enhanced gestational weight gain and infant overweight tracking; 3) universal screening of adverse health behaviors and socio-contextual factors; 4) universal patient navigation to support individual behavior change and social needs, while strengthening integration of clinical and public health services; 5) individualized health coaching for mother-infant pairs at high risk of obesity; and 6) educational materials to support behavior change. A quasi-experimental evaluation design will examine changes, between 2015 and 2019, in gestational weight gain and prevalence of infant overweight from 0 to 24months of age. The First 1000Days program will examine the effectiveness of an early life obesity prevention program for mother-infant pairs. If successful, the program could provide a model for chronic disease prevention and health promotion among vulnerable families starting in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brachytherapy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.

    2002-01-01

    The loco regional control of cancers stays the absolute objective of the treatment. The thought of these days has allowed to evaluate the equipment and the practices, and to consider the developments to undertake in harmony with the investments of external radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  17. School Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossi, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Shows how architects are designing new schools to function as community centers, reflect contemporary teaching methods, address demands for technology, and meet increased standards in health and safety. (GR)

  18. 78 FR 8151 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request (30-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Jane Hoppin, Sc.D., Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 111... agricultural exposures and risk of certain types of cancer. Questionnaire data will be collected by using... Average time Type of respondent Form Number of responses per per response Total annual respondents...

  19. What Health-Related Information Flows through You Every Day? A Content Analysis of Microblog Messages on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the information about haze, a term used in China to describe the air pollution problem, is portrayed on Chinese social media by different types of organizations using the theoretical framework of the health belief model (HBM). Design/methodology/approach: A content analysis was conducted…

  20. Current Status of Infant Mental Health in Day-Care Centres in Japan: An Investigation of Okinawa and Aomori Prefectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…

  1. A composite indicator to measure universal health care coverage in India: way forward for post-2015 health system performance monitoring framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Gupta, Rakesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Sharma, Atul; Kumar Aggarwal, Arun; Phogat, Amit; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    There is limited work done on developing methods for measurement of universal health coverage. We undertook a study to develop a methodology and demonstrate the practical application of empirically measuring the extent of universal health coverage at district level. Additionally, we also develop a composite indicator to measure UHC. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 51 656 households across 21 districts of Haryana state in India. Using the WHO framework for UHC, we identified indicators of service coverage, financial risk protection, equity and quality based on the Government of India and the Haryana Government's proposed UHC benefit package. Geometric mean approach was used to compute a composite UHC index (CUHCI). Various statistical approaches to aggregate input indicators with or without weighting, along with various incremental combinations of input indicators were tested in a comprehensive sensitivity analysis. The population coverage for preventive and curative services is presented. Adjusting for inequality, the coverage for all the indicators were less than the unadjusted coverage by 0.1-6.7% in absolute term and 0.1-27% in relative term. There was low unmet need for curative care. However, about 11% outpatient consultations were from unqualified providers. About 30% households incurred catastrophic health expenditures, which rose to 38% among the poorest 20% population. Summary index (CUHCI) for UHC varied from 12% in Mewat district to 71% in Kurukshetra district. The inequality unadjusted coverage for UHC correlates highly with adjusted coverage. Our paper is an attempt to develop a methodology to measure UHC. However, careful inclusion of others indicators of service coverage is recommended for a comprehensive measurement which captures the spirit of universality. Further, more work needs to be done to incorporate quality in the measurement framework. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London

  2. First Day of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español The First Day of Life KidsHealth / For Parents / The First Day of Life What's in this article? What Your Newborn Looks ... usually begin within the first few hours of life. Your Feelings Having a baby is a life- ...

  3. Pamphlet day

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Phil; Dunne, Chris; Fowler, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Pamphlet Day: A Political Protest Pamphlet and Zine Event focused around the occupation of Loughborough Public Library, Granby Street, Loughborough, LE11 3DZ, UK. ABSTRACT “Throughout the 20th Century artists have engaged provocatively with text, images and performance, publishing writings, pamphlets, and manifestos that challenge the status quo.” (1) Loughborough Echo, May 2017 https://www.loughboroughecho.net/whats-on/arts-culture-news/pamphlet-art-feature-events-13038989 A s...

  4. Different-day and same-session combined strength and endurance training : adaptations in neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory performance, body composition, metabolic health and wellbeing in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigated 1) acute neuromuscular and hormonal responses to combined strength and endurance loadings with different orders and their long-term adaptations (women), 2) adaptations in neuromuscular, hormonal, cardiorespiratory and health variables following 24 weeks of volume-equated protocols of combined training (men and women). Subjects were assigned to one of three groups: strength and endurance training on different days (DD: men n=21, women n=18), trainin...

  5. The role of common mental and physical disorders in days out of role in the Iraqi general population: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Rosellini, Anthony J; Lindberg, Marrena; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to support mental health policy planning efforts in conjunction with the reconstruction of Iraq, a nationally representative face-to-face household survey was carried out that assessed the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders in the Iraqi population. A total of 4332 adult (ages 18+) respondents were interviewed (95.2% response rate). The current report presents data on the role impairments (number of days out-of-role in the past 30 days) associated with the nine mental disorders assessed in the survey in comparison to the impairments associated with ten chronic physical disorders also assessed in the survey. These disorders were all assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Days out-of-role were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. Both individual-level and societal-level effects of the disorders were estimated. Strongest individual-level predictors were bipolar and drug abuse disorders (176-195 days per year), with mental disorders making up five of the seven strongest predictors. The strongest population-level predictors were headache/migraine and arthritis (22-12% population proportions). Overall population proportions were 57% of days out-of-role due to the chronic physical disorders considered here and 18% for the mental disorders. Despite commonly-occurring mental disorders accounting for more individual-level days out-of-role than the physical disorders, mental disorders are much less likely to receive treatment in Iraq (e.g., due to stigma). These results highlight the need for culturally tailored mental health prevention and treatment programs in Iraq. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Day to day with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your breathing is: Getting harder Faster than before Shallow, and you cannot get a deep breath Also ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  7. Does the social gradient remain in the dietary habits of a health-conscious population? A study of Seventh-Day Adventists in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min Min; Chan, Carina K Y; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of health, and individuals with higher SES generally have better health than those with lower SES. One of the pathways that SES influences health is through health behaviors, such as dietary intake, and a higher SES has been associated with a better diet. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a social gradient in dietary habits among the Seventh-Day Adventists, a group of conservative Christians, where healthy eating is part of the doctrinal teaching. Data from a survey of 574 Adventists residing in West Malaysia, aged 18-80 years, were analyzed. Dietary habits were measured using the Nutrition subscale of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Education and income were significantly associated with dietary habits before and after controlling for demographics. There was a gradient of association; a higher level of education and higher income were associated with better dietary habits. However, only education remained significantly associated with dietary habits when the other two socioeconomic variables were included. Employment was not significantly associated with dietary habits before or after controlling for demographic variables and the other two sociodemographic variables. This study showed that education is the strongest predictor of healthy diet, and a social gradient in dietary habits still exists even among health-conscious population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Effects of organic complexed or inorganic Co, Cu, Mn and Zn supplementation during a 45-day preconditioning period on productive and health responses of feeder cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Cooke, R F; Silva, L G T; Schubach, K M; Brandao, A P; Marques, R S; Larson, C K; Russell, J R; Arispe, S A; DelCurto, T; Bohnert, D W

    2017-11-01

    This experiment evaluated production and health parameters among cattle offered concentrates containing inorganic or organic complexed sources of supplemental Cu, Co, Mn and Zn during a 45-day preconditioning period. In total, 90 Angus×Hereford calves were weaned at 7 months (day -1), sorted by sex, weaning BW and age (261±2 kg; 224±2 days), and allocated to 18 drylot pens (one heifer and four steers per pen) on day 0; thus, all pens had equivalent initial BW and age. Pens were randomly assigned to receive a corn-based preconditioning concentrate containing: (1) Cu, Co, Mn and Zn sulfate sources (INR), (2) Cu, Mn, Co and Zn complexed organic source (AAC) or (3) no Cu, Co, Mn and Zn supplementation (CON). From day 0 to 45, cattle received concentrate treatments (2.7 kg/animal daily, as-fed basis) and had free-choice access to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), long-stem hay and water. The INR and AAC treatments were formulated to provide the same daily amount of Co, Cu, Mn and Zn at a 50-, 16-, 8- and ninefold increase, respectively, compared with the CON treatment. On day 46, cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot, maintained as a single pen, and offered a free-choice receiving diet until day 103. Calf full BW was recorded on days -1 and 0, 45 and 46, and 102 and 103 for average daily gain (ADG) calculation. Liver biopsy was performed on days 0 (used as covariate), 22 and 45. Cattle were vaccinated against respiratory pathogens on days 15, 29 and 46. Blood samples were collected on days 15, 29, 45, 47, 49, 53 and 60. During preconditioning, mean liver concentrations of Co, Zn and Cu were greater (P⩽0.03) in AAC and INR compared with CON. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.17) for preconditioning feed intake, ADG or feed efficiency. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.48) for plasma concentrations of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica, bovine viral diarrhea types 1 and 2 viruses. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations were similar

  9. [Changing health, activity and mood Department of day care clients comprehensive social service center: training program, methods, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, V I

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of changes in the self-assessment of health, activity and mood of older clients (men and women) separating the daycare center of the complex of social services. Used psychodiagnostic method of self-assessment of the functional state of the differential «Test SAN» (V.A.Doskin, N.A. Lavrentiev, V.B.Sphere, M.P.Miroshnikov). The study of these states conducted before and after the implementation of targeted training programs, simulation and which goal setting made from the standpoint of the system and subject-activity approach.

  10. HIV testing and attitudes among the working-age population of Japan: annual health checkups may offer an effective way forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV has been recommended for people concerned about their infection risk, especially those in high-risk groups. Although HIV awareness has declined in this country somewhat during recent years, the number of newly-infected cases has been increasing. The purpose of the current study therefore, was to determine the prevalence of HIV testing, individuals' reasons for being tested, and the overall acceptance of HIV testing among working-age Japanese. We utilized an anonymous, nationwide survey which was administered to a total of 3,055 participants aged 20-69 yr. The lifetime prevalence of HIV testing was 14% (2% within the past year). A gap was observed between a prior history of HIV testing and willingness to be tested in future (32%) or willingness to be tested during health checkups in the workplace (41%). HIV testing appears to have only been conducted among a limited number of working-age Japanese adults, even though some reported a willingness to be tested. Opportunities for VCT during workplace health checkups might offer an immediate and positive way forwards in the fight against HIV; however, privacy protection for test results and the acceptance of HIV-positive employees should be carefully considered in the workplace.

  11. Admission to day stay early parenting program is associated with improvements in mental health and infant behaviour: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental

  12. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  13. Influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on young children's physical activity and health: protocol for the PLAYCE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Maitland, Clover; Enkel, Stephanie; Trapp, Georgina; Trost, Stewart G; Schipperijn, Jasper; Boruff, Bryan; Lester, Leanne; Rosenberg, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-12-08

    The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers' physical activity. The PLAY Spaces & Environments for Children's Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study will empirically investigate the relative and cumulative influence of the day care, home and neighbourhood environment on preschoolers' physical activity. The PLAYCE study is a cross-sectional observational study (April 2015 to April 2018) of 2400 children aged 2-5 years attending long day care in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Accelerometers will measure physical activity with indoor physical activity measured using radio frequency identification. Global positioning systems will be used to determine outdoor location of physical activity around the home and neighbourhood for a subsample (n=310). The day care environment will be objectively measured using a validated audit tool. Other potential individual, social and physical environmental influences on preschoolers' physical activity will be collected by geographic information systems measures, parent and day care educator surveys. Ethical approval has been granted by The University of Western Australia Human Ethics Research Committee, approval number RA/4/1/7417. Findings will be published in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. Key findings will be disseminated to stakeholders, collaborators, policymakers and practitioners working in the ECEC sector. Day care centre directors

  14. [An art therapy project day to promote health for clients from burnout self-help groups--an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oepen, Renate; Gruber, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The present exploratory study dealt with the question whether a specialized concept of art therapy interventions could increase the current and habitual well-being for participants of burnout self-help groups. Quantitative: pre-post: Current well-being: list of discomforts (Beschwerdenliste: B-L); current mood scale (Aktuelle Stimmungsskala: ASTS); Habitual well-being: quality of life (SF-36); qualitative: post: semi-structured interviews with open key questions; evaluation: structured content analysis of Mayring. Quantitative: significant increase of current and habitual well-being; qualitative: generation of 3 general and 8 specific art therapy work factors. Specialized resource-activating concepts of art therapy interventions can effectively complement existing programs for burnout prevention and health promotion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Common ways Americans are incorporating fruits and vegetables into their diet: intake patterns by meal, source and form, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V; Hamner, Heather C; Kim, Sonia A; Dalenius, Karen

    2016-10-01

    We explored how Americans aged ≥2 years who consumed the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables on a given day incorporated fruits and vegetables into their diet compared with those who did not consume recommended amounts. We used 1 d of dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 to examine cross-sectional differences in mean intakes of fruits and vegetables in cup-equivalents by meal, source and form between the two groups. USA. NHANES 2007-2010 participants aged ≥2 years (n 17 571) with 1 d of reliable 24 h recall data. On a given day, the proportions of fruits and vegetables consumed at different meals were similar between those who consumed recommended amounts and those who did not. Among adults, 59-64 % of their intake of fruits was consumed at breakfast or as a snack and almost 90 % came from retail outlets regardless of whether they consumed the recommended amount or not. Adults who consumed the recommended amount of fruits ate more fruits in raw form and with no additions than those who did not. Among children and adults, 52-57 % of vegetables were consumed at dinner by both groups. Retail outlets were the main source of vegetables consumed (60-68 %). Our findings indicate that habits of when, where and how consumers eat fruits and vegetables might not need to change but increasing the amount consumed would help those not currently meeting the recommendation.

  16. Elder self-neglect is associated with an increased rate of 30-day hospital readmission: findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to examine the prospective relationship between reported elder self-neglect and the rate of 30-day hospital readmission in a community population. We conducted a prospective population-based study of community-dwelling older adults who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Of the 7,219 participants in the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a subset of 1,228 participants was reported to the social services agency for suspected elder self-neglect. The primary predictor was elder self-neglect reported to the social services agency. The outcome of interest was the annual rate of 30-day hospital readmission calculated from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid System hospitalization data from 1993 to 2009. Poisson regression models were used to assess these relationships. The average annual rate of 30-day hospital readmission for those without elder self-neglect was 0.2 (SD 0.7) and for those with reported elder self-neglect 0.9 (SD 2.8). After adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical comorbidities, cognitive function, physical function, and psychosocial well-being, elders who self-neglect had a significantly higher rate of 30-day hospital readmission (rate ratio 2.50, 95% confidence interval 2.02-3.10). Greater self-neglect severity [mild: parameter estimate (PE) 1.09, standard error (SE) 0.19, p day hospital readmission after considering the same confounders. Interaction term analyses suggest that the significant relationship between self-neglect and 30-day hospital readmission was not moderated by medical conditions, cognitive impairment, physical disability, or psychosocial well-being. Reported elder self-neglect was associated with increased rates of 30-day hospital readmission in this community population. Greater self-neglect severity was associated with a greater increase in the rate of 30-day hospital readmission

  17. 10 April 2014: Safety Day at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of chemicals is used every day in the different laboratories and workshops around CERN. Potentially toxic, corrosive, polluting or hazardous in other ways, these chemicals all have to be handled carefully, as we will be reminded by the Safety Day campaign to be held by the HSE Unit on 10 April to mark World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   The use of chemicals at CERN is regulated by "Safety Regulation SR-C, Chemical Agents", which defines the minimum health and safety protection requirements for people exposed to the potentially hazardous effects of dangerous chemicals. This regulation is complemented by other Safety guides. Regretfully, despite strict procedures and regular inspections, accidents caused by the improper use of chemicals do occur every year. "Unfortunately, each year we see a small number of accidents related to the handling of chemicals," confirms chemicals expert Jonathan Gulley, who is a member of the Prevention and Sa...

  18. Five Ways That Play Can Change Your Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  19. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  20. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-12-18

    Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p trend over time. In August, 2003, an outbreak of salmonellosis was linked to a hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  1. Resilience to health challenges is related to different ways of thinking: mediators of physical and emotional quality of life in a heterogeneous rare-disease cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2017-11-01

    We sought to understand what distinguishes people who confront health challenges but still manage to thrive. This study investigated whether resilience helps to explain the impact of health challenges on quality of life (QOL) outcomes, and how resilience relates to appraisal. A web-based survey of rare-disease panel participants included the Centers for Disease Control Healthy Days Core Module, the PROMIS-10, and comorbidities. The QOL Appraisal Profile-v2 assessed cognitive processes underlying QOL. Resilience was operationalized statistically using residual modeling, and hierarchical regressions tested the mediation hypothesis that resilience accounts for a significant amount of the relationship of appraisal to QOL. The study sample (n = 3,324; mean age 50; 86% female; 90% White) represented a range of diagnostic codes, with cancer and diseases of the nervous system being the most prevalent health conditions. After adjusting for comorbidities (catalysts), resilience was associated with better physical and emotional functioning, and different appraisal processes were associated with better or worse physical or emotional functioning. After controlling for catalysts, 62% of the association of Physical Functioning and 23% of the association between Emotional Functioning and appraisal were mediated by resilience. Physical and emotional resilience comprised some of the same appraisal processes, but physically resilient people were characterized by more appraisal processes than their emotionally resilient counterparts. Resilient people employ different appraisal processes than non-resilient people, and these processes differ for physical and emotional outcomes. Resilience was a stronger mediator of the relationship between physical rather than emotional functioning and appraisal.

  2. Effects of 10,000 steps a day on physical and mental health in overweight participants in a community setting: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Being overweight is associated not only with physical health problems, but also with risk of mental health problems. Increased physical activity (PA has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effect of walking on physical and mental health outcomes. Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a pedometer-based PA intervention on physical and mental health states. Method Thirty-five overweight participants with body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg•m–2 were selected and assigned to a 12-week pedometer-based walking program (10,000 steps•d–1. The profile of mood states, BMI, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (%BF, and lean body mass (LBM were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. The number of step counts was recorded 5 days a week in a diary booklet. Results The 30 participants who accumulated 10,000 steps•d–1 had significantly lower anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress scores compared with measurements taken prior to the intervention. Further, the participants had higher vigor scores compared to baseline. Regarding physical health, the participants who accrued 10,000 steps a day had significantly lower body weight, WC, BMI, and %BP. After adjustment for gender, height, and daily steps at follow-up, changes in WC were negatively associated with depression, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress. Conclusions An increase in PA by accumulating at least 10,000 steps•d–1 over a 12-week period improves physical and mood states in sedentary, overweight individuals.

  3. Effects of 10,000 steps a day on physical and mental health in overweight participants in a community setting: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is associated not only with physical health problems, but also with risk of mental health problems. Increased physical activity (PA) has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effect of walking on physical and mental health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a pedometer-based PA intervention on physical and mental health states. Thirty-five overweight participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg•m-2 were selected and assigned to a 12-week pedometer-based walking program (10,000 steps•d-1). The profile of mood states, BMI, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (%BF), and lean body mass (LBM) were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. The number of step counts was recorded 5 days a week in a diary booklet. The 30 participants who accumulated 10,000 steps•d-1 had significantly lower anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress scores compared with measurements taken prior to the intervention. Further, the participants had higher vigor scores compared to baseline. Regarding physical health, the participants who accrued 10,000 steps a day had significantly lower body weight, WC, BMI, and %BP. After adjustment for gender, height, and daily steps at follow-up, changes in WC were negatively associated with depression, fatigue, confusion, and total mood distress. An increase in PA by accumulating at least 10,000 steps•d-1 over a 12-week period improves physical and mood states in sedentary, overweight individuals.

  4. Weekly variation in health-care quality by day and time of admission: a nationwide, registry-based, prospective cohort study of acute stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Benjamin D; Cloud, Geoffrey C; James, Martin A; Hemingway, Harry; Paley, Lizz; Stewart, Kevin; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony G

    2016-07-09

    Studies in many health systems have shown evidence of poorer quality health care for patients admitted on weekends or overnight than for those admitted during the week (the so-called weekend effect). We postulated that variation in quality was dependent on not only day, but also time, of admission, and aimed to describe the pattern and magnitude of variation in the quality of acute stroke care across the entire week. We did this nationwide, registry-based, prospective cohort study using data from the Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme. We included all adult patients (aged >16 years) admitted to hospital with acute stroke (ischaemic or primary intracerebral haemorrhage) in England and Wales between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Our outcome measure was 30 day post-admission survival. We estimated adjusted odds ratios for 13 indicators of acute stroke-care quality by fitting multilevel multivariable regression models across 42 4-h time periods per week. The study cohort comprised 74,307 patients with acute stroke admitted to 199 hospitals. Care quality varied across the entire week, not only between weekends and weekdays, with different quality measures showing different patterns and magnitudes of temporal variation. We identified four patterns of variation: a diurnal pattern (thrombolysis, brain scan within 12 h, brain scan within 1 h, dysphagia screening), a day of the week pattern (stroke physician assessment, nurse assessment, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and assessment of communication and swallowing by a speech and language therapist), an off-hours pattern (door-to-needle time for thrombolysis), and a flow pattern whereby quality changed sequentially across days (stroke-unit admission within 4 h). The largest magnitude of variation was for door-to-needle time within 60 min (range in quality 35-66% [16/46-232/350]; coefficient of variation 18·2). There was no difference in 30 day survival between weekends and weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1

  5. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See www.onedayonearth.org for details on how to participate.

  6. Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act.

  7. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES THAT MAY AFFECT HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH AMONG BLACK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Design Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Setting Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. Participants 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Main Outcome Measures Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Results Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. Conclusions A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study. PMID:20073146

  8. Evaluation of conducting a screening assessment of nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Presentation of main goals and objectives of the global health project "NutritionDay".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) commenced in 2004 a global health project named "NutritionDay" aiming to promote awareness of proper nutritional status of hospitalized patients and to draw attention to the need for early detection of malnutrition among patients. Under the Polish law--pursunat to the regulation of the Minister of Health dated September 15, 2011 (amendment as of 27.12.2013)--a nutritional status of each patient should be assessed at the time of a hospital admission. of this study was to analyze the fulfilment of the mandatory questionnaire assessment of nutritional status at selected wards of one of Warsaw's clinical hospitals. The study included an analysis of medical records of patients hospitalized within 6 months (n = 26375). The correct fulfilment of screening questionnaire assessing nutritional status (NRS 2002 survey) and the information about patients' body weight as well as the results assessment of nutritional status were subject to the analysis. NRS 2002 questionnaire was present in only 67,14% medical records of patients, however 49.24% of them were unfilled. The obtained results confirming low degree of NRS 2002 questionnaires' fulfilment in one of the Warsaw clinical hospitals draws attention to the need for education of hospital personnel in the field of significance of screening of nutritional assessment and its regulations. The "NutritionDay" project is an interesting form to attract attention of the aforementioned problem and its global extent additionally encourage medical units to participate in the project.

  9. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study: agreement with 7-day 24-h recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-12-01

    To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied by socio-demographic factors. In one week 11-15-year-old Danish students completed HBSC questionnaires including meal frequency items. The following week they completed daily 24-h recall questionnaire about their meals (response rate 88.4 %, n = 412). Good to moderate agreement for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results. Migration status predicted disagreement between the two methods.

  10. Effect through inhalation on human health of PM1 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from foggy days in northern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-05

    We investigated the health risk from 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed on submicron particles and also reported their concentrations, spatial distribution and possible sources during foggy days at Kanpur. Twenty-four urban foggy day's samples gathered from Kanpur, an urban center in North India and most densely populated city in the Indo-Gangetic plain of India, were examined for 16 PAHs (2-6 rings).The mean concentration of PM1 was found to be 160.16±37.70μg/m(3). ∑16PAHs concentrations were 529.17ng/m(3) with a mean of 33.07ng/m(3). The compounds of higher molecular weight (4-6 rings) added to 70.67% of ∑PAHs mass concentration in the foggy day's samples. The results of source identification by using principle component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios proposed that the primary sources of PAHs were vehicular emission (primarily driven by diesel fuel) and coal combustion and the secondary source. Exposure to total PAHs in the ambient air resulted in, 95% probability total Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (TILCR) 3.57×10(-5) for adults and 2.08×10(-5) for children or (∼35 cancer case per million in adults and ∼20 cancer case per million in children) due to inhalation in terms of ILCR were higher than the baseline value of acceptable risk (one cancer case per million people) suggesting moderate health risk to resident human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Return-on-Investment (ROI) Analyses of an Inpatient Lay Health Worker Model on 30-Day Readmission Rates in a Rural Community Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Bausch, Gregory; Murdock, Joan; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2017-07-07

    The purpose of the study was to assess the return-on-investment (ROI) of an inpatient lay health worker (LHW) model in a rural Appalachian community hospital impacting 30-day readmission rates. The Bridges to Home (BTH) study completed an evaluation in 2015 of an inpatient LHW model in a rural Kentucky hospital that demonstrated a reduction in 30-day readmission rates by 47.7% compared to a baseline period. Using the hospital's utilization and financial data, a validated ROI calculator specific to care transition programs was used to assess the ROI of the BTH model comparing 3 types of payment models including Diagnosis Related Group (DRG)-only payments, pay-for-performance (P4P) contracts, and accountable care organizations (ACOs). The BTH program had a -$0.67 ROI if the hospital had only a DRG-based payment model. If the hospital had P4P contracts with payers and 0.1% of its annual operating revenue was at risk, the ROI increased to $7.03 for every $1 spent on the BTH program. However, if the hospital was an ACO as was the case for this study's community hospital, the ROI significantly increased to $38.48 for every $1 spent on the BTH program. The BTH model showed a viable ROI to be considered by community hospitals that are part of an ACO or P4P program. A LHW care transition model may be a cost-effective alternative for impacting excess 30-day readmissions and avoiding associated penalties for hospital systems with a value-based payment model. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  12. The three-way relationship of polymorphisms of porcine genes encoding terminal complement components, their differential expression, and health-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Klaus; Khoa, Do Vo Anh; Schütze, Sabine; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2011-06-03

    The complement system is an evolutionary ancient mechanism that plays an essential role in innate immunity and contributes to the acquired immune response. Three modes of activation, known as classical, alternative and lectin pathway, lead to the initiation of a common terminal lytic pathway. The terminal complement components (TCCs: C6, C7, C8A, C8B, and C9) are encoded by the genes C6, C7, C8A, C8B, C8G, and C9. We aimed at experimentally testing the porcine genes encoding TCCs as candidate genes for immune competence and disease resistance by addressing the three-way relationship of genotype, health related phenotype, and mRNA expression. Comparative sequencing of cDNAs of animals of the breeds German Landrace, Piétrain, Hampshire, Duroc, Vietnamese Potbelly Pig, and Berlin Miniature Pig (BMP) revealed 30 SNPs (21 in protein domains, 12 with AA exchange). The promoter regions (each ~1.5 kb upstream the transcription start sites) of C6, C7, C8A, C8G, and C9 exhibited 29 SNPs. Significant effects of the TCC encoding genes on hemolytic complement activity were shown in a cross of Duroc and BMP after vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky disease virus and PRRSV by analysis of variance using repeated measures mixed models. Family based association tests (FBAT) confirmed the associations. The promoter SNPs were associated with the relative abundance of TCC transcripts obtained by real time RT-PCR of 311 liver samples of commercial slaughter pigs. Complement gene expression showed significant relationship with the prevalence of acute and chronic lung lesions. The analyses point to considerable variation of the porcine TCC genes and promote the genes as candidate genes for disease resistance.

  13. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  14. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  15. Adult Day Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... institutional care while still providing consistent medical monitoring Average Annual Cost Per Person 6 $75,000 $50,000 Homemaker Home Health Aide Semi Private Private $25,000 Adult Day Servi Acesssisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes $0 1. General information based on ...

  16. Energy policy - way out and wrong way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The way out, i.e. the right solution of the energy supply problem, is solar energy. The wrong way are high-temperature reactors and nuclear fusion. Arguments are put forward that nuclear fusion, considered an alternative to the harmful nuclear fission even by some nuclear opponents, is in fact equally harmful. (qui)

  17. Forty Days after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Field Research Investigating Community Engagement and Traumatic Stress Screening in a Post-Disaster Community Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Peter W.; Hall, Brian; Nagae, Nobukazu; McCauley, Jenna L.; Yoder, Matthew; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Acierno, Ron; Dussich, John

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes the results of posttraumatic stress educational outreach and screening offered to 141 citizens of Japan who attended a public-service mental health training regarding post-disaster coping 40 days after a 6.8 Richter Scale earthquake, local and regional deaths, and an ongoing nuclear radiation threat. Attendees were given access to anonymous questionnaires that were integrated into the training as a tool to help enhance mental health literacy and bridge communication gaps. Questionnaires were turned in by a third of those in attendance. Among respondents, multiple exposures to potentially-traumatic events were common. More than a quarter of respondents met criteria for probable PTSD. Physical health and loss of sense of community were related to PTSD symptoms. Associations and diagnosis rates represented in these data are not generalizable to the population as a whole or intended for epidemiological purposes; rather, they are evidence of a potentially useful approach to post-disaster clinical screening, education, and engagement. Results are presented in the context of previous findings in Japan and ecologically-supportive post-disaster field research is discussed. PMID:23977819

  18. 'Walk This Way' - a pilot of a health coaching intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase low intensity exercise in people with serious mental illness: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie; Stubbs, Brendon; Gaughran, Fiona; Craig, Tom

    2016-12-12

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) (psychosis, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) experience a considerable risk of premature mortality because of cardiovascular disease. Recent research has demonstrated that this population spends almost 13 h per day being sedentary. Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Given the potential for physical activity to improve health and well-being in people with SMI, we developed a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a coaching intervention aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity in people with SMI. Our primary aim was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Secondary aims were to see if the Walk This Way (WTW) intervention decreased sedentary behaviour and increased activity levels. People with SMI who met any of the following criteria were recruited by two community mental health teams in South London: (1) overweight, (2) at risk for or have diabetes, (3) smoke tobacco or (4) have a sedentary lifestyle. Care co-coordinators (clinical case managers) identified potentially eligible participants within their caseload, and these individuals were subsequently invited to participate. All participants' physical activity (self-reported and accelerometer-recorded), health status (including metabolic blood tests) and motivation to exercise were assessed at baseline. Participants were randomised to receive treatment as usual or the WTW intervention. WTW consisted of an educational intervention at baseline on the benefits of an active lifestyle. Participants were then given a pedometer and received fortnightly coaching from a staff member trained in coaching skills to help them to set daily walking targets, and they were invited to a weekly walking group. The WTW intervention lasted 17 weeks in total. To our knowledge, WTW is the first RCT to investigate the impact of a health coaching intervention

  19. A Four-Session Sleep Intervention Program Improves Sleep for Older Adult Day Health Care Participants: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Song, Yeonsu; Hughes, Jaime; Jouldjian, Stella; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A

    2017-08-01

    To test the effectiveness of a 4-week behavioral Sleep Intervention Program (SIP: sleep compression, modified stimulus control, and sleep hygiene) compared to a 4-week information-only control (IC) among older adults attending a VA Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-two individuals (mean age: 77 years, 93% male) enrolled in a VA ADHC program were randomized to receive SIP or IC. All completed in-person sleep and health assessments at baseline, post-treatment and 4-months follow-up that included 3 days/nights of wrist actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Mixed repeated measures analysis was used to compare sleep outcomes at post-treatment and 4-months follow-up, with baseline values as covariates. SIP participants (n = 21) showed significant improvement on actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = .007), number of nighttime awakenings (p = .016), and minutes awake at night (p = .001) at post-treatment, compared to IC participants (n = 21). Benefits were slightly attenuated but remained significant at 4-month follow-up (all p's sleep time between groups. There was significant improvement on PSQI factor 3 (daily disturbances) at 4-month follow-up (p = .016), but no differences were observed between SIP and IC on other PSQI components or ISI scores at post-treatment or 4-month follow-up. A short behavioral sleep intervention may have important benefits in improving objectively measured sleep in older adults participating in ADHC. Future studies are needed to study implementation of this intervention into routine clinical care within ADHC. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background . The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods . Participants were school-aged children ( N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results . Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  1. IBD Around the world: comparing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment: proceedings of the World Digestive Health Day 2010--Inflammatory Bowel Disease Task Force meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Daniel C; Bernstein, Charles N; Abbas, Zaigham; Colombel, Jean F; Day, Andrew S; D'Haens, Geert; Dotan, Iris; Goh, Khean L; Hibi, Toshifumi; Kozarek, Richard A; Quigley, Eamonn M M; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E; Sollano, Jose D; Steinhart, A Hillary; Steinwurz, Flávio; Vatn, Morten H; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K

    2011-02-01

    Every May 29th the World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO) celebrates World Digestive Health Day (WDHD) and initiates a worldwide public health campaign through its 110 national societies and 50,000 members. Each year focuses on a particular digestive disorder in order to increase general public awareness of prevention and therapy. 2010 is dedicated to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Upon this occasion a WGO IBD task force was compiled from leading international specialists and researchers. The task force also included members of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Diseases (IOIBD) and the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) of the United European Gastroenterology Federation (UEGF). The goal of the task force was to bring together IBD specialists from around the world to discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of IBD within different regions. This is a summary of the WGO task force meeting at the American Gastroenterological Association's (AGA) Digestive Disease Week, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, May, 2010. The expert panel identified the most pressing issues in IBD worldwide: reliable epidemiological data, global collaboration in clinical and basic research, the approach to distinguishing intestinal tuberculosis from Crohn's disease, access to specialist care and access to the latest diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  2. Electronic health record solutions to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections by enhancing documentation of central line insertion practices, line days, and daily line necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Kathleen A; Cousins, Sarah M; Porter, Darlene D; O'Brien, Margaret; Rudkin, Scott; Lambertson, Brian; Hoang, Dennis; Dangodara, Amish A; Huang, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) continue to cause preventable morbidity and mortality, but methods for tracking and ensuring consistency of CLABSI-prevention activities remain underdeveloped. We created an integrated electronic health record solution to prompt sterile central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, CVC tracking, and timely line removal. The system embedded central line insertion practices (CLIP) elements in inserter procedure notes, captured line days and new lines, matching each with its CLIP form and feeding back compliance, and enforced daily documentation of line necessity in physician progress notes. We examined changes in CLIP compliance and form submission, number of new line insertions captured, and necessary documentation. Standard reporting of CLIP compliance, which measures compliance per CLIP form received, artificially inflated CLIP compliance relative to compliance measured using CVC placements as the denominator; for example, 99% per CLIP form versus 55% per CVC placement. This system established a higher threshold for CLIP compliance using this denominator. Identification of CVCs increased 35%, resulting in a decrease in CLABSI rates. The system also facilitated full compliance with daily documentation of line necessity. Integrated electronic health records systems can help realize the full benefit of CLABSI prevention strategies by promoting, tracking, and raising the standard for best practices behavior. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ways of promoting health to patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease from a nursing perspective in Vietnam: A phenomenographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion plays an important role in the management of diabetes and chronic kidney disease, especially when the prevalence of the disease is rising in Vietnam. Nurses have been identified to be the front figure in health promotion; however, little is written about how nurses in Vietnam work with these issues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurses’ conceptions about how health is promoted, with special focus on physically activity, for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Individual interviews were done with 25 nurses working at two major hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. A phenomenographic approach was used to analyse the interviews. Nurses described how creating positive relationships and supporting patients to take part in their social context promoted health. Health was also promoted by educating patients and relatives about health and disease and by supporting patients to be physically active. The findings indicate that the Vietnamese nursing knowledge about health promotion needs to be gathered, and health promotion needs to be further integrated in the education. Further research is necessary to examine patients’ knowledge and attitudes about health and the efficiency of various health-promoting strategies in the Vietnamese context.

  4. Taking the right action in the right way: a comparison of frameworks for assessing the health and quality of life of a postsecondary student campus community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racher, Frances E; Hyndman, Kathyrn; Anonson, June; Arries, Ebin; Foster, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The focus of campus health research, historically, has been on population health at the individual or aggregate level with little effort to examine the health of the students at a community level with a focus on the broader determinants of health and community-level intervention. The purpose of this article is to critique three models or frameworks of campus health, articulate the World Health Organization (WHO) vision of a health-promoting university, and demonstrate the efficacy of adapting the Community Health Action model for use in university and college settings. Foundational within this proposed model is taking the right action using the right process, an inclusive participatory process. Adaptation of the model requires careful attention to student engagement in community, a healthy campus infrastructure and processes, and relationships beyond the campus. Effective student community assessment and improvement of student community health, ultimately, will serve to generate knowledge and build skills at various levels to benefit the health and quality of life of the students, their student community, the educational institution, and the broader community.

  5. Fingerprinting the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers has shown how to use the chemical composition of stars in clusters to shed light on the formation of our Milky Way. This discovery is a fundamental test for the development of a new chemical tagging technique uncovering the birth and growth of our Galactic cradle. The formation and evolution of galaxies, and in particular of the Milky Way - the 'island universe' in which we live, is one of the major puzzles of astrophysics: indeed, a detailed physical scenario is still missing and its understanding requires the joint effort of observations, theories and complex numerical simulations. ESO astronomer Gayandhi De Silva and her colleagues used the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on ESO's VLT to find new ways to address this fundamental riddle. ESO PR Photo 15/07 ESO PR Photo 15/07 The Cluster Collinder 261 "We have analysed in great detail the chemical composition of stars in three star-clusters and shown that each cluster presents a high level of homogeneity and a very distinctive chemical signature," says De Silva, who started this research while working at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australia. "This paves the way to chemically tagging stars in our Galaxy to common formation sites and thus unravelling the history of the Milky Way," she adds. "Galactic star clusters are witnesses of the formation history of the Galactic disc," says Kenneth Freeman, also from Mount Stromlo and another member of the team. "The analysis of their composition is like studying ancient fossils. We are chasing pieces of galactic DNA!" Open star clusters are among the most important tools for the study of stellar and galactic evolution. They are composed of a few tens up to a few thousands of stars that are gravitationally bound, and they span a wide range of ages. The youngest date from a few million years ago, while the oldest (and more rare) can have ages up to ten billion years. The well

  6. Effects of a 10-Day Intensive Health Promotion Program Combining Diet and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Factors of Young Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.

  7. Characterization, sources and health risk analysis of PM2.5 bound metals during foggy and non-foggy days in sub-urban atmosphere of Agra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Awni; Mangal, Ankita; Satsangi, Aparna; Lakhani, Anita; Maharaj Kumari, K.

    2017-11-01

    A study was conducted at a campus site of Agra to determine the metals in fine mode particles (PM2.5) and assess their associated health effects in adults and children during the period from 7th December 2015 to 17th February 2016. PM2.5 mass concentrations (190 μg/m3 and 132 μg/m3) exceeded the air quality standards of India by a factor of 3.2 and 2.2 during the foggy and non-foggy days, respectively. Total concentration varied from 11.9 μg/m3 to 40.6 μg/m3 during the fog period and from 5.7 μg/m3 to 25.8 μg/m3 during the non-foggy period for seventeen metals (including metals with concentration > 1 μg/m3, 0.1-1 μg/m3, 0.01-0.1 μg/m3 and effect of carcinogenic risk was higher for adults (ILCR: 2.25E - 04) than for children (ILCR: 1.31E - 04).

  8. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the impact on nutrition- and health-related practice of two methods of delivery of a nutrition and health intervention in Irish full-day-care pre-schools: training of pre-school managers only or training of managers and their staff.

  10. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Kiros; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by environmental and occupational health hazards and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. However, no adequate information seems to be available on the current situation. This means there is a critical gap in research, policy framework and implementation in the country. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize evidence from a systematic situational analysis and needs assessment to help establish a hub for research and training on three major themes and their related policy frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, government and national statistical reports. Limited primary data based on key informant interviews held with major stakeholders were also used as sources of data. Exposures to high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollutants were found to be major sources of public health challenges. Lack of occupational safety and health due to agricultural activities and exposure to industries was found to be substantial. Worse is the growing fear that climate change will pose increasingly significant multidimensional challenges to the environment and public health. Across all three areas of focus, there was a paucity of information on local scientific evidence. There is also very limited trained skilled manpower and physical infrastructure to monitor the environment and enforce regulatory guidelines. Research, policy frameworks and regulatory mechanisms were among the cross-cutting issues that needed urgent attention. Critical gaps were observed in research and training across the three themes. Also, there is a limitation in implementing the link between policy and related regulations in the environment and health.

  11. Prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador: replanejando o trabalho através das negociações cotidianas Preventing damage to workers' health: redesigning jobs through day-to-day negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador através do replanejamento do trabalho. Compreendendo o replanejamento como processo de negociação de escolhas organizacionais, apresenta as características das negociações cotidianas processadas no chão de fábrica e relata, a título de exemplo, um caso de negociação cotidiana que toma por objeto a organização do processo de trabalho da produção fabril de uma indústria de alimentos. Por fim, discute os alcances e os limites de tais negociações à luz da prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador.This paper reflects on prevention of harm to workers' health by redesigning jobs. Assuming redesign as the process of negotiating organizational choices, the author discusses the characteristics of routine negotiation at the workplace, illustrated by daily negotiations in work process organization at a Brazilian food-processing factory. Finally, the author discusses both the range and limits of such negotiations in the prevention of harm to workers' health.

  12. Scientific days on electromagnetic fields: from dosimetry to human health - Conference proceedings; Journees scientifiques - Champs electromagnetiques: de la dosimetrie a la sante humaine - Recueil des resumes et presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiart, J.; Ghanmi, A.; Picon, O.; Conil, E.; Varsier, N.; Hadjem, A.; Sudret, B.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Gaudaire, F.; De Seze, R.; Jawad, O.; Lautru, D.; Dricot, J.M.; Horlin, F.; De Doncker, P.; Drissaoui, A.; Musy, F.; Nicolas, L.; Perrussel, R.; Scorretti, R.; Voyer, D.; Jala, M.; Moulines, E.; Levy-Leduc, C.; Mahfouz, Z.; Gati, A.; Fouad Hanna, V.; Leveque, P.; Arnaud-Cormos, D.; Zhadobov, M.; Jarrige, P.; Gaborit, G.; Kohler, S.; Ticaud, N.; Duvillaret, L.; Guelilia, Z.; Loison, R.; Gillard, R.; Laisne, A.; Favet, D.; Benadhira, R.; Mir, L.; Nadi, M.; Kourtiche, D.; Gazeau, F.; Wilhelm, C.; Delemotte, L.; Breton, M.; Tarek, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Yardin, C.; Perrin, A.; Le Drean, Y.; Sauleau, R.; Lambrozo, J.; Selmaoui, B.; Ghosn, R.; Thuroczy, G.; Villegier, A.S.; Loos, N.; Brenet-Dufour, V.; Liabeuf, S.; Bach, V.; Moretti, D.; Lewis, N.; Garenne, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Haro, E.; Lagroye, I.; Bornat, Y.; Boutaib, Y.; Saighi, S.; Renaud, S.; Veyre, B.; Schuz, J.; Deltour, I.; Van Deventer, E.; Vecchia, P.; Merckel, O.; Bellaouel, A.; Demaret, P.; Donati, P.; Jovanovic, D.; Chauvin, S.; Desreumaux, J.P.; Fouquet, L.; Picard, D.; Massardier-Pilonchery, A.; Hours, M.; Bergeret, A.; Person, C.; Toutain, Y.; Butet, R.; Berrahma, K.; Balderelli, I.; Stelmaszyk, V.; Cretallaz, C.; Lamproglou, I.; Amourette, C.; Diserbo, M.; Fauquette, W.; Martigne, P.; Collin, A.; Lagroye, I.; Ait Aissa, S.; Hurtier, A.; Taxile, M.; Le Montagner, L.; Athane, A.; Duleu, S.; Percherancier, Y.; Geffard, M.; Ruffie, G.; Billaudel, B.; Veyret, B.; Pelletier, A.; Delanaud, S.; Libert, J.P.; Schunck, T.; Bieth, F.; Soubere Mahamoud, Y.; Le Quement, C.; Ferrand, G.; Le Guevel, R.; Carton, P.H.; Luong, M.; Tanvir, S.; Selmaoui, B.; Silva Pires-Antonietti, V.; Sonnet, P.; Pulvin, S.; Kuster, O.; Tetelin, C.

    2012-04-15

    This document brings together the available presentations (articles and slides) given at the URSI scientific days on electromagnetic fields: dosimetry, peoples' exposure, biological and health risks, risk management, and medical uses. 48 presentations are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Stochastic dosimetry: variability challenge; 2 - How to estimate the exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic field in an epidemiological study?; 3 - Joint analysis of population exposure and radio coverage of GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks; 4 - Study of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) sensitiveness to phone positions near the head for 2 GSM mobile phones; 5 - Statistical Study of SAR under Wireless Channel - Exposure in Indoor Environment; 6 - Uncertainty propagation in numerical dosimetry: how to reduce calculation costs?; 7 - Use of a simplified pregnant woman model for foetus exposure analysis; 8 - SAR estimation using multi-exposure with a mobile phone; 9 - State-of-the-art in experimental dosimetry (RF and pulses); 10 - Mm-waves dosimetry: issues, stakes and actual solutions; 11 - Use of DG-FDTD for a dosimetry calculation in a strongly multi-scale problem: determination of the eye-SAR near a HF/VHF vehicle-borne source; 12 - Dosimetric measurements with a fiber-type electro-optical sensor; 13 - Partial experimental evaluation of basic restrictions in the HF/VHF range; 14 - Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation Stimulation (rTMS) in psychiatry: present day situation and perspectives; 15 - Medical applications of electric fields; 16 - Measurements for life: new perspectives? 17 - Nano-particles and magnetic stimuli for medical imaging and therapy; 18 - Molecular Insights into electroporation and siRNA electro-transfer through model cell membranes; 19 - State of knowledge on electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity (HS-CEM); 20 - Experimentation methodology: from results to interpretation; 22 - Mm waves - update on biological effects at 40-60 GHz; 23

  13. Determination of heavy metals and human health risk assessment of road dust on the Tema motor way and Tetteh Quarshie interchange in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiemo, S.M.; Ofosu, F.G.; Aboh, I.J.K.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Street dust samples were collected from Tema Motor way (near Ashiaman overhead) and Tetteh Quarshie interchange in Accra. The samples were segregated into two groups of grain sizes between 100 um - 250 um and the other being less than 100 um. Energy dispersive X-ray florescence technique was used to determine their elemental compositions. In all twenty (20) elements were identified: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. The results show significant concentrations levels of K, Ca, Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Cr in all the samples. Enrichment factors determined for the elements show high enrichment of V, Zn, Cu, Zr, Cr, Br and Pb from the sample sites. There was no indication of significant anthropogenic contribution of manganese (Mn) which gave average enrichment factor values of 0.60 and 0.78 in the road dust at the Tema motor way and Tetteh Quarshie Interchange respectively. Risk assessment of selected heavy metal contaminants from both sites indicate that Pb gave Hazard Index (HI) values of 0.56 and 0.62 which falls below the safe level of one (1). It was also observed that ingestion which gave HI values of 2.1 and 2.3 was the highest risk of exposure pathway. Tetteh Quarshie Interchange gave the highest cumulative risk of exposure. (author)

  14. [Who are the recipients of labile blood products? A multicenter nation-wide study--a "donation day." Blood banks, health facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, J-F; Berthier, F; Courbil, R; Courtois, F; Chenais, F; Waller, C; Leconte des Floris, M-F; Andreu, G; Fontaine, O; Le Niger, C; Puntous, M; Mercadier, A; Nguyen, L; Pélissier, E; Gondrexon, G; Staccini, P

    2009-03-01

    During the years 1994-2001, a progressive decrease of the number of blood units transfused has been reported in France. In contrast, since 2002, there is an increasing number of blood units issuing (+7.6% between 2001 and 2006) and this must be investigated. On behalf of the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the "Recipients" working group promoted a nation wide survey with the support of the regional blood transfusion centres. This survey was aimed at describing the profiles of the transfused patients: socio-demographical patterns, and reasons of the blood transfusion (main and associated diagnoses). A cross-sectional survey was designed. All the patients who received a blood unit during a specific day were considered as the population of the study. They were identified by the regional transfusion centres by means of the "individual issuing form". Survey forms were fully filled for 90% of the patients. It has been considered as a good answer rate. Seven thousand four hundred and twenty-two blood units, delivered to 3450 patients were analyzed. Three groups of pathologies were found as a reason of transfusion: haematology-oncology (52.70% of the prescriptions) with 892 patients (27.8%) for haematological malignancies; surgical procedures (23.99%); intensive care and medicine procedures (21.92%). More than 50% of the recipients are 70 years old and more. This result is explained by the age distribution of inpatients. In a context of lack of donors and consequently difficulties to provide patients with optimal number of blood units, this study is helpful. Variability of blood unit issuings must be detected, analyzed and monitored in real time by the actors of the transfusion process, using computerized dashboards: the blood units provider (in order to adjust the strategy of blood units provision) and the health care establishment as well as care blood components prescribers (reasons of blood transfusion and evaluation of practices).

  15. Physical and digital proximity: emerging ways of health care in face-to-face and telemonitoring of heart-failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of telehealth-care technologies profoundly changes existing practices of care. This paper aims to enhance our understanding of these changes by providing a comparative study of health-care services for heart-failure patients based on face-to-face contacts in a policlinic (department

  16. Innovative ways to address the mental health and medical needs of marginalized patients: collaborations between family physicians, family therapists, and family psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren L; Bray, James H; Davis, Lisa; Holleman, Marsha C

    2004-07-01

    This article describes an innovative program to meet the needs of homeless women, children, and families residing at a transitional living center in an urban setting. The program involves collaboration between medical and mental health professionals to address the multiple problems and unmet needs of this population. Recommendations for future work in expanding collaborative practice are discussed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  17. How way leads on to way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I briefly recount the historical events in my native country that led me to become a plant pathologist. I started as a field pathologist specializing in fungal diseases of legumes, moved to biochemical research on virulence factors, and then on to molecular plant-microbe interactions. I describe the impact my graduate studies at the University of California (UC)-Davis had on my career. My life's work and teaching can be said to reflect the development in plant pathology during the past 40 years. I have included a concise review of the development of plant pathology in Israel and the ways it is funded. Dealing with administrative duties while conducting research has contributed to my belief in the importance of multidisciplinary approaches and of preserving the applied approach in the teaching of plant pathology.

  18. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  19. Day case surgery in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, it is important to introduce and popularize the concept of day case surgery, as this may help hospitals and healthcare ... practised in developed countries. DSUs are the best way to achieve results and so it is important for all to embrace this ..... There should be teamwork between groups. • Liaison with community ...

  20. THE CONNECTION OF LEARNED HELPLESSNESS, WILL-POWER DEVELOPMENT AND SOMATIC HEALTH OF PRE-SCHOOLERS: THE CORE AND WAYS OF PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vladimirovna Volkova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the detailed theoretically-methodological analysis of the modern psychological researches devoted to studying of a “helplessness” phenomenon. The question of studying the relevance of “learned helplessness” phenomenon interrelation with somatic health of the person in the course of his human development is raised. The problem of interrelation of will-power development level with specifics of formation the phenomenon of "learned helplessness" is raised. The special role in this research is given to the pre-school age (the object of the study as one of the most important periods in the process of human development. The presented integrative approach includes both inter and intra personal factors determining children’s development in the pre-school age, in particular specific features of the age, somatic health, specific child’s health and disease perception, special type of parental attitude to the child’s state of health, special type of parental attitude to the child determining the learned helplessness formation. Expediency of mechanisms specifics of formation the "learned helplessness" from the position of psychosomatic approaches, also taking into account basic provisions of the modern cultural and historical concept is proved.Purpose of the research is to study the connection between the phenomena of “learned helplessness” and the level of will-power development in the pre-school age combined with the weakened somatic health, also developing the special program aimed to prevent the formation of learned helplessness in the pre-school age.Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is presented with culturally historical approach in Psychology, principle of system and psycho-somatic approach, ideas of L.S. Vygotsky about the social situation of development and the zone of nearest development as the most important circumstances of child’s personality formation, conceptual theory

  1. Ways of the Jam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck, Lars

    In the PhD-dissertation Ways of the Jam I investigate jamming and learning as profoundly collective and improvisational matters. Bridging a theory of funk jamming with situated learning theoretical analyses of New Orleans second line, everyday leadership, and of a studio recording session...... demonstrate how looking at human activity from a jamming perspective enhances our understanding of learning as a complex collective and improvisational process. Ways of the Jam demonstrates how learning is a matter of changing improvisational participation in changing practice in analytically inseparable ways...

  2. Service- and population-based exemptions: are these the way forward for equity and efficiency in health financing in low-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and political economic reasons. In response, many countries have changed their approach in recent years--while maintaining user fees as a necessary source of revenue for facilities, they have been switching to categorical targeting, offering exemptions based on high-priority services or population groups. This chapter aims to examine the impact and conditions for effectiveness of this recent health finance modality. The chapter is based on a literature review and on data from two complex evaluations of national fee exemption policies for delivery care in West Africa (Ghana and Senegal). A conceptual framework for analysing the impact of exemption policies is developed and used. Although the analysis focuses on exemption for deliveries, the framework and findings are likely to be generalisable to other service- or population-based exemptions. The chapter presents background information on the nature of delivery exemptions, the drivers for their use, their scale and common modalities in low-income countries. It then looks at evidence of their impact, on utilisation, quality of care and equity and investigates their cost-effectiveness. The final section presents lessons on implementation and implications for policy-makers, including the acceptability and sustainability of exemptions and how they compare to other possible mechanisms. The chapter concludes that funded service- or group-based exemptions offer a simple, potentially effective route to mitigating inequity and inefficiency in the health systems of low-income countries. However, there are a number of key constraints. One is the fungibility of resources at health facility level. The second is the difficulty of sustaining a separate funding stream over the medium to long term. The third is the arbitrary basis for selecting high-priority services for

  3. America's top model. As the health information exchange market heats up--with vendors jockeying for position and funds being allocated--one state is paving the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-07-01

    As states move forward in establishing health information exchanges (HIEs), many are looking to New York State for guidance. New York, which got an early start in building a data exchange program, has been successful in securing private investments to supplement its public funds. It has also established a credible infrastructure, governance and policy framework for a statewide HIE network. However, significant hurdles to successful HIE implementation remain. One industry report cautions that policy, security, patient consent, lack of data standards and physician acceptance still need to be addressed.

  4. Assessment of unhealthy days of urban marginal inhabitants and effective factors in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ziaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of the quality of life (HRQOL related to health and its determinants contain aspects of quality of life that clearly affect people’s physical or mental health. One of the newest ways to assess the health and also the quality of life-related to health is the self-assessed health of the individual. The aim of the present study was assessment of unhealthy days, self-reported health status, and its influencing factors on residents of the marginalpart of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 580 citizens of the marginal regions and slum areas of Mashhad city were enrolled through cluster sampling method using governmental health care services divisions. The Persian version of the questionnaire CDC HRQOL-4 was used to measure the unhealthy days. Data was analyzed using SPSS, version 11.5, running ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the present study, 359 persons (61% were women and the mean age of participants was 32.6±11.51 years. The means of unhealthy days, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and days with dysfunction were found to be 7.2, 2.8, 4.1, and 1.7 days, respectively. The unhealthiest days (physical and mental were seen in unemployed people and the best to excellent health days were seen in housewives. Conclusion: Unhealthy days and days with dysfunction were reported higher in slum inhabitants, especially female, low literacy, and housewife participants. Providing the education and employment facilities for people who live in marginal city areas might decrease the unhealthy days.Keywords: Unhealthy days; Health; Urban Marginal Inhabitants; Mashhad

  5. Community of practice as a collective way of learning and development of practices and knowledge of the family health strategy: a theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ecilda Lima Ellery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present and discuss the contribution of the concept of Community of Practice (CP, while collective space of learning and development of knowledge and practice in multidisciplinary teams of Family Health Strategy. Methods: Theoretical study through nonsystematic literature reviews the theme of “Communities of Practice” in the work of social researchers Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger, who developed this concept, completed with studies on the same topic from the research in online databases. Results: A CP is characterized by a group of people who forged and got engaged in a common project, sharing a repertoire, which allowed communication between them. Several effects are attributed to the experienceof working together in a CP, such as the socialization of knowledge, the interprofessional collaboration and the development of an environment conducive to reflective practice, which facilitates the conflict mediation. The theory of CP requires a major change in theconception of learning. Unlike theories that consider learning as resulting mainly from the internal process of the person, as the cognitive, the CP’s theory conceives learning through the angle of social participation. The inter-relationship developed by the CP influences the learning process, negotiation of meaning and identity formation, which results from the fact of belonging to the community and from the meaning attributed to the collaborative. Conclusion: The formation of Community of Practice in Family Health Strategy can be adevice to facilitate the construction of interdisciplinary projects, expressed by the integration of knowledge and interprofessional collaboration.

  6. 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth / For Teens / 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...

  7. Sacred Way (Greek World)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Sacred ways were roads that led to major sanctuaries, typically those located at a distance from the urban center, and were the vehicles for the processions involved in civic festivals at these shrines.

  8. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    and astronomy) who transitioned to being a freelance science writer. Wearing a distinctive bowler hat, Francis talked to a room full of students (and some non-students!) about what its like to be a science writer. Here are some highlights from among his recommendations and comments.A day in the life of a science writer.About the mechanics of freelancing:Some sample numbers: he wrote 73 articles in 2015, for 12 different publications. These vary in length and time invested. He supports himself fully by freelancing.The time between pitching a story and getting it published can vary between a few hours for online news stories to months for feature articles.The answer to the question, What do science writers do all day? (see photo)About transitioning into science writing:If youre interested in a science writing career, start blogging now to build up a portfolio.Use your training! As a researcher, you can read plots, understand scientific articles, and talk to scientists as colleagues. These are great strengths.About writing for the public:Theres a difference in writing for academics and the public: when writing for academics, youre trying to bring them up to your level. When writing for the public, thats probably not the goal.That said, on the subject of dumbing down: If you think your audience is somehow deficient, youve already failed.writing for the web: youll make fundamental spelling/grammar errors, youll find them only when you read the published post. Truth! #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 8, 2016At the end of the session, Francis told us what he considers to be the best part of being a science writer: getting to tell people something that theyve never heard before. Getting it right is communicating a mundane fact to you that is an astounding surprise to your audience.Plenary Talk: News on the Search for Milky Way Satellite Galaxies (by Susanna Kohler)The second-to-last plenary talk of the meeting was given by Keith Bechtol, John Bahcall fellow at

  9. What is the Best Way to Develop Information Literacy and Academic Skills of First Year Health Science Students? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Munn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This systematic review sought to identify evidence for best practice to support the development of information literacy and academic skills of first year undergraduate health science students. Methods – A range of electronic databases were searched and hand searches conducted. Initial results were screened using explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify 53 relevant articles. Data on study design, student cohort, support strategy, and learning outcomes were extracted from each article. Quality of individual studies was considered and described narratively. Articles were classified and findings synthesized according to the mode of delivery of the intervention (Embedded, Integrated, or Adjunct and classification of the study’s learning evaluation outcome (Organizational change, Behaviour, Learning, or Reaction. Results – Studies included in this review provide information on academic skills and information literacy support strategies offered to over 12,000 first year health science students. Courses targeted were varied but most commonly involved nursing, followed by psychology. Embedded strategies were adopted in 21 studies with Integrated and Adjunct strategies covered in 14 and 16 studies respectively. Across all modes of delivery, intervention formats included face-to-face, peer mentoring, online, and print based approaches, either solely or in combination. Most studies provided some outcomes at a level higher than student reaction to the intervention. Overall, irrespective of mode of delivery, positive learning outcomes were generally reported. Typically, findings of individual studies were confounded by the absence of suitable control groups, students self-selecting support and analysis of outcomes not accounting for these issues. As a result, there is very little unbiased, evaluative evidence for the best approach to supporting students. Nonetheless, our findings did identify poor student uptake of

  10. Is the present definition of health care-associated pneumonia the best way to define risk of infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Vanessa; Datta, Debapriya; Metersky, Mark L

    2013-03-01

    Health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is associated with an increased risk of infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens compared with community-acquired pneumonia. Recent studies suggest that the designation of HCAP is a poor predictor of resistant pathogens and that antibiotic coverage for multidrug-resistant pathogens is not necessary in all patients with HCAP. This article reviews existing literature on HCAP, discusses the utility of the current definition of HCAP in identifying patients at risk for potentially drug-resistant pathogens, and compares how well the current HCAP designation predicts the risk of drug-resistant pathogens with other proposed algorithms for doing so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 'It ain't what you do it's the way that you do it': lessons for health care from decommissioning of older people's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Glasby, Jon; Allen, Kerry

    2013-11-01

    Public sector organisations are facing one of the most difficult financial periods in history and local decision-makers are tasked with making tough rationing decisions. Withdrawing or limiting services is an emotive and complex task and something the National Health Service has always found difficult. Over time, local authorities have gained significant experience in the closure of care homes - an equally complex and controversial issue. Drawing on local knowledge and best practice examples, this article highlights lessons and themes identified by those decommissioning care home services. We believe that such lessons are relevant to those making disinvestment decisions across public sector services, including health-care. The study employed semi-structured interviews with 12 Directors of Adult Social Services who had been highlighted nationally as having extensive experience of home closures. Interviews were conducted over a 2-week period in March 2011. Results from the study found that having local policy guidance that is perceived as fair and reasonable was advocated by those involved in home closures. Many local policies had evolved over time and had often been developed following experiences of home closures (both good and bad). Decisions to close care home services require a combination of strong leadership, clear strategic goals, a fair decision-making process, strong evidence of the need for change and good communication, alongside wider stakeholder engagement and support. The current financial challenge means that public sector organisations need to make tough choices on investment and disinvestment decisions. Any such decisions need to be influenced by what we know constitutes best practice. Sharing lessons and experiences within and between sectors could well inform and develop decision-making practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. It's not just 'What' you do, it's also the 'Way' that you do it: Patient and Public Involvement in the Development of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonport, Tracey J; Nicholls, Wendy; Johnston, Lynne H; Gutteridge, Robin; Watt, Angela

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a reflective account of Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in the development of obesity and binge eating research. We established Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) at two English regional National Health Service (NHS) weight management services. PPI was evaluated as follows: (i) PAG members completed a Post Participation Evaluation Questionnaire, (ii) PAG meetings captured group discussion on PPI involvement, (iii) practitioner and researchers produced written reflections on PPI and (iv) sources one to three were consolidated during reflections that took place via e-mail and telephone correspondence between researchers and practitioners, culminating in a summary SKYPE meeting between one practitioner and one researcher involved in the PAGs. Results in the form of reflections suggest guidelines on undertaking PPI were helpful with regard 'what to do', but less helpful on 'how'. For example, suggestions for the management of interpersonal factors such as eliciting self-disclosure and managing power differentials are insufficiently addressed in existing guidelines. The present case study illustrated how interpersonal considerations can help or hinder the optimal use of PPI. Recommendations for practitioners and researchers planning PPI are offered.

  13. Examining resilience of quality of life in the face of health-related and psychosocial adversity at older ages: what is "right" about the way we age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildon, Zoe; Montgomery, Scott M; Blane, David; Wiggins, Richard D; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-02-01

    This article examines resilience at older ages, focusing on the relationships between quality of life (qol) and adversity. Our objectives are to identify (a) the basis of adversity, (b) the characteristics of resilient individuals, and (c) the attributes that attenuate the full impact of adversity. Resilience is defined as flourishing despite adversity. Analysis is carried out in a subsample of the Boyd Orr cohort (aged between 68 and 82 years) using questionnaire data. Adversity was identified as circumstances that produce a significant average decrease in qol (CASP-19 scores). Participants were classified into resilient and vulnerable groups based on high or low qol (CASP-19 scores dichotomized at the median) in the face of significant adversity. Shared characteristics that define these outcomes are reported. Attributes that attenuate the negative impact of adversity were analyzed using stratified logistic regression. Adversity was typified by functional limitation; life getting worse in the domains of health, stress, and general living circumstances; and experiencing a negative life event. The resilient tended to report fewer multiple adversities. Indicators of protective attributes, which also characterized resilient outcomes relative to qol, included good quality relationships (5.105, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.323-19.699), integration in the community (10.800, 95% CI 1.227-95.014), developmental coping (3.397, 95% CI 1.079-10.690), and adaptive coping styles (3.211, 95% CI 1.041-9.910). Overall results indicate that policies that offer access to protection and help minimize adversity exposure where possible will promote resilience.

  14. "A joke a day keeps the doctor away?" Meta-analytical evidence of differential associations of habitual humor styles with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martha; Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2018-02-12

    Humor and mental health are interconnected as is evidenced by a large number of studies. However, associations are only small and inconsistent as the operationalization of humor poses a methodological challenge. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) differentiates four humor styles that might be beneficial or harmful to mental health. The aim of the present study was to meta-analytically aggregate studies using the HSQ to assess the associations of different humor styles with four areas of mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, depression). An extensive electronic database literature search identified 37 studies that reported correlations between the HSQ scales and the four areas of mental health in 45 independent samples (total N = 12,734). In total, 16 meta-analyses were conducted. Moderating effects of participant age, sex, and geographic region were examined via subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Humor styles differed in terms of their associations with mental health. Health-promoting humor styles were overall positively correlated with mental health (small-to-medium effect sizes). Self-defeating humor was overall negatively correlated with mental health. Aggressive humor was overall unrelated with mental health. Moderator analyses suggested geographic differences (Eastern vs. Western samples) and sex differences for some of these associations. Fostering specific humor styles may be beneficial for mental health. In addition, observing the habitual use of humor styles might help therapists to develop a better understanding of their clients. Differences in the utilization and the correlates of humor styles in Eastern and Western societies, and sex differences, need to be addressed in future research. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Strategizing in multiple ways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    and the same strategy. The paper focusses on such processes as they develop in a Danish service company. It is done on the basis of an empirical and longitudinal study of a strategy process in the Service Company where the strategic purpose was to implement value-based management. The theme to be developed......Strategy processes are kinds of wayfaring where different actors interpret a formally defined strat-egy differently. In the everyday practice of organizations strategizing takes place in multiple ways through narratives and sensible actions. This forms a meshwork of polyphonic ways to enact one...

  16. Global health strategies versus local primary health care priorities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global health strategies versus local primary health care priorities - a case study of national immunisation days in Southern Africa. ... should, therefore, focus its attention on diminishing the negative side-effects of NIDs and on getting the positive sideeffects incorporated in the integrated health services in a sustainable way.

  17. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  18. Orthopaedics in day surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency patients for a surgical procedure, returning home the same day (1). Ambulatory orthopaedics happens to have double meaning, so in this communication day surgery will be the preferred term. In Kenya the three models of day.

  19. Achieving a “Grand Convergence” in Global Health by 2035: Rwanda Shows the Way; Comment on “Improving the World’s Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives From Rwanda”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Yamey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Health 2035, the report of The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, laid out a bold, highly ambitious framework for making rapid progress in improving global public health outcomes. It showed that with the right health investments, the international community could achieve a “grand convergence” in global health—a reduction in avertable infectious, maternal, and child deaths down to universally low levels—within a generation. Rwanda’s success in rapidly reducing such deaths over the last 20 years shows that convergence is feasible. Binagwaho and Scott have argued that 5 lessons from this success are the importance of equity, quality health services, evidence-informed policy, intersectoral collaboration, and effective collaboration between countries and multilateral agencies. This article re-examines these lessons through the lens of the Global Health 2035 report to analyze how the experience in Rwanda might be generalized for other countries to making progress towards achieving a grand convergence.

  20. Medication Days Supply, Adherence, Wastage, and Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In an attempt to contain Medicaid pharmacy costs, nearly all states impose dispensing limits on medication days supply. Although longer days supply appears to...

  1. Ways out of danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, E.

    1981-01-01

    The volume divides into five sections: ways out of danger; pressure leading into danger; what might save us, and will it grow to become effective; tedious paths out of danger; companions out of danger. The author puts the question whether the true art of politics will be restored. He shows that by reducing politics to mere crisis management we shall not be enabled to overcome the serious problems of the eighties. He points out future possibilities by making clear the chances and misdevelopments of energy policy, of foreign, development and defence policy. The political experience of recent years, the new approach showing different needs and ways of life should be taken seriously as hopeful signs and ought to be reflected in politics again. (HSCH) [de

  2. The Afghan Way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    After more than ten years of war, the Afghan security forces have taken over most of the security responsibilities in Helmand. In the wake of the Danish withdrawal the evaluation of the total Danish contribution in Afghanistan since 2001 has started. Crucial to the future security situation will ...... will be sustainability, which means that the Afghan army and the Afghan police are not to be measured by Western standards, but rather from a scale based on the Afghan way of doing things....

  3. "The Way Ahead"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    It is true for all structures that the design and the location affects the loads. Breakwaters are extreme examples of this thesis, since even small variations in waterdepth, orientation slope etc. produce large variations in the load. As the dominant load is stochastic in nature and exhibits extr...... basic knowledge. One could say that the available knowledge did not reach the engineers on time. One way ahead is, therefore, and always has been, to ensure good communication of up-to-date knowledge....

  4. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Graça; Xavier, Miguel; Vilagut, Gemma; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Kessler, Ronald C; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    One important aspect of the societal burden of mental disorders is the extent to which these problems cause disability. To assess days out of role associated with commonly occurring mental disorders in comparison with physical disorders in Portugal. National cross-sectional survey, with home interviews carried out with 3849 adult (aged 18+) respondents (57.3% response rate). Twelve-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 21.8%, any physical disorder 55.1% and any disorder 63.1%, with an average of 2.3 disorders per respondent with a disorder. Close to one out of every 10 respondents (9.2%) reported at least one day totally out of role in the past month (median of 6.4 days/any). The 18 conditions accounted for 78.2% of all days out of role, with 20.2% because of mental disorders and 59.2% because of physical disorders. Mental disorders account for a substantial proportion of all role disability in the Portuguese population. Early detection and intervention would have a positive societal effect. Owing to highly frequent comorbidity, simultaneous management of mental and physical disorder comorbidities is advised for greater effect. R.C.K. in the past 3 years has been a consultant for Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Johnson & Johnson's Wellness and Prevention, Inc. and Sanofi-Aventis Groupe. He has served on advisory boards for Mensante Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Lake Nona Life Project and U.S. Preventive Medicine, Inc. He is a co-owner of DataStat, Inc. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  5. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte; Kearney, John; Hayes, Nóirín; Glennon Slattery, Corina; Corish, Clare

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the impact on nutrition- and health-related practice of two methods of delivery of a nutrition and health intervention in Irish full-day-care pre-schools: training of pre-school managers only or training of managers and their staff. A simple randomised study with pre-schools divided into two training groups: 'manager trained' and 'manager and staff trained'. Direct observational data--food and fluid provision, physical activity, outdoor time, staff practices and availability of nutrition and health resources--were recorded during one full day spent in each pre-school both pre- and post-intervention, using a specifically developed and validated Pre-school Health Promotion Activity Scored Evaluation Form. Post-intervention, self-assessment data were also collected using the same evaluation tool. Pre-schools, Midlands of Ireland. A convenience sample of forty-two pre-schools registered with the Irish Health Service Executive. From pre- to post-intervention, significant improvement (P health-related practice was observed within both intervention delivery groups in all areas evaluated: environment, food service, meals and snacks. No additional effect attributable to staff training was observed. Scores assigned by direct independent observation were lower than pre-school self-assessment scores. The implementation of a training intervention in pre-schools significantly improved practice with no significant benefit of additional staff training. Direct independent observation is required to quantify practice accurately.

  6. Way to science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    It was quite difficult to study with a child, but her mother helped her a lot with the young baby and she continued her edu- cation. After completing her M.Sc. she came back with her par- ents to Shahjahanpur again. One day she went to visit her sister in Lucknow and met the Principal of Karamat Husain Muslim Girls College, ...

  7. The long way home...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alwyn

    On the first-day of admissions, the queue for science admissions was much smaller than that for arts. The less conventional choice won. College-level physics and maths were enjoyable, but biology was where my heart lay. People automatically assumed I would waltz into medicine, but a doctor's lifestyle, which left little.

  8. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults.

  9. 78 FR 76969 - Wright Brothers Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... boundaries of human imagination and paving the way for over a century of innovation. On Wright Brothers Day... Top, we are raising standards and making STEM education a priority. Last year, we announced plans to...

  10. 76 FR 63807 - Leif Erikson Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... adventure and dreams of new discoveries. When they landed in modern day Canada, they founded the settlement... historic voyages and celebrate the many ways Nordic-American culture has enriched our Nation. The triumphs...

  11. Physician strives to create lean, clean health care machine. Studies of manufacturing processes may one day help make your practice more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D

    2001-01-01

    Elisabeth Hager, MD, MMM, CPE, is teaming up with scientists and industrialists to teach physicians how to apply principles of lean, total-quality manufacturing to their practices. She believes innovation and efficiencies can help doctors resurrect their profession's image and their control over it--and perhaps even reinvent American health care.

  12. Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events. National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day--May 3, 2011. HHS Publication Number SMA-11-4642

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a…

  13. Reducing 30-Day Readmission Rates in a High-Risk Population Using a Lay-Health Worker Model in Appalachia Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Horsley, Mary; Ray, Lisa; Maggard, Nancy; Schilling, Jennifer; Weatherford, Sarah; Feltner, Fran; Gilliam, Kayla

    2018-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to address the effectiveness of a lay-health worker (LHW) model in addressing social needs and readmissions of high-risk patients admitted in a rural community hospital. A quasi-experimental study design assessed implementation of a LHW model for assisting high-risk patients with their post-discharge social needs.…

  14. Adolescent Pregnancy and the First 1000 Days (the Philippine Situation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanzana, Mario V; Aguila, Divorah V; Javier, Charina A; Mendoza, Teresa S; Santos-Abalos, Virginia M

    2015-01-01

    The Seminar on Adolescent Pregnancy and the First 1000 Days (the Philippine Situation) was held in Metro Manila on September 2013. The objectives were to: 1) describe the current nutrition and health status of Filipino adolescent females, including those pregnant and lactating; 2) discuss existing programs that address their concerns; and 3) identify gaps in existing knowledge and programs, and ways to address these gaps. Adolescent pregnancy rates had increased from 8% in 2003 to 10% in 2008. In 2008, more than 35 percent of pregnant women below 20 years old were considered nutritionally-at-risk. Iodine deficiency and anaemia were major health problems in both pregnant and lactating women of all ages. While government programs exist to address the needs of pregnant women, none were geared towards meeting the specific needs of pregnant adolescents. Studies are needed to find ways to improve adolescent health and to effectively prevent and deal with unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. Recommendations include 1) developing adolescent-friendly health centers, information and education materials to increase reproductive and health awareness among youth and health workers, 2) examining the psychosocial and nutritional factors that determine birth outcomes and nutritional status of pregnant/non-pregnant adolescents, 3) examining adolescent growth patterns following delivery, 4) evaluating the im-pact of current programs and interventions geared towards improving adolescent and maternal health, and more importantly, 5) identifying the underlying reasons for the continued rise in adolescent pregnancy in the country.

  15. [Radiated drugs, the way of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Cécile

    2011-04-01

    During the inter-war years, the word "radiated" did not only suggest radioactivity, but it was also used to indicate exposure to others radiations, such as ultraviolets. The actinotherapy, a new therapy in vogue, was applied to many pathologies and tried on many substances. "Radiated drugs" result of those experimentations. Their therapeutical characteristics were found during searches on rickets. Our study relates the story of fight against rickets in France, from the use of cod liver oil to the synthesis of Vitamine D.

  16. Epigenomic programing: a future way to health?

    OpenAIRE

    Shenderov, Boris A.; Midtvedt, Tore

    2014-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that the ‘central genome dogma’ (i.e. a causal chain going from DNA to RNA to proteins and downstream to biological functions) should be replaced by the ‘fluid genome dogma’, that is, complex feed-forward and feed-back cycles that interconnect organism and environment by epigenomic programing – and reprograming – throughout life and at all levels, sometimes also down the generations. The epigenomic programing is the net sum of interactions derived from own metabol...

  17. The Milky Way Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Catherine; Battersby, Cara; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Goodman et al. (2014) argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' lies directly in the Galactic mid-plane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity space as traced by low density CO and high density NH3 gas. Nessie was presented as the first 'bone' of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy's 'skeleton.' We present the first evidence of additional 'bones' in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of many filaments that could potentially trace galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N2H+, and NH3 radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in position-velocity space. Of the ten filaments, three candidates have a projected aspect ratio of >50:1 and run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-velocity space. Evidence suggests that these three candidates are Nessie-like features which mark the location of the spiral arms in both physical space and position-velocity space. Other candidates could be spurs, feathers, or interarm clouds associated with the Milky Way's galactic structure. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we hope to find more bones in future studies, to ultimately create a global-fit to the Galaxy's spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  18. Effect of Offering Same-Day ART vs Usual Health Facility Referral During Home-Based HIV Testing on Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among Adults With HIV in Lesotho: The CASCADE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Ringera, Isaac; Lejone, Thabo I; Klimkait, Thomas; Muhairwe, Josephine; Amstutz, Alain; Glass, Tracy R

    2018-03-20

    Home-based HIV testing is a frequently used strategy to increase awareness of HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. However, with referral to health facilities, less than half of those who test HIV positive link to care and initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). To determine whether offering same-day home-based ART to patients with HIV improves linkage to care and viral suppression in a rural, high-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Open-label, 2-group, randomized clinical trial (February 22, 2016-September 17, 2017), involving 6 health care facilities in northern Lesotho. During home-based HIV testing in 6655 households from 60 rural villages and 17 urban areas, 278 individuals aged 18 years or older who tested HIV positive and were ART naive from 268 households consented and enrolled. Individuals from the same household were randomized into the same group. Participants were randomly assigned to be offered same-day home-based ART initiation (n = 138) and subsequent follow-up intervals of 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment initiation at the health facility or to receive usual care (n = 140) with referral to the nearest health facility for preparatory counseling followed by ART initiation and monthly follow-up visits thereafter. Primary end points were rates of linkage to care within 3 months (presenting at the health facility within 90 days after the home visit) and viral suppression at 12 months, defined as a viral load of less than 100 copies/mL from 11 through 14 months after enrollment. Among 278 randomized individuals (median age, 39 years [interquartile range, 28.0-52.0]; 180 women [65.7%]), 274 (98.6%) were included in the analysis (137 in the same-day group and 137 in the usual care group). In the same-day group, 134 (97.8%) indicated readiness to start ART that day and 2 (1.5%) within the next few days and were given a 1-month supply of ART. At 3 months, 68.6% (94) in same-day group vs 43.1% (59) in usual care group had linked to care

  19. Case Study: Impact of Inter- and Intra-Day Energy Parameters on Bone Health, Menstrual Function, and Hormones in an Elite Junior Female Triathlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; VanHeest, Jaci L

    2016-08-01

    This observational case study examined the association of inter- and intraday energy intake and exercise energy expenditure with bone health, menstrual status and hematological factors in a female triathlete. The study spanned 7 months whereby energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were monitored three times (13 d); 16 blood samples were taken, urinary hormones were assessed for 3 months, and bone mineral density was measured twice. Energy availability tended to be sustained below 30 kcal/kg FFM/d and intraday energy intake patterns were often "back-loaded" with approximately 46% of energy consumed after 6 p.m. Most triiodothyronine values were low (1.1-1.2nmol/L) and supportive of reduced energy availability. The athlete had suppressed estradiol (105.1 ± 71.7pmol/L) and progesterone (1.79 ±1.19nmol/L) concentrations as well as urinary sex-steroid metabolites during the entire monitoring period. Lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone mineral density was low (age-matched Z-score -1.4 to -1.5). Despite these health related maladies the athlete was able to perform typical weekly training loads (swim: 30-40 km, bike: 120-300 km, run 45-70 km) and was competitive as indicated by her continued improvement in ITU World Ranking during and beyond the assessment period. There is a delicate balance between health and performance that can become blurred especially for endurance athletes. Education (athletes, coaches, parents) and continued monitoring of specific indicators will enable evidence-based recommendations to be provided and help reduced the risk of health related issues while maximizing performance gains. Future research needs to longitudinally examine how performance on standardized tests in each discipline (e.g., 800-m swim, 20-km time trial, 5-km run) is impacted when aspects of the female athlete triad are present.

  20. Iron Deficiency Is a Determinant of Functional Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life 30 Days After an Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroño, Oona; Cladellas, Mercè; Ribas-Barquet, Núria; Poveda, Paula; Recasens, Lluis; Bazán, Víctor; García-García, Cosme; Ivern, Consol; Enjuanes, Cristina; Orient, Salvador; Vila, Joan; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is a prevalent condition in patients with ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Little is known about the impact of ID on exercise capacity and quality of life (QoL) in the recovery phase after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Iron status and its impact on exercise capacity and QoL were prospectively evaluated in 244 patients 30 days after the ACS. QoL was assessed by the standard EuroQoL-5 dimensions, EuroQoL visual analogue scale, and Heart-QoL questionnaires. Exercise capacity was analyzed by treadmill/6-minute walk tests. The effect of ID on cardiovascular mortality and readmission rate was also investigated. A total of 46% of the patients had ID. These patients had lower exercise times (366±162 vs 462±155seconds; Pde Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  2. Day Care Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of day care centers for 50 states and Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. The dataset only includes center based day care locations...

  3. Is day surgery safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Engbæk, J; Bartholdy, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort.......Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort....

  4. Ways of Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salanskis Jean-Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses analogies between the way in which infinity is understood and dealt with in mathematics and in Jewish tradition. It begins with recalling the classical debate about infinity in the field of the foundations of mathematics. Reading an important paper by A. Robinson, we come to the conclusion that mathematicians work “as if” infinite totalities existed. They do so by following the rules of their formalized discourse which, at least if it refers to anything at all, also refers to such totalities. The paper describes how, according to Jewish tradition, infinity is also not theological: instead of thinking that they own some infinite being or relate to it, observant Jews follow Jewish law.

  5. Growing degree day calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  6. Every Day Is Mathematical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  7. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  8. Abstracts from Rambam Research Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] This Supplement of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal presents the abstracts from the Eleventh Rambam Research Day. These abstracts represent the newest basic and clinical research coming out of Rambam Health Care Campus—research that is the oxygen for education and development of today’s generation of physicians. Hence, the research presented on Rambam Research Day is a foundation for future generations to understand patient needs and improve treatment modalities. Bringing research from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the community is at the heart of Maimonides’ scholarly and ethical legacy.

  9. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  10. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  11. International Women's Day speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  12. Uptake of a Consumer-Focused mHealth Application for the Assessment and Prevention of Heart Disease: The <30 Days Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Shivani; Morita, Plinio P; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Zbib, Ahmad; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-03-24

    Lifestyle behavior modification can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death worldwide, by up to 80%. We hypothesized that a dynamic risk assessment and behavior change tool delivered as a mobile app, hosted by a reputable nonprofit organization, would promote uptake among community members. We also predicted that the uptake would be influenced by incentives offered for downloading the mobile app. The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the engagement levels of participants using the novel risk management app. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of incentives on the overall uptake and usage behaviors. We publicly launched the app through the iTunes App Store and collected usage data over 5 months. Aggregate information included population-level data on download rates, use, risk factors, and user demographics. We used descriptive statistics to identify usage patterns, t tests, and analysis of variance to compare group means. Correlation and regression analyses determined the relationship between usage and demographic variables. We captured detailed mobile usage data from 69,952 users over a 5-month period, of whom 23,727 (33.92%) were registered during a 1-month AIR MILES promotion. Of those who completed the risk assessment, 73.92% (42,380/57,330) were female, and 59.38% (34,042/57,330) were 22 challenges. On average, users in the incentives group completed slightly more challenges during the first 30 days of the intervention (mean 7.9, SD 0.13) than those in the nonincentives group (mean 6.1, SD 0.06, t28870=-12.293, P<.001, d=0.12, 95% CI -2.02 to -1.47). The regression analysis suggested that sex, age group, ethnicity, having 5 of the risk factors (all but alcohol), incentives, and the number of family histories were predictors of the number of challenges completed by a user (F14, 56,538 = 86.644, P<.001, adjusted R(2) = .021). While the younger population downloaded the app the most, the older population

  13. Open Day at SHMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  14. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  15. Health service costs and clinical gains of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a randomized controlled trial of day-hospital-based step-down treatment versus outpatient treatment at a specialist practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Day-hospital-based treatment programmes have been recommended for poorly functioning patients with personality disorders (PD). However, more research is needed to confirm the cost-effectiveness of such extensive programmes over other, presumably simpler, treatment formats. Methods This study compared health service costs and psychosocial functioning for PD patients randomly allocated to either a day-hospital-based treatment programme combining individual and group psychotherapy in a step-down format, or outpatient individual psychotherapy at a specialist practice. It included 107 PD patients, 46% of whom had borderline PD, and 40% of whom had avoidant PD. Costs included the two treatment conditions and additional primary and secondary in- and outpatient services. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using measures of global (observer-rated GAF) and occupational (self-report) functioning. Repeated assessments over three years were analysed using mixed models. Results The costs of step-down treatment were higher than those of outpatient treatment, but these high costs were compensated by considerably lower costs of other health services. However, costs and clinical gains depended on the type of PD. For borderline PD patients, cost-effectiveness did not differ by treatment condition. Health service costs declined during the trial, and functioning improved to mild impairment levels (GAF > 60). For avoidant PD patients, considerable adjuvant health services expanded the outpatient format. Clinical improvements were nevertheless superior to the step-down condition. Conclusion Our results indicate that decisions on treatment format should differentiate between PD types. For borderline PD patients, the costs and gains of step-down and outpatient treatment conditions did not differ. For avoidant PD patients, the outpatient format was a better alternative, leaning, however, on costly additional health services in the early phase of treatment. Trial

  16. My Way in Archaeomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacheva, Mary

    2014-05-01

    The talk describes the main hallmarks in my nearly half a century activity in the field of archaeomagnetism. Beginning from zero in my country in 1967, now the Bulgarian database is the longest data set comprising the three geomagnetic characteristics. I consider that the determination of the direction and absolute palaeointensity from one and the same material is the most valuable input data for the important geomagnetic field modeling. The recovered full geomagnetic vector gives much more opportunities for different geophysical applications. The maintenance, filling up and revision of the local database remained my principle obligation during my professional way. As a result taking the advantage of our country to have plenty of prehistoric single and multilevel sites the knowledge of the geomagnetic field behavior was prolonged deeply in the past going to 6000 yrs BC. The usage of 14C dates will be discussed describing possible difficulties which can be encountered. The specific multilevel prehistoric sites, found mostly in the Near East and the Balkans, with clear stratigraphy are particularly useful for archaeomagnetic discovery of the past geomagnetic field behavior. In this respect the well-timed activity of geophysical teams following the archaeological excavations is very important for the future elucidation of geomagnetic secular variations. The constant tight contact with the archaeological community of each country during this process is crucial. Examples of most valuable topics of interest for archaeologists will be given in the talk as synchronizations, magnetic characteristics related to the type of ceramics, archaeomagnetic dating etc. This is an important task because we should keep their interest towards our studies giving us the necessary materials. Some obtained questionable results will be discussed parallel with the progress in understanding the physical processes in baked clay and its magnetic mineralogy. Going deeply in diagnosis of the

  17. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cholesterol and fat in the walls of arteries. in adults, and it’s associated with cognitive decline ... half-hour instead. Avoid jogging or biking on roads with heavy traffic. Of course, the best way ...

  18. Colour Day: an innovative project

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    This year, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School works on the theme of colours. Every class has their own project revolving around this common theme. The class of Claire, Sandrine and Nadia, introduced a monthly “Colour Day”. The objective of this day is to offer children different activities (arts and crafts, baking, etc.) designed around a specific colour. The children get a chance to decorate their classroom and learn in many different ways inspired by the colours blue, red, and many others. The parents are also called to contribute and invited to dress their children in the colour of the day. In September, we discovered the colour blue, in October it was time for red, and in mid-November yellow will brighten up our structure. Everyone plays along, making this a very festive day for us all. On Tuesday, 20 September, we saw the whole School turn blue! We were all dressed in blue and we made blue paintings, too! We made beautiful artwork inspired by artists like Ma...

  19. Clima organizacional: un modo eficaz para dirigir los servicios de salud Climas organizacional: um modo eficaz para dirigir os serviços de saúde Organizational climate: an efficient way to conduct health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alexánder Segura Massó

    2012-01-01

    desenvolvimento de quatro elementos fundamentais dentro de qualquer organização do setor: a auto-eficácia do trabalhador, a satisfação do paciente, a qualidade do serviço fornecido, e a formação de recursos humanos no subsistema de pós-graduação. Conclui-se que o estudo do clima organizacional dentro duma instituição ou serviço de saúde deve contribuir para o estabelecimento de relações harmoniosas entre seus trabalhadores e como consequência se deve produzir um aumento da auto-eficácia deles na satisfação da população que garanta a qualidade do serviço de saúde fornecido. Por tanto, assevera-se que a análise e estudo do clima organizacional de um serviço de saúde são os modos mais eficazes para administrálo.We see the way health organizations, institutions and/ or services are conducted in Cuba as a major challenge in the health service, starting from the concept of an appropriate organizational climate to obtain the maximum level of commitment from its workers in tasks being developed. Purpose: To formulate considerations about the way in which organizational climate analysis and study constitute an efficient organizational way of health management for the constant pursue of excellence. Studying and implementing an appropriate organizational climate in health services favors the development of four core elements within any organization in the sector: worker's self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, quality of services provided, and training of human resources in the post-graduate subsystem. In conclusion, studying organizational climate within a health institution or service should contribute to establish harmonious relations among workers and, consequently, it should increase self-efficacy in the satisfaction of the population, ensuring the quality of services provided. Therefore, it is hereby stated that analyzing and studying the organizational climate of a health service is the most efficient way to conduct it.

  20. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  1. The Presidents' Day Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  2. A Five Day Training Course for Migrant Health Project Personnel in the Surveillance of Health Hazards of Sanitation Conditions in the Working and Living Environments of Migrant Farmworkers (Albany, New York, October 5-10, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinaiz, Carlos, Ed.; Aranda, Roberto, Ed.

    The course aims to train migrant health personnel to recognize and identify adverse sanitary conditions related to the migrant farmworkers' living and working environments, and to outline approaches for the presentation and alleviation of health hazards through the referral of recognized sanitary deficiencies and code violations to responsible…

  3. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note:This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!Yesterdayspress conference was titled Preparing for the 2017 Great American Eclipse. Four speakers highlighted both outreach and research projects that are planned for the eclipse that will cross the continental United States on August 21st next year.Eclipse from High AltitudeFirst up, Angela Des Jardins (Montana Space Grant Consortium) introduced us to the nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project.An eclipse as seen from the ISS. Being up high gives you a very different perspective on eclipses! [NASA]The last total solar eclipse in the continental United States was in 1979, and people were told to stay inside and watch from their TVs! For the next total solar eclipse in the US, we want the opposite: for everyone to be outdoors and in the path of totality to watch (with eclipse glasses lets be safe)! This eclipse is a fantastic educational opportunity, and a way to reach an enormous audience.And what better way to experience the eclipse than to be involved? The Eclipse Ballooning Project is involving more than 50 student teams from 30 states to fly high-altitude balloons at 20 locations along the total eclipse path. These balloons will send live videos and images from the edge of space to the NASA website.Why? Being someplace high up provides an entirely different view for an eclipse! Instead of looking up to watch the Moon slide in front of the Sun, you can look down to watch the Moons shadow race across the Earths surface at thousands of miles per hour. This unique perspective is rare, and has certainly never been covered live. This will be an awesome addition to other coverage of the eclipse!At Maximum TotalityThe next speaker, Gordon Emslie, described the outreach efforts planned at his institution, Western Kentucky University (WKU). The location where the eclipse totality will

  4. Prices on the way up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    It may have taken until the very last day of the month, but prices are finally on the way up. On July 31, a US utility concluded at least two transactions for a minimum of 250,000 lbs U3O8 equivalent, pushing the top of NUKEM's price range up 10 cents. After three months with prices languishing below US$7.85, the price range now stands at US$7.75-$7.95. The pace of new demand held steady in July versus June, with more than 3.4 million lbs equivalent in new requests entering the market. There was one difference: The new demand in July was characterized by longer lead time. Most new demand in June required delivery by the end of the fourth quarter, a lead time of about 3 to 6 months. In July, buyers accepted delivery anywhere from 4 to 9 months out, with most delivery requests landing in 1993. This jump in lead times is largely due to one seller in the market offering first and second quarter 1993 deliveries near the bottom of the price range to utilities with flexible needs

  5. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  6. The South African traditional health practitioner as a beneficiary of and provider to medical funds and schemes through the traditional health practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007: A present-day perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Payments to traditional health practitioners for services rendered from medical funds and schemes, as envisaged by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, is controversial and a point of contention. Such policy was followed before in South Africa in the 1990s when some funds and schemes offered limited alternative healthcare benefits for members consulting traditional healers. Aims The study aimed to offer a contemporary view of the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical funds and schemes through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the South African traditional health practitioner as a provider to and beneficiary of the medical schemes and funds through the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results It seems as if the South African authorities completely misunderstand the future implications of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 on healthcare. This is specifically true when it comes to the right to claim from medical funds and schemes for services rendered by traditional health practitioners and the possible extra costs for these medical schemes and funds. Conclusion The implications of Section 42(2 of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22, 2007 which aims to set up a claiming process for traditional health practitioners, seems to be very problematic. The fact that Act No 22 (2007 has not been enacted properly nine years after its promulgation has put a halt on the professionalization of traditional healers until 2015. This also affected their status as a beneficiary of and service provider to the

  7. Open Day: General Information

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ With 50 visit points, including theatre performances, debates and visits to installations that have never before been opened to the public, CERN's 50th anniversary Open Day is set to be a day to remember. Seven hundred volunteers have signed up to help for the day. The Open Day team truly appreciates this wonderful show of support! The Open Day would not be possible without their help. Car parking and Access Cars with a CERN sticker can access all CERN sites as normal. However, to avoid congestion on Meyrin site, we ask you to park in areas that will not be open to the public (see below) and to use the shuttle services wherever possible for your transport during the day. Private cars on the French side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverted to a car park area in the Prévessin site. There is a shuttle service connecting the Meyrin and Prévessin sites via SM18 every 20 minutes. Private cars on the Swiss side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverte...

  8. 'You have to do 60 minutes of physical activity per day … I saw it on TV': children's constructions of play in the context of Canadian public health discourse of playing for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephanie A; Fusco, Caroline; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2015-02-01

    Public health institutions in many industrialised countries have been launching calls to address childhood obesity. As part of these efforts, Canadian physical activity campaigns have recently introduced children's play as a critical component of obesity prevention strategies. We consider this approach problematic as it may reshape the meanings and affective experiences of play for children. Drawing on the analytical concept of biopedagogies, we place Canadian public health discourse on play in dialogue with children's constructions of play to examine first, how play is promoted within obesity prevention strategies and second, whether children take up this public health discourse. Our findings suggest that: (i) the public health discourse on active play is taken up and reproduced by some children. However, for other children sedentary play is important for their social and emotional wellbeing; (ii) while active play is deemed to be a solution to the risk of obesity, it also embodies contradictions over risk in play, which children have to negotiate. We argue that the active play discourse, which valorises some representations of play (that is, active) while obscuring others (that is, sedentary), is reshaping meanings of play for children, and that this may have unintended consequences for children's wellbeing. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 4th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard, Andrew; Ralph, Daniel; Glover, Barney M

    1999-01-01

    Although the monograph Progress in Optimization I: Contributions from Aus­ tralasia grew from the idea of publishing a proceedings of the Fourth Optimiza­ tion Day, held in July 1997 at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, the focus soon changed to a refereed volume in optimization. The intention is to publish a similar book annually, following each Optimization Day. The idea of having an annual Optimization Day was conceived by Barney Glover; the first of these Optimization Days was held in 1994 at the University of Ballarat. Barney hoped that such a yearly event would bring together the many, but widely dispersed, researchers in Australia who were publishing in optimization and related areas such as control. The first Optimization Day event was followed by similar conferences at The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996), the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), and The University of Western Australia (1998). The 1999 conference will return to Ballarat ...

  10. New Orleans Charter Network Gets under Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2006-01-01

    As students have returned to Alice M. Harte Elementary School, they have found their old school far from the way they left it on the last school day before Hurricane Katrina devastated much of the city. The building may look much the same as it did on August 26, 2006 but half the faces here are new--from principals to teachers to students. The…

  11. Building the capacity of family day care educators to promote children's social and emotional wellbeing: an exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sims Margaret; Herrman Helen; Waters Elizabeth; Cook Kay; Mackinnon Andrew; Williamson Lara; Davis Elise; Mihalopoulos Cathrine; Harrison Linda; Marshall Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood mental health problems are highly prevalent, experienced by one in five children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged families. Although childcare settings, including family day care are ideal to promote children's social and emotional wellbeing at a population level in a sustainable way, family day care educators receive limited training in promoting children's mental health. This study is an exploratory wait-list control cluster randomised controlled trial...

  12. 10 Ways to Help Your Child Succeed in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español 10 Ways to Help Your Child Succeed in Middle School KidsHealth / For Parents / 10 Ways to Help ... a team. 8. Get Involved Volunteering at your child's middle school is a great way to show you' ...

  13. Medicare FFS 30 Day Readmission Rate PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The hospital readmission rate PUF presents nation-wide information about inpatient hospital stays that occurred within 30 days of a previous inpatient hospital stay...

  14. Social context of work injury among undocumented day laborers in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nicholas; Bourgois, Philippe; Margarita Loinaz, H; Schillinger, Dean

    2002-03-01

    To identify ways in which undocumented day laborers' social context affects their risk for occupational injury, and to characterize the ways in which these workers' social context influences their experience of disability. Qualitative study employing ethnographic techniques of participant-observation, supplemented by semistructured in-depth interviews. Street corners in San Francisco's Mission District, a homeless shelter, and a nonprofit day labor hiring hall. Thirty-eight Mexican and Central American male day laborers, 11 of whom had been injured. PRIMARY THEMES: Anxiety over the potential for work injury is omnipresent for day laborers. They work in dangerous settings, and a variety of factors such as lack of training, inadequate safety equipment, and economic pressures further increase their risk for work injury. The day laborers are isolated from family and community support, living in a local context of homelessness, competition, and violence. Injuries tend to have severe emotional, social, and economic ramifications. Day laborers frequently perceive injury as a personal failure that threatens their masculinity and their status as patriarch of the family. Their shame and disappointment at failing to fulfill culturally defined masculine responsibilities leads to intense personal stress and can break family bonds. Despite the high incidence of work injuries and prevalence of work-related health conditions, day laborers are frequently reluctant to use health services due to anxiety regarding immigration status, communication barriers, and economic pressure. On the basis of these ethnographic data, we recommend strategies to improve ambulatory care services to day laborers in 3 areas: structural changes in ambulatory care delivery, clinical interactions with individual day laborers, and policymaking around immigration and health care issues.

  15. National hearing day

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  16. NATIONAL HEARING DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 12th of June 2003 Is the French National Hearing Day. The Medical Service invites everyone working at CERN to come and have an ear test at the infirmary. Bld. 57, ground floor, between 9h00 and 16h00 Tel. 73802

  17. CERN openlab Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Purcell, Andrew Robert

    2015-01-01

    The CERN openlab Open Day took place on 10 June, 2015. This was the first in a series of annual events at which research and industrial teams from CERN openlab can present their projects, share achievements, and collect feedback from their user communities.

  18. Radiochemistry days; Journees radiochimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document provides the 44 papers (transparencies used during the presentations and posters) presented at the Radiochemistry Days, held September 3-4, 1998 in Nantes, France. The main studied topics were problematic questions concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and in particular the management, storage of radioactive wastes and the environmental impact. (O.M.)

  19. My Day of Silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C.

    1999-01-01

    A heterosexual doctoral student discusses his experiences when he tries to take part in a day of silence to help combat homophobia and heterosexism. His vow of silence teaches him that he will never fully understand the experience of a person who has been historically, socially, and legally silent. (Author/MKA)

  20. Fabulous Weather Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…