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Sample records for daucus carota liofilizadas

  1. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...

  2. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Imaging of polarity during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, A.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis a study of the regulation of coordinated growth and the development of polarity during embryogenesis of carrot, Daucus carota L., is described. To this end, several microscopical techniques were used, such as light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy,

  4. The next generation of carotenoid studies in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the richest sources of naturally occurring ß-carotene while red and yellow carrot varieties contain large quantities of lycopene and lutein. The human body utilizes carotenoids, particularly ß-carotene (provitamin A) as a precursor for the production of ret...

  5. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  6. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

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    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  7. Tween® 20-Enhanced Bioreduction of Acetophenones Promoted by Daucus carota Root

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    Monique Rodrigues da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surfactants on the bioreduction of acetophenones mediated by carrot (Daucus carota root was investigated. Among the tested surfactants, Tween® 20 slightly improved the conversion. The amount of surfactant was optimised, and the presented methodology was applied to other substituted acetophenones, which led to the preparation of their respective optically enriched 1-phenylethanols with high conversion levels and high enantioselectivities.

  8. Bioreduction of substituted α-tetralones promoted by Daucus carota root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Helena M.C.; Bianco, Graziela G.; Bombonato, Fernanda I.; Andrade, Leandro H.; Porto, Andre L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The bioreduction of a series of substituted α-tetralones, carried out using Daucus carota root (carrot), afforded the corresponding homochiral α-tetralols in variable conversions (9 to 90%) and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Two of the assayed α-tetralones were resistant to the bioreduction conditions. The absolute configurations of four α-tetralols were assigned as being (S), by comparison to the (S)-enantiomers obtained by kinetic resolution promoted by CALB-catalysed acetylation. Additionally, the new 5-methoxy-6-methyl-1-tetralone was synthesized in seven steps from 3-methylsalicylic acid. (author)

  9. Metabolic cycles in primary metabolism of cell suspensions of Daucus carota L. analysed by C-NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krook, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the work described in this thesis, uptake and conversion of sugar by cells of batch-grown suspensions of Daucus carota L. were studied. Invasive techniques (measurements of enzyme activities and sugar and starch levels) and non-invasive techniques (

  10. Chemometric approach to evaluate heavy metals’ content in Daucus Carota from different localities in Serbia

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    Mitic Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate heavy metal content in carrots (Daucus carota from the different localities in Serbia and assess by the cluster analysis (CA and principal components analysis (PCA the heavy metal contamination of carrots from these areas. Carrot was collected at 13 locations in five districts. Chemometric methods (CA and PCA were applied to classify localities according to heavy metal content in carrots. CA separated localities into two statistical significant clusters. PCA permitted the reduction of 12 variables to four principal components explaining 79.94% of the total variance. The first most important principal component was strongly associated with the value of Cu, Sb, Pb and Tl. This study revealed that CA and PCA appear useful tools for differentiation of localities in different districts using the profile of heavy metal in carrot samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172051

  11. Profiling of the Terpene Metabolome in Carrot Fruits of Wild ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) Accessions and Characterization of a Geraniol Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ibdah, Muhammad; Marzouk, Sally; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2018-03-14

    Fruits from wild carrot ( Daucus carota L. ssp. carota) have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The oil of its seeds, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, has drawn attention in recent years because of its potential pharmaceutical application. A combined chemical, biochemical, and molecular study was conducted to evaluate the differential accumulation of terpene volatiles in carrot fruits of wild accessions. This work reports a similarity-based cloning strategy identification and functional characterization of one carrot monoterpene terpene synthase, WtDcTPS1. Recombinant WtDcTPS1 protein produces mainly geraniol, the predominant monoterpene in carrot seeds of wild accession 23727. The results suggest a role for the WtDcTPS1 gene in the biosynthesis of carrot fruit aroma and flavor compounds.

  12. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

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    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  13. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Lee, Seung-Bum; Jansen, Robert K; Hostetler, Jessica B; Tallon, Luke J; Town, Christopher D; Daniell, Henry

    2006-08-31

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats > or = 30 bp with a sequence identity > or = 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap) for the sister relationship of Daucus with Panax in the euasterid II clade. These

  14. Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms

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    Ruhlman Tracey

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carrot (Daucus carota is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of protein accumulation in the edible tap roots. Plastid genetic engineering offers the potential to overcome this limitation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of BADH in chromoplasts of carrot taproots to confer exceedingly high levels of salt resistance. The complete plastid genome of carrot provides essential information required for genetic engineering. Additionally, the sequence data add to the rapidly growing database of plastid genomes for assessing phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. Results The complete carrot plastid genome is 155,911 bp in length, with 115 unique genes and 21 duplicated genes within the IR. There are four ribosomal RNAs, 30 distinct tRNA genes and 18 intron-containing genes. Repeat analysis reveals 12 direct and 2 inverted repeats ≥ 30 bp with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences for 61 protein-coding genes using both maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML were performed for 29 angiosperms. Phylogenies from both methods provide strong support for the monophyly of several major angiosperm clades, including monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids, eurosids II, euasterids I, and euasterids II. Conclusion The carrot plastid genome contains a number of dispersed direct and inverted repeats scattered throughout coding and non-coding regions. This is the first sequenced plastid genome of the family Apiaceae and only the second published genome sequence of the species-rich euasterid II clade. Both MP and ML trees provide very strong support (100% bootstrap for the sister relationship of

  15. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

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    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  16. Analytical and biological studies of kanji and extracts of its ingredient, daucus carota L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.; Hussain, K.; Bukhari, N.; Karim, S.; Hussain, A.; Khurshid, F.

    2013-01-01

    A fermented beverage, Kanji, prepared from roots of Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. var. vavilovii Mazk. (Apiaceae), despite long usage history has not been investigated for analytical studies and biological activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate different types of Kanji samples and various types of extracts/fractions of root of the plant for a number of analytical studies and in vitro antioxidant activities. The Kanji sample, Lab-made Kanji, having better analytical and biological profile was further investigated for preliminary clinical studies. The analytical studies indicated that Lab-made Kanji was having comparatively higher contents of phytochemicals than that of the commercial Kanji samples, different types of extracts and fractions (P < 0.05). All the Kanji samples and aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh roots exhibited comparable antioxidant activities in DPPH assay (52.20 - 54.19%) that were higher than that of methanol extract (48.78%) of dried roots. The antiradical powers (1/ EC50) of Lab-made Kanji and aqueous extract were found to be higher than that of the ethanol and methanol extracts. In beta-carotene linoleate assay, the Kanji samples showed higher activity than that of the methanol extract, but comparable to that of the vitamin-E and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) (P < 0.05). A preliminary clinical evaluation indicated that Kanji has no harmful effect on blood components, liver function and serum lipid profile. The results of the present study indicate that Kanji is an effective antioxidant beverage. (author)

  17. Uptake of 13C-glucose by cell suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota) measured by in vivo NMR: Cycling of triose, pentose- and hexose-phosphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krook, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Dijkema, C.; Plas, van der L.H.W.

    2000-01-01

    After a lag phase of 2 days, batch-grown cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cv. Flakkese entered the exponential growth phase and started to accumulate sucrose and hexoses. Short-term feeding 13C-glucose in this period resulted in only minor labelling of sucrose or fructose. CO2 production from

  18. Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Song, Yang; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms on how biochar reduces bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tuberous vegetables. Corn straw-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300°C (CB300) or bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C (BB700) was amended into PAH-contaminated soil planted with carrot (Daucus carota L.). After 150days, 2% CB300 or 2% BB700 amendments significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of PAHs in carrot root (pbiochars both showed better effectiveness at reducing the bioavailability of high-molecular-weight PAHs than the low-molecular-weight PAHs in the rhizosphere. Therefore, the mechanisms on how biochar reduces the PAH uptake into carrot are dependent on the type of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and feedstock) and root presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum extracts containing cylindrospermopsin on growth, photosynthetic capacity, and mineral content of carrots (Daucus carota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Campos, Alexandre; Machado, Joana; Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho; Cameán, Ana M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2017-01-01

    Natural toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, such as cylindrospermopsin, have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. Despite the risks for food safety, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. Carrots (Daucus carota) are root vegetables, extensively consumed worldwide with great importance for human nourishment and economy. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the possible effects of using water contaminated with cyanotoxins on carrot cultivation. The aim of this work was to investigate cylindrospermopsin effects on D. carota grown in soil and irrigated for 30 days, with a Chrysosporum ovalisporum extract containing environmentally relevant concentrations of cylindrospermopsin (10 and 50 μg/L). The parameters evaluated were plant growth, photosynthetic capacity, and nutritional value (mineral content) in roots of carrots, as these are the edible parts of this plant crop. The results show that, exposure to cylindrospermopsin did not have a clear negative effect on growth or photosynthesis of D. carota, even leading to an increase of both parameters. However, alterations in mineral contents were detected after exposure to crude extracts of C. ovalisporum containing cylindrospermopsin. A general decline was observed for most minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mo, and P), although an increase was shown in the case of K and Cu, pointing to a possible interference of the cyanobacterial extract in mineral uptake. This study is the first to evaluate the effects of C. ovalisporum extracts on a root vegetable, however, more research is necessary to understand the effects of this toxin in environmentally relevant scenarios.

  20. Efecto de la aplicación de ultrasonidos en vegetales: impacto sobre la microbiota, textura y color de la Zanahoria (Daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Diaz, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has the challenge of the constant innovation and optimization process. In vegetable decontamination by chemical disinfectants is the trend. The aim of this project is evaluate the efficacy of low-frequency ultrasound as a method for reducing microbial in vegetables and evaluate the effect on their colour and firmness. We have worked with raw carrots (Daucus carota) subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 10-20 minutes and the frequency used was 25 and 40 kHz. The effectiveness...

  1. Comparative studies of the phytochemistry, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of the methanol leaf extracts of Cucumis sativus L. and Daucus carota L.

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    Essien Augustine Dick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available     Cucumis sativus  and Daucus carota are medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine to treat and prevent various diseases but the basis for this has not been highlighted. Quantitative phytochemicial analysis revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids and pyrrolidine in D. carota leaf methanol extract but in C. sativus only flavonoids and carotenoids was found present although in a lower amounts. Proximate analysis revealed  that both plants methanol leaf extracts contain moisture, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber and ash. The moisture content of C. sativus (95 ± 0.02% was more than that of D. Carota (82.20 ± 0.01% but the protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and fiber contents of D. Carota was more than that of C. sativus. The mineral compositions also revealed the presence of Ca, P, Mg, Fe,Zn,Na, and K in both C.sativus and D. carota although in various proportions. The P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na contents in D. carota were more than that of C. Sativus, but C. sativus has a higher Zn and K contents than D. carota. The vitamin analysis also revealed the presence of important vitamins including A, B1, B2,  B6 ,  C,E, niacin and folate. The vitamin A content of  D. carota were very high (2,901 ± 0.02µg compared to that of  C. Sativus (23 ± 0.01µg. These important macroelements, minerals and vitamins embedded in these important plants may be the reasons behind its use in forklore medicine for its various dietary and therapeutic applications.

  2. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitory potential of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale.

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    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-02-01

    The involvement of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) has been described in the pathophysiology of diseases including ischemic heart and brain diseases, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, epilepsy, dementia, and neuropathic pain. Synthetic NHE inhibitors have not achieved much clinical success; therefore, plant-derived phytoconstituents may be explored as NHE inhibitors. In the present study, the NHE inhibitory potential of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal fractions of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale was evaluated. The different concentrations of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for their NHE inhibitory activity in the platelets using the optical swelling assay. Among the hydroalcoholic extracts, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by M. domestica (IC50=2.350 ± 0.132 μg/mL) followed by Musa × paradisiaca (IC50=7.967 ± 0.451 μg/mL), D. carota (IC50=37.667 ± 2.517 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=249.330 ± 1.155 μg/mL). Among the alkaloidal fractions, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by the alkaloidal fraction of Musa × paradisiacal (IC50=0.010 ± 0.001 μg/mL) followed by D. carota (IC50=0.024 ± 0.002 μg/mL), M. domestica (IC50=0.031 ± 0.005 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=4.233 ± 0.379 μg/mL). The IC50 of alkaloidal fractions was comparable to the IC50 of synthetic NHE inhibitor, EIPA [5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride] (IC50=0.033 ± 0.004 μg/mL). It may be concluded that the alkaloidal fractions of these plants possess potent NHE inhibitory activity and may be exploited for their therapeutic potential in NHE activation-related pathological complications.

  3. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

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    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyphenolic profile and biological activities of black carrot crude extract (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, A; Denaro, M; Barreca, D; D'Angelo, V; Germanò, M P; Trombetta, D

    2018-01-01

    Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Twenty five polyphenols were quantified by LC-DAD-FLD-MS/MS analysis (anthocyanins 78.06%, phenolic acids 17.89% and other flavonoids 4.06%) with polyglycosylated cyanidins as major components. In addition, BCCE showed a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity particularly in the hydrogen transfer-based assays (ORAC and β-carotene bleaching) and a significant increase in the cell viability. Furthermore, BCCE exhibited a strong anti-angiogenic activity at the highest concentration assayed on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (50μg/egg). In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrated the antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties of BCCE, which highlight that the higher biological activity of BCCE is probably due to the synergic effects exerted by various polyphenolic classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resposta de plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota à deriva simulada de glyphosate e clomazone Response of beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota to simulated glyphosate and clomazone drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Rogoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies de hortaliças são de muita importância para a alimentação humana e tornam-se alvos da deriva de herbicidas, pois comumente são cultivadas nas proximidades de culturas como arroz, soja e milho, pulverizadas com esses produtos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar possíveis efeitos de doses reduzidas dos herbicidas glyphosate e clomazone sobre plantas de beterraba (Beta vulgaris e de cenoura (Daucus carota, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. As doses avaliadas dos herbicidas foram de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da dose recomendada, equivalentes a 0, 63, 126, 189 e 252 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 0, 14,4, 28,8, 43,2 e 57,6 g ha-1 de clomazone, respectivamente, aplicadas aos 20, 30 e 40 dias após a emergência das culturas. Observou-se aumento no percentual de fitotoxicidade do glyphosate com o incremento na dose do herbicida, e a maior suscetibilidade ocorreu com a deriva nos estádios mais precoces, em ambas as espécies. As doses de clomazone não causaram qualquer sintoma detectável visualmente para as plantas de beterraba e de cenoura. Os resultados sugerem que o herbicida glyphosate causa injúrias às plantas de beterraba e cenoura, independentemente do estádio em que ocorre a interceptação do produto. No entanto, o herbicida clomazone não interfere no desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de beterraba e cenoura.Herbicide drift over horticultural crops is a common problem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, mainly in areas near rice, soybean and corn fields. The objective of this research was to evaluate glyphosate and clomazone drift effects on beetroot (Beta vulgaris and carrot (Daucus carota plants. The herbicides were sprayed at three different growth stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after seedling emergence. Herbicide rates evaluated were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the label rate. The sprayed rates were 0, 63, 126, 189 and 252 g ha-1 of glyphosate and 0.0, 14.4, 28.8, 43.2 and 57.6 g ha-1 of clomazone. Glyphosate injury to

  6. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

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    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  7. Enhancement of solubility and bioavailability of ambrisentan by solid dispersion using Daucus carota as a drug carrier: formulation, characterization, in vitro, and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmane, Subhash; Deshmane, Snehal; Shelke, Santosh; Biyani, Kailash

    2018-06-01

    Ambrisentan is an US FDA approved drug, it is the second oral endothelin A receptor antagonist known for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its oral administration is limited due to its poor water solubility. Hence, the objective of the investigation was focused on enhancement of solubility and bioavailability of ambrisentan by solid dispersion technique using natural Daucus carota extract as drug carrier. Drug carrier was evaluated for solubility, swelling index, viscosity, angle of repose, hydration capacity, and acute toxicity test (LD 50 ). Ambrisentan was studied for the saturation solubility, phase solubility, and Gibbs free energy change. Compatibility of drug and the natural carrier was confirmed by DSC, FTIR, and XRD. Solid dispersions were evaluated for drug content, solubility, morphology, in vitro, and in vivo study. Screening of the natural carrier showed the desirable properties like water solubility, less swelling index, less viscosity, and acute toxicity study revealed no any clinical symptoms of toxicity. Drug and carrier interaction study confirmed the compatibility to consider its use in the formulation. Formed particles were found to be spherical with smooth surface. In vitro studies revealed higher drug release from the solid dispersion than that of the physical mixture. Bioavailability study confirms the increased absorption and bioavailability by oral administration of solid dispersion. Hence, it can be concluded that the natural Daucus carota extract can be the better alternative source for the preparation of solid dispersion and/or other dosage forms for improving solubility and bioavailability.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on the germination of the seeds of a collection of carrot accessions (Daucus carota L. cultivated in the region of Sidi Bouzid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma Kahouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of ten accessions of carrot (Daucus carota L. collected from seven areas in the region of Sidi Bouzid, Lessouda (three accessions: L1, L2 and L3 Faid (one accession: F4, El Ogla (one accession: E5, Regueb (two accessions: R7 and R8, Lahweze (one accession: L10 Garet Hdid (one accession: G11 and Souk Jedid (one accession: S12 were germinated at 20° C in the dark and in the presence of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 g/l during 14 days. The results obtained showed that germination is possible until the highest concentration of salt (16 g/l but germination and speed of germination decrease according to the concentration, so the accession L3 was the most tolerant and accessions L1, L2 and S12 was the most sensitive.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEAF BLIGHT OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CAUSED BY Alternaria dauci (KÜHN GROVES & SKOLKO: SURVIVAL OF Alternaria dauci IN VEGETAL RESIDUES OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. CROP ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA QUEIMA DAS FOLHAS DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L. CAUSADA POR Alternaria dauci (Kühn GROVES & SKOLKO: Sobrevivência de Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & SKOLKO em restos culturais da cenoura (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Martins Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The spore viability of Alternaria dauci (Kühn Groves & Skolko in carrot (Daucus carota L. debris which were kept at different levels of temperature and relative humidity, without light, was studied. The temperature levels tested were 8, 16, 24 and 32°C, and the relative humidity levels 3, 18, 51, 73 and 100%. The treatments were different combinations of these levels. Humidity was the more important factor in preserving the fungus spore ability to germinate and its infectivity. Under conditions of high relative humidity and temperatures of 24 and 32°C, the spores rapidly lost their viability. This did not happen when the relative humidity was equal to, or below, 51%. The survival of fungus mycelium on carrot petioles was studied in non-treated organic soil, at different humidity levels, at three different depths, during a period of 120 days. Soil humidity was the factor of major significance in the persistence of the mycelium, followed by depths and time factors. In petioles kept at depths of 10 and 20 cm in humid soil, the survival was greatly reduced, while survival was markedly higher in those kept at the surface of dry soil. The effect of humidity on the viability of mycelium was studied also under soiless condition. Petioles were maintained in relative humidity controlled chamber, at 24°C. In saturated atmosphere (100% humidity, the mycelium viability was lost in less than 20 days. It was concluded that both, the conidial and mycelial form of Alternaria dauci are quite sensitive to high humidity levels.

    Estudou-se a sobrevivência das formas conidial e miceliana de Alternaria dauci, respectivamente, sobre folhas necrosadas e pecíolos de cenoura, sob diferentes condições mesológicas. Os esporos do fungo sobre conidióforos em folhas necrosadas de cenoura foram mantidos por 120 dias sob condi

  10. RENDIMIENTO DE 12 HÍBRIDOS COMERCIALES DE ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota L. EN EL CAMPO Y EN LA PLANTA DE EMPAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richmond-Zumbado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 12 híbridos comerciales de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. en Cot de Oreamuno, Cartago, Costa Rica, con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento en el campo y la planta de empaque, de junio a octubre del 2007. Los híbridos evaluados fueron: Bangor F1, Big Sur, Bolero F1, Concerto F1 (VAC 03 F1, XCR3688, Esperanza, Nandrin F1, Napoli F1, S-505, Spearhead, Trinity y Sirkana. Se obtuvo el número y peso de las raíces de los híbridos comerciales clasificadas en raíces totales, comerciales y diferentes variables de rechazo; en el campo y en la planta de empaque. Los híbridos con el mayor rendimiento comercial en campo y en planta empacadora, en orden decreciente, fueron: Bangor F1, Esperanza, Concerto F1, Nandrin F1 y Sirkana. Los materiales con menor rechazo en campo fueron Nandrin F1, Sirkana y Bangor F1, y en planta empacadora fueron: Big Sur, Sirkana, Napoli F1, Bolero F1 y XCR3688. Las principales causas de rechazo de la zanahoria en el campo y en la planta empacadora fueron: raíces bifurcadas, con rajadura, raíz pequeña y tamaño jumbo.

  11. Effects of different doses of gamma radiation in the conservation and in the physiochemical characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia Cristina Aparecida S.; Leite, Daniela Terenzi Stuchi; Wyler, Patricia . E- mail: tperecin@cena.usp.br

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the characteristics physic-chemical of carrot (Daucus carota L.) processed minimally, seeking the increase of shelf life and decrease of the microbial load. The carrots were acquired in the commerce of Piracicaba city and taken to the laboratory of Foods Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in form of slices. The carrot slices were putted in solution of chlorinated water 15ml/L by 4 minutes, droughts and package in a plastic box of polypropylene. After they were conditioned in plastic containers . After they were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0.725 kGy/hour) with the doses of: 0 (control), 1,0 and 2,0 kGy and stored in temperature of 5 deg C. They were analyzed: loss of fresh mass, the color (factors L, the, b), the pH, Brix and tetrable acidity, 4,10,16 and 22 days after the irradiation. The delineation experimental used was entirely at random with 10 repetitions for each treatment. By analyze of the obtained results concluded that the irradiation there was not difference significant statistics between the treatments with irradiation and the control. (author)

  12. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeswin Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueous extracts of aloevera (Aloevera barbedensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, honey and pomegranate (Punicagranatum, and to assess the reason for inhibition of growth of pathogenic organisms by DNA and protein analysis. Various aqueous extracts showed inhibition to microrganisms like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexineri and Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion significance and impact of study: The study also formulated and standardized a nourishing health drink and salad using the tested foods and estimated their shelf life and nutritive value. The health drink and salad had a low protein, low fat and moderate carbohydrate content. Therapeutically this drink and salad can be used to treat obesity.

  14. Nitrate Versus Chloride Nutrition Effects in a Soil-Plant System on the Growth, Nitrate Accumulation and N, K, Na, Ca and Cl Content of Carrot Daucus carota L.

    OpenAIRE

    İNAL, Ali; GÜNEŞ, Aydın; ALPASLAN, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effets of various NO 3 /CI percentages on growth, nitrate accumulation and mineral absorption in carrot Daucus carota L. plants in a controlled enviroment. The experiment included two CI sources (KCI and CaCl 2 ) and five NO 3 /CI percentages at 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 with total-N concentration of 400 mg NO 3 /kg soil in 100/0 treatment. The fresh and dry weights of shoots and storage roots, and the length and diameter of storag...

  15. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PENYEBAB BUSUK LUNAK PADA UMBI WORTEL (Daucus carota L. VARIETAS LOKAL DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  16. Analysis of the use of microcystin-contaminated water in the growth and nutritional quality of the root-vegetable, Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, J; Azevedo, J; Freitas, M; Pinto, E; Almeida, A; Vasconcelos, V; Campos, A

    2017-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are often observed in freshwaters and may reflect the increased eutrophication of these environments and alterations in climate. Cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), are an effective threat to many life forms, ranging from plants to humans. Despite the research conducted to date on cyanotoxins, the risks associated to the use of contaminated water in agriculture require further elucidation. To tackle this aim, a research was conducted with the root-vegetable Daucus carota. The specific aims of this work were the following: (i) to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on the plant growth and photosynthesis; (ii) to evaluate the nutritional quality of carrot roots; and (iii) to measure bioaccumulation. To this purpose, young carrots were grown in soil during 1 month in natural conditions and exposed to Mycrocystis aeruginosa aqueous extracts containing environmentally realistic concentrations of MC-LR (10 and 50 MC-LR μg/L). The results showed that MC-LR may decrease root growth after 28 days of exposure to 50 μg/L and increase photosynthetic efficiency. We also observed changes in mineral and vitamin content in carrots as a result of the exposure to contaminated water. Moreover, MC-LR was detected in carrot roots by ELISA at very low concentration 5.23 ± 0.47 ng MC eq./g FW. The soil retained 52.7 % of the toxin potentially available for plants. This result could be attributed to MC-LR adsorption by soil particles or due to microbial degradation of the toxin. We conclude that the prolonged use of MC-LR-contaminated water may affect crop growth, alter the nutritional value of vegetable products, and potentiate contamination.

  17. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase in carrots (Daucus carota cv. Nantes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Oey, Indrawati

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the enzyme kinetics and thermostability of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) in carrot purée (Daucus carota cv. Nantes) after being treated with pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Various PEF treatments using electric field strength between 0.2 and 1.2kV/cm and pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 520kJ/kg were conducted. The enzyme kinetics and the kinetics of AAO thermal inactivation (55-70°C) were described using Michaelis-Menten model and first order reaction model, respectively. Overall, the estimated Vmax and KM values were situated in the same order of magnitude as the untreated carrot purée after being exposed to pulsed electrical energy between 1 and 400kJ/kg, but slightly changed at pulsed electrical energy above 500kJ/kg. However, AAO presented different thermostability depending on the electric field strength applied. After PEF treatment at the electric field strength between 0.2 and 0.5kV/cm, AAO became thermolabile (i.e. increase in inactivation rate (k value) at reference temperature) but the temperature dependence of k value (Ea value) for AAO inactivation in carrot purée decreased, indicating that the changes in k values were less temperature dependent. It is obvious that PEF treatment affects the temperature stability of endogenous AAO. The changes in enzyme kinetics and thermostability of AAO in carrot purée could be related to the resulting carrot purée composition, alteration in intracellular environment and the effective concentration of AAO released after being subjected to PEF treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  19. ANÁLISIS DEL CRECIMIENTO DE CINCO HÍBRIDOS DE ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota L. MEDIANTE LA METODOLOGÍA DEL ANÁLISIS FUNCIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vega Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de crecimiento de 5 híbridos de zanahoria ( Daucus carota L. se efectuó en Cipreses de Oreamuno, Cartago, con el objetivo de describir el crecimiento y la fenología del cul - tivo de zanahoria. El análisis de crecimiento se realizó mediante la metodología de análisis fun - cional. Se evaluó el área foliar y peso seco total de cada órgano de la planta, se ajustaron modelos de regresión no lineal para dichas variables, se obtuvieron los parámetros que definen las fun - ciones matemáticas que describen el crecimiento y se representó gráficamente cada modelo para cada variable evaluada. Las variables de peso seco total y de raíz se ajustaron en la función logística no-lineal asintótica: PS=alfa/(1+exp(- beta(x-gamma; el peso seco de hojas y el área foliar se ajustaron en la función tipo “campana”: PS=alfa*exp(-beta(x-gamma 2 . Las plantas pre - sentaron una curva de crecimiento sigmoidal con fases bien definidas: una fase de crecimiento lento, luego una etapa de crecimiento exponen - cial, seguida de una etapa de disminución del crecimiento y por último una etapa de estabili - dad. La planta dedica sus primeros estados de desarrollo a establecer su maquinaria fotosin - tética, en competencia directa con el desarrollo radical. La raíz comienza a engrosar entre los 63 dds y los 77 dds según el híbrido, durante la etapa II de crecimiento, con una mayor proporción de asimilados destinados a la raíz, lo que conduce a un aumento en su diámetro. Finalmente, del análisis de las variables de peso seco total y área foliar, se puede establecer 2 grupos: por un lado Suprema, Esperanza y Bangor, y por otro CLX- 3193 y Sirkana. El primer grupo presentó los valores más altos para dichas variables.

  20. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea.

  1. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eKimura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1 and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1.

  2. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126 roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Kudzú (P. phaseoloides and carrot (D. carota roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia, did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.

  3. Evaluating the Antibacterial Properties of Polyacetylene and Glucosinolate Compounds with Further Identification of Their Presence within Various Carrot (Daucus carota) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Cultivars Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Diode Array Detector and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, L; Kenny, O; Hossain, M B; Walsh, D; Sheehy, E; Evans, P; Gaffney, M; Rai, D K

    2017-08-23

    Ongoing consumer concerns over using synthetic additives in foods has strongly influenced efforts worldwide to source suitable natural alternatives. In this study, the antibacterial efficacy of polyacetylene and glucosinolate compounds was evaluated against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Falcarinol [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 18.8-37.6 μg/mL] demonstrated the best overall antibacterial activity, while sinigrin (MIC = 46.9-62.5 μg/mL) was the most active glucosinolate compound. High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector analysis showed falcarinol [85.13-244.85 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] to be the most abundant polyacetylene within six of the eight carrot (Daucus carota) cultivars investigated. Meanwhile, sinigrin (100.2-244.3 μg/g of DW) was the most abundant glucosinolate present within the majority of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cultivars investigated using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The high abundance of both falcarinol and sinigrin within these respective species suggests that they could serve as potential sources of natural antibacterial agents for use as such in food products.

  4. growth and yield response of carrot (daucus carota l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Mampong Campus to investigate the growth and yield responses of carrot to different rates of soil amendments ... quires a deep and well-drained loamy soil with high amount of ... The factors considered in the ..... processing carrot root yields.

  5. Gamma irradiation-induced variation in carrots (Daucus carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Simon, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue cultures, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M1 plant size by 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type (reducing vs. non reducing sugars). Induced variation in root color and root shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment

  6. Gamma irradiation induced variation in carrots (Daucus Carota L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safady, B.; Simon, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Carrot tissue cultures, germinating seed, and dry seed were exposed to gamma radiation. Irradiation accelerated germination of carrot seed in the M 1 generation at low doses (0.5 and 1 krad), whereas higher doses delayed germination. A high negative correlation was observed between dose and survival of plants after seed irradiation. Plant size and root weight were 20% to 35% greater than control plants after seeds, but not tissue culture, were exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. Higher doses reduced M 1 plant size by > 50% in germinating seed and tissue culture treatments but less for the dry seed treatment. Seed production decreased while phenotypic variation of M 1 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Root weight and total dissolved solids were highly variable in M 2 families. Less variation was observed in total carotene content and none was seen in sugar type [reducing vs. non reducing sugars]. Induced variation in root color and rot shape was also observed. Irradiation of germinating seed and tissue cultures yielded more M 2 variation than irradiation of dry seed. Putative point mutations were not observed. Unirradiated carrot tissue cultures did not yield significant M 2 somaclonal variation. Average root weight of M 2 plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage, especially for the dry seed treatment (Author)

  7. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) stimulates an efflux of 45 Ca 2+ from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP 3 might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP 3 and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-[2- 3 H]inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that [ 3 H]inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP 2 ) and IP 3 when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP 2 or IP 3 when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP 2 and IP 3 , were present in these cells. Thus, [ 3 H]inositol metabolites other than IP 2 and IP 3 had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP 3 is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells

  8. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota Weed interference on carrot crop (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coelho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma importante hortaliça no Brasil, cuja produtividade pode ser muito reduzida devido à interferência de plantas daninhas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar efeitos de períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cenoura cultivar "Brasília" e na comunidade de plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de períodos crescentes de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas. A comunidade de plantas daninhas foi avaliada quanto a número de indivíduos, matéria seca acumulada e frequência de ocorrência das espécies, e a cultura, quanto à produtividade comercial. As principais plantas daninhas foram Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica e Lepidium virginicum. A presença da comunidade de plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura pode acarretar perdas de 94% na produtividade, evidenciando alta suscetibilidade da cenoura à interferência das plantas daninhas. Contudo, não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, e um único controle das plantas daninhas, entre 22 e 31 dias após a semeadura, foi suficiente para garantir a produção da cultura.Carrot is an important horticultural crop in Brazil, and its productivity may be highly reduced due to weed interference. This study evaluated the effects of weed coexistence periods on carrot cultivar 'Brasilia' yield and on the weed community. The treatments were constituted of increasing weed coexistence periods or weed-free periods. The weed community was evaluated based on number of individuals, dry matter accumulation, and frequency of occurrence; while the crop was evaluated based on marketable productivity. The main weeds were Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica, and Lepidium virginicum. The presence of the weed community throughout the crop season can cause yield losses of 94%, showing high susceptibility of the carrot crop to weed interference. However, there was no critical period for weed removal, and a single weed control between 22 and 31 days after sowing should be sufficient to guarantee crop production.

  9. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  10. Formulasi Sediaan Bedak Kompak Menggunakan Sari Wortel (Daucus carota L.) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Justitia, Maya

    2014-01-01

    The compact powder is a decorative and a skin care cosmetic intended to blot out the flaws on the skin, such as covering dark spots and blemishes and to protect the skin from exposure to UV rays of the sun. Carrot containing beta-carotene which can give away orange colour and can be used as a natural colourant replaces synthetic colourant. Purpose of this research was to formulated a compact powder using colourant from carrot juice. The colourant of carrot juice was taken from fresh carrot...

  11. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  12. Analysis of texture in baby carrot (Daucus carota) subjected to the process of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2011-01-01

    The carrot is a vegetable of great economic value due to its versatility in the food industry and can be used as raw or minimally processed vegetable or aggregating value to the product, transforming the fresh carrots in baby carrots. It is well known that the application of gamma radiation in food may help in maintaining the quality of food. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation on texture of minimally processed baby carrot after the processing in a Multipurpose 60 Co irradiator. It can be concluded that the treatment with low doses of gamma radiation keep the quality of fresh-cut baby carrot. (author)

  13. Preliminary Evidences of Biofortification with Iodine of “Carota di Polignano”, An Italian Carrot Landrace

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    Angelo Signore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The “Carota di Polignano” (Polignano Carrot – PC, Daucus carota L. is a multi-colored landrace, cultivated in the Southern Italy, whose colors range from yellow to purple. Iodine is an essential micronutrient for humans, since it is a key component of thyroid hormones, which regulate the growth and development of the human body. The main source for iodine assumption is represented by diet, but its concentration in the vegetables is usually limited with respect to human needs. To this purpose, two experimental trials (in open field and in greenhouse with a soil-less system were carried out to enrich PC with iodine. Three levels of iodine (control treatment, C – 0 mg·L−1; low, L – 50 mg·L−1; and high, H – 500 mg·L−1, distributed with foliar spray fertilizations (in both open field and greenhouse or with nutrient solution (in greenhouse, at the level of 50 mg·L−1 in the form of KIO3 were compared. In open field, the H treatment showed a biofortification that was double and triple respect to L and C treatments, respectively, without influencing color and biometric parameters, such as the fresh and dry weight of roots and DM percentage. In greenhouse, the biofortification done with foliar spray fertilization followed the same trend of open field, while the biofortification by means of nutrient solution was more effective but reached very high levels that had toxic effects on the plants and could be too high for human nutrition. However, the concentrations of iodine into biofortified carrots in open field can allow to satisfy the recommended daily allowance (RDA by consuming 100 and 200 g of fresh product for the treatment H and L, respectively. Regarding the greenhouse biofortification, the RDA would be satisfied by consuming 200 g of fresh carrots (with the high level of foliar fertilization.

  14. Phylogenomics of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. We here explore the utility of multiple nuclear orthologs for the taxonomic resolution of a wide variety of Daucus species and outgroups. We studied the phylogeny of 89 ...

  15. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David M; Ruess, Holly; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Simon, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid ( Dc MP). Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data set were highly resolved, with 100% bootstrap support for most of the external and many of the internal clades, except for the clade of D. carota and its most closely related species D. syrticus . Subsets of the data, including regions traditionally used as phylogenetically informative regions, provide various degrees of soft congruence with the entire data set. There are areas of hard incongruence, however, with phylogenies using nuclear data. We extended knowledge of a mitochondrial to plastid DNA insertion sequence previously named Dc MP and identified the first instance in flowering plants of a sequence of potential nuclear genome origin inserted into the plastid genome. There is a relationship of inverted repeat junction classes and repeat DNA to phylogeny, but no such relationship with nonsynonymous mutations. Our data have allowed us to (1) produce a well-resolved plastid phylogeny of Daucus , (2) evaluate subsets of the entire plastid data for phylogeny, (3) examine evidence for plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenetic incongruence, and (4) examine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertion into the plastid. © 2017 Spooner et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  16. Morphometrics of Daucus (Apiaceae): A counterpart to a phylogenomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. A companion phylogenomics analysis of Daucus (carrots) using 94 conserved nuclear orthologs supported many of the traditional species but showed unexpected results that ...

  17. INFLUENCE OF AMMONIACAL FERTILIZERS IN THE MAIN ROOT BRANCHING OF CARROT (Daucus carota L. INFLUÊNCIA DOS ADUBOS AMONIACAIS NA RAMIFICAÇÃO DA RAIZ PRINCIPAL DA CENOURA (Daucus carota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Misshape of carrot roots can be incited by soil agents, like badly prepared soil and nematodes or by ammonium fertilizers. RALEIGH (Knott, cited by SILVA, found that ammonium fertilizers can kill the root and consequently cause malformation. The preference of sodium nitrate or other non-ammonium fertilizers is widely spread in Brazilian literature about carrot. MALAVOLTA (1967 even recommends only small quantities of manure to prevent root damage. REGINA (1964 advises against use of ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers for the same reason. CAMARGO (1963 also prefers sodium nitrate but mentions the possibility of substitution by ammonium sulphate, too. Although, it was impossible to find any original experimental information about, in Brazilian literature. The sodium nitrate is imported by Brazil from Chile and is therefore almost five times more expensive than ammonium sulphate, in spite of its lower nitrogen content. This trial investigated four sources of nitrogen: ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, urea and manure. The quantities applied were higher than MALAVOLTA recommends for carrot. The results don't show any significant difference between treatments, neither in ramification frequence nor in yield. The variety used was a cone-shaped carrot, named London. Other varieties possibly are susceptible to malformation of root by ammonium fertilizers. This will be investigated in further experiments.

    A deformação da raiz da cenoura pode ser causada por diversos agentes do solo, como nematóides, solo mal preparado e, ainda adubos ricos em amônio. Segundo RALEIGH, citado por Silva, adubos amoniacais podem matar a ponta radicular, causando assim deformação da raiz. Na literatura brasileira sobre adubação de cenoura, é muito difundida a preferência de nitrato de sódio ou outros adubos não amoniacais. Em Goiânia, o salitre do Chile é vendido apenas por quilo, custando quase cinco vezes o preço do sulfato de amônio. Neste trabalho, realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Goiás, foram comparadas quatro fontes de nitrogênio: sulfato de amônio, salitre do Chile, uréia e esterco de gado. Utilizou-se uma variedade de cenoura de raiz cônica, chamada London. Nenhuma diferença significante foi encontrada quanto à deformação ou à produção, entre os tratamentos. Possivelmente outras variedades são susceptíveis à deformação pelos amoniacais o que será objeto de outro experimento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sulfato de amônio; salitre do chile.

  18. Enzymatic reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde with carrot bits (Daucus carota): a simple experiment for understanding biocatalysis; Reducao enzimatica do 4-(dimetilamino)benzaldeido com pedacos de cenoura (Daucus carota): um experimento simples na compreensao da biocatalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Alvaro Takeo; Portas, Viviane Barbosa; Oliveira, Camila de Souza de, E-mail: alvaro.omori@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper describes a simple, low-costly and environmentally friendly procedure for reduction of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde using carrot bits in water. This interdisciplinary experiment can be used to introduce the concepts of biocatalysis and green chemistry to undergraduate students. (author)

  19. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on bacterial resistance in grated carrots (Daucus carota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Lafortune, R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of gamma irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging as an alternative treatment to ensure the innocuity and the shelf life extension of pre-cured vegetables. Grated carrots were inoculated with Escherichia coli (10 6 CFU/g) and packed under air or under MAP condition (60% O 2 , 30% CO 2 and 10% N 2 ). The packages were then, gamma irradiated at doses from 0.15 to 0.9 kGy and stored at 4±1 deg. C. E. coli counts were periodically evaluated during 50 days of storage. Results showed that at day 1, an irradiation treatment at a dose of 0.15 kGy reduced by 3 and 4 log the microbial level representing a level of 3 and 2 log CFU/g when samples were irradiated under air and under MAP respectively. However, a level of 3 log CFU/g was detected in both treated samples after 7 days of storage. When samples were irradiated at doses ≥0.3 kGy no E.coli were detected during the whole storage in samples treated under MAP. However, when samples were treated under air, a level of 1-2 log CFU/g of E.coli was detected after 5 days of storage

  20. Genomic identification of WRKY transcription factors in carrot (Daucus carota) and analysis of evolution and homologous groups for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-03-15

    WRKY transcription factors belong to one of the largest transcription factor families. These factors possess functions in plant growth and development, signal transduction, and stress response. Here, we identified 95 DcWRKY genes in carrot based on the carrot genomic and transcriptomic data, and divided them into three groups. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins from carrot and Arabidopsis divided these proteins into seven subgroups. To elucidate the evolution and distribution of WRKY transcription factors in different species, we constructed a schematic of the phylogenetic tree and compared the WRKY family factors among 22 species, which including plants, slime mold and protozoan. An in-depth study was performed to clarify the homologous factor groups of nine divergent taxa in lower and higher plants. Based on the orthologous factors between carrot and Arabidopsis, 38 DcWRKY proteins were calculated to interact with other proteins in the carrot genome. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that DcWRKY20 can interact with DcMAPK1 and DcMAPK4. The expression patterns of the selected DcWRKY genes based on transcriptome data and qRT-PCR suggested that those selected DcWRKY genes are involved in root development, biotic and abiotic stress response. This comprehensive analysis provides a basis for investigating the evolution and function of WRKY genes.

  1. Identification and characterization of bZIP-type transcription factors involved in carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yucheng; Ren, Haibo; Xie, He; Ma, Zeyang; Chen, Fan

    2009-10-01

    Seed dormancy is an important adaptive trait that enables seeds of many species to remain quiescent until conditions become favorable for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in these developmental processes. Like dormancy and germination, the elongation of carrot somatic embryo radicles is retarded by sucrose concentrations at or above 6%, and normal growth resumes at sucrose concentrations below 3%. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening system, we isolated two bZIP-type transcription factors, CAREB1 and CAREB2, from a cDNA library prepared from carrot somatic embryos cultured in a high-sucrose medium. Both CAREB1 and CAREB2 were localized to the nucleus, and specifically bound to the ABA response element (ABRE) in the Dc3 promoter. Expression of CAREB2 was induced in seedlings by drought and exogenous ABA application; whereas expression of CAREB1 increased during late embryogenesis, and reduced dramatically when somatic embryos were treated with fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. Overexpression of CAREB1 caused somatic embryos to develop slowly when cultured in low-sucrose medium, and retarded the elongation of the radicles. These results indicate that CAREB1 and CAREB2 have similar DNA-binding activities, but play different roles during carrot development. Our results indicate that CAREB1 functions as an important trans-acting factor in the ABA signal transduction pathway during carrot somatic embryogenesis.

  2. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (¤Daucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...

  3. PEMBERIAN KOTORAN KAMBING TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL WORTEL (Daucus carota DAN BAWANG DAUN (Allium fistulosum L. DENGAN BUDIDAYA TUMPANGSARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trias Budi Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping cultivation model is commonly used in organic farming system. The system is aimed to save land and fertilizer aside from creating biodiversity in a portion of a planting. The research was conducted in Permata Hati Farm, Ciburial Village, Cisarua Sub district, Bogor Regency, West Java from October 2012 to January 2013. The purposes of the research are: a to know the effect of goat dung application toward the growth and yield of organically managed carrot and scallion intercropping, and b to determine the best quantity of goat dung to promote growth and yield of carrot and scallion intercropping. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with 6 treatments and 3 replications was used in this experiment. The treatments applied were 0 ton ha- 1, 5 ton ha-1, 10 ton ha-1, 15 ton ha-1, 20 ton ha-1, and 25 ton ha-1 of goat dung. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT at the confidence level of 95% was used to analyze the result. The application of 15 ton ha-1 goat dung affected scallion’s height and number of seedlings as well as carrot’s biomass and height. This dosage resulted in the best yield of scallion and carrot intercropping.

  4. Influence of Cultivar and UGmax on Antioxidative Properties of Carrot Roots (Daucus Carota L. and their Stability During Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keutgen Anna J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, the significance of cultivar (convention-al and coloured and of the application of the soil fertility enhancer UGmax on health-promoting properties of carrot roots subjected to the freezing process of carrot cubes after water blanching was investigated. The selection of cultivar turned out to be highly signif-icant with respect to the development of health-promoting properties of carrot roots. The highest antioxidant properties were found in the purple cultivar ‘Deep Purple’. Its mean antioxidant capacity accounted for 5.31 mmol Fe+2 · kg–1 f.m. Essential for health-promoting properties were the contents of anthocyanins (R2 = 0.83, chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.81 and total polyphenolics (R2 = 0.71. The application of the biological agent UGmax improved the qual-ity of carrot significantly, increasing the content of total carotenoids and reducing the losses of ascorbic acid during processing. The freezing process negatively influenced the antioxidative properties of carrot irrespective of cultivar and applied agro-technique (use of UGmax, especially in the case of water-soluble antioxidants such as anthocyanins and ascorbic acid.

  5. ELABORACIÓN DE PASTAS ALIMENTICIAS ENRIQUECIDAS A PARTIR DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota ELABORACAO DE PASTA ALIMENTICIA ENRIQUECIDA A PARTIR DE FARINHA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa wild. E CENOURA (Daucus carota PRODUCTION OF FOOD PASTAS ENRICHED FROM QUINUA's (Chenopodium quinoa wild. FLOUR AND CARROT (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M ASTAÍZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La pasta de sémola es un alimento de consumo masivo, pero el valor biológico de su proteína es bajo, dada la deficiencia de Usina en la proteína del trigo. Al complementar la sémola con harina de quinua y zanahoria, se mejora la calidad de la proteína por ser la quinua muy rica en Usina y se incrementa el contenido de fibra soluble y vitamina A con la adición de zanahoria. Este estudio se desarrolló en dos etapas; en la Etapa I se elaboraron y analizaron pastas enriquecidas con harina integral de quinua, con niveles de sustitución del 30%, 40% y50% en la Etapa II, se sustituyó con zanahoria un 15% de la fase líquida de la formulación que en la fase I presentó mejor calidad. En las dos etapas se evaluó calidad de cocción, composición química y calidad sensorial de las pastas. La sustitución de la sémola por un 30% de harina de quinua, al igual que la inclusión de zanahoria en la formulación, permitió la obtención de un producto de mayor calidad nutricional y de excelente aceptación por el consumidor. Se logró un incremento significativo en la concentración de proteína y fibra, acompañado de una disminución en el contenido de carbohidratos; igualmente, mejoró el cómputo químico de las pastas pasando de 55.2% en las pastas control a 72.4 en las pastas enriquecidas con quinua. La calidad de cocción fue inferior en las pastas enriquecidas; sin embargo, las propiedades tecnológicas de las pastas se mantienen dentro de los rangos adecuados para su preparaciónAs pastas de sêmola de trigo é um alimento de consumo massivo, mas o valor biológico da sua proteína é baixo devido à; sua deficiencia em Usina. Ao complementar a sêmola com farinha de quinua e cenoura, não só se melhora a qualidade da proteína por complementaridade de aminoácidos entre a proteína do trigo e os aminoácidos da proteína de quinua, pseudo cereal muito rico em Usina, senão que também se incrementa o conteúdo de fibra e vitamina A com a cenoura. Este estudo se desenvolve em duas fases; na fase I elaboraram-se e analisaram-se pastas enriquecidas com farinha de quinua, com níveis de substituição do 30%, 40% e 50% na fase sólida da formulação; e urna fase II, na qual se substituiu com cenoura um 15% da fase líquida da formulação que na fase um apresentou melhor qualidade culinaria e sensorial. Avaliou-se a qualidade culinaria e as características químicas das pastas assim como a aceitabilidade e qualidade sensorial com consumidores de cinco bairros da cidade de Popayán. A complementaridade com farinha de quinua e cenoura, gerou incremento significativo no tempo de cocção e diminuição do incremento em peso e da porcentagem da agua absorvida com relação às pastas controle; as perdas de sólidos por cocção foram menores do que ñas pastas substituidas com relação ás pastas controle. No âmbito do consumidoras pastas substituidas com farinha de quinua e com cenoura tiveram excelente aceitação. A porcentagem de proteína e fibra quantificadas ñas pastas enriquecidas foi significativamente superior ao controle. No computo químico indicou melhor qualidade da proteína ñas pastas enriquecidas. Por tanto se concluí que é a tecnológica, nutricional e socialmente factível a complementação da sêmola de trigo com quina e cenoura na elaboração de pastas. Este estudo mereceu o apoio financeiro do fundo empreendedor para seu escalamento ao nivel semi-industrialThe pasta ofsemolina is a food ofmassive consumption, but the biológical value ofits protein is low, the deficiency is given by the lysine in the protein of the wheat. To complemented the Semolina with quinua and carrot flour, the quality of the protein is improved because the quinua is high in lysine and there is increased the content of soluble fiber and A vitamin bythe addition of carrot. This study is developed in two stages; in the First Stage it was elaborated and was analyzed the pastas enriched with quinua flour, with levels of substitution of 30%, 40% and 50% in the Second Stage, it was replaced with carrot 15% of the liquid phase of the formulation that in the First phase was better in quality there was evaluated the quality of boiling, chemical composition and sensory quality of the pastas. The substitution of the Semolina for 30% of quinua flour, as the incorporation of carrot in the formulation, allowed the high nutritional quality pasta, with excellent acceptance by the consumer it was achieved a significant increase in the concentration of protein and fiber, it was decreased the content of carbohydrates, it as improved the chemical calculation and the technological properties and it was kept inside the suitable ranges; all of it concluded that complementation of the semolina with quinua and carrot, in the elaboration of pastas, improves the nutritional quality of these and it is technologically feasible.

  6. Comportamento das isotermas de adsorção do pó da polpa de manga liofilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha B. Moreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade e a vida útil dos pós de frutas dependem de seus teores de água e da maneira como esta se encontra ligada ao alimento. O comportamento higroscópico de alimentos em pó pode ser avaliado através de suas isotermas de sorção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar modelos matemáticos para representação da isoterma de sorção do pó de manga liofilizada e avaliar as características físico-químicas da polpa de manga in natura e seu pó liofilizado. Foram feitas as análises de umidade, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico e cor. Os modelos matemáticos ajustados aos dados experimentais foram BET, GAB, Henderson e Oswin nas temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35 °C. O melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais foi obtido pelo modelo de GAB. O modelo de GAB apresentou erros médios de 4,092 a 5,175% e valores de R entre 0,9986 a 0,9993 para as temperaturas estudadas. As isotermas do pó da polpa de manga liofilizada apresentaram formato característico do tipo III.

  7. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho R.L.; Crocci A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL) e congelada (MCC) sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL...

  8. Valor nutricional da polpa de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) liofilizada Lyophilized açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.) nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Mayra da Silva Menezes; Amanda Thiele Torres; Armando Ubirajara Sabaa Srur

    2008-01-01

    O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador da bebida açaí produzida a partir dos frutos do açaizeiro. Esta bebida ou a polpa de açaí são normalmente comercializadas a temperatura ambiente ou na forma congelada, levando à perdas nutricionais importantes. Este trabalho objetivou analisar alguns nutrientes da polpa de açaí liofilizada. Os resultados de determinações analíticas mostraram que esse produto na forma de pó é um alimento altamente calórico, 489,39 Kcal/100 g de polpa liofili...

  9. Efeitos hemostático e estrutural da esponja de celulose liofilizada Hemostatic and structural effects of lyophilized cellulose sponge

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    LUÍS RENATO MELLO

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos hemostáticos da celulose oxidada (Surgicel são bem conhecidos. Baseados na similaridade estrutural e em um possível efeito hemostático, estudamos a esponja de celulose liofilizada utilizando dois modelos experimentais. Fase I - Realizada em 12 cães, consistiu na provocação de lesão cortical com sangramento, introdução de fragmento de esponja de celulose liofilizada no interior da lesão e medida do tempo necessário para obter-se hemostasia. Os animais foram sacrificados em 7, 30 e 90 dias. A hemostasia foi obtida, em média, após 1 minuto e nenhum efeito colateral clínico foi detectado. A microscopia mostrou reação histiocitária leve aos 7 e 30 dias, com presença de pequena quantidade de células gigantes tipo corpo estranho. A reação histioplasmocitária regrediu e, aos 90 dias, a celulose estava circundada por pobre reação inflamatória. A membrana liofilizada revelou ter aspecto peculiar, representado por filamentos eosinofílicos, circundados por reação inflamatória, que diminuiu com o tempo. Somente esparsos e irregulares filamenos eosinofílicos foram percebidos aos 90 dias. Fase II - Foram introduzidos fragmentos de dimensões conhecidas de esponja de celulose, no interior do fígado de 12 ratos, que foram sacrificados em 7, 30 e 90 dias. Na autopsia, a inspeção a olho desarmado constatou, aos 30 e 90 dias, a formação de bridas peritoneais na altura do implante. Em todos os animais, especialmente aos 7 dias, a microscopia revelou intensa reação histiolinfoplasmocitária ao redor do implante. Em dois animais, aos 90 dias, detectaram-se grânulos refringentes à luz polarizada, no interior de células gigantes, demonstrando fagocitose ativa de celulose. Em conclusão, observou-se haver necessidade de modelo experimental comparativo para provar a existência de propriedades hemostáticas na esponja. Conseguiu-se, no entanto, provar a existência de reabsorção da celulose em mamíferos através de

  10. The effect of preliminary processing and different methods of cooking on the iodine content and selected antioxidative properties of carrot (Daucus carota L. biofortified with (potassium iodine

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    Kapusta-Duch Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrot is a vegetable that contains many nutrients and has strong antioxidant activity as well as pro-health potential. The level of bioactive compounds is strongly connected with the production chain. The thermal treatment of food products induces several biological, physical and chemical changes. In this study, changes in the levels of iodine, total carotenoids, total polyphenols as well as the antioxidant activity of unpeeled and peeled controls and carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine (KJ during cultivation due to the cooking and steaming process were investigated. The use of thermal processes resulted in a lower concentration of iodine in the roots of the control as well as in carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine. In addition, peeling carrots caused higher losses of this trace element in the control and the biofortified carrots cooked or steamed for various times. In this study, a significant growth of the total carotenoids in peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine and of the total polyphenols in unpeeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine under the influence of the cooking and steaming processes was observed compared with raw peeled and unpeeled biofortified carrots, respectively. Antioxidant activity significantly increased in the unpeeled and peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium iodine under all thermal treatments in comparison with the raw unpeeled and peeled biofortified carrots.

  11. nfluences of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost and bacterial fertilizer on soluble soil nitrogen forms and on the growth of carrot (Daucus Carota L.

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    Andrea Balla Kovács

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a greenhouse study to compare the effects of food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer and their combination with the effect of mineral fertilizer on yield of carrot and the available nutrient content of soils. The study was conducted on calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils and consisted of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The NH4NO3 resulted in reduced growing of carrot plant in sandy soil, and the treatment effect of mineral fertilizer was not observed significantly in chernozem soil. Sandy soil showed higher response of growth of carrot to food waste compost fertilization than chernozem soil. Sole application of EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not have marked effect on yield parameters and sizes of roots. When EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied together with ammonium-nitrate or with compost in chernozem soil, the weights of roots and the sizes of roots in some cases became higher compared to the values of appropriate treatments without inoculation. In sandy soil the diameter of roots slightly increased when EM-1 bacterial fertilizer was applied with ammonium-nitrate and with ammonium-nitrate+compost combination compared to appropriate treatment without inoculation. In chernozem soil the maximum weights and sizes of roots were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1 bacterial fertilizer and in sandy soil with compost treatment. Our results of soluble nitrogen content of soils are in good agreement with yield parameters of carrot. Results suggest that food waste compost could be a good substitute for mineral fertilizer application in carrot production mainly in sandy soil. EM-1 bacterial fertilizer did not cause marked effect on yield and yield parameters of carrot plant, but its combination with other fertilizers promises a little bit higher yield or plant available nutrient in the soil. These effects do not clear exactly, so further studies are needed.

  12. Effect of Hot Water Blanching Time and Drying Temperature on the Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of and Anthocyanin Degradation in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. Shreds

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    Umar Garba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the eff ect of blanching treatment (98 °C for 3 and 6 min and air drying temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C on the thin layer drying characteristics such as drying time, drying rate constant, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy, as well as on anthocyanin content of black carrot shreds. It was observed that drying temperature aff ected the drying rate but blanching did not have an eff ect on drying time. Three thin layer drying models, i.e. Page, Lewis and Henderson-Pabis were evaluated. The goodness of these models was evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error, reduced chi square (χ2 and standard error. Page model showed the best fit to the drying data. The effective diffusivity ranges of 1.4·10–9 to 2.6·10–9 m2/s, 1.3·10–9 to 2.1·10–9 m2/s and 1.5·10–9 to 2.2·10–9 m2/s aft er 3 or 6 min of blanching and control samples respectively were calculated using Fick’s second law. The activation energy of 37.5, 26.0 and 34.6 kJ/(mol·K of the control samples and samples blanched for 3 or 6 min respectively was determined from the Arrhenius plot. The blanching treatment affected the anthocyanin content to a great extent. The anthocyanin content of (231.7±2.9 and (278.8±7.8 mg per 100 g was recorded in samples blanched for 3 and 6 min and then dried at 60 °C, and (153.0±4.3 and (247.0±5.5 mg per 100 g was recorded at 40 °C as compared to the control of (580.1±1.3 at 60 °C and (466.7±1.1 mg per 100 g at 40 °C.

  13. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

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    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  14. Sitios de infección por hongos más frecuentes en la zanahoria (Daucus carota L. y patogenicidad en sus diferentes tejidos.

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    German Rivera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi from carrot roots collected in the field local market were isolated and identified. Sites of natural infection on the root were recorded. Sixteen genera were identified and their pathogenicity tested by  placing them on: not wounded periderm, pericyclic parenchyma, phloem parenchyma and xylem parenchyma. Half of the total fungi was isolated in both field and market samples. The most frequent natural infection sites were the crown, end of the tap root, and lateral roots. In the pathogenicity tests a gradient of resistance was shown varying from a very high level at periderm to a low level at the xylem parenchyma.  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,  Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium tricinctum, F. nivale, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. y Gliocladium sp., all penetrated directly throught the periderm and also infected the other tissues. Geotrivhum candidum Rhizopus stolonifer . Verticillium sp., Penicillium so., and Candida sp. did no intect the periderm, but were pathogenic  to the pericyclic, phloem, and xylem parenchyma. Phoma sp. and Mucor sp. only infected phloem and xylem parenchyma.

  15. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different colour carrot (Daucus carota L. cultivars using static headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

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    Zehra Güler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well as sugar and acid contents affect carrot flavour. This study compared VOCs in 11 carrot cultivars. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using static headspace technique was applied to analyse the VOCs. The number of VOCs per sample ranged from 17 to 31. The primarily VOCs identified in raw carrots with the exception of “Yellow Stone” were terpenes, ranging from 65 to 95%. The monoterpenes with values ranging from 31 to 89% were higher than those (from 2 to 15% of sesquiterpenes. Monoterpene α-terpinolene (with ranging from 23 to 63% and (--α-pinene (26%, and alcohol ethanol (35% was the main VOC in extracts from the nine carrot cultivars, “Purple” and “Yellow Stone”, respectively. As a result, among 16 identified monoterpenes, 7 monoterpenes (--α-pinene, (--β-pinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene and p-cymene constituted more than 60% of total VOCs identified in carrots including “Atomic Red”, “Nantes”, “Cosmic Purple”, “Red Samurai”, “Eregli Black”, “White Satin”, “Parmex” and “Baby Carrot”. Thus, these cultivars may advise to carrot breeders due to the beneficial effects of terpenes, especially monoterpenes on health.

  16. Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in different colour carrot (Daucus carota L.) cultivars using static headspace/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Güler; Fatih Karaca; Halit Yetisir

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as sugar and acid contents affect carrot flavour. This study compared VOCs in 11 carrot cultivars. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using static headspace technique was applied to analyse the VOCs. The number of VOCs per sample ranged from 17 to 31. The primarily VOCs identified in raw carrots with the exception of “Yellow Stone” were terpenes, ranging from 65 to 95%. The monoterpenes with values ranging from 31 to 89% were higher than those (from...

  17. The effect of commercial enzyme preparation-assisted maceration on the yield, quality, and bioactivity of essential oil from waste carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.

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    Śmigielski, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight enzyme preparations were screened with a view to maximizing the yield of carrot seed essential oil. Three of the eight enzyme preparations investigated, lipase from Mucor circinelloides, XPect® pectinase, and Esperase® protease, significantly influenced the amount of essential oil obtained, with Esperase® being the most effective. The Taguchi method was applied to optimize the processing conditions for the Esperase® protease. Under the optimum conditions, the essential oil yield increased by approximately 48%. The main constituent compounds in the oil are: carotol (OeA: 40.80%–OeB: 46.17%, daucol (OeA: 7.35%–OeB: 6.22%, sabinene (OeA: 5.12%–OeB: 6.13%, alpha-pinene (OeA: 4.24%–OeB: 5.11% and geranyl acetate (OeA: 4.50%–OeB: 3.68%. As compared to the control sample, the essential oil obtained from enzyme-pretreated carrot seeds has the same biological activity against Bacillus subtilis and Candida sp., lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and higher activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum.Ocho preparados enzimáticos fueron seleccionados con el fin de maximizar el rendimiento de aceites esenciales de semillas de zanahoria. Tres de los ocho preparados de las enzimas investigadas, lipasa de Mucor circinelloides, Xpect® pectinasa y Esperase® proteasa, influyeron de manera significativa sobre la cantidad de aceite esencial obtenido, siendo Esperase® el más eficaz. El método de Taguchi se aplicó para optimizar las condiciones del procesamiento para esta última. Bajo las condiciones óptimas, el rendimiento de los aceite esenciales aumentó aproximadamente un 48%. Los principales compuestos constituyentes del aceite son: carotol (OEA: 40.80%–OeB: 46,17%, ducol (OEA: 7,35%–OeB: 6,22%, sabineno (OEA: 5,12%–OeB: 6,13%, alfa-pineno (OEA: 4,24%– OeB: 5,11% y acetato de geranilo (OEA: 4,50%–OeB: 3,68%. En comparación con la muestra control, el aceite esencial obtenido a partir de las semillas de zanahoria mediante enzima-pretratada tiene la misma actividad biológica frente a Bacillus subtilis y Candida sp., menor actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, y una mayor actividad contra Aspergillus niger y Penicillium expansum.

  18. Effect of genuine non-anthocyanin phenolics and chlorogenic acid on color and stability of black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Claudia C; Bogner, Hanna; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed at studying the color intensity and stability of black carrot anthocyanins as influenced by intermolecular co-pigmentation. For this purpose, purified anthocyanin solutions were supplemented with purified genuine black carrot phenolics, chlorogenic acid, and an aqueous phenolic-rich green coffee bean extract at various anthocyanin:co-pigment ratios (1:0-1:162; pH 3.6). The hyperchromic co-pigmentation effect depended on the concentration of added co-pigments, resulting in an absorbance increase of up to 22% at the absorption maximum. Anthocyanin stability during heating (90°C, 5h) was barely improved unless the concentrations of co-pigments exceeded those of their natural source. When adding co-pigments at ratios above 1:9.4, anthocyanin heat stability was significantly improved. As acylated anthocyanins were most stable, breeders might aim at increasing their content in the future, while breeding for high levels of colorless polyphenols may be unreachable. Nevertheless, we provided proof-of-concept for the successful color enhancement by the addition of a phenolic-rich green coffee bean extract, being useful for food-grade applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pengaruh Penambahan Gum Arab Terhadap Karakteristik Fisik, Kimia Dan Organoleptik Fruit and Vegetable Leather Dari Albedo Semangka (Citrullus Vulgaris Schard.) Dan Wortel (Daucus Carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Putri, Gita Novelia; Parnanto, Nur Her Riyadi; Nursiwi, Asri

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi gum arab (0; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9%) terbaik sebagai bahan pengikatterhadap karakteristik fisik (kekuatan gel), kimia (kadar abu, kadar air, total karoten, kadar serat pangan dan aktivitas air) sertasensori (warna, aroma, rasa, tekstur, dan overall) fruit and vegetable leather albedo semangka dan wortel. Rancangan penelitianyang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Dalam penelitian ini, faktor yang mempengaru...

  20. Thermal time model for Egyptian broomrape ‎‎(Phelipanche aegyptiaca parasitism dynamics in carrot ‎‎(Daucus carota L.: Field validation ‎

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    Amnon Cochavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carrot, a highly profitable crop in Israel, is severely damaged by Phelipanche aegyptiaca ‎parasitism. Herbicides can effectively control the parasite and prevent damage, but for ‎optimal results, knowledge about the soil-subsurface phenological stage of the parasite is ‎essential. Parasitism dynamics models have been successfully developed for the parasites P. ‎aegyptiaca, Orobanche cumana and O. minor in the summer crops, tomato, sunflower and ‎red clover, respectively. However, these models, which are based on a linear relationship ‎between thermal time and the parasitism dynamics, may not necessarily be directly ‎applicable to the P. aegyptiaca-carrot system. The objective of the current study was to ‎develop a thermal time model to predict the effect of P. aegyptiaca parasitism dynamics on ‎carrot growth. For development and validation of the models, data was collected from a ‎temperature-controlled growth experiment and from 13 plots naturally infested with P. ‎aegyptiaca in commercial carrot fields. Our results revealed that P. aegyptiaca development ‎is related to soil temperature. Moreover, unlike P. aegyptiaca parasitism in sunflower and ‎tomato, which could be predicted both a linear model, P. aegyptiaca parasitism dynamics ‎on carrot roots required a nonlinear model, due to the wider range of growth temperatures of ‎both the carrot and the parasite. Hence, two different nonlinear models were developed for ‎optimizing the prediction of P. aegyptiaca parasitism dynamics. Both models, a beta ‎function model and combined model composed of a beta function and a sigmoid curve, were ‎able to predict first P. aegyptiaca attachment. However, overall P. aegyptiaca dynamics was ‎described more accurately by the combined model (RMSE =14.58 and 10.79, respectively. ‎The results of this study will complement previous studies on P. aegyptiaca management by ‎herbicides to facilitate optimal carrot growth and handling in fields infested with P. ‎aegyptiaca. ‎

  1. Flavonoids released by carrot (Daucus carota) seedlings stimulate hyphal development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the presence of optimal CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, M J; Bel-Rhlid, R; Piché, Y; Chênevert, R

    1993-10-01

    Carbon dioxide has been previously identified as a critical volatile factor that stimulates hyphal growth ofGigaspora margarita, a vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, and we determined the optimal concentration at 2.0%. The beneficial effect of CO2 on fungal development is also visible in the presence of stimulatory (quercetin, myricetin) or inhibitory (naringenin) flavonoids. Sterile root exudates from carrot seedlings stimulate the hyphal development ofG. margarita in the presence of optimal CO2 enrichment. Three flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, rutin or quercetin 3-rutinoside) and two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) were identified in carrot root exudates by means of HPLC retention time. Flavonols like quercetin and kaempferol are known to have stimulatory effects on hyphal growth ofG. margarita.

  2. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control 1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  3. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

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    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass of carrot leaves.

  4. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DEL POTENCIAL NUTRITIVO Y FUNCIONAL DE GALLETAS Y COMPOTAS PREPARADOS A BASE DE CHOCHO (Lupinus bogotensis, CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Y ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Sanaguano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto nutricional de las combinaciones  de chocho, cebada y zanahoria a través de análisis de minerales como: potasio calcio, fósforo y hierro; así como  el  análisis de proteína, cenizas,  sólidos totales y  vitamina A. Considerando de esta manera, la interacción de los componentes del alimento para cada uno de los tratamientos. Se aprovechó estos productos  agrícolas debido a que son muy cultivados en la provincia de Bolívar, la experimentación se la realizó en los laboratorios de Biología Molecular ubicados en el campus Agropecuario Laguacoto II, mediante análisis de minerales, bromatológicos, vitamina A. Se determinó que la combinación del tratamiento 7 (T7 es el mejor debido a que cumple con las especificaciones de comparación  nutrición infantil de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Como es el caso del potasio, proteína y vitamina A. Sensorialmente este tratamiento es el más aceptado por niños, recalcando que los resultados fueron tabulados  y su comparación de significancia fue de (p>0.05

  6. Efeito da heparina liofilizada e da líquida sobre a medida do pH do sangue do cordão umbilical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi José Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito da heparina liofilizada e da líquida sobre a medida do pH do sangue do cordão umbilical. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo que incluiu cento e duas amostras de sangue arterial do cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos no Serviço de Obstetrícia do Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul. As amostras foram divididas em 51 seringas previamente preparadas com heparina liofilizada (seringa A e 51 seringas preparadas com heparina líquida (seringa B no momento da coleta sangüínea. A obtenção das amostras foi realizada por duplo clampeamento do cordão entre pinças, imediatamente após o desprendimento fetal. O pH arterial do sangue obtido foi analisado em no máximo 20 minutos, em analisador de pH da marca AVL OMNI (Viena, Áustria. RESULTADOS: a média dos valores de pH no sangue contido nas seringas dos grupos A e B foi de 7,246±0,086 e 7,244±0,084, respectivamente. A análise estatística demonstrou não haver diferença significante entre os valores de pH entre as amostras de sangue contidas em ambos os conjuntos de seringas. CONCLUSÃO: as duas formas de heparinização de seringas assemelham-se quanto aos efeitos sobre o pH do sangue dos vasos umbilicais, o que permite a escolha daquela de menor custo.

  7. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da desidratação e de diferentes métodos de preparo a nível doméstico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e carotenóides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados após os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas à cocção a vapor, cocção em água com e sem pressão, cocção úmida/seca e à desidratação convencional. Para a determinação de alfa e beta-caroteno utilizou-se Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. As condições utilizadas (desenvolvidas por nós constaram de dectecção espectrofotométrica UV-visível a 470 nm; coluna RP-18 e metanol: acetonitrila: acetato de etila (80: 10: 10 como fase móvel. Os carotenóides totais foram quantificados por espectrofotometria a 449 nm. A retenção dos carotenóides analisados após os tratamentos variou de 60,13 a 85,64%. A cocção em água sem pressão permitiu os maiores níveis de retenção de alfa- e beta-caroteno e também dos valores de vitamina A. Os carotenóides totais foram melhor preservados quando a cocção em água com pressão foi utilizada. O processo de desidratação provocou as maiores perdas nos três tipos de carotenóides analisados. Os resultados mostraram que, entre os métodos rotineiramente utilizados a nível doméstico, a cocção em água sem pressão, se realizada em condições controladas de tempo e tempertura, é o melhor método para reduzir perdas no conteúdo de alfa- e beta-caroteno, principais carotenóides provitamínicos A da cenoura. Apesar das perdas significativas de carotenóides, cenouras preparadas a nível doméstico permanecem como uma rica fonte de provitamina A.

  8. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL e congelada (MCC sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL ou MCC. Houve redução da colonização do ceco no período de 12 dias após o desafio nos grupos tratados com MCL e MCC, o que não ocorreu no grupo-controle positivo. Não houve variação entre os tratamentos com MCL e MCC quanto às características pesquisadas. A S. Enteritidis reduziu o ganho de peso médio nas aves inoculadas. Os tratamentos com MCL e MCC minimizaram a redução de peso nos grupos infectados.

  9. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  10. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  11. Evaluación del potencial de promoción del crecimiento vegetal de microorganismos aislados a partir de residuos de higerilla (Recinus communis) en zanahoria (daucus carota)

    OpenAIRE

    Villota, Claudia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Microbiología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales, 2013 Las hortalizas representan el 85% del área sembrada en Colombia, entre ellas están la arveja, tomate, cebolla de bulbo, cebolla junca, arracacha, zanahoria, cilantro, habichuela, zapallo y repollo . Al ser atacadas por plagas y enfermedades, el agricultor realiza control químico alterando de esta manera la economía, la salud y el medio ambiente. El indiscriminado uso de fertilizantes y agroquímicos en...

  12. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...

  13. Determination of kinetic and equilibrium parameters of the batch adsorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by black carrot (Daucus carota L.) residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezel, Fuat; Yakut, Hakan; Topal, Giray

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the adsorption of Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by modified carrot residues (MCR) was investigated. The equilibrium contact times of adsorption process for each heavy metals-MCR systems were determined. Kinetic data obtained for each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were applied to the Lagergren equation, and adsorption rate constants (k ads ) at these temperatures were determined. These rate constants related to the adsorption of heavy metal by MCR were applied to the Arrhenius equation, and activation energies (E a ) were determined. In addition, the isotherms for adsorption of each heavy metal by MCR at different temperatures were also determined. These isothermal data were applied to linear forms of isotherm equations that they fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the Langmuir constants (q m and b) were calculated. b constants determined at different temperatures were applied to thermodynamic equations, and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH), free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and these values show that adsorption of heavy metal on MCR was an endothermic process and process of adsorption was favoured at high temperatures

  14. Chemical Composition and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Different Parts of Daucus aristidis Coss. Essential Oils from Two Locations in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mebarka Lamamra; Hocine Laouer; Smain Amira; Ilkay Erdogan Orhan; Fatma Sezer Senol; Betul Demirci; Salah Akkal

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts of Daucus aristidis Coss. (syn. Ammiopsis aristidis Batt.) (Apiaceae) from two locations (Ghoufi and Bousaada) in East of Algeria, was investigated for the first time by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity, the enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease, by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA m...

  15. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

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    Amel Bendiabdellah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering. Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxygenated monoterpenes, 5 phenolic compounds, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, 2 oxygenated diterpenes, and 01 diterpene hydrocarbons. Whatever the analyzed stage, phenolic compounds were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 36.4 to 82.1%. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested on four different microorganisms. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against Candida albicans (30 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (11–28 mm bacteria strains which are deemed very dangerous and very difficult to eliminate. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.

  17. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  19. Influe and nce of polysa f plant acchar Pe growt ride pr elargon h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    De. Pelargonium formulation propagation compounds seedlings a achieved in with 50 mg/ .... cal active shoots of ures was lemented nsible for d of sub- nopurine on of the ...... somatic embryogenesis of Daucus carota L. Planta 197: 135-141.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 225 ... ... on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus ... Vol 13, No 3 (2013), Larvicidal Activity of Aqeous Extract of Moringa .... safety maintenance of the physical properties of Daucus carota L. fruits ...

  1. Determination of the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour Determinação da composição química e das propriedades funcionais de concentrado protéico e de farinha liofilizada de resíduos de camarão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivaldo Lacerda Brasileiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from the seafood industry can be easily processed into products with new forms of use. The present study was aimed at determining the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour. The raw material used in this study consisted of waste (head of Litopenaeus vannamei. The protein concentrate was obtained by ethanolic extraction, being subsequently submitted to drying in oven at 70° C, while the flour was obtained by lyophilization of shrimp wastes. Moisture, ash, protein and calcium contents showed significant difference between fresh shrimp head waste samples (IN and protein concentrate and lyophilized flour samples. The protein content for protein concentrate (PC and lyophilized flour (LF showed significant increase in relation to protein content in the waste (IN, thus showing that the process for obtaining the protein concentrate was efficient.Resíduos provenientes da indústria do pescado podem ser facilmente transformados em produtos com novas formas de aproveitamento. No presente estudo, objetivou-se determinar a composição química e as propriedades funcionais de farinha liofilizada e concentrado proteico provenientes de resíduos de camarão. A matéria-prima empregada neste estudo foi constituída de resíduos (cabeça de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O concentrado proteico foi obtido por extração etanólica e, posteriormente, submetido à secagem em estufa a 70° C, enquanto a farinha foi obtida pelo processo de liofilização do resíduo. Os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas e cálcio apresentaram diferença significativa entre as amostras de resíduo de cabeça de camarão in natura (IN e as amostras de concentrado proteico e farinha liofilizada. O teor de proteínas para concentrado protéico (CP e para a farinha liofilizada (FL apresentou aumento significativo em relação ao teor proteico do resíduo (IN, mostrando, assim, que o processo de elaboração do

  2. Cinética de degradação do ácido ascórbico em ameixas liofilizadas Kinetic of ascorbic acid degradation in freeze-dried prunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Gabas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se a modelagem da degradação de vitamina C em ameixas desidratadas e submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade relativa, com o auxílio da equação de Bigelow. As ameixas in natura foram liofilizadas e acondicionadas em dessecadores contendo diferentes soluções salinas saturadas na temperatura de 4ºC. Após atingir o equilíbrio, os dessecadores foram submetidos a temperaturas na faixa que variou entre 40 e 80ºC. A degradação de vitamina C foi analisada ao longo de 5 dias, aplicando-se o método de titulação com solução padronizada de 2,6-diclorofenolindofenol 0,01%. As amostras apresentaram os seguintes conteúdos de umidade: 0,05; 0,11; 0,18; 0,38 e 1,40g água/g sólido seco. A partir dos parâmetros da equação de Bigelow, tempo de redução decimal (D T e valor z, os resultados indicaram que as amostras submetidas à faixa de temperatura entre 40 - 60ºC apresentaram uma perda mais lenta de vitamina C (D T no conteúdo de umidade de 0,05 apresentou valores na faixa de 1672 - 275h. Por outro lado, em altas temperaturas a degradação do ácido ascórbico ocorreu mais rapidamente (D T para X = 0,05 forneceu valores entre 110 e 47h. Os parâmetros z e D T apresentaram uma dependência linear e quadrática com o conteúdo de umidade das amostras, respectivamente. De modo geral, em altos teores de umidade, houve uma maior perda de vitamina C, devido a sua alta solubilidade.The degradation of vitamin C in prunes submitted to different conditions of temperature and moisture content was modeling by using the Bigelow equation. Firstly, plums were freeze-dried and conditioned in dessecators with different saturated salt solutions at 4ºC. After reaching the equilibrium, dessecators were submitted to a range of temperature between 40 to 80ºC. The vitamin C degradation was analyzed during 5 days, by applying the titration method with patronized solution of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol 0.01%. Samples presented

  3. Requerimientos hídricos de la zanahoria (D. carota L. durante tres etapas de su desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero-Ulloa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La zanahoria (D. carota L. es uno de los principales productos del departamento de Boyacá, participa con 1093 ha, especialmente en los municipios de Ventaquemada, Samacá y Tunja. Los híbridos Chantenay tienen en Ventaquemada un rendimiento promedio de 20 t.ha-1, que es bajo comparado con el de la Sabana de Bogotá, de 28.1t.ha-1; las limitantes en la producción de la zona son: falta de riego, semillas de altas exigencias agronómicas (adecuada mecanización del suelo, fertilización apropiada… y presencia de patógenos y arvenses. Con el objetivo de buscar los requerimientos hídricos del cultivo de zanahoria en tres fases fenológicas (crecimiento, elongación y madurez del órgano cosechable, el estudio se desarrolló en el segundo semestre de 2014, en Ventaquemada, vereda Bojirque; la evaluación de las fases se realizó bajo un diseño de muestreo estratificado con muestreos destructivos efectuados cada 30 días a partir de la siembra. El valor del coeficiente de cultivo (Kc se determinó a través de la metodología propuesta por la FAO. Se instalaron dos lisímetros de 1 m3 de capacidad, con el fin de establecer el consumo hídrico del cultivo. La evapotranspiración del cultivo de referencia (ETo fue obtenida con los datos climáticos tomados por la estación meteorológica inalámbrica Ambient Tiempo WS-2080 instalada en el sitio, los cuales se analizaron a través de la ecuación de Penman-Monteith, con el apoyo del software Cropwat. El Kc para cada etapa fenológica fue: fase crecimiento, 0.14; fase elongación, 0.29, y fase madurez órgano cosechable, 0.55.

  4. Estudo in vivo do comportamento de bioprótese liofilizada: seguimento de 3 meses em carneiros jovens In vivo study of lyophilized bioprostheses: 3 month follow-up in young sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Papa Taniguchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas e imunogênicas, o glutaraldeído é utilizado no tratamento do pericárdio bovino que é utilizado em biopróteses. A liofilização do pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído diminui os radicais aldeído, com provável redução do potencial para calcificação. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos da liofilização em biopróteses valvares de pericárdio bovino como mecanismo protetor na diminuição da disfunção estrutural valvar. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado o implante de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído, liofilizadas ou não, em carneiros de 6 meses de idade, sendo os animais eutanasiados com 3 meses de seguimento. As biopróteses foram implantadas em posição pulmonar, com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Um grupo controle e outro grupo liofilizado foram avaliados quanto ao gradiente ventrículo direito/artéria pulmonar (VD/AP no implante e explante; análise quantitativa de cálcio; inflamação; trombose e pannus. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O gradiente médio VD/AP, no grupo controle, no implante, foi 2,04 ± 1,56 mmHg e, no grupo de liofilização, foi 6,61 ± 4,03 mmHg. No explante, esse gradiente aumentou para 7,71 ± 3,92 mmHg e 8,24 ± 6,2 mmHg, respectivamente, nos grupos controle e liofilização. O teor de cálcio médio, após 3 meses, nas biopróteses do grupo controle foi 21,6 ± 39,12 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco, em comparação com um teor médio de 41,19 ± 46,85 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco no grupo liofilizado (P = 0,662. CONCLUSÃO: A liofilização de próteses valvares com pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído não demonstrou diminuição da calcificação neste experimento.OBJECTIVE: Glutaraldehyde is currently used in bovine pericardium bioprosthesis to improve mechanical and immunogenic properties. Lyophilization is a process that may decrease aldehyde residues in the

  5. Estabilidade da microestrutura e do teor de carotenóides de pós obtidos da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. liofilizada Stability of the microstructure and carotenoids contents of the freeze-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp in the powdered form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina de Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pós obtidos a partir da polpa (mesocarpo interno de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. liofilizada, elaborados com adição de alcoóis (etanol e isopropanol, em concentrações de 0, 5 e 10% e de açúcares (sacarose e frutose, em concentrações de 0, 5 e 10%, foram desenvolvidos neste trabalho. Análises microestruturais por microscopia fotônica dos pós de pequi liofilizados foram feitas para visualizar o grau de cristalinidade. Também foram feitas análises de cor usando colorímetro Minolta e dos teores de carotenóides totais por espectrofotometria. Os resultados mostraram que tratamentos constituídos da combinação de sacarose e etanol foram os que apresentaram formação de estruturas cristalinas e melhor preservação dos carotenóides. O teor de carotenóides nos pós obtidos da polpa de pequi liofilizada é mais bem preservado quanto maior for a concentração do álcool adicionado nos pré-tratamentos. Tratamentos com frutose e isopropanol produziram pós tipicamente amorfos, com ocorrência do fenômeno de caking. Pré-tratamentos com sacarose e etanol são os indicados para a produção de pós de pequi liofilizados com estabilidade físico-química e microestrutural.In this study, food powders obtained from the freeze-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulps (internal mesocarp were developed by adding alcohols (ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in concentrations of 0, 5, and 10% and sugars (sucrose and fructose in concentrations of 0, 5, and 10%. Microstructure analyses by photonic microscopy of the freeze-dried powders were used to evaluate the degree of crystallization. Color analyses using a Minolta colorimeter and the total carotenoid values using a spectrophotometer were also done. The results show that treatments with a sucrose and ethanol combination presented the formation of crystalline structures and the best preservation of the carotenoid contents. The higher the concentration of the alcohol added in the pre

  6. Fotossensibilidade e termoestabilidade de vacinas contra o sarampo (cepa Biken CAM-70 liofilizadas e/ou reconstituídas para administração Photosensitivity and stability of freeze-dried and reconstituted (Biken CAM-70 strain measles vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Três lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, produzidos com a cepa de vírus Biken CAM-70, sob as formas liofilizada e reconstituída, pertencentes ao estoque da rede de vacinação da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo, Brasil, foram submetidos a testes de sensibilidade à luz, à temperatura de 2 a 8°C, e de termoestabilidade (protegidos da luz às temperaturas de 28, 36,5 e 45°C, objetivando verificar por quanto tempo retinham sua potência, isto é, a concentração ideal recomendada para a cepa de vírus presente (3,70 log 10 DICT50 ou 5.000 doses infectantes de cultura de tecidos 50% por dose. A análise de retas de regressão ajustadas demonstrou que, de modo geral, tanto os lotes de vacinas liofilizados como os reconstituídos, mantidos às referidas temperaturas, expostos ou protegidos da luz, apresentaram queda de potência no decorrer do experimento, a qual foi mais acentuada para vacinas expostas à luz. Reconstituídos e mantidos a 2 a 8°C, os lotes não apresentaram homogeneidade no referente à sensibilidade à luz. Quando a fotossensibilidade de lotes de vacinas liofilizadas foi testada a 2 a 8°C eles mostraram-se mais sensíveis à degradação térmica quando expostos à luz do que quando protegidos dela. Entretanto, expostos ou protegidos, a potência foi inferior à minima aceita para a cepa Biken CAM-70. Às demais temperaturas, mesmo ao abrigo da luz, os dois lotes não retiveram potência mínima. Quanto às vacinas do lote 3, conservadas a 2 a 8°C, mantiveram-se de acordo com os requerimentos mínimos de potência durante 60 dias quando protegidas da luz, e durante 40 dias quando expostas a ela. A degradação térmica às demais temperaturas foi mais acentuada (28°C: 5 dias; 36,5°C: 2 dias; 45°C: 0,5 dia. Considerando a concentração viral mínima que vacinas produzidas com a cepa Biken CAM-70 devem conter para induzir efetiva resposta imunológica, os lotes de vacinas pesquisados (sob a forma liofilizada

  7. Consumo, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em novilhos alimentados com cama de frango e suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of steers fed broiler litter and supplement based on lyophilized ruminal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de cama de frango (15,0 e 30,0%, associada ou não a um suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada de bovinos adultos (0 e 10 g/animal•dia, na alimentação de novilhos Holandês/Zebu. Quatro novilhos fistulados no rúmen e abomaso foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 em arranjo fatorial e alimentados individualmente à vontade. O consumo e as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes foram avaliados. Não houve efeito do nível de cama de frango sobre o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. O aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade intestinal e total da proteína bruta (PB, porém, quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, a digestibilidade intestinal aumentou e àquela contendo 30,0% diminuiu. Quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, o coeficiente de digestibilidade total não sofreu efeito, mas diminuiu para a dieta com 30%. A ingestão diária de 10 g do suplemento, por animal, não alterou o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO e FDN.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two levels of broiler litter (15.0 and 30.0%, associated or not to a supplement based on bovine lyophilized ruminal microbiota (0 and 10 g/animal•day, in the Holstein Zebu steers feeding. Four steers with ruminal and abomasal fistulae were allotted to a 4 x 4 latin square in a factorial arrangement and individually fullfed. The intake and total and partial digestibilities were evaluated. There was no effect of broiler litter level on the intake and coefficients of digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The increase of the level of broiler litter in the diet increased the total and intestinal crude

  8. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  9. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lopez, Sergio Victor Hugo

    1997-01-01

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10 to...

  11. GenBank blastn search result: AK064582 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064582 002-112-F03 AY007820.1 Daucus carota ATPase8 (ATP8) gene, ATP8-Sp1b allele, complete cds; chimeric... ATPase9 (ATP9) gene, ATP9-Sp3 allele, complete cds; and chimeric ATPase6 (ATP6) gen

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria between March and June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in various markets within the city. Fifty samples each of 5 different vegetable types, Cabbage (Brassica deracea), Lettuce (Lactus sativa), Carrot (Daucus carota), ...

  13. cDNA cloning and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... that influence anthocyanin pigments have been isolated from Solanaceae. A few genes of anthocyanin ... Long, 1955), and the purple anthocyanin pigments are primarily derived from the related compound ..... anthocyanin production in tuber skins. this result was similar with carrot (daucus carota l) cell ...

  14. Chernobyl Doses. Volume 3. Habitat and Vegetation Near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Beta vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Linum usitatissimum , Cannabis satii, Humulus lupulus, Daucus carota... USITATISSIMUM flax It is grown for fiber. Fine-quality fiber can be obtained from plants grown on podzolic and gley soils with considerable fertilizing. In the

  15. A high-quality carrot genome assembly provides new insights into carotenoid accumulation and asterid genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the Daucus carota genome, an important source of provitamin A in the human diet and the first sequenced genome among members of the Euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carro...

  16. Mahomoodally Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(6):1-32

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus: Composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 119 (1): 129-134. 158. Tembhurne, S.V., and Sakarkar, D.M. (2012). Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L) leaves in high fatty diet rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis., 2 (1): ...

  17. Effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activities in carrot cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.C. Minocha; R. Minocha; A. Komamine

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the activites of S-adcnosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase (methionine adenosyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.6.) and SAM decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50) were studied in carrot (Daucus carota) cell cultures in response to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and several inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. Activity of SAM synthetase increased...

  18. Multiple Exocytotic Markers Accumulate at the Sites of Perifungal Membrane Biogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhizas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Genre, A.; Ivanov, S.; Fendrych, Matyáš; Faccio, A.; Žárský, Viktor; Bisseling, T.; Bonfante, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 244-255 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Daucus carota * Exocytosis * Medicago truncatula Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  19. Postharvest quality of carrot cultivars, packaged and in bulk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... presented the highest number of sprouts when stored in bulk (48.5%) and the largest number of carrots with radicels (54.7%). ... The carrot (Daucus carota L.), a plant of the family. Apiaceae ... widespread global consumption and large planted area. .... increased temperature and CO2 concentration and the.

  20. Nutrient Intake of the Repatriated United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps Prisoners-of-War of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    species Banana flowers Hoa hien Cucurbita papo Linn. Pumpkin Cu toi Allium sativum Linn. Garlic Cu don do Daucus carota Linn. Carrot Cu he Allium ...hau Citrullus vulRaris Schrad ’.atermolon Thom (dua) Ananassa staiva Lindl. Pineapple Hanh Allium cap& Linn. Onion He Allium angulosum Linn. Mouse...Ait. Sago Dua Bloa lan Pisum sativum Linn. Green peas Lentilles Lens esculenta Moench Lentils Hot sen Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Lotus Ngo sen Nelumbium

  1. Effect of combined application of organic P and inorganic N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to assess the effect of combined application of organic-P and inorganic-N fertilizers on post harvest quality of carrot (Daucus carota l.) stored at 1°C and ambient conditions (8.6 - 24.8°C). For the fertilizer treatments, 309 kg orga ha-1 (for P) in combination with each of six rates of urea (0, 68.5, 267.2, ...

  2. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapi...

  3. Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Patria, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

  4. Chitosan Dilutable and Dilactin Forte: Assessment of Their Efficiency for Safety and Quality of Foodstuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurchikova, N.; Khlebosolova, O.

    2018-01-01

    The modern natural food preservatives used to process and store foodstuff allow to ensure its safety and high quality. Chitosan and dilactin-forte are among such medicines. These preservatives are not only safe, but also are beneficial to a human body in virtue of their effects onto human digestive system. The article describes the results of the research conducted to identify the impact of these natural preservatives on safety of carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)

  5. Characterization of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens avirulent mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect induction of vir genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Metts, J; West, J; Doares, S H; Matthysse, A G

    1991-01-01

    Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect bacterial virulence were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. Two of the mutants were avirulent on all hosts tested. The third mutant, Ivr-211, was a host range mutant which was avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana, Nicotiana tabacum, N. debneyi, N. glauca, and Daucus carota but was virulent on Zinnia elegans and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). That the mutant phenotype was due to the transposon insertion was d...

  6. Пригодность к хранению корнеплодов моркови (Daucus Carota разных сортов и гибридов, выращенных в условиях Лесостепи Украины

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    СКАЛЕЦКАЯ Л. Ф.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a complex evaluation of fresh carrots of 7 different varieties and hybrids according to the basic marketing, biochemical and organoleptic characteristics with the purpose of choosing the most suitable for long-term storage. A direct correlation between the mass of roots and their marketability was established (r = +0,7±0,18. The carrot varieties whose roots have the highest marketability, accumulate the most dry matter, sugars and carotene were highlighted. For long-term storage, it is recommended to grow the hybrids Elegance F1 and Santa Cruz F1, whose roots are characterized by high marketability, high content of basic biochemical parameters (dry matter – 12,1 and 10,6%; b-carotene – 16,2 and 12,2 mg/100 g respectively; keepability - more than 46% of healthy carrots after seven months of storage. Реферат. В данной работе проведена комплексная оценка свежих корнеплодов моркови 7 различных сортов и гибридов по основным товарным, биохимическим и органолептическим показателям с целью подбора наиболее подходящих для длительного хранения. Установлена тесная прямая корреляционная связь междумассой корнеплодов и их товарностью (r = +0,7±0,18. Выделены сорта, корнеплоды которых имеют высшую товарность, накапливают больше сухого вещества, сахаров, каротина. Для длительного хранения моркови наиболее целесообразно выращивать гибриды Элеганс F1 и Санта Круз F1, корнеплоды которых характеризуются высокой товарностью, высоким содержанием основных биохимических показателей (сухое вещщество –12,1 и 10,6%; b-каротин –16,2 и 12,2 мг/100 г соответственно и сохранностью после семи месяцев хранения больше 46 %.

  7. Efectos de tratamientos de presiembra sobre el comportamiento a campo de semillas de zanahoria y pimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, R.; Kramarovsky, Emilio; Vallejo, Héctor; Fernández Lozano, José; Tognetti, Jorge Alberto

    1981-01-01

    p.173-181 Con el propósito de acelerar y uniformar la emergencia de plántulas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) y pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) se ensayaron dos técnicas: el tratamiento de presiembra con soluciones de bajo potencial osmótico (TO) y la siembra en medio fluido de semillas germinadas (SMF). Durante dos años se realizaron 5 experimentos a campo con semillas de zanahoria cv. Chantenay sel. La Consulta y cv. Chantenay Red Cored y tres con pimiento cv. Ambato. En todos los casos ta...

  8. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  9. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  10. Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Yvonne; Witte, Simone; Forkmann, Gert; Lukacin, Richard; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    Plant species of the family Apiaceae are known to accumulate flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols. Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, flavone synthase or flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The corresponding genes were cloned recently from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves. Flavone synthase I appears to be confined to the Apiaceae, and the unique occurrence as well as its high sequence similarity to flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase laid the basis for evolutionary studies. In order to examine the relationship of these two enzymes throughout the Apiaceae, RT-PCR based cloning and functional identification of flavone synthases I or flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases were accomplished from Ammi majus, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum and Daucus carota, yielding three additional synthase and three additional hydroxylase cDNAs. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of these sequences were compatible with the phylogeny based on morphological characteristics and suggested that flavone synthase I most likely resulted from gene duplication of flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase, and functional diversification at some point during the development of the apiaceae subfamilies. Furthermore, the genomic sequences from Petroselinum crispum and Daucus carota revealed two introns in each of the synthases and a lack of introns in the hydroxylases. These results might be explained by intron losses from the hydroxylases occurring at a later stage of evolution.

  11. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  12. Search path of a fossorial herbivore, Geomys bursarius, foraging in structurally complex plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of habitat patchiness and unpalatable plants on the search path of the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) was examined in outdoor enclosures. Separate experiments were used to evaluate how individual animals explored (by tunnel excavation) enclosures free of plants except for one or more dense patches of a palatable plant (Daucus carota), a dense patch of an unpalatable species (Pastinaca sativa) containing a few palatable plants (D. carota), or a relatively sparse mixture of palatable (D. carota) and unpalatable (Raphanus sativus) species. Only two of eight individuals tested showed the predicted pattern of concentrating search effort in patches of palatable plants. The maintenance of relatively high levels of effort in less profitable sites may reflect the security afforded food resources by the solitary social system and fossorial lifestyle of G. bursarius. Unpalatable plants repelled animals under some conditions, but search paths in the sparsely planted mixed-species treatment suggest animals can use visual or other cues to orient excavations. Evidence supporting area-restricted search was weak. More information about the use of visual cues by G. bursarius and the influence of experience on individual search mode is needed for refining current models of foraging behavior in this species.

  13. The examination of parameters for lactic acid fermentation and nutritive value of fermented juice of beetroot, carrot and brewer’s yeast autolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MAKSIMOVIC

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for lactic acid fermentation based on a mixture of beetoot juice (Beta vulgaris L. and carrot juice (Daucus carota L. and different content of brewer’s yeast autolysate with Lactobacillus plantarum A112 and with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDO 1748 has been studied. Both cultures showed good biochemical activity in these mixtures. The production of lactic acid has been stimulated using a higher content of brewer’s yeast autolysate. In these mixtures, L. plantarum A112 showed better growth and lactic acid production than L. acidophilus NCDO 1748. From the data obtained through chemical analyses of the fermented products, it can be seen that the mixture of beetroot and carrot juice and brewer’s yeast autolysate is richer in minerals (Ca, P, Fe and b-carotene than fermented beetroot juice with the same content of brewer’s yeast autolysate.

  14. Effect of foliar application of selenium on its uptake and speciation in carrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Hillestrøm, Peter René; Laursen, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) shoots were enriched by selenium using foliar application. Solutions of sodium selenite or sodium selenate at 10 and 100 mu g Se ml(-1), were sprayed on the carrot leaves and the selenium content and uptake rate of selenium were estimated by ICP-MS analysis. Anion and cation......(-1) (dry mass) in the carrot root whereas the selenium concentration in the controls was below the limit of detection at 0.045 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass). Selenate-enriched carrot leaves accumulated as much as 80 mu g Se g(-1) (dry mass), while the selenite-enriched leaves contained approximately 50 mu...... g Se g(-1) (dry mass). The speciation analyses showed that inorganic selenium was present in both roots and leaves. The predominant metabolised organic forms of selenium in the roots were selenomethionine and gamma-glutamyl-selenomethyl-selenocysteine, regardless of which of the inorganic species...

  15. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    production of open-pollinated carrot varieties increased the yield and germination percentages when compared with normal field conditions. Yield was in the range of 100-250 g and 2-17 g seeds m-2 respectively, and germination percentage was 84-95 and 43-55, respectively. However, hybrid carrot seed...... production showed lower yields than did their open-pollinated counterparts. Yields ranging from 60-123 g seeds m-2 can be obtained, but the production needs to be carefully planned and monitored. Different growing systems in tunnels have been studied in both open-pollinated and hybrid carrot (Daucus carota L......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  16. Companion Cropping as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Component for Management of Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in French Beans (Phasealous Vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasina, J.

    2002-01-01

    Six companion crops, (Tagetes spp L. (African marigold), Daucus carota L. (carrot), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Brassica spp. L. kale), capsicum spp L. (chilli) and Zea mays (maize) were evaluated for their efficacy in suppressing field populations of the French bean flower thrips, (Frankliniella occidentals (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips sjostedti (trybom). The companion crops were compared to two insecticides, Labda cyhalothrin (Karate 1.75% EC) and Methiocarb (Mesurol 500 SC) and untreated mono-crop of French beans. Three of the treatments, coriander, maize and African marigold were found to be effective in that order, by repelling the pest away from the crop. It is concluded that these crops could be recommended to farmers for use and therefore are able to minimise the high use of chemical insecticides

  17. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species.

  18. Long and short term effects of plasma treatment on meristematic plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puač, N.; Živković, S.; Selaković, N.; Milutinović, M.; Boljević, J.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we will present results of plasma treatments of meristematic cells of Daucus carota. Plasma needle was used as an atmospheric pressure/gas composition source of non-equilibrium plasma in all treatments. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase was measured immediately after plasma treatment and after two weeks following the treatment. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in samples immediately after the plasma treatment. On the other hand, catalase activity was much higher in treated samples when measured two weeks after plasma treatment. These results show that there is a direct proof of the triggering of signal transduction in the cells by two reactive oxygen species H2O2 and O2-, causing enzyme activity and short and long term effects even during the growth of calli, where the information is passed to newborn cells over the period of two weeks.

  19. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  20. Use of the software Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS® for assessing vigor of carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís de Marchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed vigor has traditionally been evaluated by physiological, biochemical and stress tolerance tests. More recently, with the use of computerized image analysis, objective information has become accessible in a relatively short period of time, with less human interference. The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of computerized seedling image analysis by Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS® to detect differences in vigor between carrot (Daucus carota L. seed lots as compared to those provided by traditional vigor tests. Seeds from seven lots from the Brasilia cultivar were subjected to a germination test, first count of germination, speed of germination, accelerated aging with saline solution and seedling emergence; furthermore, a vigor index, growth index and uniformity index were determined by the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS® during four evaluation periods. The results obtained by the computerized seedling analysis (vigor index and growth index show that SVIS® is efficient in assessing carrot seed vigor.

  1. Nutritional Evaluation of Raw Materials Entering the Structure to Mixed Fodder for the Specie Poecilia reticulata (Guppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gruber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental pisciculture is a especial emphasis on the exterior shape and color to the fishes, issues that are dependent directly to the structure of compound feeds in relation to the nutritional characteristics of the raw materials.Own research or focused on analyzing the crude chemical composition with Weende scheme (water content and dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, SEN of raw materials can be used in the structure of a compound feeds for the Poecilia reticulata (guppy species, for most of these materials there are no current data in the literature.These materials were analyzed: gelatin, wheat flour, sunflower meal, soybean meal, meal Spirulina platensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Pangasius fillet, Daphnia pulex, grount dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, grount nettle (Urtica dioica and yeast.

  2. Espresso coffee residues as a nitrogen amendment for small-scale vegetable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Soraia; Marques dos Santos Cordovil, Cláudia S C

    2015-12-01

    Espresso coffee grounds constitute a residue which is produced daily in considerable amounts, and is often pointed out as being potentially interesting for plant nutrition. Two experiments (incubations and field experiments) were carried out to evaluate the potential nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) supply for carrot (Daucus carota L.), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) nutrition. Immobilisation of nitrogen and phosphorus was detected in all the incubations and, in the field experiments, germination and yield growth were decreased by the presence of espresso coffee grounds, in general for all the species studied. The study showed an inhibition of N and P mineralisation and a reduction of plant germination and growth. Further research is required to determine whether this is related to the immobilising capacity of the residue or possibly due to the presence of caffeine. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Determinación del perfil de calentamiento y evaluación sensorial en la elaboración de pulpa liofilizada de mango variedad Tommy Atkins

    OpenAIRE

    Marulanda Loaiza, Jorge Mario

    2002-01-01

    La liofilización es el procedimiento de deshidratación más confiable en la conservación de las características sensoriales y nutricionales de un producto alimenticio, gracias al uso de bajas temperaturas y condiciones especiales de vacío. La eliminación de agua proporciona una excelente protección frente a las principales causas de alteración en los alimentos: Los microorganismos no pueden desarrollarse en un medio sin agua. Además en estas condiciones tampoco es posible la actividad enzimáti...

  4. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBudahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L. was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups ranged between 65 cM and 145 cM. All linkage groups have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5 with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2 with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus.

  5. Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guo-Dong; Cang, Long; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) technique, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (HPCD) extraction method, and the greenhouse pot experiments, the influences of biochars on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioavailability in soil to plant (Brassica chinensis L. and Daucus carota) were investigated. Addition of 2% biochars to soils significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant, especially for di-, tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls. PCBs concentrations in the roots of B. chinensis and D. carota were reduced for 61.5–93.7%, and 12.7–62.4%, respectively in the presence of biochars. The kinetic study showed that in the soils amended with/without biochars, PCBs concentrations accumulated in TECAM, as well as in the HPCD extraction solution, followed significant linear relationships with those in plant roots. Application of biochars to soil is a potentially promising method to reduce PCBs bioavailability whereas TECAM technique can be a useful tool to predict the bioavailability of PCBs in soil. -- Highlights: ► Application of biochars significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant. ► TECAM was a new and effective method to predict the PCBs bioavailability in soil. ► PCBs accumulated in TECAM followed significant linear relationships with plant. ► PCBs in TECAM were more similar with the plant uptake than HPCD solution. -- The reduced PCBs concentrations in plant roots by biochars show good linear relationship with those in TECAM

  6. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  7. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. from Its Adulterants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C, C. tinctorius (80.10°C, C. officinalis (79.92°C, Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat. Tzvel. (79.62°C, N. nucifera (80.58°C, Hemerocallis fulva (L. L. (84.78°C, and Z. mays (84.33°C. The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  8. Potensi Tepung Wortel (Daucus carrota L. dalam Meningkatkan Sifat Antioksidan dan Fisikokimia Sweet Cream Butter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Patricia Sianturi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of addition powder carrot as antioxidant agent to antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The method used was experiment laboratory. The materials used were sweet cream butter and carrot powder and the treatments were the addition of carrot powder 0% (A, 2% (B, 4% (C, and 6% (D then analyzed about antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the basic design of Block Randomized Design (BRD and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT if there was a significantly different. Finding suggested an effect of the addition carrot powder could improve the quality (up to 42.55% of sweet cream butter which is 6% of carrot powder give the best treatment.

  9. Phylogenetic prediction of Alternaria leaf blight resistance in wild and cultivated species of carrots (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant scientists make inferences and predictions from phylogenetic trees to solve scientific problems. Crop losses due to disease damage is an important problem that many plant breeders would like to solve, so the ability to predict traits like disease resistance from phylogenetic trees derived from...

  10. APLICACIÓN DE LA TECNICA DE IV GAMA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ENSALADAS EVALUATION OF IV GAMA TECHNIQUE TO PREPARE VEGETABLE SALADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Méndez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la aplicación de la técnica de IV Gama en la elaboración de ensaladas listas para el consumo fresco, esta dirigido al control del deterioro en lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa, zanahoria (Daucus carota L., radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. y escarola (Cichorium endivia L., destinadas a preparar ensaladas tipo “Mediterránea y Cheff”. La metodología permitió seleccionar y evaluar la técnica de IV Gama, así como las buenas prácticas de manufactura para extender la vida comercial de las ensaladas y garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para la población potencialmente consumidora. La aplicación combinada de soluciones de cloruro de calcio al 1%, acido cítrico a 0,1% y oxido de magnesio al 0,5% contribuyo a mantener la calidad de las ensaladas por un período de 16 días bajo refrigeración a 5 + 1 °C y 95 + 5% HR. En conclusión las técnicas ensayadas, posibilitaron extender el valor comercial de estos productos.The purpose of applying the fresh-cut technique in preparing vegetable salads ready for fresh consumption, was aimed to control the damage American lettuce (Lactuca sativa; carrot (Daucus carota L; Radicchio (Cichorium intybus L and endive (Cichorium endivia L.“ Mediterranean and Cheff” style salads were prepared for evaluation. The methodology allowed selecting and evaluating fresh-cut technique as well as good manufacturing practices, to extend the commercial life, and guarantee alimentary food safety to people. Use of 1% calcium chloride; 0.1% citric acid and 0.5% magnesium oxide solutions; allowed to maintain the quality of the salads for a period of 16 up to days, under refrigeration at 5± 1ºC and 95 ± 5 % RH. Finally the assays techniques let to extend the commercial value of these vegetables.

  11. Influence of High-Pressure Processing on the Profile of Polyglutamyl 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate in Selected Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M.; Somerville, Jeremy; Balasubramaniam, V. M.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In plants, folate occurs predominantly as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) polyglutamyl forms. Differences in stability and bioavailability of food folate compared to synthetic folic acid have been attributed to the presence of the polyglutamyl chain. High-pressure processing (HPP) was tested for whether it might shorten polyglutamyl chains of 5MTHF species in fresh vegetables by enabling action of native γ-glutamylhydrolase (GGH). A validated ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method using stable isotope as internal standard was applied for characterizing 5MTHF polyglutamyl profiles. HPP conditions included 300, 450, and 600 MPa at 30 °C for 0 or 5 min, and vegetables were vacuum-packed before treatment. Investigated vegetables included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), baby carrots (Daucus carota), and carrot greens (D. carota). HPP treatment caused conversion of polyglutamyl 5MTHF species to short-chain and monoglutamyl forms. Maximal conversion of polyglutamyl folate to monoglutamyl folate occurred at the highest pressure/time combination investigated, 600 MPa/30 °C/5 min. Under this condition, cauliflower monoglutamyl folate increased nearly 4-fold, diglutamyl folate 32-fold, and triglutamyl folate 8-fold; carrot monoglutamyl increased 23-fold and diglutamyl 32-fold; and carrot greens monoglutamyl increased 2.5-fold and the diglutamyl form 19-fold. Although some folate degradation was observed at certain intermediate HPP conditions, total 5MTHF folate was largely preserved at 600 MPa/5 min. Thus, HPP of raw vegetables is a feasible strategy for enhancing vegetable monoglutamate 5MTHF. PMID:21770413

  12. Effect of terbinafine on the biosynthetic pathway of isoprenoid compounds in carrot suspension cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María Angeles; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2018-04-21

    Terbinafine induced a significant increase of squalene production. Terbinafine increased the expression levels of squalene synthase. Cyclodextrins did not work as elicitors due to the gene expression levels obtained. Plant sterols are essential components of membrane lipids, which contributing to their fluidity and permeability. Besides their cholesterol-lowering properties, they also have anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer activities. Squalene, which is phytosterol precursor, is widely used in medicine, foods and cosmetics due to its anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-aging activities. Nowadays, vegetable oils constitute the main sources of phytosterols and squalene, but their isolation and purification involve complex extraction protocols and high costs. In this work, Daucus carota cell cultures were used to evaluate the effect of cyclodextrins and terbinafine on the production and accumulation of squalene and phytosterols as well as the expression levels of squalene synthase and cycloartenol synthase genes. D. carota cell cultures were able to produce high levels of extracellular being phytosterols in the presence of cyclodextrins (12 mg/L), these compounds able to increase both the secretion and accumulation of phytosterols in the culture medium. Moreover, terbinafine induced a significant increase in intracellular squalene production, as seen after 168 h of treatment (497.0 ± 23.5 µg g dry weight -1 ) while its extracellular production only increased in the presence of cyclodextrins.The analysis of sqs and cas gene expression revealed that cyclodextrins did not induce genes encoding enzymes involved in the phytosterol biosynthetic pathway since the expression levels of sqs and cas genes in cyclodextrin-treated cells were lower than in control cells. The results, therefore, suggest that cyclodextrins were only able to release phytosterols from the cells to the extracellular medium, thus contributing to their acumulation. To sum up, D. carota

  13. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 177}-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. {sup 177}Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  14. Development of a formulation lyophilized for the obtention of a antimicrobial peptide Ubiquicidine labelled with {sup 99m} Tc; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del peptido antimicrobiano Ubiquicidina marcado con Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares R, P; Hernandez B, C A; Contreras N, G; Garcia P, M L; Pantoja H, I E [UAEM, Toluca (Mexico); Ferro F, G [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 are a labelled fragment of the antimicrobial human peptide Ubiquicidine proposed as a new radiopharmaceutical able to differentiate an infectious process of an inflammatory one through the gamma graphic image. It has been demonstrated that the {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 unite to bacteria in vitro and that accumulates in infection sites in human with minimum captivation in inflammation sites. In this work the development of a pharmaceutical lyophilized formulation is presented for the instantaneous marked one of the UBI 29-41 with {sup 99m} Tc. The selection of the components of the formulation settled down by means of the employment of an experimental design of 3 factors with mixed levels, evaluating the effect of the diluent type, concentration of tinny chloride and the reaction volume. The obtained formulations showed to be stable until for 6 months, being obtained complexes of the radiolabelled peptide with radiochemical purity > 95 % in sterile form and apirogen. The developed pharmaceutical form, will facilitate the routinary use of this new radiopharmaceutical in the diverse hospital departments of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  15. An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60 min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5 min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and α-/β-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  17. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  18. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J.M.; O'Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net 14 C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with 14 C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net 14 C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net 14 C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net 14 C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops

  19. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Antimony and Arsenic in Vegetables and Health Risk Assessment in the Superlarge Antimony-Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in soils caused by mining and smelting has attracted worldwide attention for its potential health risks to residents. This paper studies the concentrations and accumulations of Sb and As in both soils and vegetables and the human health risks of Sb and As in vegetables from Xikuangshan (XKS Sb mine, Hunan, China. Results showed that the soils were severely polluted by Sb and As; Sb and As have significant positive correlation. Sb and As concentrations in vegetables were quite different: Coriandrum sativum L. was the highest in Sb, Allium fistulosum L. was the highest in As, and Brassica pekinensis L. was the lowest in both Sb and As; Daucus carota L. and Coriandrum sativum L. showed advantage in accumulating Sb and As; Coriandrum sativum L. had higher capacity of redistributing Sb and As within the plant. Health risk assessment results showed that the hazard quotient (HQ values of Sb and As in vegetables were in the ranges of 1.61–3.33 and 0.09–0.39, respectively; the chronic daily intake (CDI and hazard quotient (HQ values of Sb were over the safe limit recommended by FAO and WHO, indicating that long-term consumption of vegetables from the surrounding soils of XKS mine may bring health risks to residents.

  1. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  2. DISEÑO Y CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN EQUIPO OSMODESHIDRATADOR PARA EL DESARROLLO DE NUEVOS PRODUCTOS AGROALIMENTARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON ERICKSON BARBOSA J

    Full Text Available El proceso de osmodeshidratación es una técnica empleada en la conservación de frutas y hortalizas con el objetivo de disminuir su contenido de humedad conservando sus características nutricionales y sensoriales. El propósito principal del proyecto fue el de llevar a cabo el diseño y construcción de un prototipo de osmodeshidratador, que permitirá el desarrollo de investigaciones experimentales que apunten a evaluar el comportamiento nutricional, sensorial y de conservación en los tejidos vegetales. Para tal fin, partiendo de los requerimientos del proceso tales como: presión osmótica, control de temperatura y agitación por medio mecánico, se diseñó un equipo de laboratorio tipo inmersión con agitación continua con eje vertical utilizando un software CAD (Diseño Asistido por Computador. Lo anterior dio como resultado la construcción de un prototipo que cuenta con control de temperatura (T°amb.-100°C, agitación por medio de aspas con velocidad de rotación de hasta 60 rpm y aplicación de vacío de hasta 635 mm Hg. Equipo capaz de reducir en 120 minutos, hasta en un 40% el porcentaje en peso de la zanahoria (Daucus carota L variedad Chantenay

  3. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  4. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2007-01-01

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  5. The study of the deuterium isotopic fractionation through the cell membrane of the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdea, P.; Cuna, Stela; Deliu, C.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prove that there is a water deuterium isotope fractionation when the water passes through the cell membrane. The carrots (Daucus carota) were grown in vitro in a Murashige and Skoog mineral-salt medium and have been exposed to a water solution with a uniform isotopic content. After seven days the cell culture was filtered and the cell water was vacuum extracted. The water from aqueous solution and the cell water were analyzed for hydrogen by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The procedure was repeated for 14 and 21 day old cell cultures. The measurements have revealed a water deuterium isotopic fractionation between extra-cellular water and cellular water. The deuterium content was found to be higher within the cells by 10 o / oo for non-embryonic cells and 13 o / oo for the embryonic cells. This fractionation is a non-evaporative fractionation between intracellular and extra-cellular water and it represents a new step in the overall fractionation of deuterium water in the plants. The existence of such isotopic fractionation through the cell membrane implies that the relationship between the deuterium content of cellulose nitrate in plant and meteoric water should be revised. Also, this finding is of interest for understanding the balance and dynamics of the hydrogen isotopes in the environment. (authors)

  6. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  8. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  9. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  10. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  11. Apparent inhibition of β-fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, L.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete β-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of β-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the 35 S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated β-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated β-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated β-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated β-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete β-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated β-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of β-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated β-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of β-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall

  12. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAIVALMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.;

  13. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna-Liisa Taivalmaa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.

  14. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  15. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  16. [Chemical, chemosensory and human-sensory experiments on taste and flavor of carrots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, R G; Broda, S; Schnitzler, W H

    1998-12-01

    The relationship between sensory quality of carrots and their contents and composition of essential oils and total sugars as influenced by nitrogen fertilization was investigated. Carrots (Daucus carota L.) of the variety 'Nanthya' F1 (S&G Sandoz Seeds) were grown in Weihenstephan 1996 with three levels of inorganic nitrogen fertilization (3 levels in 4 replications). Medium- and higher-boiling flavour-components were extracted as essential oils and separated gas-chromatographically (GC-FID). Lower-boiling flavour-components were taken from the headspace and analysed chemosensorially. The human sensory assessments were performed by an untrained panel of 300 people (students and employees of the TU München)--these results were compared with those of the chemical analyses. Carrots with lower nitrogen application were found to taste more intensive, more fruity, sweeter and better and at the same time less bitter and less earthy. They had higher contents of total sugar and a higher percentage of dry matter. Fertilization with nitrogen does not only affect the quantity but also the composition of the essential oils. The taste intensive was positively correlated with the quantity of essential oils, the taste sweet was positively correlated with the content of total sugars. It was possible to differentiate the carrots from each other by chemo-sensorial headspace analyses according to their N-fertilization levels.

  17. The melliferous potential of apiflora of southwestern Vojvodina (Serbia

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    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual and community-level melliferous potential of apiflora was evaluated in southwestern Vojvodina in order to assess its significance and contribution to the bee pasture. Seven plant communities belonging to ruderal, segetal and floodplain type of vegetation, with a total of 279 plant species were registered. Apifloristic and phytocoenological investigations included the determination and analysis of honey plants using the following parameters: total number, percentage, abundance and frequency of these species in the communities, as well as their intensity of pollen and nectar production. The coenotic coefficient of melliferousness (CCm indicating the melliferous potential of each community, was calculated based on the above parameters. Although the greatest number of melliferous species was found in the ass. Chenopodio-Ambrosietum artemisiifoliae (132, the highest percentage (80% of them was registered in the ass. Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis. Considering the coefficients of nectar and pollen production, the most valuable honey plants commonly present in the majority of communities were: Cirsium arvense, Rubus caesius, Lythrum salicaria, Daucus carota, Trifolium pratense, Dipsacus laciniatus, Medicago sativa, Asclepias syriaca, Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum officinale. The low abundance and frequency of melliferous species within the Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis, Polygonetum convolvulo-avicularis and Populetum nigrae-albae communities indicated their poor contribution to the bee pasture. Within ruderal vegetation, the highest CCm was registered in Amorpho-Typhaetum, providing, theoretically, the richest food resource for the honeybees in the investigated area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009 i br. 173018

  18. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

    2002-10-01

    Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures.

  19. Ionizing radiation from Chernobyl affects development of wild carrot plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratyński, Zbyszek; Arias, Javi Miranda; Garcia, Cristina; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Pajares, Antonio Jesús Muñoz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Tukalenko, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    Radioactivity released from disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima is a global hazard and a threat to exposed biota. To minimize the deleterious effects of stressors organisms adopt various strategies. Plants, for example, may delay germination or stay dormant during stressful periods. However, an intense stress may halt germination or heavily affect various developmental stages and select for life history changes. Here, we test for the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation on plant development. We conducted a common garden experiment in an uncontaminated greenhouse using 660 seeds originating from 33 wild carrots (Daucus carota) collected near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. These maternal plants had been exposed to radiation levels that varied by three orders of magnitude. We found strong negative effects of elevated radiation on the timing and rates of seed germination. In addition, later stages of development and the timing of emergence of consecutive leaves were delayed by exposure to radiation. We hypothesize that low quality of resources stored in seeds, damaged DNA, or both, delayed development and halted germination of seeds from plants exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation. We propose that high levels of spatial heterogeneity in background radiation may hamper adaptive life history responses.

  20. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA GELLING AGENTS ON ROOT BIOMASS AND IN VITRO VA-MYCORRfflZAL SYMBIOSIS OF CARROT WITH GIGASPORA MARGARITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANJALI VERMA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study with Ri-TDNA transformed roots of carrot (Daucus carota was carried out to evaluate the role of macro-elements contributed as impurities in the gelling agent (phytagel over and above those present in the minimal (M medium. Production of root biomass was taken as a measure to quantify the influence of macro-elements added to the minimal medium. The levels of phosphorus when adjusted to 1.19 mg/1 and 1.09 mg/l, lead to dry root biomass production at par with the control. Attempts made to lower the amount of impurities in phytagel by de-ionization using different alkalies, proved NaOH to give the best results in terms of relatively high amount of root biomass. In an in vitro dual culture system with carrot as host and Gigaspora margarita as the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, phytagel impurities helped to produce maximum number of infection units and auxiliary cells when phytagel was added to the minimal medium.

  1. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eva; Rodríguez, Mariola; García, Silvia

    2015-07-23

    Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide) and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure) on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and carrots (Daucus carota) was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min) in tap water (W), chlorine water (CW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L) in combination with: (a) vacuum (V: 10 mbar) or (b) positive pressure application (P: 3 bar). The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers) results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  2. Effect of soil-spraying time on root-colonization ability of antagonistic Streptomyces griseoviridis

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    H. KORTEMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-colonization ability of Streptomyces griseoviridis Anderson et al. was tested on turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera DC. and carrot (Daucus carota L. by the sand-tube method. Non-sterile sand was sprayed with a microbial suspension immediately or 7 days after the seed had been sown. Results expressed as population frequencies and densities indicated that S. griseoviridis effectively colonizes the rhizosphere when the microbe is applied immediately after sowing but less effectively when it is applied 7 days later. Detection values of S. griseoviridis were higher for turnip rape than for carrot. In sterile sand, S. griseoviridis invaribly colonized the rhizosphere of turnip rape after each of the two applications. These findings indicate that S. griseoviridis can compete with indigenous soil microbes in the rhizosphere if it is sufficiently abundant in the soil before the seed emerges. If applied later, however, it competes rather poorly. In root-free nonsterile sand, S. griseoviridis dispersed and survived well.;

  3. Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

  4. Host-driven divergence in the parasitic plant Orobanche minor Sm. (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, C J; Rumsey, F J; Harris, S A; Hiscock, S J

    2008-10-01

    Many parasitic angiosperms have a broad host range and are therefore considered to be host generalists. Orobanche minor is a nonphotosynthetic root parasite that attacks a range of hosts from taxonomically disparate families. In the present study, we show that O. minor sensu lato may comprise distinct, genetically divergent races isolated by the different ecologies of their hosts. Using a three-pronged approach, we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific taxa O. minor var. minor and O. minor ssp. maritima parasitizing either clover (Trifolium pratense) or sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp.gummifer), respectively, are in allopatric isolation. Morphometric analysis revealed evidence of divergence but this was insufficient to define discrete, host-specific taxa. Intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker-based data provided stronger evidence of divergence, suggesting that populations were isolated from gene flow. Phylogenetic analysis, using sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers derived from ISSR loci, provided strong evidence for divergence by clearly differentiating sea carrot-specific clades and mixed-host clades. Low levels of intrapopulation SCAR marker sequence variation and floral morphology suggest that populations on different hosts are probably selfing and inbreeding. Morphologically cryptic Orobanche taxa may therefore be isolated from gene flow by host ecology. Together, these data suggest that host specificity may be an important driver of allopatric speciation in parasitic plants.

  5. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

  6. Heterologous Expression of the Carrot Hsp17.7 gene Increased Growth, Cell Viability, and Protein Solubility in Transformed Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under Heat, Cold, Acid, and Osmotic Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunhye; Kim, Minhye; Park, Yunho; Ahn, Yeh-Jin

    2017-08-01

    In industrial fermentation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), culture conditions are often modified from the optimal growth conditions of the cells to maintain large-scale cultures and/or to increase recombinant protein production. However, altered growth conditions can be stressful to yeast cells resulting in reduced cell growth and viability. In this study, a small heat shock protein gene from carrot (Daucus carota L.), Hsp17.7, was inserted into the yeast genome via homologous recombination to increase tolerance to stress conditions that can occur during industrial culture. A DNA construct, Translational elongation factor gene promoter-carrot Hsp17.7 gene-Phosphoribosyl-anthranilate isomerase gene (an auxotrophic marker), was generated by a series of PCRs and introduced into the chromosome IV of the yeast genome. Immunoblot analysis showed that carrot Hsp17.7 accumulated in the transformed yeast cell lines. Growth rates and cell viability of these cell lines were higher than control cell lines under heat, cold, acid, and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Soluble protein levels were higher in the transgenic cell lines than control cell lines under heat and cold conditions, suggesting the molecular chaperone function of the recombinant Hsp17.7. This study showed that a recombinant DNA construct containing a HSP gene from carrot was successfully expressed in yeast by homologous recombination and increased tolerances to abiotic stress conditions.

  7. Differential selection on carotenoid biosynthesis genes as a function of gene position in the metabolic pathway: a study on the carrot and dicots.

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    Jérémy Clotault

    Full Text Available Selection of genes involved in metabolic pathways could target them differently depending on the position of genes in the pathway and on their role in controlling metabolic fluxes. This hypothesis was tested in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway using population genetics and phylogenetics.Evolutionary rates of seven genes distributed along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, IPI, PDS, CRTISO, LCYB, LCYE, CHXE and ZEP, were compared in seven dicot taxa. A survey of deviations from neutrality expectations at these genes was also undertaken in cultivated carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus, a species that has been intensely bred for carotenoid pattern diversification in its root during its cultivation history. Parts of sequences of these genes were obtained from 46 individuals representing a wide diversity of cultivated carrots. Downstream genes exhibited higher deviations from neutral expectations than upstream genes. Comparisons of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates between genes among dicots revealed greater constraints on upstream genes than on downstream genes. An excess of intermediate frequency polymorphisms, high nucleotide diversity and/or high differentiation of CRTISO, LCYB1 and LCYE in cultivated carrot suggest that balancing selection may have targeted genes acting centrally in the pathway.Our results are consistent with relaxed constraints on downstream genes and selection targeting the central enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway during carrot breeding history.

  8. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the root uptake and translocation of radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre de Boulois, Herve; Delvaux, Bruno; Declerck, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    Because mycorrhizal fungi are intimately associated with plant roots, their importance in radionuclide (RN) recycling and subsequent dispersion into the biosphere has received an increasing interest. Recently, the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to take up and translocate radiocaesium to their host was demonstrated. However, the relative contribution of these processes in comparison to the ones of roots remains unknown. Here, the respective contributions of the hyphae of a Glomus species and the transformed carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots on radiocaesium uptake and translocation were compared and quantified. We observed that radiocaesium uptake by hyphae was significantly lower as compared to that of the roots, while the opposite was noted for radiocaesium translocation/uptake ratio. We also observed that the intraradical fungal structures might induce a local accumulation of radiocaesium and concurrently reduce its translocation within mycorrhizal roots. We believe that intraradical fungal structures might induce the down-regulation of radiocaesium channels involved in the transport processes of radiocaesium towards the xylem. - Radiocaesium root uptake and translocation is affected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

  9. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the root uptake and translocation of radiocaesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre de Boulois, Herve [Universite catholique de Louvain, Mycotheque de l' Universite catholique de Louvain (MUCL), Unite de Microbiologie, Place Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, Bruno [Universite catholique de Louvain, Unite des Sciences du Sol, Place Croix du Sud 2/10, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Declerck, Stephane [Universite catholique de Louvain, Mycotheque de l' Universite catholique de Louvain (MUCL), Unite de Microbiologie, Place Croix du Sud 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: declerck@mbla.ucl.ac.be

    2005-04-01

    Because mycorrhizal fungi are intimately associated with plant roots, their importance in radionuclide (RN) recycling and subsequent dispersion into the biosphere has received an increasing interest. Recently, the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to take up and translocate radiocaesium to their host was demonstrated. However, the relative contribution of these processes in comparison to the ones of roots remains unknown. Here, the respective contributions of the hyphae of a Glomus species and the transformed carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots on radiocaesium uptake and translocation were compared and quantified. We observed that radiocaesium uptake by hyphae was significantly lower as compared to that of the roots, while the opposite was noted for radiocaesium translocation/uptake ratio. We also observed that the intraradical fungal structures might induce a local accumulation of radiocaesium and concurrently reduce its translocation within mycorrhizal roots. We believe that intraradical fungal structures might induce the down-regulation of radiocaesium channels involved in the transport processes of radiocaesium towards the xylem. - Radiocaesium root uptake and translocation is affected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

  10. Evaluation of Combined Disinfection Methods for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Population on Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most current disinfection strategies for fresh-cut industry are focused on the use of different chemical agents; however, very little has been reported on the effectiveness of the hurdle technology. The effect of combined decontamination methods based on the use of different sanitizers (peroxyacetic acid and chlorine dioxide and the application of pressure (vacuum/positive pressure on the inactivation of the foodborne pathogen E. coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut lettuce (Lactuca sativa and carrots (Daucus carota was studied. Fresh produce, inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, was immersed (4 °C, 2 min in tap water (W, chlorine water (CW, chlorine dioxide (ClO2: 2 mg/L and peroxyacetic acid (PAA: 100 mg/L in combination with: (a vacuum (V: 10 mbar or (b positive pressure application (P: 3 bar. The product quality and antimicrobial effects of the treatment on bacterial counts were determined both in process washing water and on fresh-cut produce. Evidence obtained in this study, suggests that the use of combined methods (P/V + sanitizers results in a reduction on the microorganism population on produce similar to that found at atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the application of physical methods led to a significant detrimental effect on the visual quality of lettuce regardless of the solution used. Concerning the process water, PAA proved to be an effective alternative to chlorine for the avoidance of cross-contamination.

  11. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal 14 C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were < 0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge

  12. Toxic metal tolerance in native plant species grown in a vanadium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihemaiti, Aikelaimu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an; Li, Tianran; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xutong

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium (V) has been extensively mined in China and caused soil pollution in mining area. It has toxic effects on plants, animals and humans, posing potential health risks to communities that farm and graze cattle adjacent to the mining area. To evaluate in situ phytoremediation potentials of native plants, V, chromium, copper and zinc concentrations in roots and shoots were measured and the bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation (TF) efficiencies were calculated. The results showed that Setaria viridis accumulated greater than 1000 mg kg -1 V in its shoots and exhibited TF > 1 for V, Cr, Zn and BAF > 1 for Cu. The V accumulation amount in the roots of Kochia scoparia also surpassed 1000 mg kg -1 and showed TF > 1 for Zn. Chenopodium album had BAF > 1 for V and Zn and Daucus carota showed TF > 1 for Cu. Eleusine indica presented strong tolerance and high metal accumulations. S. viridis is practical for in situ phytoextractions of V, Cr and Zn and phytostabilisation of Cu in V mining area. Other species had low potential use as phytoremediation plant at multi-metal polluted sites, but showed relatively strong resistance to V, Cr, Cu and Zn toxicity, can be used to vegetate the contaminated soils and stabilise toxic metals in V mining area.

  13. 2001: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Biggiogera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the papers published in the European Journal of Histochemistry in 2001, several deal with plant cells. Personally, as a cell biologist mainly working with animal cells, I have always been fascinated by plant cells: the images of those beautiful nuclei are not only something to look at and marvel at. In the past few years, important indications of cell structure and function have come from plant cytology and cytochemistry (see e.g. Medina et al., 2000. Along this line, Lingua and coworkers (2001 described the changes that occur after arbuscular mychorizal fungi colonization, which can induce a strong increase in metabolism. Nuclear changes can also be induced by pathogens, as in Licopersicon esculentum (Lingua et al., 2001. In the same issue, we find other interesting papers: Balestrazzi et al. (2001 have studied the expression of DNA topoisomerase I in Daucus carota: the elucidation of the expression pattern of this gene is important in the evaluation of its physiological functions. In another paper, Bianciotto et al. (2001 studied the association of arbuscular mychorrizal fungi with rhizobacteria, which are commonly used as biopesticides and biofertilizers: the anchoring between fungi and bacteria occurs by means of extracellular polysaccharides. This could be of relevance for the production of inocula with a stable fugus-bacteria association.

  14. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea (bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet.

  15. Path analysis suggests phytoene accumulation is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrot roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two F2 carrot (Daucus carota L. populations (orange rooted Brasilia x very dark orange rooted High Carotene Mass - HCM cross and the dark orange rooted cultivated variety B493 x white rooted wild carrot Queen Anne's Lace - QAL cross with very unrelated genetic backgrounds were used to investigate intrinsic factors limiting carotenoid accumulation in carrots by applying phenotypic correlation and path analysis to study the relationships between major root carotenes, root color and several other morphological traits. Most of the correlations between traits were close and agreed in sign between the two populations. Root weight had a moderate to highly significant positive correlation with leaf length, root length and top and middle root diameter. Although phenotypic correlations failed to identify the order of the substrates and products in the carotenoid pathway the correct order of substrates and products (phytoene -> zeta-carotene -> lycopene was identified in the causal diagram of beta-carotene for the Brasilia x HCM population. Path analysis of beta-carotene synthesis in the B493 x QAL population suggested that selection for root carotenes had little effect on plant morphological traits. Causal model of beta-carotene and lycopene in the B493 x QAL population suggested that phytoene synthesis is the key step limiting the carotenoid pathway in white carrots. Path analysis, first presented by Sewall Wright to study quantitative traits, appears to be a powerful statistical approach for the identification of key compounds in complex pathways.

  16. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.S.; Sze, H.

    1987-01-01

    ATP-dependent 45 Ca 2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca 2+ . These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca 2+ regulation

  17. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

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    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  18. Studies in uptake and turnover of tritiated water vapour (HTO) by vegetables. Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und zum Umsatz von tritiiertem Wasserdampf (HTO) in Gemuesepflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller, M.

    1989-02-01

    The aerial parts of vegetables were exposed to tritiated water vapour for up to three days in a plant growth chamber. The species used were Raphanus sativus L., Phaseolus vulgaris K. and Daucus carota L. (red radish, bean and carrot). The increase of specific activity of tissue free water as collected by freeze drying which was observed in the aerial parts of plants is explained by direct uptake of tritiated water vapour by the exposed part of the plant. It shows different characteristics for the several organs. No translocation of water from the laminae into other parts of the plant was observed. After combustion of dry matter tritium activity was detectable in the oxidation water for all parts of the plants. Kinetics of the specific activity of organically bound tritium in leaves can be described by a single curve. The lower - steep - part of the curve is increasing approximately with the uptake rate of HTO; this is explained by reversible binding of tritium by isotopic exchange reactions. The upper - flat - part of the curve represents tritium bound by light dependent reducing reactions of photosynthesis; it is increasing with a rate similar to the growth rate of leaves. (orig./KG).

  19. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae under the influence of different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA IDE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de fuentes de alimento, tales como el néctar de algunas flores y su efecto en la longevidad de los adultos. Este estudio fue realizado en la temporada 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Provincia de Valdivia, décima región de Chile. Se utilizaron 295 individuos adultos, entre machos y hembras, manteniéndolos con agua, sin agua, agua-miel y con flores de cuatro especies de plantas, tres pertenecientes a la familia Apiaceae y otra a la familia Asteraceae. La mayor longevidad promedio se obtuvo usando agua miel (23 días en machos y 33 días en hembras y flores de Conium maculatum y Daucus carota (14,1 días, las cuales permitieron aumentar dos veces la longevidad respecto al uso sólo de agua. Los resultados encontrados permiten sugerir la incorporación de algunas especies como C. maculatum y D. carota a las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don, especialmente en la séptima y octava regiones del país, como una forma de aumentar la eficiencia de parasitación de O. obscuratorOne of the tactics that improved the control of Rhyacionia buoliana in Chile was the introduction in 1987 of Orgilus obscurator, a specific parasitoid. Evaluations between the regions VII and X of Chile during 1995 to 1997 have shown significant differences in the establishment and parasitism obtained by O. obscurator. Several factors are involved in the success of control strategies, including the availability and access to food sources such as water, flower nectar and

  1. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  2. A complete plastid phylogeny of Daucus – concordance to nuclear results, and markers necessary for phylogenetic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of study: Our purposes were to (1) obtain a well-resolved plastid counterpart to the 94 gene nuclear ortholog gene phylogeny of Arbizu et al. (2014, Amer. J. Bot. 101:1666-1685; and Syst. Bot., in press), and (2) to investigate various classes and numbers of plastid markers necessary for a c...

  3. Development and preservation of a cocktail beverage produced from Carrot (Daucus carrota), Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Mango (Mangifera indoca L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Carrot is known to have the potential of providing vital nutrition as well as health and well-being to consumers. In this study, carrot juice was envisaged as a good vehicle for spreading its nutraceutical benefits. The study was then designed in two parts: (a) Survey to establish the beverage consumption pattern in the Anyaa-Sowutuom District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and (b) Carrot juice formulation and optimisation. The survey was conducted by administering a questionnaire to volunteer adult consumers. To develop an acceptable carrot juice beverage, pineapple juice and mango juice were included as components to improve taste and flavour respectively. A constrained, simplex centroid mixture design for three components was employed to optimise the proportions of the components in the final product based on sensory attributes. Chemical analyses as well as shelf stability studies were conducted for the optimised beverage preserved by chemicals and gamma radiation. Data obtained from the survey revealed that juices were very popular among consumers. The choice of a particular beverage was dependent on nutrition, taste and colour. Contour plots generated from sensory data of the products were overlaid to determine the optimum ratios of the components of the cocktail beverage. The optimised product consisted of 50-52% Carrot, 18-20% Pineapple and 28-30% Mango. Analysis of the beverage revealed 223 mg/100ml Potassium, 3.92 mg/100ml Pro-vitamin A (Beta carotene) and 43 mg/100ml vitamin C. After 8 weeks of storage 71% Pro-vitamin A was retained even under relatively higher doses (2.5kGy) of gamma radiation. The microbial quality of the beverage was good under all conditions. (au)

  4. Antifeeding Activity of Several Plant Extracts Against Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae Larvae

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    Sonja Gvozdenac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar L. is the most devastating polyphagous pest of deciduous forests, orchardsand urban greenery. To prevent damages that L. dispar larvae cause in forestry, agriculture andhorticulture, mechanical measures and the use of biological insecticides are the most frequentlyapplied practices. However, the use of conventional insecticides is inevitable in crop protectionand forest management on smaller areas, especially in gradation years. However, inadequateuse of these chemicals has led to disturbance of biocoenotic balance, outbreaks of somepreviously less harmful organisms and pesticide residues in soil and watercourses in someregions. To mitigate these consequences it is necessary to harmonize L. dispar control withintegrated management principles by applying selective and less toxic insecticides. Therefore,the potential of botanical insecticides and antifeeding substances is gaining in importance.The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ethanol extracts (1, 2 and 5% of Ambrosiaartemisiifolia L., Erigeron canadensis L., Daucus carota L., Morus alba L. and Aesculus hippocastanumL. on the feeding intensity of L. dispar larvae, i.e. to evaluate their antifeeding activity underthe conditions of “no-choice” test. Ten larvae per repetition were placed in Petri dishes andoffered oak leaf slices (2 x 9 cm2/repetition previously dipped in plant extract or ethanol (1, 2,and 5% for the control. Feeding intensity, expressed as a percentage of consumed leaf area (%,was measured after 48 h. For assessing the antifeeding activity of plant extracts AFI was calculatedand the extracts were classified according to scale: no antifeeding activity, slight antifeedingactivity, moderate antifeeding activity and strong antifeeding activity. Data were analyzedusing a two-way ANOVA and Duncan`s multiple range test. The results indicate that plantspecies, i.e. the origin of extracts, had a significant influence on the feeding intensity of L

  5. Estudo dos métodos de extração de carotenóides em cenoura por fluido supercrítico (efs e convencional A study of the methods of carotenoid extraction in carrots using supercritical fluid extraction (sfe and conventional methods

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    Ellem Waleska Nascimento da Fonseca Contado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura (Daucus carota L. , planta da família das umbelíferas, produz uma raiz aromática e comestível, sendo uma das hortaliças mais cultivadas no Brasil. Representa a principal fonte de origem vegetal em carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, especialmente o á e o β-caroteno, sendo, também, uma grande fonte de fibra dietética, antioxidantes e minerais. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar dois processos de extração de β-caroteno, fluído super crítico (EFS e o convencional e analisar a composição centesimal da cenoura in natura. O teor de β-caroteno obtido pela extração por EFS e por convencional foi de 2.457 e 2.455 µg/100g, respectivamente. Os valores médios encontrados para a matéria-seca da cenoura foram de: matéria-seca = 8,9%; extrato etéreo = 0,29%; cinzas = 8,11%; fibra bruta = 14,57%, proteína bruta = 6,4%, extrato não nitrogenado = 6,3% e valor calórico = 27,7kcal. Conclui-se que a extração de carotenóides em cenoura pelo fluido supercritico é uma técnica de separação viável, pois este fluido é inerte, não deixa resíduo final e não gera resíduo ambiental. Pelos teores encontrados conclui-se também que as cenouras são boas fontes de fibras, apresentam alto teor de umidade e baixo teor de gorduras, cinzas e valor calórico.The carrot (Daucus carota L. is a plant of the Umbelliferae family. It produces an aromatic and edible root, and is one of the most widely cultivated vegetable in Brazil. It represents the main source of plant-origin, pro-vitamin A carotenoids, especially α and β-carotene, and is also a great source of dietary fiber, antioxidants and minerals. This study aimed to evaluate two methods of extraction of β-carotene, supercritical fluid (SFE and conventional, and to examine the proximate composition of the carrot in nature. The contents of β-carotene obtained by SFE and by conventional extraction were 2,457 and 2,455 µg/100g, respectively. The average values found

  6. Carrot seed germination and vigor in response to temperature and umbel orders Germinação e vigor de sementes de cenoura em resposta a temperatura e ordens de umbela

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    Roseane Sousa Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may influence carrot (Daucus carota L. crop establishment. High temperatures (35 - 40°C, for instance, may delay or inhibit carrot seed germination in the field and so compromise the stand establishment. Carrot seeds from superior umbel orders usually have better physiological quality than those of lower umbel orders. These seeds from superior umbel orders may also show a better performance in adverse conditions. In addition, seeds from different ages show differences in vigor, which affect the stand establishment, mainly under adverse conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the germination at high temperatures and the carrot seed vigor of different umbel orders of 'Brasília', as well as the different 'Alvorada' seed lots. Preliminarily, 'Brasilia' seeds were incubated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 36°C. Also, seeds from the primary, secondary and tertiary umbel orders harvested separately from a basic seed production field and seeds from lots harvested in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed to the following tests: germination at 20°C (optimum and 35°C (adverse, accelerated aging, cold test, seedling emergence in greenhouse and mass of 100 seeds. High temperatures reduced carrot seed germination. Seeds germinated better at 20°C than 35 or 36ºC. Seeds from primary and secondary orders, as well as less aged seed lots, had higher vigor and germination at high temperature.Vários fatores podem influenciar no estabelecimento da cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota L.. Altas temperaturas (35 - 40°C, por exemplo, podem retardar ou inibir a germinação das sementes de cenoura no campo, comprometendo assim o estabelecimento de plântulas. Sementes oriundas de umbelas de ordem superior geralmente apresentam melhor qualidade fisiológica do que aquelas de menor ordem. Estas sementes podem apresentar uma melhor performance no campo, principalmente sob condições adversas. Lotes de sementes armazenados por diferentes per

  7. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

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    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the

  8. CONSUMER PROFILE AND PRICE VARIATION OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PERFIL DO CONSUMIDOR E OSCILAÇÕES DE PREÇOS DE PRODUTOS AGROECOLÓGICOS

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    Érika Lidia Silva Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The consumption of natural foods has increased significantly all over the world, and the term “organic” has acquired great importance. Thus, this study tried to identify the consumer profile of organic foods in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, in order to find out the main difficulties faced to purchase this kind of product. Prices for organic and conventional foods were also compared. The main problem mentioned by the people questioned about the difficulties for consuming this kind of product was the price factor, followed by its availability. Pumpkin (Curcubita moschata, eggplant (Solanum melongena, beetroot (Beta vulgaris L., carrot (Daucus carota L., jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, and cucumber (Cucumis sativu were the products that showed the highest percent variation in price (conventional x organic.

    Em todo o mundo, o consumo de alimentos naturais tem aumentado significativamente, e o termo “orgânico” tem se destacado. Em face disto, buscou-se conhecer o perfil do consumidor de alimentos orgânicos, no município de Goiânia (GO, bem como saber quais são as principais dificuldades por ele encontradas, na aquisição destes produtos. Fez-se, também, um levantamento de preços, a fim de serem comparados alimentos orgânicos e convencionais. O principal problema apontado pelos entrevistados, quanto à dificuldade no consumo, foi o fator preço, seguido pela disponibilidade de produtos. Abóbora (

  9. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura em monocultivo e consorciada com rabanete

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    A. P. M. S. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na horta da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2009, com o objetivo de realizar o levantamento fitossociológico nos seguintes tratamentos: sistema de monocultivo da cenoura (Daucus carota e sistema de cultivo da cenoura consorciada com rabanete (Raphanus sativus. Para cada sistema de plantio foram realizadas 24 amostragens em quadrados vazados de 0,50 m de lado, onde as plantas daninhas foram coletadas e separadas por espécie, para determinação das seguintes características: número total de indivíduos por espécie, número total de parcelas que contém a espécie, freqüência, freqüência relativa, densidade, densidade relativa, abundância, abundância relativa, massa seca, massa seca relativa, índice de valor de importância (IVI, e o índice de valor de importância incluindo a massa seca (IVI-MS. Foram identificadas 19 espécies, distribuídas em 12 famílias botânicas. A família mais representativa foi a Poaceae, seguida por Portulacaceae, Cyperaceae, Tumeraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Molluginaceae, Convolvulaceae e Asteraceae. As áreas conduzidas no sistema de consórcio apresentaram redução de 13,2% na massa seca pelas plantas daninhas, embora a densidade não tenha sido alterada. A espécie de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea se destacou em relação às demais por ter acumulado 40,21 e 47,31% da massa seca produzidas infestantes em monocultivo e consórcio, respectivamente.Phyto-sociological survey of weed in carrot’s cultivation in monocrop and intercropped with radishAbstract: Was conducted the experiment in didact garden at the Rural Federal University of Semi-Arid, from September to December 2009, in order to carry out the phytosociological survey in the treatments: monocrop system of carrot (Daucus carota and intercropping system of carrot with radish (Raphanus sativus. For each planting system

  10. Human health risk assessment: heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

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    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is a vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk related to vegetables contamination of heavy metals by irrigated with sewage and turbine water. Irrigation water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples were within the permissible limits except Cd in sewage water. The concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Daily intake of metals, health risk index and Bio-concentration factor was also determined. Health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  11. Molecular characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1, that is differentially expressed under aluminium stress in highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, C; Aquea, F; Loyola, R; Slovin, J; Josway, S; Rengel, Z; Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Arce-Johnson, P

    2013-11-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a small acidic protein, is one of the best characterised Ca(2+) sensors in eukaryotes. This Ca(2+) -regulated protein plays a critical role in decoding and transducing environmental stress signals by activating specific targets. Many environmental stresses elicit changes in intracellular Ca(2+) activity that could initiate adaptive responses under adverse conditions. We report the first molecular cloning and characterisation of a calmodulin gene, VcCaM1 (Vaccinium corymbosum Calmodulin 1), in the woody shrub, highbush blueberry. VcCaM1 was first identified as VCAL19, a gene induced by aluminium stress in V. corymbosum L. A full-length cDNA of VcCaM1 containing a 766-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 149 amino acids was cloned from root RNA. The sequence encodes four Ca(2+) -binding motifs (EF-hands) and shows high similarity (99%) with the isoform CaM 201 of Daucus carota. Expression analyses showed that following Al treatment, VcCaM1 message level decreased in roots of Brigitta, an Al-resistant cultivar, and after 48 h, was lower than in Bluegold, an Al-sensitive cultivar. VcCAM1 message also decreased in leaves of both cultivars within 2 h of treatment. Message levels in leaves then increased by 24 h to control levels in Brigitta, but not in Bluegold, but then decreased again by 48 h. In conclusion, VcCaM1 does not appear to be directly involved in Al resistance, but may be involved in improved plant performance under Al toxicity conditions through regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and antioxidant systems in leaves. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Mitochondrial nad2 gene is co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Fang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-02-01

    The transcriptional patterns of mitochondrial respiratory related genes were investigated in cytoplasmic male-sterile and fertile maintainer lines of stem mustard, Brassica juncea. There were numerous differences in nad2 (subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase) between stem mustard CMS and its maintainer line. One novel open reading frame, hereafter named orfB gene, was located at the downstream of mitochondrial nad2 gene in the CMS. The novel orfB gene had high similarity with YMF19 family protein, orfB in Raphanus sativus, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum and Beta vulgaris, orfB-CMS in Daucus carota, atp8 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, 5' flanking of orf224 in B. napus (nap CMS) and 5' flanking of orf220 gene in CMS Brassica juncea. Three copies probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS) were found in the CMS line following Southern blotting digested with HindIII, but only a single copy in its maintainer line. Meanwhile, two transcripts were shown in the CMS line following Northern blotting while only one transcript was detected in the maintainer line, which were probed by specific fragment (amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R from CMS). Meanwhile, the expression of nad2 gene was reduced in CMS bud compared to that in its maintainer line. We thus suggested that nad2 gene may be co-transcripted with CMS-associated orfB gene in the CMS. In addition, the specific fragment that was amplified by primers of nad2F and nad2R just spanned partial sequences of nad2 gene and orfB gene. Such alterations in the nad2 gene would impact the activity of NADH dehydrogenase, and subsequently signaling, inducing the expression of nuclear genes involved in male sterility in this type of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  13. Response of vegetable seed germination to solar radiation penetrating through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, H.

    1999-01-01

    Response of vegetable seeds to irradiation and emergence of plants seeded at various depths were investigated to clarify the effects of solar radiation through soil on vegetable seed germination. Seeds of eight vegetable species were germinated in Petri dishes under 11-h irradiation per day. Seed germination was delayed in tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) but accelerated in perilla (Perilla ocymoides L.) and Japanese hornwort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.) with increase in irradiation at the intensities higher than 0.4W m -2 . Seeds of Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Matsum.), and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) showed delayed germination at more than 4-6W m -2 . No effect of irradiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) seed germination was seen. For tomato, Japanese radish and Japanese hornwort, the effects of irradiation time on germination were also investigated. Tomato seed germination was delayed and Japanese hornwort seed germination was accelerated with increase in irradiation time beyond 2h per day. The emergence of tomato and Japanese hornwort covered with Shimokuriyagawa loam soil (Kuriyagawa soil) and vermiculite at depths of less than 5mm, 5-10mm and 10-15mm was observed. Plants emerged more rapidly from 5-10mm depths than from less than 5mm depth in tomato. The plants seeded at 10-15mm depths emerged as rapidly as those at 5-10mm depths using vermiculite but later than those at other depths using Kuriyagawa soil, probably due to high bulk density. The early emergence of Japanese hornwort was fastest from less than 5mm depth. The plants seeded at 5-10mm depths did not emerge much slower than those at less than 5mm depth. A seeding depth of 5-10mm was suitable for the rapid emergence of those vegetables covered with both the soil and vermiculite. (author)

  14. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B; Chandrika, U G

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots (Daucus carota), pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima), squashes (Cucurbita moschata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight (DW) in different carrot preparations ranged from 406.7 to 456.3, from 183.7 to 213.5 and from 29.0 to 39.6 microg/g for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, respectively. The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from 282.1 to 294.4 microg/g DW for beta-carotene, from 155.6 to 157.7 microg/g DW for alpha-carotene and from 218.0 to 228.2 microg/g DW for lutein. The squashes preparation had 44.6 and 40.0 microg/g DW for beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively, and in sweet potatoes beta-carotene ranged from 204.3 to 210.3 microg/g DW. The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk. The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was 46.7, 21.8, 1.2 and 10.8 for carrots, pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes, respectively.

  15. Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica

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    Johann M.R. Antoine

    Full Text Available Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops − ackee (Blighia sapida, banana (Musa acuminate, cabbage (Brassica oleracea, carrot (Daucus carota, cassava (Manihot esculenta, coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium, dasheen (Colocasia esculenta, Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and turnip (Brassica rapa − were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fresh weight mean concentrations in these food crops (4.25–93.12 mg/kg for aluminium; 0.001–0.104 mg/kg for arsenic; 0.015–0.420 mg/kg for cadmium; 0.003–0.100 mg/kg for lead were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI, target hazard quotient (THQ, hazard index (HI and target cancer risk (TCR for arsenic, associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic elements. Each food type had a THQ and HI < 1 indicating no undue non-carcinogenic risk from exposure to a single or multiple potentially toxic elements from the same food. The TCR for arsenic in these foods were all below 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. There is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with the consumption of these Jamaican-grown food crops. Keywords: Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Target hazard quotient, Target cancer risk, Hazard index, Food, Jamaican crops, Estimated daily intake

  16. Availability of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, K; Trautmannsheimer, M; Schramel, P; Reifenhäuser, W

    2001-01-01

    To anticipate a possible hazard resulting from the plant uptake of metals from slag-contaminated soils, it is useful to study whether vegetables exist that are able to mobilize a given metal in the slag to a larger proportion than in an uncontaminated control soil. For this purpose, we studied the soil to plant transfer of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc by the vegetables bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'dwarf bean Modus'), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.), mangold (Beta vulgaris var. macrorhiza ), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'American gathering brown'), carrot (Daucus carota L. 'Rotin', 'Sperlings's'), and celery [Apium graveiolus var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] from a control soil (Ap horizon of a Entisol) and from a contaminated soil (1:1 soil-slag mixtures). Two types of slags were used: an iron-rich residue from pyrite (FeS2) roasting and a residue from coal firing. The metal concentrations in the slags, soils, and plants were used to calculate for each metal and soil-slag mixture the plant-soil fractional concentration ratio (CRfractional,slag), that is, the concentration ratio of the metal that results only from the slag in the soil. With the exception of TI, the resulting values obtained for this quantity for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn and for all vegetables were significantly smaller than the corresponding plant-soil concentration ratios (CRcontrol soil) for the uncontaminated soil. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ability of a plant to accumulate a given metal as observed for a control soil might not exist for a soil-slag mixture, and vice versa.

  17. Host-specific races in the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor: implications for speciation in parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, C J; Rumsey, F J; Hiscock, S J

    2009-05-01

    Orobanche minor is a root-holoparasitic angiosperm that attacks a wide range of host species, including a number of commonly cultivated crops. The extent to which genetic divergence among natural populations of O. minor is influenced by host specificity has not been determined previously. Here, the host specificity of natural populations of O. minor is quantified for the first time, and evidence that this species may comprise distinct physiological races is provided. A tripartite approach was used to examine the physiological basis for the divergence of populations occurring on different hosts: (1) host-parasite interactions were cultivated in rhizotron bioassays in order to quantify the early stages of the infection and establishment processes; (2) using reciprocal-infection experiments, parasite races were cultivated on their natural and alien hosts, and their fitness determined in terms of biomass; and (3) the anatomy of the host-parasite interface was investigated using histochemical techniques, with a view to comparing the infection process on different hosts. Races occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota ssp. gummifer) showed distinct patterns of host specificity: parasites cultivated in cross-infection studies showed a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting that races show local adaptation to specific hosts. In addition, histological evidence suggests that clover and carrot roots vary in their responses to infection. Different root anatomy and responses to infection may underpin a physiological basis for host specificity. It is speculated that host specificity may isolate races of Orobanche on different hosts, accelerating divergence and ultimately speciation in this genus. The rapid life cycle and broad host range of O. minor make this species an ideal model with which to study the interactions of parasitic plants with their host associates.

  18. Long-Term Analysis for Harvest Erosion Caused by Sugar Beet Production in Turkey

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    Selen DEVİREN SAYGIN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of soil resources is under significant threat due to the accelerated anthropogenic pressures at the historical expansion of human population. In this context, soil erosion is defined as a limiting factor for human interests in terms of ecosystem services. As an erosion type, harvest erosion occurs by harvesting of the taproot and tuberous root plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., potato (Solanum tuberosum L., carrot (Daucus carota L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., has begun to take attention in recent years. The objective of this study was to estimate soil loss due to harvest erosion and to economically analyze the transport of plant nutrients between 1999 and 2016 from sugar beet growing areas in Turkey. For this aim, the compiled data of 25 different sugar factories throughout Turkey were obtained from Türkşeker and soil loss estimations were performed and economically analyzed. According to the results, average soil loss rate was calculated as 3.41 Mg ha-1y-1 for the studied period (1999-2016. That means annually an average of 716983 Mg soil removed from the Türkşeker sugar beet production areas. This result indicated that harvest erosion represents only 0.9% of soil lost by water erosion in Turkey. But, if tolerable soil loss value considered as “1 Mg ha-1 y-1”, calculated soil loss values are above this critical value for all the factories. In addition, economic assessments of soil losses showed that costs are to be more than US $10 000 annually on the 60% of the factories due to removal of plant nutrients with harvest process. And, annually US $419 433 investment must be made to recover all these losses. Conclusively, harvest erosion as an ignored erosion type must be emphasized to the economic sustainability of natural resources in fragile ecosystems such as our country.

  19. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  20. Plastid-expressed betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in carrot cultured cells, roots, and leaves confers enhanced salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

    2004-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors that limits geographical distribution of plants and adversely affects crop productivity and quality. We report here high-level expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) in cultured cells, roots, and leaves of carrot (Daucus carota) via plastid genetic engineering. Homoplasmic transgenic plants exhibiting high levels of salt tolerance were regenerated from bombarded cell cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Transformation efficiency of carrot somatic embryos was very high, with one transgenic event per approximately seven bombarded plates under optimal conditions. In vitro transgenic carrot cells transformed with the badh transgene were visually green in color when compared to untransformed carrot cells, and this offered a visual selection for transgenic lines. BADH enzyme activity was enhanced 8-fold in transgenic carrot cell cultures, grew 7-fold more, and accumulated 50- to 54-fold more betaine (93-101 micromol g(-1) dry weight of beta-Ala betaine and Gly betaine) than untransformed cells grown in liquid medium containing 100 mm NaCl. Transgenic carrot plants expressing BADH grew in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (up to 400 mm), the highest level of salt tolerance reported so far among genetically modified crop plants. BADH expression was 74.8% in non-green edible parts (carrots) containing chromoplasts, and 53% in proplastids of cultured cells when compared to chloroplasts (100%) in leaves. Demonstration of plastid transformation via somatic embryogenesis utilizing non-green tissues as recipients of foreign DNA for the first time overcomes two of the major obstacles in extending this technology to important crop plants.

  1. Efeitos da solarização do solo na densidade populacional da tiririca e na produtividade de hortaliças sob manejo orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICCI MARTA DOS SANTOS FREIRE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um ensaio de campo em Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, para avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo na população infestante de tiririca (Cyperus rotundus e na produtividade de hortaliças submetidas a manejo orgânico. A solarização correspondeu à cobertura do solo com polietileno transparente (50 mim por um período de 210 dias. Houve um aumento da temperatura média da camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm da ordem de 23%, em relação ao das parcelas não-solarizadas. Após a retirada do plástico, cultivaram-se: cenoura (Daucus carota 'Brasília', repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata 'Astrus', beterraba (Beta vulgaris 'Tall Top Early Wonder' e vagem-anã (Phaseolus vulgaris 'Alessa'. Em termos gerais, a solarização reduziu em 59% a reinfestação pela tiririca. Nas parcelas solarizadas, houve significativo incremento das produtividades de cenoura (28%, vagem (32%, beterraba (37% e repolho (34%. A fixação biológica do nitrogênio, a julgar pela nodulação da vagem, não foi afetada pela solarização, mas a população de nematóides do solo sofreu considerável redução.

  2. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  3. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Zovkokončić, Marijana; Miličević, Tihomir; Dolina, Katija; Pandža, Marija

    2013-01-03

    Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20-30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded.Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  4. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68 in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L. and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs, as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  5. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg -1 ) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg -1 ), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg -1 in carrot and 32 mg kg -1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  6. Characterization of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens avirulent mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect induction of vir genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, J; West, J; Doares, S H; Matthysse, A G

    1991-02-01

    Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect bacterial virulence were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. Two of the mutants were avirulent on all hosts tested. The third mutant, Ivr-211, was a host range mutant which was avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana, Nicotiana tabacum, N. debneyi, N. glauca, and Daucus carota but was virulent on Zinnia elegans and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). That the mutant phenotype was due to the transposon insertion was determined by cloning the DNA containing the transposon insertion and using the cloned DNA to replace the wild-type DNA in the parent bacterial strain by marker exchange. The transposon insertions in the three mutants mapped at three widely separated locations on the bacterial chromosome. The effects of the mutations on various steps in tumor formation were examined. All three mutants showed no alteration in binding to carrot cells. However, none of the mutants showed any induction of vir genes by acetosyringone under conditions in which the parent strain showed vir gene induction. When the mutant bacteria were examined for changes in surface components, it was found that all three of the mutants showed a similar alteration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS from the mutants was larger in size and more heavily saccharide substituted than LPS from the parent strain. Two of the mutants showed no detectable alteration in outer membrane and periplasmic space proteins. The third mutant, Ivr-225, was missing a 79-kDa surface peptide. The reason(s) for the failure of vir gene induction in these mutants and its relationship, if any, to the observed alteration in LPS are unknown.

  7. Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Dan Azolla ( Azolla Pinnata R. B ) Segar Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil 2 Varietas Tanaman Wortel ( Daucus Carotta L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, M. Syahrial; Widaryanto, Eko; Nugroho, Agung

    2016-01-01

    Wortel termasuk jenis sayuran umbi yang bernilai ekonomis penting di dunia. Salah satu factor budidaya wortel adalah tanah yang tidak hanya sebagai media akar tanaman namun sebagai media tanaman dapat menyerap nutrisi, air dan oksigen. Salah satu peranan bahan organik adalah memperbaiki sifat fisik tanah. Azolla (Azolla pinnata) ialah tumbuhan paku air yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan organik untuk memperbaiki agregat tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk dapat mengetahui pengaruh dosis kom...

  8. Optimization of the production process of a lyophilized formulation for radiopharmaceutical obtaining {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}; Optimizacion del proceso de fabricacion de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this work was optimized the production process of a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, the union specifies to the integrin s α{sub v}β{sub 3} was demonstrated to be used in the nuclear medicine cabinets in the obtaining of scan images for the opportune detection of breast cancer. The good lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} was established like: HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} - 25 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) 20 mg; Mannitol 50 mg. The results of radiochemical purity of the sterile formulation and free of bacterial endotoxins for the three validation lots prepared under protocols of good manufacturing practices were 97.62 ± 1.48%, 96.54 ± 1.89%, and 97.66 ± 0.57%, for what the production procedure complies the predefined specifications. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from the lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation showed to be stable during a period 24 hours, for what can be used in the centers of molecular nuclear medicine. Images in vivo were obtained of the integrin s over-expression α{sub v}β{sub 3} from the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 obtained of the lyophilized and optimized pharmaceutical formulation. The lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation (HYNIC-RGD-Sn) showed stability during 12 months, due to this factor, is requested before the COFEPRIS the radiopharmaceutical expiration for this same period (accession number 123300401A0155). (Author)

  9. Development of a lyophilized formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} for the diagnosis of breast cancer tumors; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} para el diagnostico de tumores de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron A, E. J.

    2015-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals of third generation by its design that includes peptides capable of selectively directing the radiation to a specific molecular target are useful in molecular medicine for obtaining molecular images that allow recording in vivo phenomena temporal-space of molecular or cellular processes, with diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Generally, peptides that recognize cellular receptors that are over-expressed in cancer cells of interest are used; such is the case of RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) a tri-peptide sequence which recognizes to the membrane receptors α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) that are involved in metastasis and angiogenic processes as well as in tumor cells of breast glioma. The high affinity and selectivity of RGD peptide with integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) is the basis for designing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic of breast cancer and the metastasis and angiogenic processes. In this paper a useful lyophilized formulation was development for obtaining {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical that for its effectiveness, stability and security can be used in humans. The production process of core-equipment DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK]{sub 2}/Buffer sodium acetate 1.0 M was optimized, and the formulation was transferred to the radiopharmaceuticals production plant of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The optimized formulation of the core-equipment for the {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical preparation is: DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} peptide - 75 μg; Mannitol - 50 mg; Sodium acetate - 14 mg; Sodium acetate buffer 1.0 M ph 4.3 - 0.5 m L. The production process was validated and stability studies were carried out to the validation batches in compliance with the validation master plan of the ININ and in adherence to compliance of the applicable national and international regulations. Also the legal dossier was drawn up in order to make the application of sanitary registration before Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). (Author)

  10. Closure of mass exchange under use of a vegetable conveyer cultivated on a neutral and soil-like substrates as applied to BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander; Ushakova, Sofya

    To increase a closure level of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) including a human a technology of plants cultivation on a soil-like substrate (SLS) consisting in a gradual decomposition of inedible plants biomass under its addition in the SLS was developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia). In the given work the effect of periodical introduction of inedible plant biomass in the SLS on plants photosynthetic productivity and on the closure of mass exchange has been analyzed. Thereupon CO2 gas exchange and the certain vegetables' productivity under their cultivation in a conveyor regime on the SLS and on a neutral substrate with reference to the closure of mass exchange processes in BLSS have been studied in this work. The vegetables Raphanus sativus L., Brassica caulorapa L. Daucus carota L. and Beta vulgaris L. being prospective plantsrepresentatives of the BLSS phototrophic unit were taken as the research objects. The SLS was taken as an experiment substrate and an expanded clay aggregate as the control. The changeable Knop solution was used for the control, and an irrigation solution with the SLS extract was used for the experiment. Rapidity dynamics of CO2 consumption showed sharp distinctions of the ‘plants-SLS' system from the ‘plantsexpanded clay aggregate' system connected with the oxidation processes coursing in the SLS. The intensity of CO2 evolution from the SLS on average was 70% of the total plants conveyor's respiration. Thus a balance between the system's respiration and photosynthesis was often determined by the processes coursing in the SLS. Here the sharp CO2 evolution was recorded after introduction of the plants inedible biomass in the SLS. That peak was gradually coming down during 10-14 days after the beginning of every cycle of plants cultivation that was connected with intensification of plants photosynthesis and drop of decomposition intensity of the biomass introduced. Comparative

  11. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  12. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TAG structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens, caraway (Carum carvi, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, anise (Pimpinella anisum, carrot (Daucus carota, celery (Apium graveolens, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Khella (Ammi visnaga, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3 in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1n-9, stearic (C18:0, petroselinic (C18:1n-12, linoleic (C18:2n-6, linolinic (18:3n-3, and arachidic (C20:0 acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some

  13. Factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Angelos, Evan R; Mukhopadhyay, Achira; Womboldt, Alec; Borrusch, Melissa S; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-04-05

    Many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. The best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. The use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. However, a major component of such landscapes is often herbaceous dicotyledonous plants, also known as forbs. The potential and obstacles of using forbs as biofuel feedstocks compared to the more frequently considered grasses and woody plants are poorly understood. The factors that contribute to the yield of fermentable sugars from four representative forbs were studied in comparison with corn stover. The forbs chosen for the study were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota). These plants are taxonomically diverse, widely distributed in northern temperate regions including the continental United States, and are weedy but not invasive. All of the forbs had lower total glucose (Glc) content from all sources (cell walls, sucrose, starch, glucosides, and free Glc) compared to corn stover (range 16.2 to 23.0% on a dry weight basis compared to 39.2% for corn stover). When digested with commercial enzyme mixtures after alkaline pretreatment, yields of Glc as a percentage of total Glc were lower for the forbs compared to corn stover. Enzyme inhibition by water-extractable compounds was not a significant contributor to the lower yields. Based on experiments with optimized cocktails of pure glycosyl hydrolases, enzyme imbalance probably accounted for much of the lower yields. Addition of xyloglucanase and α-xylosidase, two enzymes targeting Glc-containing polysaccharides that are more abundant in dicotyledonous

  14. Combined effect of water loss and wounding stress on gene activation of metabolic pathways associated with phenolic biosynthesis in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eBecerra-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The application of postharvest abiotic stresses is an effective strategy to activate the primary and secondary metabolism of plants inducing the accumulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds. In the present study, the effect of water stress applied alone and in combination with wounding stress on the activation of primary (shikimic acid and secondary (phenylpropanoid metabolic pathways related with the accumulation of phenolic compound in plants was evaluated. Carrot (Daucus carota was used as model system for this study, and the effect of abiotic stresses was evaluated at the gene expression level and on the accumulation of metabolites. As control of the study, whole carrots were stored under the same conditions. Results demonstrated that water stress activated the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots, favoring the lignification process. Likewise, wounding stress induced higher activation of the primary and secondary metabolism of carrots as compared to water stress alone, leading to higher accumulation of shikimic acid, phenolic compounds and lignin. Additional water stress applied on wounded carrots exerted a synergistic effect on the wound-response at the gene expression level. For instance, when wounded carrots were treated with water stress, the tissue showed 20- and 14-fold increases in the relative expression of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosanate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes, respectively. However, since lignification was increased, lower accumulation of phenolic compounds was detected. Indicatively, at 48 h of storage, wounded carrots treated with water stress showed ~31% lower levels of phenolic compounds and ~23% higher lignin content as compared with wounded controls. In the present study, it was demonstrated that water stress is one of the pivotal mechanism of the wound-response in carrot. Results allowed the elucidation of strategies to induce the accumulation of specific primary or secondary

  15. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M. Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person"−"1 day"−"1) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person"−"1 day"−"1. Therefore

  16. Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, E; Marselos, M; Sakellaridis, N; Constantinidis, Th; Skaltsa, H

    2015-04-02

    crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Anethum graveolens L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Daucus carota L. This research led us to the conclusion that the content of "About the Antidotes" is a valuable source for the study of recipes based mainly on medicinal plants, most of them inherited from classic ancient Greek and Hellenistic periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable has an important role in human nutrition. Various parts of the plants have been part of the human diet since the beginning. Vegetables have a number of properties that make its consumption very healthful. It not only is a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also contains protective components so called phytonutrients, has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Daily intake of vegetables offers many health benefits, helps to improve health for example the function of digestive and immune system, reduces the risk of various diseases and so we should take care to its regular consumption. It is widely used, except that it is the basic raw material for the preparation of foods and is also an important raw material for the processing industry. Nowadays has become environmental pollution by heavy metals as a big problem. The contamination of water, soil as well as air pollution by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and production of non-harmful to health, safe and quality food, which may be adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is important that we devote this issue more attention. The aim of this work was to identify and determine content of heavy metals in selected vegetables. Defined objectives have been achieved by analyzing of selected species samples of root from brassica vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus, parsley (Petroselinum hortesne HOFFM conv. radicosum, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva ssp. vulgaris. The crops were bought in local market. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained from analyzes of vegetables that were grown in home conditions respectively from markets of local growers. All crops were grown in Slovak Republic. By using Varian AA 240FS and AAS method were analyzed the contents of risk metals in selected vegetables. It was confirmed that

  18. Release of somatic embryogenic potential from excised zygotic embryos of carrot and maintenance of proembryonic cultures in hormone-free medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Excised zygotic embryos, mericarps ("seeds") and hypocotyls of seedlings of cultivated carrot Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes were evaluated for their ability to generate somatic embryos on a semisolid hormone-free nutrient medium. Neither intact zygotic embryos nor hypocotyls ever produced somatic embryos. However, mericarps and broken zygotic embryos were excellent sources for somatic embryo production (response levels as high as 86%). Somatic embryo formation was highest from cotyledons, but was also observed on isolated hypocotyls and root tips of mature zygotic embryos. On media containing unreduced nitrogen, somatic embryo formation led to the generation of vigorous cultures comprised entirely of somatic embryos at various stages of development which in turn proliferated still other somatic embryos. However, a medium was devised which when 1-5 mM NH4+ was the sole nitrogen source, led only to a proliferation of globular proembryos. Sustained subculturing of these proembryos at 2-3 week intervals enabled establishment of highly uniform cultures in which no further development into more mature stages of embryonic development occurred. These have been maintained, without decline, as morphogenetically competent proembryonic globules for over ten months. A basal medium containing from 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source appears not to be inductive to somatic proembryo formation. Instead, such a medium is best thought of as permissive to the expression of embryogenically determined cells within zygotic embryos. By excising and breaking or wounding zygotic embryos, constituent cells are probably released from positional or chemical restraints and thus are able to express their innate embryogenic potential. Once a proembryonic culture is established, this medium containing 1-5 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source provides a nonpermissive environment to the development and growth of later embryonic stages, but it does allow the continued formation and

  19. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  20. The Deterioration of Morocco’s Vegetable Crop Genetic Diversity: An Analysis of the Souss-Massa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Alan Walters

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop domestication and breeding efforts during the last half-century in developed countries has significantly reduced the genetic diversity in all major vegetable crops grown throughout the world. This includes developing countries such as Morocco, in which more than 90% of all farms are less than 10 ha in size, which are generally maintained by subsistence farmers who try to maximize crop and animal productivity on a limited land area. Near Agadir, in the remote Anti-Atlas mountain areas of the Souss-Massa region, many small landowner vegetable growers are known to still utilize crop populations (landraces. Thus, an assessment of the current status of vegetable landraces was made in this mountainous region of Southwestern Morocco during 2014. This assessment indicated that a significant loss of vegetable crop landraces has occurred in the last 30 years in this region of Morocco. Although many vegetable crops are still maintained as landrace populations by small subsistence farmers in remote areas in the Souss-Massa region, only 31% of these farmers cultivated landraces and saved seed in the villages assessed, with the average farmer age cultivating landraces being 52 years old. Moreover, the approximated loss of vegetable crop landraces over the last 30 years was an astounding 80 to 90%. Vegetable crops notably lost during this time period included carrot (Daucus carota, fava beans (Vicia faba, melon (Cucumis melo, pea (Pisum sativum, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon. The most significant loss was tomato as no landraces of this crop were found in this region. The vegetable crop landraces that are still widely grown included carrot, melon, onion (Allium cepa, turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa, and watermelon, while limited amounts of eggplant (Solanum melongea, fava bean, pea, pepper (Capsicum annuum, and pumpkin (Cucurbita moshata and C. maxima were found. This recent genetic deterioration will have a profound

  1. Impact of PAHs on the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, G. Intraradices, on the colonization of chicory and carrot grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, A.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Fontaine, J.; Grandmougin-Ferjani, A.; Durand, R. [Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Lab. de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, 62 - Calais (France)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent pollutants found in many environments as result of the incomplete combustion of organic matter, and some of them are of great environmental concern due to their highly cytotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties for mammals. PAHs are thermodynamically stable and recalcitrant to microbial degradation, due to their aromatic nature and low aqueous solubility. Ecologically and economically speaking, plants have tremendous potential for bio-remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. The effect of plant roots on the dissipation of organic pollutants has mainly been attributed to an increase in microbial population and selection of specialized microbial communities in the rhizosphere, and also by improving physical and chemical soil conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiosis with plant roots play an essential role in plant nutrition and stress tolerance. AM plants are known to be involved in the biodegradation of pollutants such as PAHs. The role of AM fungi concerns two aspects: the improvement of the establishment and development of plants on polluted soil and the enhancement of PAHs degradation levels. AM colonization of different plant species is negatively affected when the plants are grown in contaminated soils. Nevertheless the AM colonization was shown to enhance plant survival and growth. Objectives of this work was to study the impact of PAHs on the development of G. intraradices and on the colonization of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Monoxenous root cultures have obvious advantages over traditional systems. This technique provides unique visualization of extra-radical fungus development and also allows an important production of extra-radical hyphae, spores and colonized roots free of any other microorganisms. These aspects are important to evaluate direct impact of PAHs on AM fungal

  2. Taxa de respiração de cenouras minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Respiration rate of storage processed carrots at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigberto Antonio Spagnol

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre as hortaliças minimamente processadas, a cenoura é uma das mais populares, sendo comercializada de várias maneiras: raladas, cortadas em fatias, palitos, e ainda apresentadas na forma de mini-cenoura (baby carrot. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as taxas respiratórias de cenouras (Daucus carota da cultivar Nantes minimamente processadas. O armazenamento foi realizado nas temperaturas de 1 °C, 5 °C e 11 °C, e 90% UR. A taxa respiratória foi determinada usando um fluxo contínuo de ar. O teor de CO2 e etileno foi medido por um cromatógrafo a gás. A taxa de respiração para as cenouras fatiadas foi mais alta do que para os produtos inteiros. Os valores da energia de ativação obtidos para as cenouras fatiadas e inteiras foi de 69,82 kJmol-1 e 54,60 kJmol-1, respectivamente. A produção de etileno foi insignificante para as cenouras durante os 14 dias de armazenamento.The carrot is one of the most popular vegetables from minimally processed vegetables. It is commercialized in many different ways: shreds, slices, sticks and baby carrots. The aim of this work is to determine the respiration rate of minimally processed carrots. They were in storage at temperatures of 1 °C, 5 °C and 11 °C, and 90% RH. The respiration rate was determined using continuous humidification airflow and measuring the CO2 concentration using a gas chromatograph connected to a microcomputer. The respiration rates of the minimally processed carrots showed a higher respiration rate than for the whole products. The activation energy values calculated for the minimally processed carrots corresponded to 69.82 kJmol-1 for the whole products. The ethylene production for the carrots remained insignificant throughout the 14 days of storage.

  3. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cultivated in home gardens in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callistus Bvenura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of some essential (copper, manganese and zinc and toxic metals (lead and cadmium in cultivated vegetables – Brassica oleracea (cabbage, Daucus carota (carrot, Allium cepa (onion, Spinacia oleracea(spinach and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato – was examined. The vegetables were locally cultivated in home gardens in Alice, a small town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Samples of these vegetables were randomly collected from residential areas, dried, digested and analysed for the heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals in the vegetables were in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 1.12 mg/kg dry weight for cadmium, 0.92 mg/kg – 9.29 mg/kg for copper, 0.04 mg/kg – 373.38 mg/kg for manganese and 4.27 mg/kg – 89.88 mg/kg for zinc. Lead was undetectable in all the samples. Results of analysis of soils from the area revealed that cadmium in soil was in the range of 0.01 mg/kg – 0.08 mg/kg, copper levels were 4.95 mg/kg – 7.66 mg/kg, lead levels were 5.15 mg/kg – 14.01 mg/kg and zinc levels were 15.58 mg/kg – 53.01 mg/kg. The concentration of manganese was the highest of all the metals, ranging between 377.61 mg/kg and 499.68 mg/kg, at all three residential sites. Although the concentrations in soils and vegetables of the critical heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium, may not pose a threat (according to FAO/WHO standards, the concentration of manganese was very high in spinach and soils, whilst that of zinc exceeded safe levels in spinach, onions and tomatoes. However, neither the soils nor the vegetables were consistently found to pose a risk to human health.

  4. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  5. Heavy metals in vegetables sampled from farm and market sites in Accra metropolis, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordjour, Linda Addae

    2015-07-01

    This study reports for the first time in Ghana long-term monitoring of heavy metal contamination of vegetables. As reliable residue data analysis resulting from monitoring programs in foods is of great value to the general populace; this could address the possible risk of heavy metal exposure to human health. In this study, monitoring of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in consumable vegetables was assessed for a period of 2 years, 2013-2014. In all, a total of 479 vegetables (cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)) were purchased from farm (production) and market sites within Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Samples were subjected to acid digestion and analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the vegetables studied contained at least two (2) or more metals; 18.99% of the samples had metal detections below the European Union (EU) guideline values, whereas 81% were above limits. Vegetables from Mallam Attah market and the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) sites registered the highest percentage exceedances (100%) with the largest violation occurring in lettuce (97.41%). Elevated concentrations of these metals were also observed in vegetables from markets compared to the farms except As, Cd, Co and Fe. Ni and Cr were undetected in vegetables from farms, however their maximum concentrations (1.236 and 2.459 mg/kg) were recorded in lettuce at market sites. Additionally, the significant metal increases in vegetables from the markets could be due to atmospheric depositions and mode of handling by both farmers and buyers. On the other hand, studies of the soils from the various farm sites had varying mean concentrations of heavy metals, Fe (189.703), Mn (142.246) and As (9.145 mg/kg). However, all the metal levels in the soil were below EU limits, except As (24.2 mg/kg) found at Dzorwulu site, which exceeded the 20.0 mg/kg limit for As in

  6. Spontaneous plant colonization of brownfield soil and sludges and effects on substrate properties and pollutants mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Claudia; Agrelli, Diana; Gonzalez, Maria Isabel; Mingo, Antonio; Motti, Riccardo; Stinca, Adriano; Coppola, Ida; Adamo, Paola

    2017-04-01

    uptake and tissue accumulation by selected plants were measured, with only Daucus carota showing a higher ability to translocate metals to shoots (shoot/root metal concentration quotient >1 with peat). Water always underestimated plant uptake, while DTPA and sequential extractions better predicted Pb and Zn uptake. Phytostabilization with native plant species can be an efficient, environmentally appropriate and low cost technology for rehabilitation of industrial sites. The addition of organic matter may help the spontaneous re-vegetation and could facilitate the recovery of degraded environment. However, the changing induced by peat and plants might induced a solubilization of metal pollutants. A continuous monitoring of the potential changes of pollutants mobility-bioavailability by plants is crucial to prevent risks to the environment and human health. Key words: Heavy metals, phytoremediation, Peat addition, bioavailability, sequential extractions

  7. Aplicación de Tecnología de Barreras para la Conservación de Mezclas de Vegetales Mínimamente Procesados / Application of Barrier Technology for the Conservation of Minimally Processed Vegetables Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los vegetales son componentes esenciales de la dietahumana y su procesamiento trae como consecuencia el rápido deterioro ocasionado por el aumento de las reacciones metabólicas, esto hace necesario que se utilicen tecnologías emergentes de conservación. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la tecnología de barreras (desinfección, tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible, atmósfera modificada y refrigeración sobre la vida útil de una mezcla de vegetales mínimamente procesados compuesta por brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., chayote (Sechium edule, apio (Apium graveolens y zanahoria (Daucus carota. Las barreras fueron aplicadas a las hortalizas para luego ser envasadas en dos tipos de bandejas (empaque en atmósfera modificada y empaque en bandeja sello plus. Los vegetales se almacenaron durante 12 días en refrigeración (4 °C y 95% HR, se llevaron a cabo análisis microbiológicos, físicoquímicos y sensoriales, y un estudio de vida útil. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso de desinfección con NaClO 100 ppm y el tratamiento térmico de 60 °C durante 2 min, tuvieron efecto en la reducción de la población microbiana para el día cero de evaluación. La calidad general se conservó para los 12 días dealmacenamiento, en la zanahoria, chayote, coliflor y apio. Laevaluación fisicoquímica presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los parámetros evaluados con respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento. El estudio de vida útil arrojó tiempos de 7 y 5 días para la mezcla de vegetales empacada en bandeja sello plus en atmósfera modificada, respectivamente. La combinación debarreras se muestra como alternativa viable en la conservación de mezclas de vegetales mínimamente procesados. /  Vegetables are essential components of the human diet. However, rapid deterioration of vegetables occurs after

  8. Vida útil de produto minimamente processado composto por abóbora, cenoura, chuchu e mandioquinha-salsa Shelf life of fresh-cut composed of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvarenga Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento sobre a qualidade de produto minimamente processado à base de hortaliças: abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch, cenoura (Daucus carota L., chuchu (Sechium edule Swartz e mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. As hortaliças foram sanificadas em hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1, por 5 minutos, descascadas, manualmente, e cortadas utilizando-se processador. O produto processado foi sanificado em hipoclorito de sódio 50 mg.L-1, por 3 minutos, e apenas as mandioquinhas-salsa foram imersas em solução de ácido ascórbico 1%, por 2 minutos. As embalagens flexíveis de polietileno de baixa densidade linear (25 x 20 cm, contendo 400 g do "mix", foram armazenadas a 5ºC e 99% UR, por 8 dias. A firmeza e o valor L* das hortaliças estudadas não alteraram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os valores a* e b* da abóbora não oscilaram durante o armazenamento. O valor a* da mandioquinha-salsa e do chuchu aumentou e o da cenoura diminuiu com o armazenamento, enquanto o valor b* da cenoura, do chuchu e da mandioquinha-salsa reduziu. O "mix" apresentou taxa de perda de massa muito baixa e ascensão respiratória até o oitavo dia. A atmosfera de equilíbrio, em torno de 2,93% de O2 e 7,06% de CO2, foi alcançada no interior da embalagem, contendo o "mix", a partir do segundo dia. Não foi detectada a presença de coliformes a 45ºC e Salmonella sp. em nenhuma amostra. Os coliformes a 35ºC aumentaram durante o armazenamento. Conclui-se que, o produto minimamente processado, à base de hortaliças mantém a sua qualidade por 8 dias a 5ºC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage time on the quality of fresh-cut product made up of four vegetables: pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch, carrot (Daucus carota L., chayote (Sechium edule Swartz, and peruvian carrot (Arracaia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. The vegetables were sanitized in sodium hypochlorite solution (200 mg.L-1 for 5

  9. Correlações fenotípica, genética aditiva e ambiental em cenoura Phenotypic, additive genetic and environmental correlations in carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Siqueira

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de variedades comerciais envolve, por via de regra, a seleção de vários caracteres simultaneamente. Sendo assim, o conhecimento prévio de suas interrelações também pode ser fundamental na estratégia a ser adotada pelo melhorista. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar as correlações fenotípica, genética aditiva de ambiente para diversos pares de caracteres de interesse agronômico de cenoura (Daucus carota L., variedade Campinas, nas épocas de outono-inverno e primavera-verão, na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP, do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Esse germoplasma, originário da Seção de Hortaliças do referido Instituto, apresenta elevado nível de resistência à queima das folhas e grande variação quanto ao formato de raízes. Além disso, revela tendência para emissão precoce da haste floral após estímulos de baixa temperatura e/ou fotoperíodo longo, durante estádio vegetativo da cultura. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com 102 progênies de meios-irmãos e quatro e três repetições para as épocas de outono-inverno primavera-verão respectivamente. As correlações fenotípica (rF, genética aditiva (rA e de ambiente (rE foram estimadas nas duas épocas de plantio, mediante análises de covariância entre pares de caracteres. As correlações fenotípicas, de valores significativos, e as correlações genéticas aditivas, foram negativas somente para os pares de caracteres envolvendo a porcentagem de florescimento prematuro (FL ou a porcentagem de raízes com defeito (DEF, sendo positivas para as demais associações de caracteres. As correlações genéticas aditivas foram de alta magnitude (>0,5 para a maioria dos pares de caracteres analisados nas duas épocas de plantio. A seleção para a produção de raízes cilíndricas comerciáveis (CILC mostra-se favorável em ambas as épocas de plantio, na redução do caráter FL, bem como no aumento de produção de ra

  10. Supplementation of Carrot (Daucus carrota as Natural Source of Beta-carotene prepared by Several Methods in Feed to Increase Blue Colour of Freshwater Crayfish Red Claw (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro H. Satyantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus is one kind of freshwater crayfish that can cultured as consumption or ornamental fish commodities.  The colour of body was important character for performance of red claw as ornamental fish commodity.  Red claw with blue body colour is more expensive than brown.  The purpose of  this experiment was to know the influence addition of carrot with several methods in feed on blue colour  of freshwater crayfish red claw and which was the best preparation method to increase blue colour of freshwater crayfish red claw. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments: A (control, B (extract, C (juice and D (shreeded of carrot with 45 ppm dose and five time replicates.  Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and continued with Z test. Result of the experiment was showed that addition of carrot as natural source of beta-carotene with several preparation in feed increase significantly (P Keywords: freshwater crayfish, colour of red claw, carrot, beta-carotene   ABSTRAK Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus adalah salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang dapat dibudidayakan sebagai komoditas konsumsi maupun hias.  Sebagai komoditas ikan hias, warna tubuh merupakan karakter penting untuk menunjang penampilan red claw.  Red claw ukuran konsumsi yang memiliki warna biru akan memiliki nilai jual yang lebih tinggi daripada red claw berwarna coklat.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metoda pengolahan pada pakan terhadap peningkatan warna biru lobster red claw. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan : A (kontrol, B (ekstrak, C (jus dan D (serutan wortel dengan menggunakan dosis 45 ppm beta karoten dan ulangan 5 kali.  Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Z.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metode pengolahan (ekstrak, jus dan serutan pada pakan memberikan hasil berbeda nyata (Pcephalothorax hingga telson lobster red claw dan perlakuan D (serutan memberikan skoring peningkatan warna biru tertinggi pada capit dan cephalothorax hingga telson, yaitu masing-masing sebesar 2,82 dan 2,54. Kata kunci : lobster air tawar, warna red claw, wortel, beta karoten

  11. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  12. Produção comercializável e teores de Cu e Zn em cenoura em decorrência da ação residual de fósforo e composto de lixo em solo sob cerrado Marketable yield and contents of Cu and Zn in carrot as influenced by residual phosphate and urban compost in a cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel V. de Mesquita Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1997, em condições de campo um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro distrófico argiloso sob cerrado de Brasília, para avaliar o efeito residual das aplicações em anos anteriores, a lanço de doses de fósforo (superfosfato triplo, e de composto de lixo na produção de cenoura (Daucus carota, cv. Brasília, assim como nos teores de cobre e zinco em raízes frescas. Aproveitou-se o mesmo delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições, no mesmo campo experimental dos experimentos anteriores distribuídos num esquema fatorial 3 x 5 incluindo-se 3 níveis de fósforo (0; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 5 níveis de composto de lixo (0; 20; 40; 60 e 80 t ha-1. A colheita foi realizada aos 90 dias após o plantio. A análise estatística dos dados de produção total de raízes revelou efeito residual da adubação dos últimos dois anos em linear e quadrático altamente significativo (pA field experiment was conducted on a clayey Yellow Red Oxisol to evaluate the residual effect of the application of phosphorus and urban waste compost of the previous two years on the root production of carrot cv. Brasília. The soil of the previous experiment design used a factorial consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0; 400 and 800 kg ha-1, applied as triple superphosphate combined with five levels of urban waste compost (0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 t.ha-1, was arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Carrot plants were harvested 90 days after planting. After the harvest, a linear and quadratic effect for phosphorus and urban waste compost (p<0,01 was observed. The linear interaction P x quadratic urban compost was highly significant (p<0,01. The maximum root total production was 26.5 t.ha-1 corresponding to 18.5 t ha-1 of marketable yield, estimated by the calculated doses of 762.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 53.2 t ha-1 of urban waste compost according to the function: Y(PROD = 4.541143 + 4.0088 x 10-2 P2O5 + 2

  13. Mineral Element Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Acidic Compared to Alkaline Areas of South Sweden

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    Ingegerd Rosborg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study in 1997, on mineral levels in acidic compared to alkaline well waters, and in women’s hair, revealed higher concentrations of a number of mineral elements like Ca, Mo and Se in alkaline waters and hair. Thus, median Ca levels were six times higher in well water and five times higher in hair from the alkaline area compared to the acidic area. This finding raised the probability of similar differences in vegetables from these areas. Thus, in the year 2006, 60 women who had participated in the study in 1997 were asked to cultivate parsley, lettuce, carrot and chive. During the spring of 2006, the women from the water and hair study of 1997, 30 of them from the acidic area and 30 women from the alkaline district cultivated vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, chive (Allium schoenoprasum and lettuce (Eruca sativa. The vegetables were harvested, and rinsed in tap water from the kitchens of the participating women in August. The concentrations of about 35 elements and ions were determined by ICP OES and ICP-MS predominantly. In addition, soil samples from the different cultivators were also analyzed for a number of elements. Lettuce and parsley showed the highest concentrations of mineral elements per gram dry weight. Only Mo concentrations were significantly higher in all the different vegetables from the alkaline district compared to vegetables from the acidic areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ba, Br, Mn, Rb and Zn were higher in all the different vegetables from the acidic area. In the soil, only pH and exchangeable Ca from the alkaline area were higher than from the acidic area, while exchangeable Fe, Mn and Na concentrations were higher in soils from the acidic area. Soil elements like Al, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, V, Zn and Zr were found in higher concentrations in lettuce and parsley, which were attributed to soil particles being splashed on the plants by the rain and absorbed by the leaves

  14. Isolation of carrot plant lines with altered carotene contents from gamma irradiated explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, N.; Sangwan, R.S.; Sangwan-Norreel, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary vitamin A is mainly obtained from carotenes of vegetables and fruits. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the major sources of carotene. Carrot cultivars have been obtained mainly through classical breeding, and genetic selection has permitted the creation of new varieties with high carotene contents. The fact that in several crops agronomically important mutants/variants have been generated by in vitro culture techniques prompted us to combine gamma irradiation and in vitro somatic embryogenesis to obtain regenerants with variations in carotene content in carrot. To test the effect of gamma rays on somatic embryogenesis and on the carotene level, aseptically germinated seedlings of 8 carrot varieties were exposed to 5; 10 and 500 Gy before culturing petiole segments on LN1 medium. Non-irradiated petioles produced calli with somatic embryos, while irradiated explants reacted differently according to radiation dose. After 4 weeks of culture on LN1 medium, petiole segments of different varieties irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy gave more callus with embryos than those with non-irradiated segments. However, after the subculture on LN medium, the development of embryos into plantlets was rare. It was also noted that after irradiation with 5 Gy, the petiole segments gave voluminous calli. Further, in variety 'Chantenay', the irradiated calli were deep orange while non-irradiated calli were green. However, embryo formation was not observed in these calli. This orange coloration suggests an appreciable synthesis of carotene in the calli. Gamma rays, probably produced cell lines with different colors and carotene content. Of the 8 cultivars tested, normal plantlets of 3 varieties were regenerated from somatic embryos irradiated with 10 Gy, and were transferred to greenhouse to develop roots. For each assay, the carotene analysis was carried out on 2 roots, and compared with plants produced from non-irradiated somatic embryos. Carotene level in the plants, derived from

  15. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo creciente ha estimulado el desarrollo de los vegetales cuarta gama o mínimamente procesados. Actualmente, se promueve el uso de tecnologías aplicadas a estos productos que les brinden mayor duración y garanticen la reducción de pérdidas poscosecha. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de tres de estas tecnologías poscosecha sobre la intensidad de la respiración y la calidad sensorial general de las hortalizas mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., apio (Apium graveolens, zanahoria (Daucus carota y chayote (Sechium edule. Para el recubrimiento comestible se utilizó pectina de bajo metoxilo (2%, cera carnauba (1%, glicerol (1.5% y ácido ascórbico (0.05%. El tratamiento térmico se hizo a 60 °C durante 2 min, con adición de ácido ascórbico (0.25%, ácido cítrico (0.5% y cloruro de calcio (0.025%. El baño químico se realizó con una solución de ácido cítrico (0.5%, ácido ascórbico (0.05% y cloruro de calcio (0.05%. La tasa de producción de CO2 se midió por el método estático, monitoreando la composición de los gases del espacio de cabeza durante 24 h a 8 °C y humedad relativa de 90%. La evaluación sensorial de color, aroma, crujencia y sabor objetable fueron las características organolépticas tomadas en cuenta para evaluar la calidad general de cada vegetal, la cual fue realizada con un panel de siete jueces previamente entrenados. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, siendo los bloques cada uno de los vegetales y las variables de respuesta la tasa de respiración y la calidad sensorial general. Se encontró que el tratamiento térmico y el recubrimiento comestible permitieron que los vegetales conservaran la calidad sensorial. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control (P > 0.05. La celeridad de la respiración disminuyó en el apio, el br

  16. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50microg galic acid equivalents (GAE) (Sharma Om P. et al 2009) Anise - Pimpinella Anisum - the seeds of anise were investigated and the extracts showed marked antioxidant activity, both linoleic acid and liposome model systems. The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts decreased in the order chamomile flowers > gtill seeds>gtnise seeds. The extract also showed good free radical-scavenging 2,2'-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity, indicating that they act as hydrogen donors. (Sharma, Om P. et al 2009) Carrot Seed-- Daucus Carota --carrot seed is known for containing potent amounts of antioxidants. It is known for its phenomenal free-radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing abilities. It contains high levels of carotenoids and components of vitamin A and powerful antioxidants. It also has high levels of tocopherol, a fat soluble form of vitamin E Carrot seed is a natural antioxidant. Total Phenolic content in extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Results were expressed as micrograms of galic acid equivalents (GAE). Celery Seed -- Apium Graveolens - Celery contains well known antioxidants like vitamin C and flavonoids. Scientists have identified at least a dozen other types of antioxidants in celery. Celery is an important food source of conventional antioxidant nutrients, including vitamin C, beta-carotene, and manganese. But its claim to fame may very well be its phytonutrients. Many of these phytonutrients fall into the category of phenolic antioxidants and have been shown to provide anti-inflammatory benefits as well. Celery is an excellent source of vitamin K and molybdenum. It is a very good source of folate, potassium, dietary fiber, manganese, and pantothenic acid. Celery is also a good source of vitamin B2, copper, vitamin C, vitamin A

  17. An Ecological Friendly Dragee Technic Application on Crop Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Summary: In Brazíl, in EMBRAPA/CNPH was developing a dragée technic for seeds of crops and vegetables of carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), micro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Andropogon ssp. and Eucalyptus ssp. using as inert material the dolomite (CaCO3 96%) powder fractions (0.05 to 1.00 mm) and as cementing adhesives the polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Gumma arabicum (Ga) (0 to 80% in water). On dragée process were using fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb (1 to 5 g fungicide/kg dolomite powder) and nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O 0.05 to 0.5, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co 0.000005 to 0.1 g/ kg dolomite powder) were applied from 1990. to 1993. Best results obtained with fraction of dolomite powder of 0.07 to 0.60 mm of diameter and adhesive of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) with the concentration between 10 to 20%. The dragées obtained presented a mechanical resistance of 0.5 kg/cm2 had show a germination higher than 90% without any phytotoxical effects to the seedlings. Fungicides with agent of metalaxyl, iprodyon, benomyl, mankoceb with the concentration 3-3 and mineral nutrients N, P2O5, K2O, MgO, Fe, Zn, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co with the concentration 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, 0.06, 0.00045, 0.00025, 0.0011, 0.00057, 0.00045, 0.000084, 0.00001 g/kg dolomite powder were showed best reultes, respectively. With this dragée utilization we could make possible the intensive use of highest quality seeds wich because of their higher costs are prohibitive in the actual systems of production. Keywords:crops, vegetables, seeds, dragée, nutrients, fungicides Introduction: In Latin America, Brazíl is the far greatest producer of crops and vegetables, with an annual production estimated at 9.631.000 tons in the value of 1.576 million dollars. Fifty species are cultivated of which 35 are producing botanical seeds including 162 varieties commercialized. The average national

  18. Estabilidade de micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos em barra de cereais - efeito da técnica de incorporação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Almeida Bastos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou desenvolver formulações de barras de cereais contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e Saccharomyces boulardii e avaliar a estabilidade destes micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos no produto elaborado durante o tempo de armazenamento (shelf life. Foram formuladas barras de cereais contendo separadamente os agentes probióticos S. boulardii e L. acidophilus, ambos nas formas liofilizada, granulados com lactose e encapsulados em alginato de cálcio. Foi avaliada a estabilidade dos micro-organismos durante o tempo de armazenamento. Tanto a levedura S. boulardii quanto a bactéria L. acidophilus apresentaram maior sobrevida na forma liofilizada, quando comparado com as outras formas de incorporação, mantendo contagem na faixa de 7 log UFC/g, durante oito semanas e na faixa de 7 log UFC/g, durante seis semanas, respectivamente. Comparando os resultados da incorporação dos dois micro-organismos na forma livre liofilizada observouse que a população de S. boulardii apresentou melhores resultados de viabilidade quando comparada com a população de L. acidophilus. Este estudo mostrou que é possível incorporar micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos em barras de cereais, preferencialmente na forma liofilizada, por proporcionar maior sobrevida dos micro-organismos.Palavras-chave: Barra de cereais. Probiótico. Saccharomyces boulardii. Lactobacillus acidophilus. ABSTRACT This study aims to develop formulations of cereal bars that contain Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii and evaluate the stability of these potentially probiotic microorganisms in the elaborated product during the time of storage (shelf life. Cereal bars were designed containing separately the probiotic agents S. boulardii and L. acidophilus, both in the lyophilized form, granulated with lactose form and encapsulated in calcium alginate form. The stability of microorganisms during storage time was evaluated. Both, the yeast S

  19. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    carota), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. virginica, P. aristata), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), dog fennel... insects that are used for food by the red-eyed vireo, scarlet tanager, tufted titmouse, common flicker, and various warblers. The abundant birds and...Detritivores, including immature stages of aquatic insects , small arthropods, and annelid worms, which thrive in this wetland community are consumed

  20. The effect of slicing type on drying kinetics and quality of dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour zadeh mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most common vegetables used for human nutrition because of its high vitamin and fiber contents. Drying improves the product shelf life without addition of any chemical preservative and reduces both the size of package and the transport cost. Drying also aidsto reduce postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables especially, which can be as high as 70%. Dried carrots are used in dehydrated soups and in the form of powder in pastries and sauces. The main aim of drying agricultural products is decrease the moisture content to a level which allows safe storage over an extended period. Many fruits and vegetables can be sliced before drying.because of different tissue of a fruit or vegetable, cutting them in different direction and shape created different tissue slices. Due to drying is the exiting process of the moisture from internal tissue so different tissue slices caused different drying kinetics. Therefore, the study on effect of cutting parameters on drying is necessary. Materials and Methods: Carrots (Daucus carota L. were purchased from the local market (Kerman, Iran and stored in a refrigerator at 5°C. The initial moisture contents of the Carrot samples were determined by the oven drying method. The sample was dried in an oven at 105±2°C about 24 hours. The carrots cut by 3 models blade at 3 directions. The samples were dried in an oven at 70°C. Moisture content of the carrot slices were determined by weighting of samples during drying. Volume changes because of sample shrinkage were measured by a water displacement method. Rehydration experiment was performed by immersing a weighted amount of dried samples into hot water 50 °C for 30 min. In this study the effect of some cutting parameters was considered on carrot drying and the quality of final drying product. The tests were performed as a completely random design. The effects of carrot thickness at two levels (3 and 6 mm, blade in 3 models (flat blade

  1. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Malekzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have measured glomalin-related soil protein using the Bradford colorimetric total protein assay. While, the ELISA method specifically measures glomalin by using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. Materials and Methods: The pot experiment was conducted in the sterile free-glomalin sand with Trifolium repens L. mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis fungus and treated with the Pb levels of 0, 150, 300 and 450 µM. Thus, in vitro experiment was performed in two-compartments plates containing of the transformed carrot roots (Daucus carota L. mycorrhized with the same fungus in root compartment and hyphal compartment treated with the Pb levels of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM as Pb(NO32. For glomalin extraction, hyphal or root samples were autoclaved at 121 ⁰C with 50 mM sodium citrate buffer for 60 min in three cycles. Protein concentrations in the extracted samples were determined using a modified Bradford protein assay. Also, glomalin content in the samples were determined by indirect ELISA using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. The percentages of the total root length were colonised by mycorrhizal fungi in pot culture and both hyphal and spore densities in the metal-containing hyphal compartment were determined. Results and Discussion: In the in vitro culture the percentage of total hyphae and spore frequency decreased, while Bradford reactive total hyphal protein (BRHP and Immunoreactive hyphal protein (IRHP in hyphal compartment increased as the concentrations of Pb increased

  2. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  3. Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs | Shah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plur., Buddleja asiatica Lour, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh, Justacia adhatod L., Ricinus communis L., Zingiber officinale Roscol., Daucus crota L., Momordica charantia L., Plumbago zeylanica L., Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., Plantago ovata Forssk, Tanacetum vulgare and Arctium lappa L. The most widely used ...

  4. Algunos aspectos técnicos sobre la liofilización de pulpa de cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leynard Natividad Marín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal es una fruta ampliamente distribuida en la Amazonia Sudamericana, con buenas características nutricionales y antioxidantes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue deshidratar la pulpa de cocona mediante liofilización para evaluar algunos aspectos técnicos de un nuevo tipo de producto que permita su mejor comercialización y mayores usos en la industria alimentaria. Los frutos fueron adquiridos en el Mercado Central de Frutas de Lima (Perú y procesados en el Centro Experimental Tecnológico de la Universidad Nacional del Callao (Callao, Perú. Fue realizado un acondicionamiento y liofilización de la materia prima; en el primero la muestra fue cortada, escaldada, pelada, despulpada, refinada y concentrada al vacío a temperatura de baño de 60 ºC durante 15 minutos y presión de -800 mbar; mientras que en la segunda, se congelaron previamente las muestras durante 12 horas a -20 ºC para su sublimación durante 24 horas a una presión inferior a 200 μHg. Asimismo, se determinaron los rendimientos y contenidos de humedad en el proceso. Se realizaron caracterizaciones en la pulpa refinada, muestra liofilizada y en la pulpa liofilizada reconstituida: contenido de humedad, proteína, extracto etéreo, cenizas, carbohidratos incluido el contenido de fibra, densidad, viscosidad, sólidos solubles, azúcares reductores, acidez titulable, pH y solubilidad, según fue el caso. Se obtuvo un polvo higroscópico, con solubilidad en agua de 84,33 % y con ligeras variaciones en sus características con respecto al producto inicial.

  5. A retrospective PCR investigation of avian Orthoreovirus, chicken infectious anemia and fowl Aviadenovirus genomes contamination in commercial poultry vaccines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Barrios

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vacinas avícolas vivas comerciais produzidas entre 1991 e 2005 foram examinadas para a presença de genomas dos vírus da anemia infecciosa das galinhas (Gyrovirus CAV, da hepatite por corpúsculo de inclusão (Aviadenovirus FAdV e da artrite viral/síndrome da má absorção (Orthoreovirus aviário ARV. Vinte e seis partidas de vacinas vivas liofilizadas de oito fabricantes com lacre original foram examinadas. As extrações de DNA e PCR de CAV e FAdV, e de RNA e RT-PCR para ARV, foram descritas previamente. Contaminações triplas de ARV, CAV e FAdV foram detectadas em vacinas de mesmo fabricante, produzidas em 1991 e 1992 contra a doença de Newcastle (DN, e para a encefalomielite aviária, produzida em 1994. ARV e CAV em co-infecção foram encontrados em vacinas contra a doença de Marek liofilizadas produzidas em 1996 por dois fabricantes diferentes. Genoma de ARV foi detectado em vacinas contra a bronquite infecciosa de setembro e dezembro de 1998, doença infecciosa bursal, de dezembro de 1998 e DN de janeiro de 1998. Três dos oito fabricantes apresentaram vacinas com contaminação e cinco nunca apresentaram vacinas contaminadas. Nenhuma vacina produzida a partir de 2001 apresentou contaminação. Cogita-se um papel epidemiológico para vacinas vivas, como fonte de infecção para ARV, CAV e FAdV e, potencialmente determinante da atual alta disseminação destes.

  6. Membranas biológicas homólogas preservadas em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, glicerina a 98% e por liofilização para implantação em eqüinos Homologous biological membranes persevered in alkaline solution and lyophilized, glycerin 98% and by lyophilization for equines implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scolla Vulcani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as alterações físico-químicas proporcionadas pelo tratamento de centros tendinosos diafragmáticos homólogos em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, para implantação na fáscia interna do músculo reto do abdome de eqüinos. As amostras foram tratadas em períodos de 24, 48, 72, 120 e 144 horas, liofilizadas e analisadas quanto à homogeneidade, flexibilidade e resistência à sutura das amostras. Posteriormente foram caracterizadas por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Para a implantação nos eqüinos, foram utilizadas amostras tratadas por 72 horas seguidas de liofilização, amostras conservadas em glicerina 98% e amostras apenas liofilizadas, que foram retiradas após uma, nove e 18 semanas para avaliar a existência de aderências. Verificou-se que a homogeneidade e a flexibilidade são diretamente proporcionais ao aumento do tempo de tratamento em solução alcalina, enquanto que a resistência é inversamente proporcional ao aumento de tempo, sendo o tratamento por 72 horas intermediário para estas características. A calorimetria exploratória diferencial mostrou que o tratamento não desnatura o colágeno presente nas amostras. Na microscopia eletrônica de varredura, observou-se que o aumento de tempo de tratamento proporciona expansão de zonas menos densas do material. Em relação à formação de aderências, as amostras apenas liofilizadas apresentaram grau máximo na formação da classificação proposta, seguida pelas amostras conservadas em glicerina 98% com grau médio e as amostras tratadas em solução alcalina e liofilizadas, que foram classificadas em grau mínimo. Concluiu-se que o tratamento por 72 horas seria mais apropriado para implantação e que a integração tissular com a parede abdominal foi melhor em relação às amostras apenas liofilizadas e às conservadas em glicerina.The objectives in this research were

  7. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant...

  8. Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (X). Notes florístiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Arguimbau, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Es donen a conèixer noves dades corològiques i observacions taxonòmiques per a la flora de Menorca referents a 50 tàxons. D'aquests 13 són novetat per a la flora de les Balears: Agrostis stolonifera subsp. gaditana (Boiss. & Reut.) Valdés & H. Scholz, Asteriscus pygmaeus (DC.) Coss. & Durieu, Callitriche obtnsangula Le Gall, Dactylis glomerata subsp. hackelii (Asch. & Graebn.) Cif. & Giacom., Daucus muricatus (L.) L., Ehrharta calycina J.E. Sm., Eleocharis palustris subsp. waltersii Bures & D...

  9. Influência de métodos de secagem na conservação de sementes de Ipê-branco The influence of drying methods on the conservation of Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl. Sand. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Degan

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Tabebuia roseo-alba (ipê-branco com 21,9% de água e 56,5% de germinação, foram submetidas à secagem em liofilizador, câmara seca e estufa. Depois da secagem, o teor de água das sementes foi reduzido para 3,7, 4,0 e 11,7% e a germinação para 49,0, 44,7 e 45,5%, respectivamente. As sementes liofilizadas foram acondicionadas em embalagem impermeável e as não liofilizadas em embalagens permeável e impermeável. Após o acondicionamento, as sementes foram armazenadas nos ambientes normal de laboratório, de câmara seca e de câmara fria. Avaliações da porcentagem de germinação (capacidade germinativa das sementes foram feitas periodicamente, durante 300 d de armazenamento. As sementes revelaram, durante o armazenamento, comportamento idêntico ao das classificadas como ortodoxas. Quando armazenadas em ambiente normal de laboratório, as sementes se deterioraram rapidamente. As sementes liofilizadas conservaram sua capacidade germinativa quando armazenadas em câmara fria. As sementes secadas em câmara seca, acondicionadas nas embalagens permeável e impermeável, e as secadas em estufa, acondicionadas em embalagem permeável, conservaram sua capacidade germinativa quando armazenadas na câmara seca e na câmara fria.Tabebuia roseo-alba (Bignoniaceae is a late secondary tree species native to Brazil, important for ornamental, medicinal and wood purposes. Seeds of this species with 21.9% moisture content and 56.5% germination were submitted to drying in lyophilizer, dry chamber and forced air oven. After drying, seed moisture content was reduced to 3.7, 4.0 and 11.7%, and germination percentage to 49.0, 44.7 and 45.5%, respectively. Lyophilized seeds were packed in impermeable containers and non-lyophilized seeds were packed in both permeable and impermeable containers. After packaging, seeds were stored under room, dry chamber and cold chamber conditions. Seed germination percentage (germinative capacity was periodically

  10. Effect of Lactobacillus strains and Saccharomyces boulardii on persistent diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gaon

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of probiotics on persistent diarrhea remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus sp and Saccharomyces boulardii on persistent diarrhea in children. In a double-blind trial eighty-nine children, aged 6-24 months were randomly distributed to receive pasteurized cow milk containing 2 viable lyophilized strains Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophillus strains CERELA, (1010-1012 colony-forming units per g (n =30, or lyophilized S. boulardii, (1010-1012 colony forming units per g (n =30 or pasteurized cow milk as placebo (n =29; on each diet 175 g was given twice a day for a 5 day period. Number of depositions, duration of illness and frequency of vomiting were considered. Enteric pathogens were isolated from stools in 40% of the patients, 27% had rotavirus. Lactobacillus and S.boulardii significantly reduced the number of depositions (p La eficacia de los probióticos sobre la diarrea persistente en niños aún no ha sido comprobada. Este trabajo controlado doble ciego tuvo como propósito evaluar ese efecto usando Lactobacillus sp y Saccharomyces boulardii. Ochenta y nueve niños entre 6 meses y 2 años de edad fueron distribuidos al azar para recibir leche pasteurizada conteniendo cepas liofilizadas de Lactobacillus casei y Lactobacillus acidophillus desarrolladas por CERELA (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos (1010-1012 CFU por g, n=30, o cepas liofilizadas de S. boulardii (1010-1012 CFU por g, n = 30, o placebo, n =29. Cada niño recibió 175 g dos veces por día durante 5 días. Se evaluó el número de deposiciones/día, la duración de la diarrea y la duración de los síntomas. Se aislaron gérmenes patógenos en las heces en el 40% de los casos: 27% eran rotavirus. Lactobacillus sp y S. boulardii redujeron significativamente el número de deposiciones (p < 0.001, la duración de la diarrea y el número de vómitos (p< 0.005 y (p< 0.002 respectivamente, comparado con

  11. Valor nutricional de produtos de ervilha em comparação com a ervilha fresca Nutritional value of pea products in comparison to fresh peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a composição centesimal e os teores de minerais, taninos e a disponibilidade de ferro e digestibilidade de proteínas em produtos de ervilha comercializados em Piracicaba/SP, em comparação com a ervilha fresca. Ocorreram alterações na composição centesimal, especialmente nas fibras, que se apresentaram em maiores quantidades na ervilha fresca. Os teores de taninos foram baixos. O teor de ferro foi maior na ervilha fresca (27,16 mg/Kg como também sua disponibilidade (28,5%, em conjunto com a sopa liofilizada (27,08%. O menor valor foi apresentado pela ervilha enlatada (14,04%, seguida pela sopa creme congelada (17,81%. Para a digestibilidade, a variação foi de 64,59 a 79,33%, sendo a proteína da sopa liofilizada a de menor digestibilidade. Foi concluído que o consumo de ervilha fresca seria o mais recomendado do ponto de vista nutricional, considerando os parâmetros analisados.The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition, amount of minerals and tannin, and iron availability in pea products sold in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo state, and compare them with fresh peas. Alterations occurred in the components of compositions, especially in fibers which presented a high quantity of fresh peas. Tannin was very low and iron was the highest in fresh peas (27.16 mg/Kg also the availability (28.5%, such as freeze drying soup (27.08%. The lowest value was for canned peas (14.04%, in sequence freezing soup (17.81%. The digestibility range from 64.59 to 79.33%, freeze drying soup presented the lowest digestibility. It was concluded that the consumption of fresh peas was the most recommended from a nutritional point of view, when the analysed parameters were considered.

  12. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  13. Análise química de folhas de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Soares Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cactáceas do gênero Pereskia são utilizadas na alimentação como hortaliça, ainda considerada não convencional. Neste contexto, faz-se necessário estudar as características nutricionais das plantas através de análises químicas visando possível consumo humano. Com o objetivo de caracterizá-las, determinou-se a composição centesimal, teor de fenólicos e nitrato nas três espécies de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia, em três tratamentos pós-colheita (seca in natura, liofilizada e cozida e seca, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, resultando em trinta e seis amostras analisadas. Foram utilizadas quatro plantas-matrizes para cada espécie, cultivadas em vasos no mesmo viveiro. O teor de fenólicos foi determinado com uso do reagente Folin-Ciocalteau, a partir de extrato etanólico; o teor de nitrato foi determinado após extração com água, por espectrofotometria. A análise da composição centesimal foi realizada de acordo com métodos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O teor de fenólicos foi influenciado tanto pela espécie quanto pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas liofilizadas. O teor de nitrato também foi influenciado pela espécie e pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas secas in natura e na espécie Pereskia grandifolia Haw. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as espécies em nenhum dos nutrientes avaliados pela composição centesimal. Em relação ao processamento houve diferença significativa somente no teor de cinzas, que foi maior nas plantas secas in natura. Os nutrientes avaliados apresentaram resultados próximos aos já determinados para a espécie mais consumida como alimento, a Pereskia aculeata Miller.

  14. Interaction of sodium diclofenac with freeze-dried soya phosphatidylcholine and unilamellar liposomes Interação do diclofenaco com fosfatidilcolina de soja e lipossomas unilamelares liofilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Biagini Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids are widely used as structural amphiphilic compounds in liposome formulations. In this study, we have analyzed the interaction the sodium diclofenac (SD with soya phosphaditylcholine (PC and soya phosphatidylcholine from lyophilized small unilamellar liposomes (SUV. The changes in the properties of the co-lyophilized drug/PC from SUV liposomes, lyophilized PC from SUV liposomes, and lyophilized soya phosphatidylcholine, were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The DSC data showed that the previous organization of phospholipids molecules to form liposome affects intensely the thermal behavior of PC when compared to non-lipossomal PC. SD modified the thermal properties of PC from liposomes. It was verified that SD affects intensely the located group peaks in the regions of 120-140 ºC and in the higher temperature region of 240-260 ºC. The results of this work demonstrated that the presence of the drug modified the DSC behavior for both liposomal and non-liposomal PC and that these modifications can be easily monitored by DSC analysis.Fosfolipídios são freqüentemente usados como compostos anfifílicos estruturais em formulações de lipossomas. Neste estudo foi analisada a interação do diclofenaco sódico (SD com a fosfatidilcolina de soja liofilizada e a fosfatidilcolina de soja (PC obtida de lipossomas unilamelares pequenos liofilizados (SUV. As modificações nas propriedades da mistura fármaco/PC co-liofilizados a partir de SUV pré-formados, lipossomas de PC vazios e PC liofilizada foram estudadas por Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura (DSC. Os resultados de DSC mostraram que a organização prévia das moléculas PC para formar lipossomas interfere significativamente no perfil de DSC da PC, quando comparada ao perfil de DSC da PC não-lipossômica. Verificou-se que o SD afeta intensamente o grupo de picos situados nas regiões de 120-140ºC e na região de mais alta temperatura (240-260ºC. Os resultados

  15. Influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural durante a liofilização da albumina bovina Influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Tattini Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A liofilização é o método mais comumente utilizado para a preparação de proteínas desidratadas, as quais devem apresentar estabilidade adequada por longo período de armazenagem em temperaturas ambientes. Entretanto, estudos recentes com espectroscopia no infravermelho têm documentado que os problemas relacionados com o congelamento e a desidratação induzidos pela liofilização podem levar ao desdobramento molecular da proteína. Através de análises por espectroscopia Raman, associadas com análise térmica por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, estudou-se a influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural da albumina sérica bovina submetida ao processo de liofilização. Observou-se que a albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 2,5 °C/min apresentou maior alteração estrutural quando comparada à albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 30 °C/min, a qual apresentou menores oscilações espectrais nas regiões da amida I, III e pontes de dissulfeto, favorecendo a manutenção da conformação estrutural da proteína.Lyophilization (freeze-drying is the most commonly method used to prepare dehydrated proteins, which should have the desired long-term stability at ambient temperatures. However, recent infrared spectroscopic studies have documented that the acute freezing and dehydration stresses of lyophilization can induce protein unfolding. Through Raman spectroscopy associated with thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, it was studied the influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin. It was observed that bovine serum albumin (BSA lyophilized under slow freezing (2.5 ºC/min presented higher structure damage than the BSA lyophilized under fast freezing (30 ºC/min However, the lyophilization process using cooling rate of 30 ºC/min presented fewer spectra alterations on the Amide I

  16. Efecto embriotóxico y teratogénico de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda», en ratón (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. y R. chalepensis L. son plantas usadas en medicina folclórica como antiespasmódicos, antihelmínticos, antimicrobianos, emenagogos y abortivos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto del extracto acuoso liofilizado (EAL de las hojas de R. chalepensis en embriones postimplantacionales de ratón. Ratonas albinas preñadas recibieron intraperitonalmente (ip 10 mg de ruda liofilizada/kg de peso corporal (grupo tratado, n=12 durante el periodo post-implantacional (día 9 – día 17 post-cópula, y un grupo control(C, n=18, que recibió sólo agua destilada durante el mismo período. El EAL de ruda no afectó negativamente el peso de la madre pero sí del útero durante el tratamiento (p<0,05. En el grupo tratado la frecuencia de reabsorciones fetales fue mayor (p<0,05 y el peso fetal fue significativamente menor en comparación con el control (p<0,01. Además en el grupo tratado se evidenció la presencia de malformaciones esqueléticas. En conclusión, encontramos que el EAL de R. chalepensis muestra efectos embriotóxicos en ratones expuestos durante el período postimplantacional.

  17. EFFECT OF DRYING METHODS ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF BLACKBERRY PULP POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA I. GIRALDO GÓMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron cuatros clases de polvos deshidratados de mora encapsulados con maltodextrina utilizando secado por vibro-fluidizacion (VF, por aspersion (SD vacio (VD y liofilizacion (FD. Se determinaron los datos de de humedad de equilibrio de los polvos de pulpa de mora con 18% de maltodextrina a temperaturas de 20, 30, 40 y 50°C usando el metodo estatico gravimetrico para el intervalo de actividad de agua entre 0.06.0.90. Los valores experimentales del contenido de humedad de equilibrio en funcion de la actividad de agua fueron ajustados con el modelo de Guggenheim.Anderson.de Boer (GAB hallandose una buena concordancia entre los valores experimentales y los calculados. El calor isosterico de sorcion, calculado utilizando la ecuacion de Clausius.Clapeyron a partir de los datos de equilibrio, se incremento con el aumento de la temperatura y fue ajustado con una relacion exponencial. Para muestras de polvos liofilizadas, vibrofluidizadas y a vacio, el calor de sorcion fue menor (mas negativo que los calculados para muestras secas en el secador por aspersion. La teoria de la compensacion entalpia-entropia fue aplicada a las isotermas de sorcion y de las graficas de AH contra AS se obtuvieron las temperaturas isocineticas, indicando un proceso de sorcion controlado por la entalpia.

  18. Análise da positivação do teste tuberculínico, após administração da vacina BCG, pela via oral, a crianças sadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvone Khairallah de Oliveira e Silva

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram os autores teste tuberculínico, com PPD (RT 23, 10 UT, em 3.6S4 crianças sadias, que receberam, pela via oral, em três oportunidades separadas por intervalos de um mês, vacina BCG líquida ou liofilizada e placebo representado por preparação sem bacilos. Dois grupos foram basicamente estabelecidos, tendo os limites etários correspondido a noventa dias em um deles e a essa idade e quinze anos no outro. Considerando os módulos com tamanhos superiores a cinco milímetros, observaram taxas de positividades de 37,6% e 21% relativamente aos indviduos separados da maneira citada e em avaliações levadas a efeito no máximo nove meses depois, mas as cifras pertinentes ao produto isento de bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes e ao submetido à liofilização mostraram-se expressivamente menores. Valorizada somente a alergização, as percentagens indicadas e não desprezíveis atestaram a ocorrência de destacada absorção, sobretudo ao ser levado em conta o sucedido quanto às pessoas de menores idades.

  19. Estabilidad del producto farmacéutico Compvit-BÒ inyectable

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    Olivia Teresa González Gay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compvit-BÒ es un polifármaco inyectable liofilizado, compuesto por 100 mg de B1, 100 mg de B6 y 5 000 µg de B12. Está indicado en tratamientos de todo tipo de neuropatías y enfermedades neurodegenerativas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en el desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación estable. Para evaluar la calidad de este medicamento, se escalaron 3 lotes pilotos a los que se les realizaron ensayos físicos, químicos y microbiológicos con resultados satisfactorios. Los estudios de estabilidad realizados a temperatura ambiente del producto Compvit-BÒ en forma liofilizada, demostraron ser estable por 3 años y la formulación reconstituida por 72 h. Este medicamento está registrado en el órgano regulador cubano, Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, e incluido en el Cuadro Básico de Medicamentos de Cuba; se comercializa por la Industria Farmacéutica nacional y se encuentra generalizado en los servicios hospitalarios de Cuba.

  20. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  1. OBTENÇÃO, CARACTERIZAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO CIRÚRGICA DE MATRIZES DE COLÁGENO NA PAREDE ABDOMINAL DE EQUÍNOS

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    Virgínia da Conceição Amaro Martins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Nas últimas décadas têm surgido diferentes tipos de materiais, tanto naturais quanto sintéticos, para a reparação cirúrgica abdominal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal a obtenção de biomembranas a partir de centros tendinosos diafragmáticos submetidos a soluções alcalinas por diferentes períodos de tempo para posterior caracterização físico-química e utilização cirúrgica em eqüinos. Pretendeu-se analisar as alterações macro e microscópicas proporcionadas pelo tratamento em função da variável tempo, para a determinação do mais viável para utilização como implante. Em segunda instância foram implantadas amostras obtidas por 72 horas de tratamento alcalino e liofilizadas, amostras submetidas em glicerina 98% e amostras apenas liofilizadas para controle. A retirada das amostras em uma, nove e dezoito semanas permitiram avaliar a diferença de integração na interface biomaterial/tecido, sendo que as amostras do meio alcalino demonstram menor dificuldade de dissecação em relação às amostras mantidas em glicerina e ao grupo-controle.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Reparação; Biomateriais, Colágeno; Parede abdominal; Eqüinos.

    .

    Different materials types, naturals and synthetics have appeared for the abdominal surgical repairing. This work had as main objective to get biomembranes from diafragmatic tendineous centers submitted to alkaline solutions for different periods of time for posterior physicist-chemistry characterization and surgical use in equines. It was intended to analyze the macro and microscopical alterations caused for the treatment in function of the time variable, to be able to determinate the most viable for implant use

  2. Modificações do método gravimétrico não enzimático para determinar fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel em frutos Modifications in the gravimetric non enzymatic method for determination of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonete Barbosa Guerra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Modificações do tratamento da amostra e da seqüência operacional do método gravimétrico não enzimático foram realizadas, com vistas a simplificá-lo e permitir a quantificação das frações solúvel e insolúvel da fibra alimentar total. MÉTODOS: A influência da liofilização foi inicialmente avaliada em amostras de goiaba e, posteriormente, em acerola, manga, pinha, sapoti e uva. As modificações inerentes à seqüência metodológica foram testadas nos referidos frutos e em abacaxi, caju, maracujá e morango. RESULTADOS: As médias de fibra alimentar total obtidas para goiaba liofilizada e não liofilizada: 10,47%±1,15 e 10,53 %±0,88, respectivamente, demonstram: boa reprodutibilidade do método e inexistência de diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos aplicados à goiaba e demais frutos. Diferentemente do constatado na determinação da Fibra Alimentar Insolúvel, cujo percentual variou de 99,6% para o caju a 54,0% para a acerola, os dados gerados para a fibra alimentar solúvel foram desconsiderados, dada a dispersibilidade apresentada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados evidenciam que as amostras prescindem da liofilização e que a quantificação da Fibra Alimentar Solúvel requer ajustes na etapa de precipitação.OBJETIVES: Modifications in the treatment of samples and operational sequence of the gravimetric non enzymatic method were carried out in order to simplify it and allow the quantification of soluble and insoluble quantities of the total dietary fiber. METHODS: Lyophilization influence was first evaluated in guava samples and afterward in samples of acerola, mango, sugar apples, sapodilla and grapes. The mentioned fruits and also pineapple, cashew, passion fruit and strawberry were tested for the modifications intrinsic in the methodological sequence. RESULTS: The average total dietary fiber for guava, both lyophilized and non-lyophilized, were: 10.50% ±0.97 and 10.53% ±0.88, respectively

  3. Influencia de la turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y de los pulsos luminosos de luz blanca en néctar de naranja (citrus sinensis

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    Meregildo Silva Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo determinar la influencia del nivel de turbidez en el efecto antimicrobiano de la luz ultravioleta y luz blanca en néctar de naranja (Citrus sinensis L.. Dicha investigación fue realizada en una cámara de tratamiento de luz UVC con paredes de espejo y una lámpara de luz ultravioleta de 15 watts. El néctar, sometido a un proceso de pasteurización (90 °C, 10 minutos, se inoculó con levadura liofilizada (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cepa MIT L51, hasta concentraciones de 1.0; 0.1 y 0.01 % (p/p y se determinó la turbidez de las diluciones, reportando valores de turbidez de 10564, 1304 y 813 UTN respectivamente. Las muestras fueron expuestas a tres diferentes dosis, 0.57; 1.14 y 1.71 J/cm2, tomando una muestra testigo denominada “0” minutos, para efectos de análisis inicial de microorganismos. Posteriormente a la aplicación del tratamiento se realizó el recuento en placas, en medio agar Sabouraud. Obtenidos los datos en la lectura de las colonias resultantes se determinó la tasa de supervivencia en cada tratamiento y el valor de la constante de reducción decimal “D” en J/cm2. Dichos datos mostraron que la turbidez, debido a los sólidos disueltos, influencia adversamente la actividad antimicrobiana de la luz UVC. Se concluye que la actividad antimicrobiana expresada en términos de la constante de reducción decimal “D”, bajo las condiciones de tratamiento en el néctar de naranja, depende directamente de la turbidez e indirectamente del la energía total transmitida.

  4. Anthocyanins standards (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside isolation from freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart. by HPLC Isolamento de padrões de antocianinas (cianidina-3-O-glucosídeo e cianidina -3-O-rutinosídeo de açaí liofilizado (Euterpe oleraceae Mart. por CLAE

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    Ana Cristina Miranda Senna Gouvêa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Availability of analytical standards is a critical aspect in developing methods for quantitative analysis of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were isolated from samples of freeze-dried açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart., which is a round and purple well-known palm fruit in Brazil, and then used as standards. The isolation of the anthocyanins was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, using an adapted six-channel selection valve. The identification of anthocyanin pigments in açaí was based on mass spectrometric data for molecular ions and MS-MS product ions and on previous published data. After the collection procedure, standards with a high purity grade were obtained and an external standard curve of each anthocyanin was plotted.Disponibilidade de padrões analíticos é um aspecto crítico no desenvolvimento de métodos de análises quantitativas de antocianinas. Para a obtenção dos padrões isolados de antocianinas cianidina-3-O-glicosídeo e cianidina-3-O-rutinosídeo foram utilizadas amostras liofilizadas de açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart., que é um conhecido fruto de palmeiras no Brasil de forma arredondada e roxo. O isolamento das antocianinas foi realizado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE, utilizando uma válvula seletora de seis canais. A identificação de antocianinas no açaí foi baseada em dados publicados na literatura e por espectrometria de massas. Após a coleta, padrões com um alto grau de pureza foram obtidos e uma curva para padronização externa de cada antocianina foi feita.

  5. Purificação, caracterização físico-química e atividade anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.9400

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs constituem a matriz extracelular de tecidos animais e os resíduos do processamento de peixes comercialmente cultivados podem oferecer novos agentes anticoagulantes em substituição à heparina (HEP nas ciências médicas. Objetivou-se purificar, caracterizar físico-quimicamente e avaliar a atividade anticoagulante dos GAGs isolados da pele da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína e EDTA (5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica em coluna de DEAE-celulose, utilizando um gradiente de NaCl. As frações obtidas foram liofilizadas e submetidas à eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A atividade anticoagulante foi avaliada por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, usando-se plasma humano normal e HEP padrão (193 UI mg-1. O perfil cromatográfico mostrou a separação de duas diferentes frações de GAGs (F I e F II, eluídas com 0,50 e 0,75 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, frações distintas em densidade de cargas, porém ambas mostrando GAGs com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato (DS padrão, sugerindo-se a identificação preliminar desse GAG. Os GAGs modificaram o TTPA, cujas atividades perfizeram, respectivamente, 4,72 (F I e 23,80 (F II UI mg-1, e expressaram-se dose-dependente. Portanto, o DS anticoagulante da pele de O. niloticus sugere uma fonte interessante para estudos posteriores de atividade antitrombótica.

  6. Implantação de controle estatístico em determinação de nitrogênio total e proteína bruta em peito de frango - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.6762

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    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprimorar a qualidade analítica em laboratório de controle físico-químico de alimentos por meio da implantação de controle estatístico de processo em análise de nitrogênio total e proteína bruta de peito de frango. Foi avaliado o teor de proteína em 15 amostras de peito de frango obtidas de um mesmo lote, fornecido por uma empresa de abate e industrialização de frango de corte, localizada na região Oeste do Paraná. Após a confecção do gráfico de controle, semanalmente amostras de peito de frango foram utilizadas para se avaliar o desempenho do analista, materiais, reagentes e equipamentos empregados na análise de proteína. Outros controles utilizados para se garantir a qualidade dessa análise foram calibração da bureta no próprio laboratório, uso de padrão certificado de amostra liofilizada, à base de carne, fornecido pelo SENAI-Chapecó, Estado de Santa Catarina, e participação em Programa de Ensaio de Proficiência (PEP. O trabalho possibilitou mostrar que o gráfico de controle é apenas uma técnica contida no processo de Gestão da Qualidade e fornece subsídios para a tomada de decisões, visando à melhoria contínua.

  7. Características bioquímicas y evaluación preclínica de un antiveneno botrópico liofilizado contra el veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox

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    Patricia J. García

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se han estudiado las características bioquímicas y la capacidad neutralizante del antiveneno botrópico liofilizado producido por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, Perú, se encontró que posee 51,4 mg/mL de proteínas, las preparaciones liofilizadas se reconstituyen en un periodo de 10 min alcanzando valores de Abs600nm y pH de 0,091 y 7,0, respectivamente. Para el caso de las actividades tóxicas del veneno en estudio se obtuvieron valores de toxicidad DL50: 3,33 μg/g ratσn, dosis hemorrαgica mínima: 4,10 ± 0,64 μg, dosis miotóxica mínima 30,2 ± 2,5 μg, dosis coagulante mνnima: 4,50 ± 0,6 μg y dosis defibrinante mνnima: 8 μg, y valores de dosis efectiva del antiveneno evaluado de 140,48 (120,09-164,33, 230,67 ±11,78, 316,56 ± 40,31, 105,5 ± 4,2 y 500 μL antiveneno/mg veneno, respectivamente, lo cual indica que posee capacidad para neutralizar tales parαmetros. Por estas razones se concluye que el producto biológico investigado cumple con los requerimientos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para ser considerado un antiveneno neutralizante de las principales actividades biológicas antes señaladas.

  8. Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region

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    Antonio Elia

    2013-03-01

    for which there is a strong link with the Puglia traditions and which are described in this review are: carota di Polignano (Polignano carrot and carota di sant’Ippazio (Saint Ippazio carrot (Apiaceae, cipolla di Acquaviva delle Fonti (Acquaviva delle Fonti onion and cipolla bianca di Margherita (Margherita white onion (Liliaceae, cima di rapa (broccoli raab (Brassicaceae, unripe melon - carosello, barattiere, meloncella, etc. (Cucurbitaceae, catalogna chicory - cicoria di Molfetta e cicoria di Galatina (Molfetta’s chicory and Galatina’s chicory (Asteraceae.

  9. Produção de material de referência para ensaio de proficiência de enumeração de Bacillus cereus em leite / Preparation of reference material for proficiency test for enumeration of Bacillus cereus in milk

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    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A participação em ensaios de proficiência é essencial para que um laboratório de ensaio possa ter seu desempenho avaliado por meio de uma comparação interlaboratorial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir um material de referência (MR quantitativo para EP contendo Bacillus cereus em leite em pó. Uma solução estéril de leite desnatado a 10% contendo 100 mM de sacarose foi contaminada com uma cepa de B. cereus em uma concentração previamente determinada. A matriz foi homogeneizada, distribuída em frascos e liofilizada. O lote produzido foi considerado suficientemente homogêneo atribuindo-se um desvio-padrão alvo de 0,25 log10 UFC/mL. O MR apresentou-se estável a ≤ -70 ºC e (-20 ± 4 ºC durante 1.058 e 60 dias, respectivamente. Na avaliação da influência de diferentes temperaturas para o transporte deste material, o MR se apresentou estável a 4 ºC, 25 ºC e 35 ºC durante o período de quatro dias de estudo. Conclui-se que o lote produzido apresentou todos os requisitos necessários para ser utilizado como itens de EP. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- The participation in proficiency testing (PT is essential for testing laboratories to prove their technical competence. The aim of this study was to produce a quantitative reference material (RM for PT containing Bacillus cereus in milk powder. A sterile solution of 10% skim milk containing 100 mM sucrose was contaminated with a B. cereus strain in a specific concentration. The homogenized matrix was distributed into vials and freeze- -drying. The batch produced was considered sufficiently homogeneous assigning a target standard deviation of 0.25. The RM was stable at ≤ -70 ºC and (-20 ± 4 ºC for 1,058 and 60 days, respectively. In the evaluation of temperatures for the transport of material, the RM was stable at 4, 25 and 35 ºC during four days. It is concluded that the batch produced had all the necessary requirements to be

  10. Estabilidad del producto farmacéutico Compvit-BÒ inyectable Stability of injectable pharmaceutical Compvit-BÒ

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    Olivia Teresa González Gay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compvit-BÒ es un polifármaco inyectable liofilizado, compuesto por 100 mg de B1, 100 mg de B6 y 5 000 µg de B12. Está indicado en tratamientos de todo tipo de neuropatías y enfermedades neurodegenerativas. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en el desarrollo tecnológico de una formulación estable. Para evaluar la calidad de este medicamento, se escalaron 3 lotes pilotos a los que se les realizaron ensayos físicos, químicos y microbiológicos con resultados satisfactorios. Los estudios de estabilidad realizados a temperatura ambiente del producto Compvit-BÒ en forma liofilizada, demostraron ser estable por 3 años y la formulación reconstituida por 72 h. Este medicamento está registrado en el órgano regulador cubano, Centro Estatal para el Control de Medicamentos, e incluido en el Cuadro Básico de Medicamentos de Cuba; se comercializa por la Industria Farmacéutica nacional y se encuentra generalizado en los servicios hospitalarios de Cuba.Compvit-BÒ is a lyophilized injectable polypharmaceutical made up of 100 mg of B1, 100 mg of B6 and 5 000 µg of B12. It is prescribed to treat all types of neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of this paper was the technological development of a stable formulation. For the evaluation of the quality of this drug, three pilot batches were scaled up and were subjected to physical, chemical and microbiological tests; the results were all satisfactory. The stability studies of lyophilized Compvit-BÒ were performed at room temperature. They showed that the pharmaceutical was stable for 3 years and the formulation was regenerated for 72 hours. This drug is registered at the Cuban regulating body called State Center for Drug Control and has been included in the Basic Group of Drugs in Cuba. It has been put on the market by the national drug industry. It is also widely used in the hospital services in Cuba.

  11. Análise da positivação do teste tuberculínico, após administração da vacina BCG, pela via oral, a crianças sadias

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    Yvone Khairallah de Oliveira e Silva

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram os autores teste tuberculínico, com PPD (RT 23, 10 UT, em 3.6S4 crianças sadias, que receberam, pela via oral, em três oportunidades separadas por intervalos de um mês, vacina BCG líquida ou liofilizada e placebo representado por preparação sem bacilos. Dois grupos foram basicamente estabelecidos, tendo os limites etários correspondido a noventa dias em um deles e a essa idade e quinze anos no outro. Considerando os módulos com tamanhos superiores a cinco milímetros, observaram taxas de positividades de 37,6% e 21% relativamente aos indviduos separados da maneira citada e em avaliações levadas a efeito no máximo nove meses depois, mas as cifras pertinentes ao produto isento de bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes e ao submetido à liofilização mostraram-se expressivamente menores. Valorizada somente a alergização, as percentagens indicadas e não desprezíveis atestaram a ocorrência de destacada absorção, sobretudo ao ser levado em conta o sucedido quanto às pessoas de menores idades.Oral BCG vaccine, either liquid or liophyllized, or a placebo was administered in three monthly doses to 3,684 healthy children. The study population was divided in two great groups, one to ninety days of age and the other from nine y days to jifteen years of age. A tuberculin test, with PPD (RT 23, 10 TU, was performed up to nine months later on each child, corsidering a nodule layer than five millimeters as a positive test. A positive incidence of 37.6% and 21% was found for the younger and the older age groups, respectively, who reccived liquid BCG. The children who took liophyllized BCG or placebo showed significantly smaller incidences. If allerginization moy be valued, then it can be seen that there is significant absortion, especially in the younger subjects

  12. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

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    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  13. A distância: a escola Lula para a formação de professores

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    Maria de Fátima Rodrigues Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A educação a distância com novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TICs estrutura-se, no Brasil, a partir da década de 1970, porque, também a partir de então, as TICs foram associadas ao processo produtivo. A educação a distância com TICs compõe uma conjuntura histórica de transição de um trabalho sob a gerência fordista para o toyotismo. Se, sob o fordismo as relações de trabalho se caracterizavam pelo caráter parcelar, fragmentado, da indústria seriada, da produção em série; sob o toyotismo o trabalho caracteriza-se pela flexibilização, a desregulamentação, a polivalência. Estas mudanças na base produtiva, do mundo da “empresa flexível, como diz o capital, ou do mundo da acumulação liofilizada, não alteram a forma de ser do capital, mas alteram, em muito, o que se pede à educação. Os que defendem a educação a distância com TICS apontam seu potencial de promover cidadania: demandas de difícil atendimento podem ser atingidas; possibilitam encurtamento de distâncias entre sujeitos e informações. Analisamse as políticas de educação a distância, em curso no Brasil, nomeadamente para a formação de professores. Recorre-se às contribuições da ciência política e da reflexão ontológica para este entendimento. O objetivo é contribuir com o debate, as práticas e as políticas de formação de professores.

  14. Assessment of the doses due to natural radionuclide in the green leafy vegetables of Domiasiat, Meghalaya India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Chaturvedi, S.S.; Jha, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the Ipomea batata, Allium sativum, Dacaus carota, and Solanum tuberosum due to naturally available radionuclide 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the Domiasiat area of Meghalaya. The concentration of radionuclides in biota as well as corresponding soil was measured by precipitation method using NaI detector for continuous 12 months. Transfer factor was calculated and was, for 40 K(3.96E-05, 3.40E-05, 3.40E-05, 2.70E-05), for 232 Th(3.94E-05, 3.20E-05, 3.20E-054.93E-05), for 238 U(3.60E-05, 3.89E-05, 3.85E-054.57E-05), respectively in each biota due to each radionuclide. The point source dose distribution (source ↔ target) hypotheses was applied for the consideration of absorbed fraction. The generated data were modeled using the FASSET method and obtained dose was 8.42E-03, 8.36E-03, 7.78E-03, 7.74E-03 μGy h -1 , respectively and finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR dataset for screening level dose for terrestrial biota. (author)

  15. Mercury concentration in vegetables of Pakistan irrigated by different water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, Q.; Mahmood, Z.; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury levels were determined in twenty samples of each vegetable i.e., Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Carrot (Daucus cariota), Capsicum (Capsicum fistulosus), Sweet pea (Lathyrus Odoratus), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), with a special reference of source of water of irrigation, i.e., tube well water, canal water and municipal sewage water. All the samples of vegetables were collected during the year 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the five districts of Pakistan viz Lahore, Kasur, Multan, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan. Statistical analysis such as Test of significance and multiple comparison were applied on the data obtained. The results showed that the concentration of Mercury in vegetables irrigated by canal water, sewage water and tube well water was in the range of 3.1-88.9 ppb and 9.0-130.6 ppb. It can be concluded from this study that the uptake of mercury by vegetables collected from above five districts of Pakistan was in the following order. Leafy vegetables > Root vegetables > seedy vegetables. (author)

  16. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program

  17. Toprak Solucanlarından Elde Edilen Vermikompostun Bazı Bitki Patojenleri Üzerindeki Antimikrobiyal Aktivitelerinin Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Tutar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toprak solucanlarının, organik atıkları biyolojik olarak parçalayarak ayrıştırmaları ile oluşturdukları “vemikompost” un, bazı patojen bakteri ve funguslara karşı etkili oldukları yapılan çeşitli araştırmalarla saptanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Eisenia fetida türü toprak solucanlarından elde edilen vermikompostun; etanol ve kloroform solventleri kullanılarak elde edilen ekstrelerinin, bitkilerde hastalıklara neden olan toprak kaynaklı patojen 9 adet bakteri ve 9 adet fungusa karşı etkinliklerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla “disk difüzyon” ve “MIC” testleri uygulanmıştır. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre, toprak solucanlarından elde edilen vermikompostun kloroform ile elde edilen ekstrelerinin Pseudomonas syringae, Xhantomonas carotae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarim oxysporum, Aspergillus humicola ve Aspergillus fumigatus’ a karşı etkileri güçlü olurken Erwinia chrysanthemi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, ve Penicillium brevicompactum’ a karşı etkilerinin daha zayıf olduğu görülmüştür. Vermikompostun etanol ile elde edilen ekstrelerinin ise Pseudomonas syringae, Xhantomonas campestris ve Aspergillus fumigatus’ a karşı etkilerinin güçlü olduğu, Erwinia herbicola, Erwinia chrysanthemi ve Sclerotinia sclerotiorum’ a  karşı ise daha zayıf bir etki gösterdiği saptanmıştır.

  18. Phytotoxicity evaluation of five pharmaceutical pollutants detected in surface water on germination and growth of cultivated and spontaneous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Izzo, Angelina; Cefarelli, Giuseppe; Pascarella, Maria Teresa; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-02-15

    The phytotoxicity of 5 pharmaceuticals detected in Italian rivers, atorvastatin (7-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4-(phenylcarbamoyl)-5-propan-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid), gemfibrozil (5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl-pentanoic acid), tamoxifene (2-[4-(1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethyl-ethanamine), ethinyl estradiol (17-ethynyl-13-methyl-7,8,9,11, 12,13,14,15,16,17-decahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-3,17-diol) and sildenafil (methyl-9-propyl-2,4,7,8-tetrazabicyclo[4.3.0] nona-3,8,10-trien-5-one), has been assessed in a laboratory model. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections. The first one includes the phytotoxic evaluation of the single compounds on crops, Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Dacus carota subsp. sativa (carrot), and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), until the 10(-9) M, concentration lower then the environmental amounts. The second section includes the phytotoxicity assessment of all the selected chemicals on wild species, Avena fatua (wild oats), Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), and Chenopodium album (lambsquarter), at the same concentration as previously used. The third section of the procedure includes the evaluation of the effects of the five pharmaceuticals, at 1 microM and 1 nM environmental concentrations, on the metabolism of L. sativa. The variation of the composition of the photosynthetic pigments, sugars, lipids, phenols, fatty acids and flavonoids in lettuce seedlings exposed to the pollutants in respect to the blank was evaluated. The results of the phytotoxicity assays showed the possibility of a notable impact on the different vegetal communities and evidenced different sensitivity among cultivated and wild species, probably due to the different plant physiology.

  19. EFEITO DA TREALOSE NA MANUTENÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE DE CÉLULAS DE LEVEDURAS DESIDRATADAS POR LIOFILIZAÇÃO

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    A.R. ALCARDE

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da trealose endógena e também o uso da trealose como crioprotetor, na preservação da viabilidade celular de leveduras de interesse industrial quando submetidas ao processo de liofilização. Foram utilizadas as cepas TA (M-300-A e SA (cepa isolada da Usina Santa Adélia S/A da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae e a cepa IZ-1904 da levedura Saccharomyces boulardii, as quais passaram por um tratamento de acúmulo da trealose endógena, através de tratamento térmico a 45oC por duas horas em meio tampão citrato de potássio 2M, pH 4,0, acrescido de 2% de glicose, e, a seguir, foram suspensas em cada uma de três soluções crioprotetoras, que foram: leite desnatado a 10%, sacarose a 10% e trealose a 10%. Em seguida as massas de levedura foram liofilizadas e, aos 0, 10, 40 e 90 dias após o processo de liofilização, foram determinadas suas viabilidades. Para todos os crioprotetores, as culturas de levedura que passaram pelo tratamento de acúmulo da trealose endógena apresentaram maior viabilidade após a liofilização do que aquelas que não passaram pelo tratamento. Dentre os crioprotetores testados, a solução de leite desnatado a 10% foi o que proporcionou melhor crioproteção às células de levedura.To evaluate the influence of the endogenous trehalose and also the use of trehalose as a cryoprotectant medium on the maintenance of yeast cell viability, after the freeze-drying process, strains TA (M-300-A and SA (strain isolated from Usina Santa Adélia S/A of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the strain IZ-1904 of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were tested. After accumulation of endogenous trehalose by heat treatment at 45oC during 2 hours in a potassium citrate buffer (2M pH 4,0 with 2.0% glucose the yeasts were suspended in one of three cryoprotectant solutions (skimmed milk 10%, sucrose 10% and trehalose 10%, freeze-dried and analysed for their cell viability

  20. Nutrientes e propriedades funcionais em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Nutrients and functional properties in pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processings

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    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos processamentos térmicos sobre os nutrientes e propriedades funcionais das sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima. As sementes foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes processamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises de composição centesimal, minerais e propriedades funcionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os processamentos para os níveis de proteína bruta, fibra alimentar, extrato etéreo, cinzas, S, P, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, solubilidade do nitrogênio (nos pH 4, 5 e 6, absorção de água e óleo, volume de espuma e estabilidade de emulsão. O cozimento em água em ebulição reduziu o teor de K. Todos os processamentos térmicos diminuíram os níveis de Mn e Fe. As sementes cruas apresentaram a maior solubilidade do nitrogênio nos pH 2, 3, 7, 8 e 9. Conclui-se que os processamentos acarretaram diferença significativa apenas nos teores de K, Mn, Fe e solubilidade do nitrogênio; e que as sementes apresentam potencial para serem incorporadas, provavelmente, em alimentos que requeiram elevada taxa de absorção de óleo.The objective of this paper was to verify the influence of the thermal processings on the nutrients and functional properties of the pumpkin seeds Cucurbita maxima. Seeds were, in four repetitions, submitted to the following processings: used in the raw form; cooked in boiling water for three times: 5, 10 and 15 minutes; and cooked in steam for 10 minutes. Thereafter were freeze-dried, grinded and stored at room temperature up to accomplishment of the analyses of centesimal composition, minerals and functional properties. There wasn't significant difference among the processings to the levels of crude protein, dietary fiber, ether

  1. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods

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    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein

  2. Effect of relative humidity on lipid oxidation in freezedried emulsions

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    Chinachoti, P.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stability was studied in a freeze-dried emulsion consisting of linoleic acid (LA, Tween-20, sucrose and maltodextrin in the presence of a catalyst (FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Changes in residual LA and conjugated dienes as a function of time were monitored at 0, 32, 43 and 75% relative humidities (RH. Based on GC analyses, LA oxidation was more significant in the surface fraction than the entrapped. The loss of surface oil upon storage may also be due to partial entrapment. However faster oxidation of the surface oil was confirmed by measurement of diene conjugation. Oxidation was more rapid at the lower relative humidities (0 and 32% RH and decreased with increasing RH. At high moisture, physical modifications in the sample were observed, including reduced porosity, structural collapse, reduction of the surface oil and coalescence of oil droplets triggered by sucrose crystallization. These may be responsible for the decreased oxidation. Sucrose crystallization at the higher humidities inhibited oxidation. In addition, while samples with similar glass transition temperature (Tg range behaved differently, samples with different glass transition range showed similar oxidative behaviour. Microstructural changes leading to oil entrapment and oil droplet coalescence were found to be significant, in this case.Se ha estudiado la estabilidad oxidativa en una emulsión liofilizada compuesta de ácido linoleico (LA, Tween-20, sacarosa y maltodextrina en presencia de un catalizador (FeSO4/ácido ascórbico. Los cambios en ácido linoleico remanente (LA y dienos conjugados en función del tiempo fueron monitorizados a humedades relativas (RH del 0, 32, 43 y 75%. Basado en análisis por cromatografía gaseosa, la oxidación de LA fue más significativa en la fracción superficial que en la encapsulada. La pérdida de aceite superficial con el almacenamiento puede deberse también al encapsulado parcial. Sin embargo, la más rápida oxidación del aceite

  3. Análise nutricional da fruta-de-lobo (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. durante o amadurecimento Nutritional analysis of "fruta-de-lobo" (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. during the ripening process

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    Enio Nazaré de Oliveira Junior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudaram-se os teores de alguns nutrientes da fruta-de-lobo (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. madura, comparando-os com os de outros frutos comestíveis, visando ao seu aproveitamento alimentar. Os frutos utilizados neste estudo foram colhidos de plantas nativas no município de Perdões, Minas Gerais, no estádio verde maturo e armazenados durante 18 dias à temperatura ambiente no Laboratório de Bioquímica do Departamento de Química da Universidade Federal de Lavras. As amostras foram preparadas do dia zero (dia da colheita ao 18° dia, com intervalos de 2 dias entre os estágios de amadurecimento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições de 3 frutos. Os frutos foram lavados com água destilada, descascados, tendo suas polpas picadas, congeladas em nitrogênio líquido e liofilizadas até massa constante. Os teores de açúcares solúveis totais e açúcares não-redutores aumentaram gradativamente com a diminuição dos teores de amido. Os teores de vitamina C também aumentaram gradativamente durante o amadurecimento. Os teores encontrados na fruta-de-lobo de vitamina C, açúcares solúveis totais, sacarose, fósforo e ferro, comparados aos de outros frutos como abacaxi, banana, laranja, manga e outros, são equivalentes ou superiores aos dos frutos em questão, podendo-se concluir que o fruto da lobeira representa mais uma alternativa como fonte desses nutrientes.The contents of some nutrients in ripe "fruta-de-lobo" (Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil. fruits were investigated and compared with those in other comestible fruits in order to estimate its alimentary utilization. The fruits utilized in this study were harvested from native plants in the rural perimeter of Perdões city, Minas Gerais State, in the stage of green maturation, and were stored during 18 days at room temperature in the Biochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry, UFLA. The samples were prepared from the

  4. Avaliação da capacidade de produzir fitotoxinas in vitro por parte de fungos com propriedades antagônicas a nematóides In vitro evaluation of the phytotoxin production ability by fungi with antagonic properties to nematodes

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    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalho preliminar foram obtidos 24 isolados fúngicos com propriedades antagônicas a nematóides parasitas de plantas segundo experimentos realizados em laboratório. Para dar continuidade a tal trabalho, tornou-se desejável dispor de metodologia simples e de baixo custo para selecionar aqueles sem capacidade de produção de substâncias fitotóxicas, para serem empregados em experimentos em casa-de-vegetação com fitonematóides. Conseqüentemente, cultivaram-se os fungos em meio líquido e, após filtração, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila/metanol. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e dissolvidos em água e solução de sacarose para serem submetidos a testes in vitro com sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L., respectivamente. Vinte e três isolados pertencentes aos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Aspergillus, Coniothyrium, Cunninghamella, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium, Monacrosporium, Mortierella, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Sclerotinia, Trichoderma e Verticillium, apresentaram atividade tóxica contra os coleóptilos de trigo. Apenas os isolados de Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Wollenw., Fusarium moniliforme Shelden, Mortierella sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samson e Penicillium sp. apresentaram atividade fitotóxica no teste com sementes de alface. Somente um isolado de F. moniliforme se mostrou inativo em ambos os testes, o que sugere que não seja produtor de fitotoxinas.In a previous work 24 fungi cultures were selected due to their antagonic properties to phytonematodes in laboratory experiments. To proceed to further studies, it became desirable to use a simple and inexpensive methodology to identify those fungi able to produce phytotoxic substances, so that only the non phytotoxin producers could be used in green-house experiments with plant parasite nematodes. Thus, fungi were grown in liquid medium and the resulting mixtures were

  5. Polifenoles y Actividad Antioxidante del Fruto Liofilizado de Palma Naidi (Açai Colombiano (Euterpe oleracea Mart Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of the Freeze-Dried Palm Naidi (Colombian Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart

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    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Euterpe oleracea es una palmera indígena autóctona de América del Sur. El fruto conocido como açaí en Brasil y palma naidi en Colombia, es de gran valor económico para los pueblos nativos. Para los análisis se usó una pulpa liofilizada, proveniente del Pacifico colombiano. Entre los muchos hallazgos, se presenta un alto porcentaje de minerales (6,94%, específicamente sodio, hierro y potasio. La palma naidi es rica en compuestos polifenólicos, tipo antocianinas (268,5 mg Cianidin-3-Glucosido/ 100 g de liofilizado donde el 95% de las antocianinas corresponden al Cianidin-3-Glucosido (255,1 mg/ 100 g de liofilizado y de otros compuestos fenólicos como los ácidos fenólicos: ferúlico (10,27 mg/100 g de liofilizado, caféico (7,06 mg/100 g de liofilizado, p-coumárico (2,81 mg/100 g de liofilizado y menor cantidad clorogénico 0,30 mg/100 g de liofilizado. Los polifenoles contribuyen a la capacidad antioxidante del naidi; medida por las técnicas ABTS, DPPH y FRAP y específicamente un valor ORAC (Hidrofílico (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity de 98142,0 Micromol Tx/100 g de liofilizado; además un valor ORAC Lipofílico de 3194,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado. Un valor ORAC total igual a 101336,1 Micromol Tx/ 100 g de liofilizado.Euterpe oleracea Mart is a native palm tree native of South America. The fruit known as açaí in Brazil and naidi palm in Colombia and is of great economic value to the native peoples. For the analysis was used freeze-dried pulp, from the Colombian Pacific. This fruit has a high percentage of minerals (6.94%, specifically sodium, potassium and iron. Naidi palm is rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins (268.5 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside per 100 g of freeze dried and phenolic acid as ferulic (10.27 mg/100 g of freeze dried , caffeic (7.06 mg/100 g of freeze dried, p-Coumaric (2.81 mg/100 g of freeze dried and fewer chlorogenic (0.30 mg/100 g of freeze dried; which provides high antioxidant

  6. Extracción optimizada y purificación parcial de invertasa aislada de S. Cerevisiae en puré de durazno

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    Marcela Vega Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    levaduras liofilizadas. El etanol es más efectivo que la acetona para la recuperación de la actividad específica.

  7. Exigências Líquidas de Aminoácidos para Ganho de Peso de Nelores Não-Castrados Net Amino Acids Requirements for Weight Gain of Nellore Bulls

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    Fabiano Ferreira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 novilhos Nelore inteiros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 240 kg, sendo quatro novilhos de referência, quatro alimentados para mantença e o restante distribuído em oito tratamentos, com quatro diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (20; 40; 60 e 80% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB (15 e 18%. A fase de recria foi avaliada até 360 kg de peso vivo e a fase de engorda, até 450 kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de capim Tyfton (Cynodon dactylon. Após o abate, todas as partes do corpo do animal foram pesadas e amostradas. As amostras foram liofilizadas para determinação de matéria seca, pré-desengorduradas com éter e, posteriormente, moídas e determinados os teores de aminoácidos. As exigências líquidas de aminoácidos para ganho de peso foram calculadas segundo o método fatorial, no qual o ganho de proteína foi multiplicado pela composição aminoacídica do corpo vazio. A exigência líquida de aminoácidos para mantença foi estimada. A soma das exigências metabolizável para mantença e ganho compôs a exigência total de aminoácidos metabolizáveis. As exigências líquidas para ganho de aminoácidos diminuíram com o aumento do peso vivo do animal. A exigência total de aminoácidos metabolizáveis, expressos em % do total de aminoácidos essenciais, não variou muito com o aumento do peso vivo, obtendo-se valores médios de 2,66; 15,11; 6,09; 8,64; 9,26; 18,48; 8,33; 12,01; e 19,41 para metionina, lisina, histidina, fenilalanina, treonina, leucina, isoleucina, valina e arginina, respectivamente.Forty Nellore bulls, with 240 kg initial live weight (LW, were used. Four were reference bulls, four were fed for maintenance, and the remaining were allotted to eight treatments, with four different concentrate levels in the diets (20, 40, 60 and 80% and two levels of crude protein (CP (15 and 18%. The growing phase was evaluated up to 360 kg of LW and the fattening phase, up to 450 kg of

  8. Preparo e caracterização de proteínas miofibrilares de tilápia-do-nilo para elaboração de biofilmes Extraction and properties of nile tilapia myofibrillar proteins for edible films

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    Ednelí Soraya Monterrey-Quintero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de filmes comestíveis à base de biopolímeros implica conhecimento das propriedades físico-químicas da macromolécula. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a descrição de um método de preparo de proteínas miofibrilares de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, o estudo das propriedades relacionadas com a formação de filmes, e a caracterização dos biofilmes elaborados com a proteína. Músculo moído de tilápia-do-nilo, recém-abatida, foi lavado e processado até formação de uma pasta homogênea. A evolução das frações protéicas, durante o processamento, foi acompanhada por calorimetria diferencial de varredura. Estudou-se a solubilidade das proteínas miofibrilares liofilizadas (PML em função do pH (2-7. A identificação das frações protéicas e dos aminoácidos foi realizada por SDS-PAGE e cromatografia de troca iônica, respectivamente. Os biofilmes formados foram submetidos a testes de perfuração, de solubilidade e microscopia eletrônica. A amostra de PML, constituída apenas de proteínas miofibrilares, apresentou uma região de máxima solubilidade (96,9% em torno do pH 3,0 e elevado potencial de interações iônicas (74,4 kJ/100 kJ. Os biofilmes à base das PML de tilápia-do-nilo são pouco solúveis (abaixo de 20 g/100 g matéria seca. O glicerol influencia fortemente as propriedades mecânicas e a solubilidade dos biofilmes.The elaboration of edible films based on biopolymers, implies the knowledge of physicochemical properties of macromolecules. The objectives of this work were to describe a methodology of preparing Nile Tilapia myofibrillar proteins and study the properties related to formation and characterization of edible film elaborated with these proteins. Freshly slaughtered ground Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus muscle was washed and processed until the formation of a homogeneous paste. Evolution of protein fractions during processing was followed by scanning differential

  9. Salame elaborado com Lactobacillus plantarum fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno Salami sausage prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum fermented in porcine plasma culture medium

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    Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir uma cultura starter com uma cepa de Lactobacillus plantarum em um meio de cultura com plasma suíno e verificar a viabilidade de sua aplicação em salame. O meio de cultura foi preparado com plasma suíno e água destilada (1:1, pH 11,0. Após a esterilização, 300 mL foram adicionados de 400 mL de uma solução estéril de glicose e difosfato de potássio. A cepa de Lb. plantarum foi semeada no meio de cultura e submetida à fermentação em pH 7,0, durante 36 horas (100 rpm, 37 ± 0,1 °C. Ao alcançar a fase estacionária, a cultura foi centrifugada e ressuspendida em leite desnatado estéril, liofilizada e aplicada em salame. A influência do inóculo foi avaliada nas características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais de salames. Os resultados encontrados foram comparados com tratamentos sem adição de cultura starter e com uma cultura comercial. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum teve um crescimento máximo de 9,82 Log UFC.mL-1, após 30 horas de fermentação. Os salames elaborados com a cultura starter produzida apresentaram uma queda de pH significativamente maior, e menor valor de atividade de água que os demais tratamentos. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum melhorou significativamente o sabor dos salames.The purpose of this work was to produce a starter culture with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum in a porcine plasma culture medium and ascertain the viability of applying it in salami sausage. The culture medium was prepared with porcine plasma and distilled water (1:1, pH 11.0. After sterilization, 300 mL were added of 400 mL of a sterile solution of glucose and potassium diphosphate. The Lb. plantarum strain was inoculated into the culture medium and subjected to fermentation at pH 7.0 for 36 hours (100 rpm, 37 ± 0.1 °C. When the stationary phase was reached, the culture was centrifuged and resuspensed in sterile skimmed milk, lyophilized and applied to salami. An evaluation was

  10. Preservation of rhizobia by lyophilization with trehalose Preservação de rizóbio por liofilização com trealose

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    Pedro Antonio Arraes Pereira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if trehalose can effectively enhance the viability and storage lifetime of Rhizobium tropici and Rhizobium etli after lyophilization as compared to the traditional protective combination of sucrose and peptone. Two strains of bean-nodulating rhizobia were effectively preserved in the lyophilized state by 100 mM trehalose, and survived for at least 12 days, even when stored under non-ideal conditions. Trehalose provided better protection than the sucrose/peptone combination. When protective excipients were introduced inside the cells, strain CFN 42 was more sensitive to the type of additive used than strain CIAT 899, probably because CIAT 899 produces beta (1-2 glucan, which may have a protective effect. beta (1-2 glucan combined with sucrose protected better than trehalose against leakage from freeze-dried liposomes, but by itself it had no protective capability. There was a high level of unfrozen water associated with the hydrated glucan, in addition to a thermal event at approximately 70ºC, corresponding to an observed gel-sol transition in the glucan. These findings may shed light on the mechanism by which the glucan contributes to the protection of dried cells and liposomes, and may lead to further improvements in rhizobial inoculants.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a trealose pode aumentar a viabilidade e o tempo de preservação de estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e Rhizobium etli após a liofilização, comparada com a proteção proporcionada pela combinação tradicional de sacarose e peptona. Duas estirpes de rizóbio para feijão foram preservadas liofilizadas com 100 mM de trealose e sobreviveram por pelo menos 12 dias, mesmo quando armazenadas sob condições não-ideais. A trealose proporcionou uma proteção superior à combinação de sacarose peptona. Quando agentes protetores foram introduzidos dentro da célula, a estirpe CFN 42 foi mais sensível em relação ao tipo de

  11. Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass Comparação entre a secagem por liofilização e atomização para produção de biomassa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo

    2013-03-01

    metodologias para obter a biomassa seca - atomização e liofilização - em relação aos parâmetros do processo (rendimento, produtividade, recuperação e sobre as características dos produtos (cor, composição centesimal, oxicarotenóides. As técnicas não diferiram quanto ao rendimento, enquanto que a produtividade foi maior para a atomização. A maior recuperação e a maior umidade foram obtidas pela liofilização, enquanto que a concentração de cinzas foi maior com a atomização. A biomassa liofilizada foi mais vermelha, mais escura e de cor menos saturada. Não houve diferença entre os conteúdos de oxicarotenóides. Embora resulte em uma menor recuperação, a atomização foi mais rápida, mais produtiva e apresentou rendimento equivalente à liofilização, o que a torna o método de escolha para a obtenção de biomassa de R. gelatinosus.

  12. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs en leche materna de centros urbanos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Sofia Della Ceca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs se acumulan en matrices ricas en materia grasa como la leche materna, que es un buen indicador de sus niveles en poblaciones humanas debido a su fácil y no invasiva extracción. Con el objeto de evaluar la exposición a COPs en la provincia de Buenos Aires y compararla con otras  áreas, se analizaron bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT y sus metabolitos (DDT, TDE, hexaclorociclohexanos (?, ? y ?-HCH y clordanos (CHLDs: heptaclor y su epóxido, trans y cis clordanos y nonaclors en muestras de leche materna colectadas durante 2010 y 2011 en Punta Lara, Ensenada, Florencio Varela y Capital Federal.Las  muestras fueron colectadas con sacaleches manuales, centrifugadas para separar la crema que fue liofilizada y extraída con éter de petróleo y ultrasonido. Los extractos previamente tratados con ácido para eliminación parcial de lípidos, fueron purificados por cromatografía en gel de sílice y analizados por cromatografía gaseosa.Las concentraciones de COPs en ng.g-1 lípido decrecieron en el orden DDTs (76±91 ? PCBs (67±64 > HCHs (33±36 ³ CHLDs (22±24.  Los DDTs oscilaron entre 7.7-510 ng.g-1 lípido y  los PCBs entre 5-247 ng.g-1 lípido, estos valores son comparables al rango más bajo reportado en la literatura (DDTs Noruega: 39-292 ng.g-1 lípido; PCBs Vietnam: 26-210 ng.g-1, Japón: 23-370 ng.g-1. En cambio, las concentraciones de HCHs y CHLDs, que oscilaron entre 5.8-197 ng.g-1 lípido y  1.3-124 ng.g-1 lípido respectivamente, corresponden al rango medio reportado para otras áreas (HCHs Indonesia 1.6-120 ng.g-1; CHLDs 3.4-92 ng.g-1. La composición de residuos en la leche materna es relativamente conservativa para cada clase de COPs, así se observa uniforme predominancia de productos de degradación (p.ej. DDE: 90±17% de SDDTs; epóxido de heptaclor: 50±18% y t-nonaclordano: 34±13% de SCHLDs y los isómeros y congéneres más persistentes (?-HCH

  13. Cinética ruminal da degradação de nutrientes da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos Ruminal degradation kinetics of corn silage in bulls inoculated with different additives in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade Katsuki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética ruminal da degradação de MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos. Utilizou-se um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com quatro bovinos holandeses e quatro períodos de incubação, em ambiente ruminal adaptado ou não com diferentes aditivos alimentares. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: SCL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal sem inoculação de aditivo; SBL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 5 g de produto comercial contendo bactérias ruminais e intestinais liofilizadas (Ruminobacter amylophilum: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Fibrobacter succinogenes: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Succinovibrio dextrinsolvens: 4,4 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Bacillus cereus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Lactobacillus acidophilus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg e Streptococcus faecium: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; SEC - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 15 g de produto comercial contendo enzimas celulolíticas (xilanase 10%; e SMS - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 3 g de produto comercial contendo monensina sódica. Os tratamentos SBL e SEC não afetaram a fração potencialmente degradável (b dos nutrientes avaliados da silagem de milho. A monensina sódica reduziu a fração (b da MS (51,01% e a degradabilidade potencial da silagem de milho (72,33%. Entre os aditivos estudados, a monensina sódica proporcionou a maior fração não-degradável da FDN (45,57%, reduzindo o desaparecimento desta fração a partir de 48 horas de incubação intra-ruminal. Os diferentes aditivos, nas concentrações estudadas, não proporcionaram melhora na degradabilidade efetiva da MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho.Four bulls fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of different ruminally inoculated additives on the degradation kinetics of DM, CP, and NDF of corn silage (CS. The treatments were: control CS incubated in rumen with no

  14. An Internet-based platform for the estimation of outcrossing potential between cultivated and Chilean vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Pablo; Aguirre, Carlos; Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Zamorano, Daniel; Mihoc, Maritza; Salazar, Erika; Chacón, Gustavo; Navarrete, Humberto; Rosas, Marcelo; Prieto, Humberto

    2017-04-01

    A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (www.flujogenico.cl), in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode). The scale for TOP results uses quintiles in order to define outcrossing potential between species as "very low," "low," "medium," "high," or "very high." In a coexistence analysis considering 256 species (207 genera), the 10 highest TOP values were for genera Citrus , Prunus , Trifolium , Brassica , Allium , Eucalyptus , Cucurbita , Solanum , Lollium , and Lotus . The highest TOP for species in this analysis fell at "high" potential, 4.9% of the determined values. In biodiversity mode, seven out of 256 cultivated species (2.7%) were native, and 249 (97.3%) corresponded to introduced species. The highest TOP was obtained in the genera Senecio , Calceolaria , Viola , Solanum , Poa , Alstroemeria , Valeriana , Vicia , Atriplex , and Campanula , showing "high" potential in 4.9% of the values. On the other hand, 137 genetically modified species, including the commercial and pre-commercial developments, were included and represented 100 genera. Among these, 22 genera had relatives (i.e., members of the same genus) in the native/introduced group. The genera with the highest number of native/introduced relatives ranged from one ( Ipomea , Limonium , Carica , Potentilla , Lotus , Castanea , and Daucus ) to 66 species ( Solanum ). The highest TOP was obtained when the same species were coincident in both groups, such as for Carica chilensis , Prosopis tamarugo , and Solanum tuberosum . Results are

  15. FEATURES OF THE SEED DORMANCY IN UMBELLIFER CROPS CAUSED BY VARIOUS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Baleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at FGBNU VNIIO in 20112016. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of different types of organic dormancy caused by various factors on seed quality of some representatives of umbellifer crops. The objects of the study were seeds: parsnip ‘Kulinar’ (Pastinaca sativa L.; carrot ‘Rogneda’ (Daucus carrota L.; root parsley ‘Ljubasha’ (Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill.; root celery ‘Kupidon’ (Apium graveolens L.; coriander ‘Yantar’ (Coriandrum sativum L. and dill ‘Kentavr’ (Anethum graveolens L.. In all seeds studied, the speed of embryo growth was decreased by 30% or0.03 mma day. Under influence of the induced dormancy caused by incubation in extract from dill seeds, the speed of embryo growth in all species was decreased by 94-97% on average. The process of germination of just picked seeds in all crops studied showed itself in reduction of germinated seed number by 54% as compared with control variant. Under the effect of incubation at high temperature the seeds of parsnip and root celery didn’t germinate, whereas the germination in the seeds of coriander, root parsley and carrot was decreased by 51%, 47% and 46%, respectively as compared with control. There is no germination observed in parsnip, carrot, root celery and coriander under influence of induced dormancy caused by incubation in extract from dill seeds. In this case, the germination of seeds of root parsley and dill was 8.1% and 15%, respectively. The Pearson correlation between the speed of embryo growth and percent of seed germination showed the significant and positive relationship in the range 0.706-0.952. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that induced by temperature or allelopathic dormancy had impact on the speed of embryo’s growth in the crops studied, where factor effect was 89-86% depending on type of dormancy. Analysis of variance between the factors of dormancy and germination revealed that all

  16. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (I geo ). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQ S ) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQ V ) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg -1 ) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg -1 . Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and I geo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQ S revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQ S ). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQ V . The

  17. Pool of bovine morphogenetic proteins and guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: I- Clinical measurements ''Pool'' de proteínas morfogenéticas bovinas no tratamento de defeitos periodontais intra-ósseos: I- Medidas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Machado Guimarães

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pool of bovine BMPs on the treatment of intrabony defects. The sample comprised 15 patients aged 26 to 57 years old presenting with 10 pairs of lesions of 2 or 3 walls or 2-3 walls ³5mm, located in the same type teeth (premolar or molar and same jaw. The test defects were treated with combination of a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic and resorbable hydroxyapatite carrier (BMPs- HA, bovine demineralized bone matrix (MB and coverage by a bovine collagen barrier membrane. The control defects were treated with MB-HA and covered by a bovine collagen membrane. The clinical measurements at six months after therapy in the test group revealed a reduction in the mean probing pocket depth (PPD of 1.63 ± 1.41mm (B and 1.93 ± 0.96mm (L and a mean change in the clinical attachment level (CAL of 1.60 ± 1.16mm (B and 1.46 ± 0.97mm (L. The control group showed a mean reduction of PPD of 1.93 ± 1.34mm (B and 2.0 ± 1.51mm (L and a mean change of CAL of 1.03 ± 1.24mm (B and 1.30 ± 1.14 mm (L. The analysis of variance (ANOVA demonstrated that the changes in the clinical parameters were statistically significant (pEste estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a aplicação do ''pool'' de BMPs bovinas no tratamento de defeitos intra-ósseos. A amostra constou de quinze indivíduos com idade entre 26 e 57 anos, apresentando um par de defeitos intra-ósseos comparáveis, localizados no mesmo arco em dentes do mesmo tipo (pré-molares ou molares e com perda de inserção (PI ³5mm. Em cada indivíduo, o defeito teste foi tratado com a associação ''pool'' de BMPs- carreador Hidroxiapatita reabsorvível (BMPs-HA, matriz orgânica bovina desmineralizada liofilizada (MO e barreira de colágeno bovino, enquanto os defeitos controle foram tratados com MO-HA e barreira de colágeno. Na avaliação clínica aos seis meses após a medida inicial, o grupo teste apresentou variação de profundidade de sondagem (PS de

  18. Composição Corporal e Requisitos Líquidos e Dietéticos de Macroelementos Minerais de Bovinos Nelore Não-Castrados Body Composition and Net and Dietary Macrominerals Requirements of Nellore Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ferreira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 novilhos Nelore inteiros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 240 kg, sendo quatro novilhos de referência, quatro alimentados para mantença e o restante distribuído em oito tratamentos, com quatro diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (20, 40, 60 e 80% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB (15 e 18%. A fase de recria foi avaliada até 360 kg de peso vivo e a fase de engorda, até 450 kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi feno de gramímea Cynodon dactylon (L Pears. cultivar Tifton 85. Após o abate, todas as partes do corpo do animal foram pesadas e amostradas. As amostras foram liofilizadas para determinação de matéria seca, pré-desengorduradas com éter e, posteriormente, moídas e determinados os teores de macroelementos minerais. Os conteúdos de proteína, gordura e energia retidos no corpo foram estimados por meio de equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal dos macroelementos minerais, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. Derivando-se as equações de predição do conteúdo corporal dos macroelementos minerais, em função do logaritmo do PCVZ, foram obtidas as exigências líquidas destes, para ganho de 1 kg de PCVZ, a partir de equação Y' = b. 10ª. Xb-1, sendo a e b a intercepta e o coeficiente de regressão, respectivamente, das equações de predição dos conteúdos corporais dos macroelementos minerais. Houve diminuição nas concentrações dos cinco macroelementos estudados no corpo vazio e no ganho de corpo vazio, com a elevação do peso vivo. As relações g Ca/100 g de proteína retida e g P/100 g de proteína retida foram iguais a 6,44 e 4,78.Forty Nellore bulls, with 240 kg initial live weight (LW, were used. Four were reference bulls, four were fed for maintenance, and the remaining were allotted to eight treatments, with four different concentrate levels in the diets (20, 40, 60, and 80% and two levels of crude protein (CP (15 and 18%. The growing

  19. Sterilization of Normal Human Plasma and Some of its Fractions by Means of Gamma Rays; Esterilizacion del plasma normal humano y algunas de sus fracciones por medio de radiaciones gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Martínez de Alva, L.; Crespo, Y M. [Cortina Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Mexico)

    1967-09-15

    radiaciones ultravioleta. El otro metodo es el uso de la ß-propiolactona que se ha desechado tambien рог las alteraciones que producía en la estructura de las protefnas plasmáticas. El objeto de este trabajo, que debe considerarse como una nota preliminar, es presentar los resultados obtenidos al esterilizar por medio de radiaciones gamma ({sup 60}Co, 1,3316 MeV) con dosis variables de 2, 2,5 у 3 Mrad un producto que, como el plasma que contiene proteínas muy lábiles, podría ser fácilmente alterado en su estructura por la radiacion. Tambien se sometieron a las mismas dosis: fibrogeno puro, gamma globulina pura у albúmina de origen humano; los resultados fueron muy satisfacforios, ya que quedo de manifiesto que no se pudieron demostrar alteraciones apreciables en cuanto a su estructura, solubilidad у características bioquímicas. Mediante pruebas simples de coagulacion se puso de manifiesto que algunas de las proteínas que intervienen en este mecanismo, como la protrombina, el factor Power- Stuart у el factor Hageman, prácticamente no se alteraban. Todas las muestras de plasma у de las diferentes proteínas fueron previamente liofilizadas, procurando que el contenido máximo de humedad fuera de 0,034%, con el objeto de evitar la ionizacion del contenido de agua que la tiansformaría en agua oxigenada que alteraría у oxidaría las proteínas. Los plasmas liofilizados previamente contaminados con diferentes cepas у virus demostraron wue con dosis tan bajas como 2 Mrad quedaban esteriles. Por último, se puso de manifiesto que este es un metodo sencillo у práctico, ya que la esterilizacion puede verificarse en el envase final. (author)

  20. Extração de proteínas miofibrilares de carne bovina para elaboração de filmes comestíveis Extraction of bovine meat myofibrillar proteins for elaboration edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia M. A. de Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de proteínas miofibrilares de carne na elaboração de filmes comestíveis implica, inicialmente, na obtenção desta macromolécula, uma vez que ela é indisponível comercialmente. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram a obtenção e caracterização de proteínas miofibrilares de carne bovina, em escala de laboratório, e a elaboração e caracterização da microestrutura de filmes à base dessas proteínas. As proteínas miofibrilares foram extraídas do músculo Semitendinosus bovino, pós rigor mortis, empregando-se uma técnica de extração por centrifugação diferencial em solução tampão, com diferentes concentrações salinas, segundo metodologia de EISELE & BREKKE [13] modificada neste trabalho. As proteínas, assim obtidas, foram liofilizadas (PML e analisadas para determinação do teor de proteínas, de lipídios, de sais minerais, de cinzas e da umidade. A composição de aminoácidos foi determinada por cromatografia de troca iônica e o perfil eletroforético foi determinado em gel de poliacrilamida. Alguns filmes foram elaborados com 1g de PML/100g de solução, 60g de glicerol/100g de proteínas e ácido acético glacial para ajuste do pH=2,8. A microestrutura desses filmes foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A PML, que apresentou teor de proteínas de 84,3%, foi composta de diversas frações de proteínas miofibrilares, com destaque para frações da miosina e da actina, segundo os resultados da eletroforese. Trabalhando-se a composição de aminoácidos, verificou-se que a maior contribuição energética das interações potenciais dos aminoácidos, foram as provenientes de ligações covalentes (58,3%, seguidas das interações iônicas (35,72%. A microestrutura do filme revelou uma estrutura pouco homogênea, porém coesa e densa e uma matriz protéica compacta e fina.The use of meat myofibrillar proteins for edible film production involves initially the extraction of the

  1. Radiosensitivity of Listeria innocua in fourth sort vegetables and effect of the irradiation on microbiological and sensory parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Gonzalez, Claudia Jose

    2004-01-01

    In the markets of many countries, including Chile, a wide variety of minimally processed or fourth sort vegetables are offered. Nevertheless, recent studies have reported that some of these products could be a potential risk to the public health due, to microbiological contamination. As a feasible treatment to solve this problem, irradiation of this kind of vegetable products is proposed. The natural microbiological contamination of two minimally processed mixed salads Toscana (iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa var. capita), red cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. rubra) and shredded carrot (Dacus carota L.)) and Four Seasons (romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia), iceberg lettuce (lactuca sativa var. capitata), lollo rossa lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. acephala) and spinach (Spinacia oleraceae), was assayed controlling the total plate count (TPC), the Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) and the presence or absence of Listeria spp.in 25 g. Inoculating both salads with Listeria innocua, as surrogate microorganism for a possible contamination with Listeria monocytogenes, the D 10 value was determined. The effect of irradiating the vegetables with 5 D 10 doses, on the initial microflora and the evaluation of possible changes in the microbiological and sensory quality during a 7 days refrigerated storage, was carried out. The effect on the sensory quality was evaluated by a 10 judges trained panel, through a triangular test at day 0 and day 7, in order to determine possible significantly differences between the no irradiated and the irradiated samples. A test for quality descriptors was performed at 0, 3 and 7 days, to compare the irradiated salads with the no irradiated control. The evaluated sensory attributes were appearance, color, flavor, sweetness, bitterness, texture and total quality. The levels of the initial microflora ranged for TPC between 10 6 cfu/g and 10 8 cfu/g in Toscana salad and 10 4 cfu/g and 10 8 cfu/g in Four Seasons salad. The EC initial levels