WorldWideScience

Sample records for dar es salaam

  1. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... These include organization and dissemination of information, library education and training, information technology and its application in ...

  2. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam Solid Waste ... existing municipal solid waste management crisis facing Dar es Salaam City using ... enabling environment of turning rampant solid waste collection a commercial ...

  3. Excreta Disposal in Dar-es-salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.; Mashouri, D.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The sociocultural and socioeconomic situation of sanitation in Dar-es-Salaam (Dsm), Tanzania, was studied with explicit emphasis on pit-latrines. Without considering the sociocultural conditions, the so-called best solution might not be the right one. Therefore, in order to achieve the intended

  4. Adolescent Girls with illegally Induced Abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among......This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...

  5. Feeding Dar es Salaam: a symbiotic food system perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, Marc C.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a sociological analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four and a half million residents of the fast-growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has generated a picture of the food system that supplies the important foods

  6. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution surveys were undertaken during 2007 and 2008 in the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam and the remote Ras Dege Creek. The objective was to determine the levels of microbial contamination, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and compare these with the recommended environmental ...

  7. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics | Pili | Dar Es Salaam Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aloe; Beyond use as cosmetics. K Pili. Abstract.

  8. Dar es Salaam City and Challenges in Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on challenges facing solid waste management in. Manzese and Sinza wards, in Dar es Salaam city. In this paper different ways of generating, disposing waste and the associated problems are surveyed. About 102 people were interviewed. Different methods were employed in data collection which ...

  9. Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two basic maps were prepared, namely, geomorphological and geological map depicts the spatial extent of the Neogene geological formations. Three distinct sandstone terraces could be distinguished in Dar es Salaam region at 0-15 m and 30 – 40 m above sea level. The terraces comprised sandstones fringed by coral ...

  10. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most homicide deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (DSM) are a result of violence arising from within the community. This type of violence is commonly called, by perpetrators and victims, “mob justice”. Unilateral non-state collective violence can take four forms: lynching, vigilantism, rioting, and terrorism. The purpose of this ...

  11. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    2015-01-01

    on to present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect...

  12. A Browning process : The case of Dar es Salaam city

    OpenAIRE

    Mng'ong'o, Othmar Simtali

    2005-01-01

    The study is about how green spaces and structures of Dar es Salaam city, quantitatively and qualitatively, are browning out. It also tries to explore the different reasons behind the browning tendency, and what it means to the function of the city and to the daily form of life of the inhabitants. Finally there is a discussion about how to counteract the tendency by involving the inhabitants in planning procedures following the communicative approach to planning. The main investigations have ...

  13. Feeding Dar es Salaam: a symbiotic food system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wegerif, Marc C.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a sociological analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four and a half million residents of the fast-growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has generated a picture of the food system that supplies the important foods for the majority of residents of the city. The research took an actor orientated approach and started from urban eaters and then followed the food back through retailers, processors and transporters ...

  14. Anti-diabetic drugs in the private and public sector in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare availability, cost, affordability and sources of anti-diabetic drugs between private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Diabetic clinics in private and public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Eighty patients ...

  15. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 9, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case Of The University Of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... A Bibliometric Study Of Research On Dar Es Salaam Region: 1980 To 2003 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. The Typology of Female Sex Workers in Dar-es-Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish the categories of female sex workers in Dar es Salaam. Methods: We conducted in depth-interviews with 32 female sex workers (FSWs) in five geographic areas of Dar-es-Salaam known to be the primary residential and working places, three local government leaders in three of the five areas known ...

  17. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  18. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    , a comparison of the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed......The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities...

  19. I Pulmonary aspergilloma: A 15 years experience in Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Health Sciences,P 0 Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Email address: ... esisting lung cavity by a fungus of the genus aspergillus forming ... is a national referral and teaching hospital with a ... Thus, preoperative evaluation and.

  20. Managing pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Dar es Salaam public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Dar es Salaam public health facilities: A focus on equipment, supplies, ... Tanzania Medical Journal ... A checklist was used to assess availability of equipment, supplies and drugs, and a structured ...

  1. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es

  2. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2012-01-01

    to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where...... cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased......ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...

  3. Prevalence of teeth with untreated dental trauma among nursery and primary school pupils in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahabuka, F.K.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of teeth with untreated dental trauma among children aged 4-15 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A sample of 4524 children from three districts of different socio-economic status in the Dar es Salaam area was examined for signs of dental trauma

  4. The Dar es Salaam Seascape: A Case Study of an Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These pressures have resulted in substantial negative environmental state changes, e.g., habitat loss and degradation, biodiversity loss and disturbance of food webs, and coastal erosion/accretion. Thus, the Dar es Salaam seascape has become an environmental “hotspot” of degradation, with consequent negative ...

  5. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  6. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  7. Key events and their effects on cycling behaviour in Dar-es-Salaam : abstract + powerpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores key events and investigates their effects on cycling behaviour in the city of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the study is to identify specific key events during a person’s life course with a significant effect on change of travel behaviour towards cycling in relation to

  8. planning for the automation of the university of dar es salaam library

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the planning process for the automation of the University of Dar es Salaam Library. The planning phases described include the preparation phase, planning for implementation and database construction. The major issues during the preparation phase are the discussion on the context of automation, ...

  9. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  10. Key events and their effects on cycling behaviour in Dar-es-Salaam : abstract + powerpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores key events and investigates their effects on cycling behaviour in the city of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the study is to identify specific key events during a person’s life course with a significant effect on change of travel behaviour towards cycling in relation to stage of change. Stage of change is a key construct of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change that defines behavioural readiness (intentions and actions) into six distinct categories (i.e....

  11. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability. PMID:28729979

  12. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in dar es salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R

    2015-01-01

    Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  13. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  14. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  16. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  17. A Decade of Technology Enhanced Learning at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Challenges, Achievements, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For a decade past, integration of technology in teaching and learning has been received with both apprehension and skeptism from academics and student majority at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). The study recounts real, professional and practical experiences, challenges, and opportunities of integrating educational technologies using…

  18. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  19. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Dar es-Salaam, Tanzanie : Assurer la sécurité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 déc. 2010 ... En l'absence de services suffisants, les citadins sont passés maîtres dans l'art de « se débrouiller » et d'improviser. Par la force des choses, Dar es-Salaam, ou Dar, est devenue une ville ..... Urban agriculture: Growing food in our cities. City dwellers have been growing their own food for millennia.

  20. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities......In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries....

  1. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata

    2004-01-01

    . Of these, 86% stated they were still using contraception 1-6 months after discharge. Initially, 55% of the women accepted to use condoms either alone or as part of double protection. After 1-6 months this proportion had dropped to 18%. Single women were significantly more likely to use condoms. CONCLUSION......OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion...... or an induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service...

  2. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  3. Determinants of High Blood Pressure and Barriers to Diagnosis and Treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZACK, Rachel M.; IREMA, Kahema; KAZONDA, Patrick; LEYNA, Germana H.; LIU, Enju; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; FAWZI, Wafaie; NJELEKELA, Marina; KILLEWO, Japhet; DANAEI, Goodarz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We assessed prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure, and barriers to diagnosis and treatment, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We surveyed and screened 2,174 community-dwelling adults aged ≥40 years in 2014 and conducted a follow-up after one year. Results Median blood pressure was 131/81 mmHg and hypertension prevalence was 37%. Mean adjusted difference in SBP was 4.0 mmHg for overweight, 6.3 mmHg for obese class I, and 10.5 mmHg for obese class II/III compared with normal weight participants. Those who were physically inactive had 4.8 mmHg higher SBP compared to those with more than 24 hours of moderate or vigorous activity per week. Drinkers of at least 10 grams of alcohol per day had 4.5 mmHg higher SBP than did non-drinkers. Among hypertensives, 48% were diagnosed, 22% were treated, and 10% were controlled. Hypertensives without health insurance were 12% less likely to be diagnosed than insured hypertensives. Of referred participants, 68% sought care, but only 27% were on treatment and 8% had controlled blood pressure at follow-up. Reasons for not seeking care included lack of symptoms, cost of visit, and lack of time. Reasons for not being on treatment included lack of symptoms, not being prescribed treatment, and having finished one course of treatment. Conclusions Major risk factors for hypertension in Dar es Salaam are overweight, obesity, inadequate physical activity, and limited access to quality medical care. Increased insurance coverage and community-based screening, along with quality medical care and patient education, may help control this burgeoning epidemic. PMID:27648720

  4. Elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es salaam, Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhihi, Alfa J; Njelekela, Marina A; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Bikolimana G; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis

    2018-02-13

    Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. We measured blood pressure using a standardized digital blood pressure measuring machine (Omron Digital HEM-907, Tokyo, Japan). We used an average of the three blood pressure readings for analysis. Elevated blood pressure was defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height. The proportion of children with elevated blood pressure was 15.2% (pre-hypertension 4.4% and hypertension 10.8%). No significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of elevated BP. Increasing age and overweight/obese children were significantly associated with elevated BP (p = 0.0029 and p < 0.0001) respectively. Similar associations were observed for age and overweight/obesity with hypertension. (p = 0.0506 and p < 0.0001) respectively. In multivariate analysis, age above 10 years (adjusted RR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.03-7.82) was significantly and independently associated with elevated BP in this population of school age children. We observed a higher proportion of elevated BP in this population of school age children. Older age and overweight/obesity were associated with elevated BP. Assessment of BP and BMI should be incorporated in school health program in Tanzania to identify those at risk so that appropriate interventions can be instituted before development of associated complications.

  5. Determinants of condom use among antenatal clinic attendees in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msamanga, Gernard; Tchetgen, Eric; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Mary Kay Smith; Kaaya, Sylvia; Urassa, Willy; Hunter, David; Kapiga, Saidi; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2009-08-01

    To determine the demographic, socio-economic and psycho-social factors associated with condom use amongst antenatal clinic attendees in Dar es Salaam. A cross sectional study design was employed in four antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam. Pregnant women were interviewed between April 1995 and July 1997 to find out if they have ever used a condom and if so whether they had used them consistently for all coital acts in the previous year. Of 1,585 women interviewed, 41% had their first sexual experience before age of 18 years and 82% had a history of having more than two sexual partners during their lifetime. Sixty-two percent of women had never used a condom. Although 40% had used a condom in the previous year only 12% used them consistently. Ever use of a condom increased significantly with the number of years of education of the respondent and her partner also with the respondent's financial independence. Women with > 9 years of education were twice as likely as women with condom users (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.7). Professional women were almost twice as likely as housewives to have ever used a condom (PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.3-2.3). Women who reported that they have had more than four sexual partners during their lifetime were associated with nearly a four-fold higher lifetime rate of having ever used a condom, compared with a single lifetime partnership (PR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.8-5.4). The reported prevalence of ever use of a condom amongst antenatal clinic attendees is low and inconsistent especially among HIV positive women. Deliberate effort should be used to ensure condom access, availability and correct and consistent use of condoms by women in all sexual acts.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelekela, Marina A; Muhihi, Alfa; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Ngarashi, Davis; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m(2), 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95(th) percentile for age and sex) was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1%) had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%), radio (19.4%) and books/newspaper (17.3%). Less than half (45.4%) had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%). However, a good number of the children (72.1%) were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.

  7. Habitat productivity and pyrethroid susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Leah; Baraka, Vito; Philbert, Anitha; Innocent, Ester; Francis, Filbert; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-06-09

    Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the main vector of the dengue virus globally. Dengue vector control is mainly based on reducing the vector population through interventions, which target potential breeding sites. However, in Tanzania, little is known about this vector's habitat productivity and insecticide susceptibility status to support evidence-based implementation of control measures. The present study aimed at assessing the productivity and susceptibility status of A. aegypti mosquitoes to pyrethroid-based insecticides in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. An entomological assessment was conducted between January and July 2015 in six randomly selected wards in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Habitat productivity was determined by the number of female adult A. aegypti mosquitoes emerged per square metre. The susceptibility status of adult A. aegypti females after exposure to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated using the standard WHO protocols. Mortality rates were recorded after 24 h exposure and the knockdown effect was recorded at the time points of 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min to calculate the median knockdown times (KDT 50 and KDT 95 ). The results suggest that disposed tyres had the highest productivity, while water storage tanks had the lowest productivity among the breeding habitats Of A. aegypti mosquitoes. All sites demonstrated reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin (0.05%) within 24 h post exposure, with mortalities ranging from 86.3 ± 1.9 (mean ± SD) to 96.8 ± 0.9 (mean ± SD). The lowest and highest susceptibilities were recorded in Mikocheni and Sinza wards, respectively. Similarly, all sites demonstrated reduced susceptibility permethrin (0.75%) ranging from 83.1 ± 2.1% (mean ± SD) to 96.2 ± 0.9% (mean ± SD), in Kipawa and Sinza, respectively. Relatively low mortality rates were observed in relation to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%) at all sites, ranging from 83.1 ± 0

  8. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Penrose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the range of access to

  9. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, Katherine; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Werema, Japhet; Ryan, Edward T

    2010-03-16

    As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2) in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the range of access to improved sanitation

  10. Informal Urban Settlements and Cholera Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, Katherine; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Werema, Japhet; Ryan, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Background As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were asked. In this study, the

  11. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Pedersen, Erling M; Mosha, Franklin W; Simonsen, Paul E

    2013-09-30

    The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3-30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a public health problem. These will include

  12. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Dar es-Salaam, Tanzanie : Assurer la sécurité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'évolution rapide du milieu urbain a suscité un intérêt croissant pour l'agriculture urbaine. Des chercheurs de l'Université agricole Sokoine et de l'Université de Dar es- Salaam ont commencé à réunir des arguments en faveur d'une nouvelle vision du développement urbain — un développement qui, comme le dit Ben ...

  13. Air pollution by motor traffic in Dar-es-Salaam. Measurements and state of the art description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Dar-es-Salaam was the capital of Tanzania until 1973, when it was moved to Dodoma. The city is still the largest and holds about 1.6 million inhabitants. The aim of the project is to measure air pollution from traffic close to people and set a foundation for future studies. Besides that finding ways to reduce air pollution and improve traffic situation in Dar-es-Salaam with an emphasis on the central city parts. Previous studies on air pollution in Dar-es-Salaam have all been rather rushed and mostly with old and not very precise equipment. For that reason you could say this project is like a pilot study. Measurements were made on NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and VOC (hydrocarbons) during two different measuring weeks. Average temperature, wind velocity and traffic flow was measured on both weeks. Traffic flow was 12 000 vehicles/day. The percentage of accelerating/retarding vehicles and average speed was also studied. Average speed was 20 km/h. The result above show levels somewhat exceeding the guidelines. The levels can not be said to be alarmingly high, but bearing the rapid increase in the number of vehicles in mind, air pollution will soon be a major problem. It would have been preferred to also measure lead, particles and carbon monoxide, especially particles since previous reports indicates very high levels. To create a better air quality in Dar-es-Salaam there has to be an improvement of public transport and at the same time increased parking fees and fuel prices. Finally, fuel quality has to improve and unleaded petrol has to be introduced as soon as possible 10 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  14. Urban health in daily practice: livelihood, vulnerability and resilience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Brigit

    2003-12-01

    Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency.

  15. Medicalization and morality in a weak state: health, hygiene and water in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Brigit

    2004-04-01

    Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life.

  16. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  17. 'It makes the patient's spirit weaker': tuberculosis stigma and gender interaction in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C; Huston, J; Samu, L; Mfinanga, S; Hopewell, P; Fair, E

    2017-11-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To describe tuberculosis (TB) related stigma and to understand how it interacts with gender to affect access to care. Eight focus group discussions were held among 48 TB patients and their household members, and a thematic content analysis was carried out. The main components of stigma were fear, self-isolation, ostracization, loss of status in the community, and discrimination by providers. Participants described the cultural context in which stigma operated as characterized by a general lack of health knowledge, cultural beliefs about TB, and engendered beliefs about disease in general. Both genders described some similar effects of stigma, including relationship difficulties and specifically challenges forming new relationships, but many effects of stigma were distinct by gender: women described challenges including assumptions about promiscuity and infidelity, as well as rejection by partners, while men described survival challenges. Stigma acted as a barrier to care through a cyclical pattern of stigma and fear, leading to health-seeking delays, with resulting continued transmission and poor health outcomes that further reinforced stigma. TB-related stigma is prevalent in this setting and operates differently for men and women. Interventions designed to increase case detection must address stigma and its interaction with gender.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  19. Characterization of Salmonella species from water bodies in Dar-Es-Salaam city, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the  identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  20. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Urassa, David P; Pembe, Andrea B; Kisanga, Felix; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-06-03

    Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385) and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147). Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in these institutions.

  1. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Yamagata, Yoichi; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jurg; Keiser, Jennifer; Singer, Burton H

    2004-08-01

    The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally. Copyright 2004 The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

  2. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  3. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care at private clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care.

  4. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  5. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  6. Seasonal variation of water-soluble inorganic species in the coarse and fine atmospheric aerosols at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Wang Wan; Maenhaut, Willy

    2009-01-01

    The ionic composition of coarse, fine and total PM10 was investigated in aerosol samples collected from a kerbside in Dar es Salaam during the 2005 dry season and 2006 wet season. A 'Gent' PM10 stacked filter unit sampler with sequential Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, providing coarse (8 μm) and fine (0.4 μm) size fractions, was deployed. The mean concentrations and associated standard deviation of fine, coarse and PM10 were, respectively, 17 ± 4, 52 ± 27, and 69 ± 29 μg/m 3 during the 2005 dry season campaign and 13 ± 5, 34 ± 23 and 47 ± 25 μg/m 3 for the 2006 wet season campaign. The higher PM mass concentrations during the dry season campaign are essentially due to soil dust dispersal, much biomass burning and temperature inversions. Chloride, Na + and Mg 2+ were the dominant ions in coarse fraction, indicating a significant influence of sea-salt aerosols. In the fine fraction, SO 4 2- and NH 4 + and K + were the most important ions. The mean equivalent PM2 NO 3 - concentration in the 2005 dry season campaign was two times higher than in the 2006 wet season campaign, probably due to reaction of NaCl (sea-salt) with HNO 3 as a result of higher levels of NO x during the dry season and/or reduced volatilization of NH 4 NO 3 due to lower temperature in the dry season. The results from our water-soluble ions study strongly suggests that biomass burning and secondary aerosols make a significant contribution to fine particulate mass in Dar es Salaam atmosphere. Thus, burning of waste and biomass are thought to be the major causes for the atmospheric particulate pollution in Dar es Salaam during the dry season.

  7. The pattern of mucocutaneous disorders in HIV – infected children attending care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Massawe Augustine W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58% than females (42% (p = 0.02. Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01. Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable

  8. Seasonal variation of water-soluble inorganic species in the coarse and fine atmospheric aerosols at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Wang, Wan; Maenhaut, Willy

    2009-09-01

    The ionic composition of coarse, fine and total PM10 was investigated in aerosol samples collected from a kerbside in Dar es Salaam during the 2005 dry season and 2006 wet season. A "Gent" PM10 stacked filter unit sampler with sequential Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, providing coarse (8 μm) and fine (0.4 μm) size fractions, was deployed. The mean concentrations and associated standard deviation of fine, coarse and PM10 were, respectively, 17 ± 4, 52 ± 27, and 69 ± 29 μg/m 3 during the 2005 dry season campaign and 13 ± 5, 34 ± 23 and 47 ± 25 μg/m 3 for the 2006 wet season campaign. The higher PM mass concentrations during the dry season campaign are essentially due to soil dust dispersal, much biomass burning and temperature inversions. Chloride, Na + and Mg 2+ were the dominant ions in coarse fraction, indicating a significant influence of sea-salt aerosols. In the fine fraction, SO42- and NH4+ and K + were the most important ions. The mean equivalent PM2 NO3- concentration in the 2005 dry season campaign was two times higher than in the 2006 wet season campaign, probably due to reaction of NaCl (sea-salt) with HNO 3 as a result of higher levels of NO x during the dry season and/or reduced volatilization of NH 4NO 3 due to lower temperature in the dry season. The results from our water-soluble ions study strongly suggests that biomass burning and secondary aerosols make a significant contribution to fine particulate mass in Dar es Salaam atmosphere. Thus, burning of waste and biomass are thought to be the major causes for the atmospheric particulate pollution in Dar es Salaam during the dry season.

  9. Masculine attitudes of superiority deter men from accessing antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents part of the findings from a larger study that sought to assess the role that gender relations play in influencing equity regarding access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Review of the literature has indicated that, in Southern and Eastern Africa, fewer men than women have been accessing ART, and the former start using ART late, after HIV has already been allowed to advance. The main causes for this gender gap have not yet been fully explained. Objective: To explore how masculinity norms limit men's access to ART in Dar es Salaam. Design: This article is based on a qualitative study that involved the use of focus group discussions (FGDs. The study employed a stratified purposive sampling technique to recruit respondents. The study also employed a thematic analysis approach. Results: Overall, the study's findings revealed that men's hesitation to visit the care and treatment clinics signifies the superiority norm of masculinity that requires men to avoid displaying weakness. Since men are the heads of families and have higher social status, they reported feeling embarrassed at having to visit the care and treatment clinics. Specifically, male respondents indicated that going to a care and treatment clinic may raise suspicion about their status of living with HIV, which in turn may compromise their leadership position and cause family instability. Because of this tendency towards ‘hiding’, the few men who register at the public care and treatment clinics do so late, when HIV-related signs and symptoms are already far advanced. Conclusion: This study suggests that the superiority norm of masculinity affects men's access to ART. Societal expectations of a ‘real man’ to be fearless, resilient, and emotionally stable are in direct conflict with expectations of the treatment programme that one has to demonstrate health-promoting behaviour, such as promptness in attending the care and treatment

  10. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, M; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among......This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...

  11. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically

  12. Effect of urban design on microclimate and thermal comfort outdoors in warm-humid Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Maria Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Due to the complexity of built environment, urban design patterns considerably affect the microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in a given urban morphology. Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. The study mainly concentrates on the warm season but a comparison with the thermal comfort conditions in the cool season is made for one of the areas. Air temperature, wind speed, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are simulated using ENVI-met to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing urban design. An analysis of the distribution of MRT in the areas showed that the area with low-rise buildings had the highest frequency of high MRTs and the lowest frequency of low MRTs. The study illustrates that areas with low-rise buildings lead to more stressful urban spaces than areas with high-rise buildings. It is also shown that the use of dense trees helps to enhance the thermal comfort conditions, i.e., reduce heat stress. However, vegetation might negatively affect the wind ventilation. Nevertheless, a sensitivity analysis shows that the provision of shade is a more efficient way to reduce PET than increases in wind speed, given the prevailing sun and wind conditions in Dar es Salaam. To mitigate heat stress in Dar es Salaam, a set of recommendations and guidelines on

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Multi-objective Optimization for Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Halidi Lyeme

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a sensitivity analysis of a multi-objective optimization model for solid waste management (SWM for Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is considered. Our objectives were to identify the most sensitive parameters and effect of other input data to the model output. Five scenarios were considered by varying their associated parameter values. The results showed that the decrease of total cost for the SWM system in all scenarios was observed compared to the baseline solution when the single landfill was considered. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the variable cost parameter for the processing facilities is very sensitivity in such a way that if you increase the variable cost then, there is a rapid increase of total cost for the SWM system and the vice versa is true. The relevant suggestions to the decision makers were also discussed.

  14. The Challenges of Providing Postpartum Education in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Narratives of Nurse-Midwives and Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian Teddy; Aston, Megan; Kohi, Thecla W; Mbekenga, Columba; Macdonald, Danielle; White, Maureen; Price, Sheri; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; O'Hearn, Shawna; Jefferies, Keisha

    2017-10-01

    Postpartum education can save lives of mothers and babies in developing countries, and the World Health Organization recommends all mothers receive three postpartum consultations. More information is needed to better understand how postpartum education is delivered and ultimately improves postpartum health outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how postpartum care was delivered in three postnatal hospital clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Semistructured interviews with 10 nurse-midwives and three obstetricians were conducted. Feminist poststructuralism guided the research process. Postpartum education was seen to be an urgent matter; there was a lack of supportive resources and infrastructure in the hospital clinics, and nurse-midwives and obstetricians had to negotiate conflicting health and traditional discourses using various strategies. Nurse-midwives and obstetricians are well positioned to deliver life-saving postpartum education; however, improvements are required including increased number of nurse-midwives and obstetricians.

  15. Implementation of a goal programming model for solid waste management: a case study of Dar es Salaam – Tanzania

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    Lyeme Halidi Ally

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, the multi-objective optimization model for solid waste management problem is solved by the goal programming method. The model has three objectives: total cost minimization, minimization of final waste disposal to the landfill, and environmental impact minimization. First, the model is solved for the higher priority goal, and then its value is never allowed to deteriorate. The model is solved for the next priority goal and so on until the problem is solved. The model was tested with real data for solid waste management system from Dar es Salaam city. The results determine the best locations for recycling plants, separating plants, composting plants, incinerating plants, landfill and waste flow allocation between them. Furthermore, the solution shows a high reduction of the amount of waste to the landfill and greenhouse gas emissions by 78% and 57.5% respectively if fully implemented compared to the current system.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and concomitant presence of other micro-organisms in urine of pregnant women in Dar es Salaam -- Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimavalye, L A; Runyoro, D E; Massawe, F N; Mhalu, F S; Kanyawana, J Z

    1983-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in pregnancy in Dar es Salaam as well as attempt to find out whether bacteriuria has any effects on the mother and baby. Of 1007 pregnant women studied for asymptomatic bacteriuria, a significant bacteriuria rate of 6.3% was revealed. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism, making up 47.6% of the total organisms isolated. Schistosoma hematobium was present in 8.7%, T. vaginalis in 14%, yeast cells were found in the urine of 9.1% and the microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were found in 1 specimen. 66.2% had no abnormality in their urine. It is recommended on the basis of this study that all women found to have significant bacteriuria in 1 cultured urine sample should be treated. There was a significant relationship noted between significant bacteriuria and the passing of S. hematobium in the urine. There was also a significant correlation between the presence of T. vaginalis and yeast cells in the urine. On the basis of laboratory sensitivity studies it was also found that the antimicrobial agents of choice for treating urinary tract infections in Dar es Salaam where E. coli and Klebsiella erogenes are the predominant organisms are nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole. The socioeconomic status of the bacteriuric and control group was divided into 4 groups according to take home pay; results show no significant increase of bacteriuria in any of the groups. It was not possible to follow up the effects of the presence of micro-organisms in urine during pregnancy because once a woman was found to have a positive culture she was treated.

  17. Air pollution in southern Africa: The case of motor vehicle exhaust contribution in Dar Es Salaam city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review air pollution problems in the Southern Africa region and establish the quality of ambient air in Dar Es Salaam city in Tanzania with respect to three vehicular pollutants which are sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and suspended particulate matters (SPM). These pollutants were measured in eight different locations in Dar-Es Salaam city which are Fire, Morocco, Tazara, Kariakoo, Ubungo, Posta, UCLAS, and Akiba. With the exception of South Africa and Botswana, other countries in the Southern Africa Region which include Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi. Zambia, Zimbabwe. Angola and Namibia do not have air pollution standards, and regular air pollution monitoring is not carried out in these countries. Diesel fueled vehicles in South Africa are responsible for one third of all smog-forming nitrogen dioxides and almost two-thirds of all particulate pollution emitted by all vehicles. The measurement methods used in Dar Es Salaam study were pararosaniline method for SO 2 , Saltzman for measuring nitrogen dioxide, and filtration method for suspended particulate matters. The following was observed from the analysis: Hourly sulphur dioxide concentration ranged from 558 -1385 μg/m 3 . These measured values were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 μg/m 3 . Hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to range from 18 to 53 μg/m 3 . The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 μg/m 3 was below the recommended WHO guidelines with a value of 200 μg/m 3 . The hourly suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to range from 744 to 1161 μg/m 3 . The measured suspended particulate matter concentrations were above the recommended hourly maximum value by WHO guidelines which is 230μg/m 3 . The correlation coefficient of pollutants and the number of vehicles counted for different sampling points was determined and found to be fair reasonable with a value of 0.906 for suspended

  18. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  19. Undernutrition among HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough

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    Sunguya Bruno F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has exacerbated the impact of childhood undernutrition in many developing countries, including Tanzania. Even with the provision of antiretroviral therapy, undernutrition among HIV-positive children remains a serious problem. Most studies to examine risk factors for undernutrition have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive children, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive children. The objectives of this study were thus to compare the proportions of undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive and HIV-negative children and to examine factors associated with undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods From September to October 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 213 ART-treated HIV-positive and 202 HIV-negative children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We measured the children's anthropometrics, socio-demographic factors, food security, dietary habits, diarrhea episodes, economic status, and HIV clinical stage. Data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate methods. Results ART-treated HIV-positive children had higher rates of undernutrition than their HIV-negative counterparts. Among the ART-treated HIV-positive children, 78 (36.6% were stunted, 47 (22.1% were underweight, and 29 (13.6% were wasted. Households of ART-treated HIV-positive children exhibited lower economic status, lower levels of education, and higher percentages of unmarried caregivers with higher unemployment rates. Food insecurity was prevalent in over half of ART-treated HIV-positive children's households. Furthermore, ART-treated HIV-positive children were more likely to be orphaned, to be fed less frequently, and to have lower body weight at birth compared to HIV-negative children. In the multivariate analysis, child's HIV-positive status was associated with being underweight (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI 1

  20. Constraints on good child-care practices and nutritional status in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwa, Kissa B M; Kinabo, Joyce L D; Modest, Beata

    2006-09-01

    Care is increasingly being recognized as a crucial input to child health and nutrition, along with food security, availability of health services, and a healthy environment. Although significant gains have been made in the fight against malnutrition in Tanzania, the nutritional status of preschool children in urban areas is not improving. To assess child-care practices and the nutritional status of infants and young children with the aim of improvingfeeding practices and child nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The study involved 100 randomly selected mothers of children 6 to 24 months old from households in Ilala Municipality, one of the three municipalities that constitute the Dar-es-Salaam City Council. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire, spot-check observations, and anthropometric measurements. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and morbidity were 43%, 22%, 3%, and 80%, respectively. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was very low (9%), and most stunted children (88%) were not exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months. The mean age at which complementary foods and fluids were introduced was 3.26 +/- 1.12 months (range, 1 to 5 months). The fluids given were mainly water and thin cereal-based porridge. More than half of the households practiced good hygiene. Most of the psychosocial practices (e.g., caregiver's attention, affection, and involvement in child feeding, hygiene, health care, and training) were performed by mothers, except for cooking and feeding the children and child training, which were done mostly by alternative caregivers. Nearly half of the mothers (44%) worked out of the home. The mean number of working hours per day was long (10.32 +/- 2.13), necessitating the use of alternative caregivers. A negative correlation was found between height-for-age z-scores and the number of hours mothers worked outside the home. The prevalence rates of chronic

  1. Motivations to participate in a Phase I/II HIV vaccine trial: A descriptive study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. M. Tarimo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for an efficacious HIV vaccine is a global priority. To date only one HIV vaccine trial (RV144 has shown modest efficacy in a phase III trial. With existing different HIV-1 subtypes and frequent mutations, multiple trials are needed from different geographical sites particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where most HIV infections occur. Thus, motivations to participate in HIV vaccine trials among Tanzanians need to be assessed. This paper describes the motives of Police Officers who showed great interest to volunteer in HIVIS-03 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among Police Officers who showed interest to participate in the HIVIS-03, a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam. Prior to detailed training sessions about HIV vaccine trials, the potential participants narrated their individual motives to participate in the trial on a piece of paper. Descriptive analysis using content approach and frequency distributions were performed. Results Of the 265 respondents, 242 (91.3 % provided their socio-demographic characteristics as well as reasons that would make them take part in the proposed trial. Majority, (39.7 %, cited altruism as the main motive. Women were more likely to volunteer due to altruism compared to men (P < 0.01. Researchers’ explanations about HIV/AIDS vaccine studies motivated 15.3 %. More men (19.6 % than women (1.7 % were motivated to volunteer due to researchers’ explanations (P < 0.001. Also, compared to other groups, those unmarried and educated up to secondary level of education were motivated to volunteer due to researchers’ explanation (P < 0.05. Other reasons were: desire to become a role model (18.6 %; to get knowledge for educating others (14.0 %; to cooperate with researchers in developing an HIV vaccine (9.5 %; to get protection against HIV infection (7.0 %, and severity of the disease within families (6.2

  2. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  3. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  4. Urban schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiases in young school children in Dar es Salaam and Tanga, Tanzania, after a decade of anthelminthic intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwele N.; Mosha, Franklin W.

    2014-01-01

    and control of these infections in urban settings is limited. The present study assessed the status of urinary schistosomiasis and STH across two different-sized cities in Tanzania - Dar es Salaam and Tanga - after a decade of anthelminthic intervention. Primary school children were examined for parasite eggs......Rapid urbanization in resource poor countries often results in expansion of unplanned settlements with overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. These conditions potentially support transmission of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH), but knowledge on the occurrence, transmission...... in urine and stool. Questionnaires were administered to the children, and observations were made on the urban environments. The burden of urinary schistosomiasis and STH was found to be low in both cities (overall 1.2% in Dar es Salaam and 0.3% in Tanga for urinary schistosomiasis; overall

  5. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans:a case of Dar es Salaam city,Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kayombo, J.Edmund; Mbwambo, H.Zakaria; Massila, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were in...

  6. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  7. Anxiety and depression strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors among networks of young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Kajula, Lusajo Joel

    2017-02-01

    This study tested the association between mental health scores and sexual risk behaviors among male members of social groups known as "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Anxiety and depression were measured using the HSCL-25 and condom use and sexual partner concurrency were assessed through self-report. A total of 1113 sexually active men with an average age of 27 years were included in the analyses. Higher anxiety and depression scores were significantly associated with both condom use (Anxiety AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.77; Depression AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.77) and concurrency (Anxiety AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.73, 3.12; Depression AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.60, 2.70). The results of this study provide information salient to the development of effective HIV prevention interventions targeting populations with high burdens of anxiety and depression. The feasibility and effect of integrating mental health promotion activities into HIV prevention interventions should be explored.

  8. High Prevalence of Faecal Carriage of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellevik, Marit G; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Øyvind; Maselle, Samuel Y; Langeland, Nina; Moyo, Sabrina J

    2016-01-01

    Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103). ChromID ESBL agar and ChromID CARBA SMART agar were used for screening. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. ESBL genotypes were identified by Real-Time PCR and sequencing. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 34.3% (207/ 603). The prevalence of ESBL carriage was significantly higher among hospitalized children (50.4%), compared to community children (11.6%; P Enterobacteriaceae among children below 2 years of age in Tanzania, particularly those with HIV-infection. Resistance to a majority of the available antimicrobials commonly used for children in Tanzania leaves few treatment options for infections when caused by these bacteria.

  9. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  10. Patients' level of satisfaction on quality of health care at Mwananyamala hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Kudra; Njau, Bernard

    2014-09-18

    Enhancing quality of health care delivered in public health facilities in developing countries is a key prerequisite to increase utilization and sustainability of health care services in the population. The aim of the study was to determine patients' level of satisfaction on the quality of health care delivered at the out-patient department (OPD) in Mwananyamala hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May, 2012. A systematic sampling method was employed to select 422 study subjects. A pre-tested SERVQUAL questionnaire was used to collect data and one-sample t-test was employed to identify patients' level of satisfaction and principal component analysis to identify key items that measure quality of care. Patients' level of satisfaction mean gap score was (-2.88 ± 3.1) indicating overall dissatisfaction with the quality of care. The level of dissatisfaction in the five service dimensions were as follows: assurance (-0.47), reliability (-0.49), tangible (-0.52), empathy (-0.55), and responsiveness (-0.72). Patients attending OPD at Mwananyamala hospital demonstrates an overall dissatisfaction on quality of care. Hospital management should focus on: improvement on communication skills among OPD staff in showing compassion, politeness and active listening, ensure availability of essential drugs, and improvement on clinicians' prescription skills.

  11. Quantitative market survey of non-woody plants sold at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthouwer, Chantal; Veldman, Sarina; Abihudi, Siri; Otieno, Joseph N; van Andel, Tinde R; de Boer, Hugo J

    2018-04-30

    In Tanzania, traditional medicine plays a significant role in health care and local economies based on the harvesting, trade and sale of medicinal plant products. The majority of this plant material is said to originate from wild sources, and both traditional healers and vendors are concerned about the increasing scarcity of certain species. A market survey of non-powdered, non-woody medicinal plants was conducted at Kariakoo Market in Dar es Salaam, the major hub for medicinal plant trade in Tanzania, to assess sustainability of traded herbal medicine. For this study, fresh and dried herbs, seeds and fruits were collected and interviews were conducted to obtain information on vernacular names, preparation methods, monthly sales, uses and prices. Bundles of herbal medicine offered for sale were weighed and counted to calculate the value and volumes of daily stock at the market. A total of 71 medicinal plant products belonging to 62 to 67 different species from at least 41 different plant families were identified. We identified 45 plant products to species level, 20 products to genus level and four to family level. Plant species most encountered at the market were Suregada zanzibariensis, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Sclerocarya birrea. The major use categories reported by the vendors were ritual purposes, digestive disorders and women's health. Annual sales are estimated to be in excess of 30 t and close to 200,000 USD, and trade in herbal medicine at Kariakoo Market provides subsistence income to many local vendors. A large diversity of wild-harvested plant species is traded as medicinal products in Tanzania, including species listed on CITES Appendices. Identifying and monitoring temporal changes in availability per season and from year to year will reveal which species are most affected by this trade, and help relevant authorities in Tanzania to find alternative sources of income for dependent stakeholders and initiate targeted efforts to protect threatened

  12. Identifying Programmatic Gaps: Inequities in Harm Reduction Service Utilization among Male and Female Drug Users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Chang, Olivia; Nyandindi, Cassian; Sabuni, Norman; Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; McCurdy, Sheryl; Masao, Frank; Ivo, Yovin; Msami, Amani; Ubuguy, Omar; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT) for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. Materials and Methods Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. Results From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. Conclusions Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services. PMID:23825620

  13. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidanto, Hussein Lesio; Mogren, Ingrid; Massawe, Siriel N; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystrom, Lennarth

    2009-01-01

    Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73%) preterm whereas the majority (71%) of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75%) of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff. PMID:19323846

  14. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73% preterm whereas the majority (71% of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75% of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff.

  15. Identifying programmatic gaps: inequities in harm reduction service utilization among male and female drug users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrot H Lambdin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. RESULTS: From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services.

  16. Public participation and satisfaction in urban regeneration projects in Tanzania: The case of Kariakoo, Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Paulo Layson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on predictions, almost 60% of the world population will be living in cities by 2030. Tanzania is urbanizing at a rapid rate of 4.7%, and 30% of the total population lives in urban areas. Urban regeneration projects in developing countries are facing various challenges. Moreover, the issue of challenges of community participation and satisfaction in regeneration projects is less documented. In recent decades, a bottom-up planning approach has been advocated as an approach for sustainable development planning whereby local actors participate in decision-making. But how top-down planning meets bottom-up planning is less documented, as well as the correlation between participation and satisfaction. This is due to the fact that zoning system has been dominating in urban planning, where experts zone areas according to land uses with an input from the community. In this research community participation, public satisfaction in urban regeneration projects was investigated. The research was based on Kariakoo, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The research explored public perceptions on satisfaction and the relationship between community participation and community satisfaction in urban regeneration projects. 292 respondents were interviewed on their perceptions on the redevelopment satisfaction. The results were analyzed using SPSS and tabulated in a form of tables, figures, and charts. The results revealed that it is not necessary that the more the participation the more the satisfaction, hence the more the quality of the service/plan. This means that several factors have an influence on satisfaction of urban redevelopment such as gender, level of education, age, time lived or stayed in the area, as well as the level of participation.

  17. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-04-08

    Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.3, p water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial

  18. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  19. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Understanding resilience of female adolescents towards teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Ahorlu, Collins K; Alba, Sandra; Obrist, Brigit

    2017-06-26

    In Tanzania, teenage pregnancy rates are still high despite the efforts being made to reduce them. Not enough is known about how adolescents experience and cope with sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Over the past few decades, most studies have focused on vulnerability and risk among youth. The concept of 'reproductive resilience' is a new way of looking at teenage pregnancy. It shifts the perspective from a deficit-based to a strength-based approach. The study presented here aimed to identify factors that could contribute to strengthening the reproductive resilience of girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using a cross-sectional cluster sampling approach, 750 female adolescents aged 15-19 years were interviewed about how they mobilize resources to avoid or deal with teenage pregnancy. The main focus of the study was to examine how social capital (relations with significant others), economic capital (command over economic resources), cultural capital (personal dispositions and habits), and symbolic capital (recognition and prestige) contribute to the development of adolescent competencies for avoiding or dealing with teenage pregnancy and childbirth. A cumulative competence scale was developed to assess reproductive resilience. The cumulative score was computed based on 10 competence indicators that refer to the re- and pro-active mobilization of resources. About half of the women who had never been pregnant fell into the category, 'high competence' (50.9%), meaning they could get the information and support needed to avoid pregnancies. Among pregnant women and young mothers, most were categorized as 'high competence' (70.5%) and stated that they know how to avoid or deal with health problems that might affect them or their babies, and could get the information and support required to do so. Cultural capital, in particular, contributed to the competence of never-pregnant girls [OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.06 to 3.07, p = 0.029], pregnant adolescents and young mothers

  1. Nutritional status and birth outcomes of adolescent pregnant girls in Morogoro, Coast, and Dar es Salaam regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Candida P; Kinabo, Joyce L

    2005-01-01

    Studies that link adolescence pregnancies, nutritional status, and birth outcomes in Tanzania are scarce. We examined the nutritional status and birth outcomes of pregnant adolescent girls from rural and urban areas of three regions in Tanzania. The study was carried out in the regions of Dar es Salaam (Chamazi and Gezaulole dispensaries and Round Table Maternity Home), Coast (Tumbi Regional Hospital and Mlandizi Health Center), and Morogoro (Regional Hospital, Uhuru Clinic, and Mlali Health Center). One hundred eighty pregnant adolescent girls ages 15 to 19 y were recruited and interviewed, and their nutritional status measurements were taken at the seven health facilities. Information concerning date of birth, marital status, educational status, sex education, and income status was collected with a structured questionnaire. Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured according to standard techniques. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a hemoglobinometer and the HemoCue technique. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, and hemoglobin concentration was determined by cutoff points of the World Health Organization. Suitable statistical analysis was done with SPSS 9.0. Weekly weight gain during pregnancy was measured in 123 subjects who kept their appointments and reported back after 2 wk. Fifty-seven subjects did not keep their appointments and were lost to follow-up. Records of infants' birth weights and mode of delivery were obtained from 50 subjects who delivered at the study sites. The height of about 54% of the subjects was shorter than 151 cm, suggestive of short maternal height. Severe wasting was observed in 27% of subjects. Mean weekly weight gain during pregnancy was 317 +/-110 g (-500 to 500 g). No significant differences were observed between rural and urban settings. Mean infant birth weight was 2600 +/- 480 g. About 48% of infants had low birth weight (hemoglobin concentration below 7 g/dL was observed in 5% of

  2. Why are primary school children overweight and obese? A cross sectional study undertaken in Kinondoni district, Dar-es-salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A; Leyna, Germana H; Killewo, Japhet; Simba, Azma; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-12-21

    The world is experiencing an alarming increase in prevalence of childhood obesity. Despite this trend little is known about determinants of childhood obesity in Tanzania. A cross sectional study determined the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in 1722 children aged 7-14 years (10.9 ± 1.74) attending primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Six public and four private schools were systemically selected from a total of 227 primary schools. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were collected using a standard protocol and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Interviews collected demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Multiple logistic regression test was used to assess the influence of independent variables on overweight and obesity while controlling for confounding factors. The level of significance was set at α = 5 %. Of 1, 722 children 10.2 % were overweight and 4.5 % were obese. Overweight and obesity was higher in boys (14.9 %) than girls (14.5 %), higher in children attending private schools (27.7 %) than public schools (5.9 %). Children who walked to and from school were less likely to be overweight or obese than those who used vehicles (AOR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.6; p overweight or obese than those who used public transport (AOR = 2.9; 95%CI: 0.2-0.7; p overweight and obesity (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.3; p = 0.03). Lunch provided by schools was associated with increased risk of overweight or obese (AOR = 6.4, 95 % CI = 4.2-9.6, p overweight and obesity. Parents and teachers should encourage children to be physically active by limiting screen time and promoting active transport to and from school to promote health and reduce obesity. Ministry of education needs to formulate/enforce policies that encourage physical activities for school children and regulate quality of foods provided to children at schools.

  3. Risk and protective factors for relapse among individuals with schizophrenia: a qualitative study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariah, Adellah E; Outwater, Anne H; Malima, Khadija I Y

    2014-08-30

    Relapse in people with schizophrenia is a major challenge for mental health service providers in Tanzania and other countries. Approximately 10% of people with schizophrenia are re-admitted due to relapse at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) Psychiatric Unit each month. Relapse brings about negative effects and it results in a huge burden to patients, their families, the mental health sector and the country's economy. So far no study has been done to address relapse in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to explore perspectives on risk and protective factors influencing relapse of people with schizophrenia and their caregivers attending Muhimbili National Hospital Psychiatric Out-patient Department, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative study was conducted, involving in-depth interviews of seven people with schizophrenia who are out-patients and their seven family caregivers at MNH. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select participants for the study. Audio recorded in-depth interviews in Swahili language were conducted with all study participants. The recorded information was transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 9 computer assisted qualitative data analysis software. Personal risk and protective factors for relapse, environmental risk and protective factors for relapse and suggestions to reduce relapse were the main themes that emerged from this study. People with schizophrenia and their caregivers (all of whom were relatives) perceived non adherence to antipsychotic medication as a leading risk factor of relapse; other risks included poor family support, stressful life events and substance use. Family support, adherence to antipsychotic medication, employment and religion were viewed as protective factors. Participants suggested strengthening mental health psycho-education sessions and community home visits conducted by mental health nurses to help reduce relapse. Other suggestions included strengthening the nurse-patient therapeutic relationship in

  4. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

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    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  6. Hopefulness Fosters Affective and Cognitive Constructs for Actions to Cope and Enhance Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Siril, Hellen; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Todd, Jim; Wyatt, Monique; Kilewo, Japheth; Ware, Norma; Kaaya, Sylvia

    The aims of this study were to describe how people living with HIV (PLWH) perceive hope and illustrate implications for HIV care and treatment. This is a qualitative study done to explore perceptions and meanings of hope among PLWH attending care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In all, 10 focus group discussions and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted. People living with HIV described the following 3 dimensions of hope: cognitive, positive emotions, and normalization. Being cognizant of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) often led to positive emotions, such as feeling comforted or strengthened, which in turn was related to positive actions toward normalizing life. Improved treatment outcomes facilitated hope, while persistent health problems, such as ART side effects, were sources of negative emotions contributing to loss of hope among PLWH. Hope motivated positive health-seeking behaviors, including adherence to ART, and this may guide interventions to help PLWH cope and live positively with HIV.

  7. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  8. Examining the potential for modal change : motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam

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    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. The research shows that these factors have different effects on people depending on the stage of

  9. Effect of the PREPARE intervention on sexual initiation and condom use among adolescents aged 12–14: a cluster randomised controlled trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Elia John Mmbaga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe sexual practices continue to put adolescents at risk for a number of negative health outcomes in Tanzania. While there are some effective theory-based intervention packages with positive impact on important mediators of sexual behaviours, a context specific and tested intervention is urgently needed in Tanzania. Purpose To develop and evaluate an intervention that will have a significant effect in reducing sexual initiation and promoting condom use among adolescents aged 12–14 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design A school-based Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial was conducted during 2011–2014 in Kinondoni Municipality. Methods A total of 38 public primary schools were randomly selected, of which half were assigned to the intervention and half to the control group based on their size and geographic location. Participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire at baseline before the PREPARE intervention and then, 6 and 12 months following intervention. The primary outcomes were self-reported sex initiation and condom use during the past 6 months. Data analysis was done using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE modelling controlling for repeated measures and clustering of students within schools. Results A total of 5091 students were recruited at baseline, and interviewed again at 6 (n = 4783 and 12 months (n = 4370. Mean age of participants at baseline was 12.4 years. Baseline sociodemographic, psychometric and behavioural characteristics did not significantly differ between the two study arms. The GEE analysis indicated that the intervention had a significant effect on sexual initiation in both sexes after controlling for clustering and correlated repeated measures. A significantly higher level of action planning to use condoms was reported among female adolescent in the intervention arm than those in the control arm (p = 0.042. An effect on condom use behaviour was observed among male

  10. Job satisfaction and turnover intentions among health care staff providing services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Naburi, Helga; Mujinja, Phares; Kilewo, Charles; Orsini, Nicola; Bärnighausen, Till; Manji, Karim; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sando, David; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Chalamila, Guerino; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2017-09-06

    Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV (i.e., lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV) was initiated in Tanzania in 2013. While there is evidence that this policy has benefits for the health of the mother and the child, Option B+ may also increase the workload for health care providers in resource-constrained settings, possibly leading to job dissatisfaction and unwanted workforce turnover. From March to April 2014, a questionnaire asking about job satisfaction and turnover intentions was administered to all nurses at 36 public-sector health facilities offering antenatal and PMTCT services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with job dissatisfaction and intention to quit one's job. Slightly over half (54%, 114/213) of the providers were dissatisfied with their current job, and 35% (74/213) intended to leave their job. Most of the providers were dissatisfied with low salaries and high workload, but satisfied with workplace harmony and being able to follow their moral values. The odds of reporting to be globally dissatisfied with one's job were high if the provider was dissatisfied with salary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-26.8), availability of protective gear (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-10.6), job description (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-14.7), and working hours (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.6). Perceiving clients to prefer PMTCT Option B+ reduced job dissatisfaction (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). The following factors were associated with providers' intention to leave their current job: job stability dissatisfaction (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.5), not being recognized by one's superior (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6), and poor feedback on the overall unit performance (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.8). Job dissatisfaction and turnover intentions are comparatively high among nurses in Dar es Salaam's public-sector maternal care

  11. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidanto, Hussein Lesio; Wangwe, Peter; Kilewo, Charles D; Nystrom, Lennarth; Lindmark, Gunnila

    2012-11-21

    Criteria-based audits (CBA) have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6%) with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004-2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base). A criteria-based audit (CBA) was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH) guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001), urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001), proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003), treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001), Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005), full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001), serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001), liver enzymes (4.0% vs. 86%; P=0.001), and specialist review within 2 hours of

  12. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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    Linda Beatrice Mlunde

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants' high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases.Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54-4.20, had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01-6.84, and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41-12.86.People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening

  13. The burden of co-existing dermatological disorders and their tendency of being overlooked among patients admitted to muhimbili national hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Chale Pauline NF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin diseases are underestimated and overlooked by most clinicians despite being common in clinical practice. Many patients are hospitalized with co-existing dermatological conditions which may not be detected and managed by the attending physicians. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of co-existing and overlooked dermatological disorders among patients admitted to medical wards of Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam. Study design and settings A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited from the medical wards. Detailed interview to obtain clinico-demographic characteristics was followed by a complete physical examination. Dermatological diagnoses were made mainly clinically. Appropriate confirmatory laboratory investigations were performed where necessary. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS program version 10.0. A p-value of Results Three hundred and ninety patients admitted to medical wards were enrolled into the study of whom, 221(56.7% were females. The mean age was 36.7 ± 17.9 (range 7-84 years. Overall, 232/390 patients (59.5% had co-existing dermatological disorders with 49% (191/390 having one, 9% (36/390 two and 5 patients (1% three. A wide range of co-existing skin diseases was encountered, the most diverse being non-infectious conditions which together accounted for 36.4% (142/390 while infectious dermatoses accounted for 31.5% (123/390. The leading infectious skin diseases were superficial fungal infections accounting for 18%. Pruritic papular eruption of HIV/AIDS (PPE and seborrheic eczema were the most common non-infectious conditions, each accounting for 4.3%. Of the 232/390 patients with dermatological disorders, 191/232 (82.3% and 154/232 (66.3% had been overlooked by their referring and admitting doctors respectively

  14. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services and its associated factors among primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kileo, Neema Minja; Michael, Denna; Neke, Nyasule Majura; Moshiro, Candida

    2015-12-15

    Worldwide cervical cancer is one of the more common forms of carcinoma among women, causing high morbidity and high mortality. Despite being a major health problem in Tanzania, screening services for cervical cancer are very limited, and uptake of those services is low. We therefore conducted a study to investigate utilization of cancer screening services, and its associated factors among female primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam. We conducted a cross-sectional study between May - August 2011 which involved 110 primary schools in Ilala Municipality in Dar es Salaam. Five hundred and twelve female primary school teachers were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Data on utilization of cervical cancer and risk factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Proportional utilization of cervical cancer screening services was identified through a self report. Risk factors for services utilization were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Out of 512 female primary school teachers, only 108 (21 %) reported to ever been screened for cervical cancer. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services was 28 % among those aged 20-29, 22 % among married and 24 % among those with higher level of education. Women were more likely to utilize the cancer-screening service if they were multiparous (age-adjusted OR = 3.05, 95 % CI 1.15-8.06, P value 0.025), or reported more than one lifetime sexual partner (age-adjusted OR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.04-4.54, P value 0.038), or did not involve their spouse in making health decisions (adjusted OR 3.56, 95 % CI 2.05-6.18, P value service among female primary school teachers in Ilala munipality. Female primary school teachers with more than one previous pregnancy and those with more than one life-time sex partners were more likely to report utilization of the service. Spouse or partners support was an important factor in the utilization of cervical cancer screening

  15. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

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    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs

  16. Social cognitive determinants of HIV voluntary counselling and testing uptake among married individuals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

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    Mtenga, Sally M; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-03-04

    Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended to identify the social cognitive factors associated with acceptance of HCT among married individuals. In a cross-sectional analytical study face to face questionnaires were administered among 200 randomly selected married individuals in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The questionnaire included self-reported HCT, socio-demographic variables and social cognitive variables (attitude, subjective norms, perceived control and perceived risk). Logistic regression was used to identify the independent association of social cognitive predictors of HCT among married individuals. Nearly half (42%) of the respondents had never had HCT. Of the social cognitive constructs, the strongest predictor of HCT uptake was attitude (OR per additional score point = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10) followed by perceived behavioural control (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06). Subjective norm and perceived risk were not associated with HCT uptake. Public health interventions targeting married individuals should be designed to enhance their positive attitude towards HCT and empower them to overcome barriers to the use of the services.

  17. Leveraging strong social ties among young men in Dar es Salaam: A pilot intervention of microfinance and peer leadership for HIV and gender-based violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina

    2016-12-01

    Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F.; Mdachi, S.J.M.; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  20. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

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    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  1. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: a case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, Edmund J; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Massila, Mariam

    2005-07-29

    Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics). In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  2. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  3. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  4. Patient Satisfaction At The Muhimbili National Hospital In Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient Satisfaction At The Muhimbili National Hospital In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. ... staffpatient relationship ethos, in which the patient is a viewed as a customer. Keywords: patient satisfaction, reform, Muhimbili National Hospital, referral ...

  5. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding by treating mothers with triple antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the Mitra Plus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilewo, Charles; Karlsson, Katarina; Ngarina, Matilda; Massawe, Augustine; Lyamuya, Eligius; Swai, Andrew; Lipyoga, Rosina; Mhalu, Fred; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2009-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to reduce breast-milk transmission of HIV-1 by treating HIV-1-infected women with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during breastfeeding. Mitra Plus was an open-label, nonrandomized, prospective cohort study. HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Dar es Salaam were treated with zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP). NVP was later replaced by nelfinavir for mothers with CD4 cell counts >200 cells per microliter or with adverse reaction to NVP. HAART was initiated at 34 weeks of gestation. For women with symptomatic HIV infection or CD4 cell counts below 200 cells per microliter, HAART was started earlier if possible. Treatment of the mothers was stopped at 6 months except for those mothers who needed HAART for their own health. The infants received ZDV + 3TC for 1 week after birth. Mothers were advised to exclusively breastfeed and to wean abruptly between 5 and 6 months. Transmission of HIV-1 was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival technique. Cox regression was used for comparison with the breastfeeding population of the Petra trial arm A. There were 441 infants included in the analysis of HIV-1 transmission. The cumulative transmission of HIV-1 was 4.1 % [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 6.0] at 6 weeks, 5.0% (95% CI: 2.9 to 7.1) at 6 months, and 6.0% (95% CI: 3.7 to 8.3) at 18 months after delivery. The cumulative risk of HIV transmission between 6 weeks and 6 months was 1.0% and between 6 months and 18 months 1.1%. The cumulative HIV infection or death rate was 8.6% (95% CI: 6.0 to 11.2) at 6 months and 13.6% (95% CI: 10.3 to 16.9) at 18 months after delivery. Viral load at enrollment and duration of HAART before delivery were significantly associated with transmission but CD4 cell count at enrollment was not. The median time of breastfeeding was 24 weeks. The transmission in the Mitra Plus study was about half of the transmission in the breastfeeding population in the Petra trial arm A at 6 months

  6. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  7. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  8. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

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    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococcus (GBS, which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3% as compared to the rectum (5%. Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier.

  9. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  10. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

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    Black Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005. Results Nineteen different artemisinin-containing oral pharmaceutical products, including one co-formulated product, one co-packaged product, and 17 monotherapies were identified. All but one of the products were legally registered and samples of each product were obtained without a prescription. Packaging and labeling of the products seldom included local language or illustrated instructions for low-literate clients. Packaging and inserts compared reasonably well with standards recommended by the national regulatory authority with some important exceptions. Dosing instructions were inconsistent, and most recommended inadequate doses based on international standards. None of the monotherapy products mentioned potential benefits of combining the treatment with another antimalarial drug. Conclusion The findings confirm the widespread availability of artemisinin monotherapies that led the World Health Organization to call for the voluntary withdrawal of these drugs in malaria-endemic countries. As the global public health community gathers resources to deploy artemisinin-containing combination therapies in Africa, planners should be mindful that these drugs will coexist with artemisinin monotherapies in an already well-established market place. In particular, regulatory authorities should be incorporated urgently into the process of planning for rational deployment of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies.

  11. Barriers and promoters of home-based pasteurization of breastmilk among HIV-infected mothers in greater Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera; Leshabari, Sebalda; Arkfeld, Chaele; Singler, Jennifer; Dantzer, Emily; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Mashio, Clara; Maternowska, Catherine; Chantry, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    For the past decade, heat-treating breastmilk has been an infant feeding option recommended by the World Health Organization as a strategy to reduce vertical transmission. However, little is known about field experiences with it. Our primary objective was to explore the barriers and promoters of the implementation of breastmilk pasteurization, "flash-heating" (FH), in the real-world setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in a home-based infant feeding counseling intervention in which FH was promoted after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, three focus group discussions were conducted with peer counselors. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded independently using NVivo 8 software (QSR International). Data were analyzed using the socioecological framework. Information and support provided by peer counselors were the most important promoters of initiation and continuation of FH; this impacted individual-, interpersonal-, and institutional-level promoters of success. Other promoters included perceived successful breastmilk expression, infant health after initiation of FH, and the inability to pay for replacement milks. Stigma was the most important barrier and cut across all levels of the framework. Other barriers included doubt about the safety or importance of pasteurized breastmilk, difficulties with expressing milk (often attributed to poor diet), and competing responsibilities. The most common suggestion for improving the uptake and duration of FH was community education. Given the acknowledged role of breastmilk pasteurization in the prevention of vertical transmission, further implementation research is needed. A multilevel intervention addressing barriers to FH would likely improve uptake.

  12. “Experiences with disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child”: Perspectives of healthcare providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Adellah Sariah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children’s cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers’ experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child. Methods A qualitative study involving 20 health care providers who attend HIV-positive children was conducted in September, 2014 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were selected from ten HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC by purposive sampling. An interview guide, translated into participants’ national language (Kiswahili was used during in-depth interviews. Sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The interviews focused on perspectives of health-care providers regarding their experience with paediatric HIV disclosure. Data from in-depth interviews were transcribed into text; data analysis followed qualitative content analysis. Results The results show how complex the process of disclosure to children living with HIV can be to healthcare providers. Confusion was noted among healthcare providers about their role and responsibility in the process of disclosing to the HIV infected child. This was reported to be largely due to unclear guidelines and lack of standardized training in paediatric HIV disclosure. Furthermore, healthcare providers were concerned about parental hesitancy to disclose early to the child due to lack of disclosure skills and fear of stigma. In order to improve the disclosure process in HIV infected children, healthcare providers recommended further standardized training on paediatric HIV disclosure with

  13. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

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    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  14. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  15. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

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    Fillinger Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs, recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047. Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016 and Culicine (P = 0.012: positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize

  16. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care

  17. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania: a prospective population-based study

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    Lengeler Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25–64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ≥ 160/95 mmHg at the initial contact, 253 (47% had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both. Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance. Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  18. Effect of Improved access to Antiretroviral Therapy on clinical characteristics of patients enrolled in the HIV care and treatment clinic, at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Swai Andrew B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa has been severely affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Global efforts at improving care and treatment has included scaling up use of antiretroviral therapy (ART. In Tanzania, HIV care and treatment program, including the provision of free ART started in 2004 with a pilot program at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. This study describes the socio-demographic and clinical features of patients enrolled at the care and treatment clinic at MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study looking at baseline characteristics of patients enrolled at the HIV clinic at MNH between June 2004 - Dec 2005 compared to those enrolled between 2006 and September 2008. Results Of all enrolled patients, 2408 (58.5% were used for analysis. More females than males were attending the clinic. Their baseline median CD4 cell count was low (136 cells/μl with 65.7% having below 200 cells/μl. Females had higher CD4 cell counts (150 cells/μl than males (109 cells/μl p Conclusion Patients enrolled to the MNH HIV clinic were predominantly females, and presented with advanced immune-deficiency. Improved access to HIV care and treatment services seems to be associated with patients' early presentation to the clinics in the course of HIV disease.

  19. Effect of improved access to antiretroviral therapy on clinical characteristics of patients enrolled in the HIV care and treatment clinic, at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugusi, Sabina F; Mwita, Julius C; Francis, Joel M; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Aris, Eric A; Swai, Andrew B; Mugusi, Ferdinand M; Pallangyo, Kisali; Sandstrom, Eric

    2010-05-28

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been severely affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. Global efforts at improving care and treatment has included scaling up use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Tanzania, HIV care and treatment program, including the provision of free ART started in 2004 with a pilot program at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. This study describes the socio-demographic and clinical features of patients enrolled at the care and treatment clinic at MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study looking at baseline characteristics of patients enrolled at the HIV clinic at MNH between June 2004-Dec 2005 compared to those enrolled between 2006 and September 2008. Of all enrolled patients, 2408 (58.5%) were used for analysis. More females than males were attending the clinic. Their baseline median CD4 cell count was low (136 cells/microl) with 65.7% having below 200 cells/microl. Females had higher CD4 cell counts (150 cells/microl) than males (109 cells/microl) p MNH HIV clinic were predominantly females, and presented with advanced immune-deficiency. Improved access to HIV care and treatment services seems to be associated with patients' early presentation to the clinics in the course of HIV disease.

  20. Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyahi, Joel; Moyo, Sabrina J; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Ndugulile, Faustine; Urassa, Willy; Blomberg, Bjørn; Langeland, Nina

    2017-04-17

    The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. We used E-test ESBL strips to test for ESBL-phenotype and PCR and sequencing for detection of ESBL genes. Overall 23.8% (41/172) of all isolates were ESBL-producers. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from hospital-acquired infections (32%, 27/84 than from community-acquired infections (16%, 14/88, p Enterobacteriaceae causing both hospital- and community-acquired infections in Tanzania.

  1. Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Sediments of Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Florida criteria (MacDonald 1993) for assessment of pollution of tropical marine sediments was adopted in oredr to evaluate the extent of pollution in Dar es Salaam harbour sediments. The Florida criteria is one of the established references for sediment quality assessment. Heavy metals that had concentrations above ...

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Commercial Drivers in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was, first, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial drivers in Dar es Salaam with regard to medicines that impair driving, and second, to evaluate the adequacy of antihistamine label information. Methods: Drivers were interviewed using a questionnaire after obtaining ...

  3. Vijana Vijiweni II: a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a microfinance and peer health leadership intervention for HIV and intimate partner violence prevention among social networks of young men in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Mwikoko, Gema; Yamanis, Thespina; Mulawa, Marta; Kajuna, Deus; Hill, Lauren; Conserve, Donaldson; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Leatherman, Sheila; Singh, Basant; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-02-03

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, remain important public health problems with devastating health effects for men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. There have been calls to engage men in prevention efforts, however, we lack effective approaches to reach and engage them. Social network approaches have demonstrated effective and sustained outcomes on changing risk behaviors in the U.S. Our team has identified and engaged naturally occurring social networks comprised mostly of young men in Dar es Salaam in an intervention designed to jointly reduce STI incidence and the perpetration of IPV. These stable networks are locally referred to as "camps." In a pilot study we demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a combined microfinance and peer health leadership intervention within these camp-based peer networks. We are implementing a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention combining microfinance with health leadership training in 60 camps in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Half of the camps have been randomized to the intervention arm, and half to a control arm. The camps in the intervention arm will receive a combined microfinance and health leadership intervention for a period of two years. The camps in the control arm will receive a delayed intervention. We have enrolled 1,258 men across the 60 study camps. Behavioral surveys will be conducted at baseline, 12-months post intervention launch and 30-month post intervention launch and biological samples will be drawn to test for Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) at baseline and 30-months. The primary endpoints for assessing intervention impact are IPV perpetration and STI incidence. This is the first cluster-randomized trial targeting social networks of men in sub-Saharan Africa that jointly addresses HIV and IPV perpetration and has both biological and behavioral endpoints. Effective

  4. The underlying reasons for very high levels of bed net use, and higher malaria infection prevalence among bed net users than non-users in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellemu, Daniel; Shemdoe, Aloysia; Makungu, Christina; Mlacha, Yeromini; Kannady, Khadija; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry F; Dillip, Angel

    2017-10-23

    Bed nets reduce malaria-related illness and deaths, by forming a protective barrier around people sleeping under them. When impregnated with long-lasting insecticide formulations they also repel or kill mosquitoes attempting to feed upon sleeping humans, and can even suppress entire populations of malaria vectors that feed predominantly upon humans. Nevertheless, an epidemiological study in 2012 demonstrated higher malaria prevalence among bed net users than non-users in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Focus group discussions were conducted with women from four selected wards of Dar es Salaam city, focusing on four major themes relating to bed net use behaviours: (1) reasons for bed net use, (2) reasons for not using bed nets, (3) stimuli or reminders for people to use a bed net (4) perceived reasons for catching malaria while using a bed net. An analytical method by framework grouping of relevant themes was used address key issues of relevance to the study objectives. Codes were reviewed and grouped into categories and themes. All groups said the main reason for bed net use was protection against malaria. Houses with well-screened windows, with doors that shut properly, and that use insecticidal sprays against mosquitoes, were said not to use bed nets, while frequent attacks from malaria was the main stimulus for people to use bed nets. Various reasons were mentioned as potential reasons that compromise bed net efficacy, the most common of which were: (1) bed net sharing by two or more people, especially if one occupant tends to come to bed late at night, and does not tuck in the net 71%; (2) one person shares the bed but does not use the net, moving it away from the side on which s/he sleeps 68%; (3) ineffective usage habits, called ulalavi, in which a sprawling sleeper either touches the net while sleeping up against it or leaves a limb hanging outside of it 68%. Less common reasons mentioned included: (1) Small bed nets which become un-tucked at night (31%); (2

  5. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus attending the paediatric HIV care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munubhi Emmanuel K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased availability of antibiotics and antifungal agents hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are becoming a cause for significant concern in HIV infected children. We determined the seroprevalence and risk factors for HBV and HCV among HIV infected children aged 18 months to 17 years, attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Investigations included; interviews, physical examination and serology for HBsAg, IgG antibodies to HCV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. HIV serostatus and CD4 counts were obtained from patient records. Results 167 HIV infected children, 88(52.7% males and 79(47.3% females were enrolled. The overall prevalence of hepatitis co-infection was 15%, with the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV being 1.2% and 13.8%, respectively. Hepatitis virus co-infection was not associated with any of the investigated risk factors and there was no association between HBV and HCV. Elevated ALT was associated with hepatitis viral co-infection but not with ART usage or immune status. Conclusion The high seroprevalence (15% of hepatitis co-infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatrics HIV CTC at the MNH calls for routine screening of hepatitis viral co-infection and modification in the management of HIV infected children.

  6. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarina, Matilda; Tarimo, Edith A M; Naburi, Helga; Kilewo, Charles; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2014-01-01

    The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART) either for infants (Option A) or mothers (Option B) during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+) irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  7. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Ngarina

    Full Text Available The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+.Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided.Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  8. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination

  9. Management of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam: diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein and newborn scale of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance pattern of etiological bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkony, Martha Franklin; Mizinduko, Mucho Michael; Massawe, Augustine; Matee, Mecky

    2014-12-05

    We determined the accuracy of Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis and C- reactive protein in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and assessed antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of etiological bacteria. This cross sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July 2012 and March 2013. Neonates suspected to have sepsis underwent physical examination using Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis (RNSOS). Blood was taken for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing, full blood picture and C - reactive protein (CRP) performed 12 hours apart. The efficacy of RNSOS and serial CRP was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as well as likelihood ratios (LHR) with blood culture result used as a gold standard. Out of 208 blood samples, 19.2% had a positive blood culture. Single CRP had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.9% respectively, while RNSOS had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 79.7%. Serial CRP had sensitivity of 69.0% and specificity of 92.9%. Combination of CRP and RNSOS increased sensitivity to 95.6% and specificity of 56.4%. Combination of two CRP and RNSOS decreased sensitivity to 89.1% but increased specificity to 74%. ROC for CRP was 0.86; and for RNSOS was 0.81. For CRP the LHR for positive test was 3 while for negative test was 0.18, while for RNSOS the corresponding values were 3.24 and for negative test was 0.43. Isolated bacteria were Klebsiella spp 14 (35%), Escherichia coli 12 (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphlococci 9 (30%), Staphylococcus aureus 4 (10%), and Pseudomonas spp 1 (2.5%). The overall resistance to the WHO recommended first line antibiotics was 100%, 92% and 42% for cloxacillin, ampicillin and gentamicin, respectively. For the second line drugs resistance was 45%, 40%, and 7% for ceftriaxone, vancomycin and amikacin respectively. Single CRP in combination with RNSOS can be used for rapid

  10. Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical students.

  11. Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A section of correspondence should follow soon after the abstract and should consist of the name of the author and his/her address. The abstract should be structured and include sections on objectives, design, settings, participants, main outcome measures, results and conclusion. Full articles should include the following ...

  12. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Household Budget Survey (HBS) data covering many households' characteristics was used. Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was applied to ...

  13. The effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was carried out to assess the effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle. Trypanosome infection was monitored in free grazing dairy cattle before and after El Nino in Dar es Salaam. The study involved 49 smallholder dairy herds with a total of 570 dairy cattle. Trypanosomes were identified by ...

  14. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and water in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Environmental Science and Management, Ardhi University, P. O. Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Accepted 20 ... opportunities, demand for food, proximity to markets and ... serious environmental and public health effects. One of ... concentrations they can lead to poisoning (Cambra et al.,. 1999).

  15. Homeowner's Architectural Responses to Crime in Dar Es Salaan : Its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management

    OpenAIRE

    Bulamile, Ludigija Boniface

    2009-01-01

    HTML clipboardThis study is about Homeowner’s architectural responses to crime in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management. The study explores and examines the processes through which homeowners respond to crimes of burglary, home robbery and fear of it using architectural or physical elements. The processes are explored and examined using case study methodology in three cases in Dar es Salaam. The cases are residentia...

  16. Evaluation of a community health worker intervention and the World Health Organization's Option B versus Option A to improve antenatal care and PMTCT outcomes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled health systems implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, David; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Magesa, Lucy; Lema, Irene Andrew; Machumi, Lameck; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Li, Nan; Spiegelman, Donna; Mungure, Ester; Siril, Hellen; Mujinja, Phares; Naburi, Helga; Chalamilla, Guerino; Kilewo, Charles; Ekström, Anna Mia; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Bärnighausen, Till W

    2014-09-15

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV remains an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. As HIV testing and linkage to PMTCT occurs in antenatal care (ANC), major challenges for any PMTCT option in developing countries, including Tanzania, are delays in the first ANC visit and a low overall number of visits. Community health workers (CHWs) have been effective in various settings in increasing the uptake of clinical services and improving treatment retention and adherence. At the beginning of this trial in January 2013, the World Health Organization recommended either of two medication regimens, Option A or B, for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). It is still largely unclear which option is more effective when implemented in a public healthcare system. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of: (1) a community health worker (CWH) intervention and (2) PMTCT Option B in improving ANC and PMTCT outcomes. This study is a cluster-randomized controlled health systems implementation trial with a two-by-two factorial design. All 60 administrative wards in the Kinondoni and Ilala districts in Dar es Salaam were first randomly allocated to either receiving the CHW intervention or not, and then to receiving either Option B or A. Under the standard of care, facility-based health workers follow up on patients who have missed scheduled appointments for PMTCT, first through a telephone call and then with a home visit. In the wards receiving the CHW intervention, the CHWs: (1) identify pregnant women through home visits and refer them to antenatal care; (2) provide education to pregnant women on antenatal care, PMTCT, birth, and postnatal care; (3) routinely follow up on all pregnant women to ascertain whether they have attended ANC; and (4) follow up on women who have missed ANC or PMTCT appointments. ClinicalTrials.gov: EJF22802. Registration date: 14 May 2013.

  17. Moessbauer Spectroscopy at the University of Dar Es Salaam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwanga, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A recently acquired facility for Moessbauer spectroscopy is described. Test results on samples of an iron ore and a steel corrosion product are given. It is deduced that the iron ore contained hematite (alpha-Fe203) constituting 41.5%, magnetite (Fe 304) constituting of 39.5% and two doublet phases: a paramagnetic Fe 3+ phase constituting 4.8% and a paramagnetic Fe 2+ phase constituting 14.2%. The steel corrosion product seems to be entirely composed of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH). The results obtained are in excellent agreement with the literature data with regard to the identified iron compounds. It is concluded that the facility including the data processing computer programs which are essentially home-made is capable of producing very high quality research findings. (author)

  18. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine the levels of microbial contamination, heavy metals and persistent ... chemical and cosmetic production; metal ... Mean (± SD) concentration of (a) copper, lead and nickel (b) chromium and zinc, and (c) cadmium ...

  19. Design challenges facing urban development in Dar es Salaam City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper shows that in order for the resources to be deployed sustainable ... of environmentally friendly building materials, designs must take into account local ... housing construction in low-income informal settlements which in most urban ...

  20. The Pattern of Mortality in Dar es Salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Results: The study involved 1462 graves with 741 (50.7%) being of males. Mortality in underfives (0-4) was 11.1%, 7.7% in 5-19 years, 55.1% in 20-49 years while 12.5% comprised of above 65 years age group. Mortality trend was high among underfives then decreased at 5-19 age groups and again increased up to 30-34 ...

  1. (IMTU) PO BOX 77594, Dar es salaam Tan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-06

    Jul 6, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Health services for the elderly are very crucial for these people have unique diseases which need special attention and treatment. Objectives: To study the awareness , acceptability and utilization of health services by the elderly people at Tandale Dispensary, Kinondoni.

  2. Urethral Stricture as seen in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    urethritis have increasingly been incriminated as a major etiological factor of inflammatory urethral stricture especially in the developed world. Organisms which fall in this group include. Ureaplasma (T-strain), Mycoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Haemophilus vaginalis, Herpes simplex virus type II, ...

  3. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warned; if transgressions continued, male community members punished the ... lynching is a spontaneous reaction to deviance and vigilantism is an organised activity. ... Violence in this context is a collective community action arising against individuals or small groups ..... stealing and did not move away, he would be killed.

  4. Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries among Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...

  5. Homicide of children in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania | Outwater | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results:The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05 per 100,000. The rate of early neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000 while the rate of homicide incidence for children older than one week was 0.54 per 100,000. Discussion: The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under ...

  6. Corresponding Author, Box 77594, Dar es Salaam, Tan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    syphilis and HIV antibodies by using commercial rapid test. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained prior to the enrolment in the study. Results:- A total of 252 pregnant women were recruited and the HBV seroprevalence was. 3.6%, while seroprevalence of HIV and syphilis were 4.1% and 3.1%, respectively.

  7. Intussusception in children seen at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intussusception in children seen at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es salaam. ... its magnitude of concern and any seasonal variation in our environment. ... majority of the children present late, >48 hours from the onset of symptoms and ...

  8. Managing Informal Settlements : A Study Using Geo-Information in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šliužas, Ričardas Vytautas

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often associated with the urbanization of poverty, and with the extensive development of informal settlements. This thesis examines how Geographic Information Technology (GIT) could be used to improve the ability of local governments in SSA manage such

  9. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 12, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Participatory Forest Management as a Strategy for Sustainability of Kazimzumbwi and Pugu Forest Reserves, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E. M. Mkhai, J. Nawe, P.A. Manda, 3-11 ...

  10. Patient satisfaction at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhondwa, E P Y; Leshabari, M T; Mwangu, M; Mbembati, N; Ezekiel, M J

    2008-08-01

    Patients are the primary beneficiaries of the services and care that hospitals provide. The Patient Satisfaction study examined the extent to which patients at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) were satisfied with the services and care they received at MNH. This was part of a baseline study that sought to determine the level of performance of the hospital before massive restructuring, reform, and renovations were undertaken. Exit interviews were the main research method used to determine patient satisfaction. Patients were interviewed as they were leaving the OPD clinics, laboratory, X-ray, pharmacy and inpatient wards. The study found that most patients were satisfied with the services and care they received. This high level of satisfaction must be viewed within the context of a hierarchical public health care delivery system, with MNH at the apex. The services and care MNH provides can only be excellent compared to that provided by lower level health facilities. Indeed, patients covered by this study perceived the services provided by MNH as superior, and this was reflected in the high level of satisfaction they reported. Some patients expressed dissatisfaction with specific aspects of the services that they received. They were particularly dissatisfied with long waiting times before receiving services, the high costs of treatment and investigations charged at MNH, poor levels of hygiene in the wards, and negative attitudes of staff towards patients. Although only a small proportion of patients expressed dissatisfaction with these aspects of the services provided, they are significant in that they constitute a call for action by the MNH management to encourage the health personnel to embrace a new staff-patient relationship ethos, in which the patient is a viewed as a customer.

  11. A Bibliometric Study Of Research On Dar Es Salaam Region: 1980 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... large proportion of research 1076 (62.8%) is unpublished; 58.8 % of authors are male, 32.19% are female; generally there is low level of authors' productivity and collaboration. New emerging research areas are: gender and women studies, electrical engineering, hydraulic engineering, mining engineering and geology.

  12. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein

    2016-11-01

    Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.

  13. Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal - Vol 19, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs: clearing the charges, exploring the potential! EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Maryam Amour, Judith Boshe, 34-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dmsj.v19i1.7 ...

  14. Spatial variation of transit service quality preferences in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van den Bosch, F.H.M.; van den Bosch, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Commuter preferences for transit service quality are of great importance to transit service providers and regulatory agencies. The point of view of potential passengers is fundamental for evaluating transit service quality as they are envisaged to be the real consumers of the planned services and

  15. Understanding women's experiences of distress during pregnancy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, S F; Mbwambo, J K; Fawzi, M C Smith; Van Den Borne, H; Schaalma, H; Leshabari, M T

    2010-01-01

    Several studies show depression is common during pregnancy. However, there is limited information in Tanzania on the magnitude of perceived distress during pregnancy and meanings ascribed to such distress. A descriptive survey collected data using unstructured interviews from 12 traditional practitioners and 10 peri-urban women with previous pregnancy related mental health concerns identified using a depression vignette. The objectives were to describe the sources and characteristics of distress during pregnancy, and idioms of distress that could inform cultural adaptation of depression screening tools. Narrative analysis showed an emergent category of "problematic pregnancies" framed women's recollections of prolonged periods of sadness. This experience was qualified using various idioms of distress that were differentially emphasized depending on informant's perceived causes of health concern. The idiom kusononeka was consistently used to describe extreme sadness across causal categories and clustered with at least two typical features of major depression. This suggested existence of a construct with similarities to biomedical criteria for depression. "Thinking too much" emerged as a distinctive expression associated with prolonged sadness. Distinctive expressions of social functioning impairments were identified that can inform depression severity assessments. In conclusion, contextual inquiry into experiences of psychological distress showed distinct local idioms that clustered in patterns similar to symptoms of biomedical depressive episodes. Further studies to assess the utility of local idioms of distress and distress related functional impairment in depression assessment tools are warranted.

  16. Renal abnormalities among HIV infected children at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH)-Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Francis; Francis, Joel M; Ruggajo, Paschal J; Maro, Eden E

    2016-03-21

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is a multisystem disease that contributes to significant morbidity. Renal involvement is reported to be common among patients with HIV. This study was carried out to determine renal involvement using simple bedside tests combined with ultrasonography examination. We recruited 240 children from the HIV clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and included demographic, clinical information, radiological tests; renal ultrasound and laboratory tests; serum creatinine, white blood cells, CD4+ counts and percent, urine for microalbuminuria and proteinuria. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were present in 20.4 % and 7.1 % respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (p < 0.01) and proteinuria p < 0.01) were noted with low CD4 percent (<25 %). Lower mean CD4+ count were noted among children with microalbuminuria [937.4 ± 595.3 cells/μL vs 1164.7 ± 664.3 cell/μL, (p < 0.05)] and proteinuria [675.5 ± 352.3 cells/μL vs 1152 ± 662 cells/μL (p < 0.001)]. Fourteen (5.8 %) HIV infected children had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of 30-59) consistent with severe renal impairment. Increased cortical echogenicity was noted in 69/153 (39.2 %) of participants who had ultrasound examination. Microalbuminuria, proteinuria and renal dysfunction were noted to be prevalent among HIV infected children indicating the need to consider routine screening of renal complications in these children.

  17. Risky sexual practices among youth attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhalu F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. Methods Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections. Urethral, high vaginal and cervical swabs were screened for common STI agents. Results A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years (p Conclusion Most female youth seen at the STI clinic had their first sexual intercourse with older males. Youth were engaging in high risk unprotected sexual practices which were predisposing them to STIs and unplanned pregnancies. There is a great need to establish more youth-friendly reproductive health clinics, encourage consistent and correct use of condoms, delay in sexual debut and avoid older sexual partners in females.

  18. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib

    2012-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Women who are widowed/separated, of high parity, of low education and married at a young age are more likely to be VIA positive and thus at risk of developing cervical cancer. The study further documents that a referral linkage between the HIV care and treatment program and the cervical cancer...... screening program is in place in the setting studied, where HIV positive were more likely to participate in the cervical cancer screening program than HIV negative women.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the countries in the world where the cervical cancer incidence is estimated to be highest. Acknowledging an increase in the burden of cervical cancer, VIA was implemented as a regional cervical cancer screening strategy in Tanzania in 2002. With the aim...

  19. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 11, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception on Adoption and Application of Web 2.0 Technologies in Selected Academic Libraries in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Kelefa Mwantimwa, Alice Nkhoma-Wamunza, 17-30 ...

  20. MANAGING FLOOD RISKS: LESSONS FROM KEKO MACHUNGWA INFORMAL SETTLEMENT IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tumpale Sakijege Sakijege

    2013-01-01

    Globally, world urban population has been increasing and by 2050 it is expected to reach 70% of the world population. This is a challenge because new settlements are emerging and most of them are taking place informally in developing countries. Forms of urbanization in developing countries are not in favor of poor people. As a result, majorities are forced to reside informally in areas prone to natural hazards in general and floods in particular. Literatures prove that informal...

  1. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 9, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information And Communication Technologies (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation: Challenges For Developing Countries · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Effective Poster Design For Information Dissemination: The Ethics Promotion Project In ...

  2. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 6, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library and information provision for distance learners in Tanzania: some research and evaluation areas to be considered · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Alli A.S. Mcharazo, 33-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/udslj.v6i2.26622 ...

  3. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  4. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    As a multifunctional activity and land use, urban agriculture supports a range of objectives, from urban greening to food security. However, it is often left out of urban policy. As a result of the highly contextual and cross-cutting nature of urban agriculture, there are relatively few comprehen...

  5. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 3, No 1-2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'Alexandrian' library, digital resources, and the shrinking public domain: a critique of the current model for delivering academic information in Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Darch. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/udslj.v3i1-2.53491 ...

  6. Smoking among in-school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than cigarettes, having some pocket money and having been offered free cigarettes by a ..... Smoking during pregnancy affects speech-processing ability in newborn infants. ... adolescents in Malaysia: a cross sectional Malaysian survey.

  7. Maternal mortality at muhimbili national hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in the year 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pembe, A.B.; Paulo, C.; D'mello, B.S.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improving maternal health is one of the eight millennium development goals adopted at the millennium summit in the year 2000. Within this frame work, the international community is committed to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The objective of this study

  8. Sexual history and contraception among women with induced and spontaneous abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... the rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common...

  9. Lung functions among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, Mohamed; Shayo, Grace; Mamuya, Simon; Mpembeni, Rose; Jusabani, Ahmed; Mugusi, Ferdinand

    2016-04-23

    Approximately 40-60 % of patients remain sufferers of sequela of obstructive, restrictive or mixed patterns of lung disease despite treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The prevalence of these abnormalities in Tanzania remains unknown. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 501 patients with PTB who had completed at least 20 weeks of treatment. These underwent spirometry and their lung functions were classified as normal or abnormal (obstructive, restrictive or mixed). Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with abnormal lung functions. Abnormal lung functions were present in 371 (74 %) patients. There were 210 (42 %) patients with obstructive, 65 (13 %) patients with restrictive and 96 (19 %) patients with mixed patterns respectively. Significant factors associated with abnormal lung functions included recurrent PTB (Adj OR 2.8, CI 1.274 - 6.106), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative status (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.055 - 2.583), age more than 40 years (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.080 - 2.804) and male sex (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.123 - 2.614). The prevalence of abnormal lung functions is high and it is associated with male sex, age older than 40 years, recurrent PTB and HIV negative status.

  10. Microbial quality of drinking water in Dar es Salaam and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this, prevalence of waterborne diseases like cholera, dysentery and typhoid are still high. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Waterguard® in disinfecting drinking water, and determine the level of fecal coliform contamination of water from four sources viz. taps, streams, shallow wells and ...

  11. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal - Vol 7, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access and use of information by primary health care providers in rural Uganda: an interaction-value model · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Health Information Systems (HIS), the internet and telemedicine in the delivery of health care in Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Anaemia in women of reproductive age in Tanzania : A study in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Massawe, Siriel Nanzia

    2002-01-01

    The overall aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age and to investigate the underlying causes, as well as assess the effectiveness of antenatal care (ANC) interventions for anaemia prevention. Consecutive pregnant women booking for ANC (n=2235) were screened for anaemia, followed up and screened again late in pregnancy. Basic ANC interventions included iron and folate supplementation, malaria chemoprophylaxis and referral of severe anaemia cas...

  13. Aggression; a Paradoxical pathology of the mind | Kitapondya | Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Aggression; a Paradoxical pathology of the mind.

  14. Bedside ultrasound training at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Hospital San Carlos in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri A. Reynolds

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: Introducing bedside ultrasound training in two distinct resource-limited settings was feasible and well-received. After a brief intensive period of training, participants successfully passed a comprehensive examination, including demonstration of standardised image acquisition and accurate interpretation of normal and abnormal studies.

  15. Compliance and quality control monitoring of diagnostic X-ray facilities in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania

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    Nkuba, Leonid L.; Nyanda, Pendo B., E-mail: leonid.nkuba@taec.or.tz [Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Control Directorate, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    The compliance evaluation and quality control measurements on 60 diagnostic X-ray units were performed. The results on legal compliance show that 25 % of X-ray facilities operated without or with an expired license. The rest of the centers were new and had already applied for license and others had valid licenses. For basic requirements compliance, 47 % of X-ray facilities did not have the changing cubicles, 37 % of X-ray facilities did not post radiation warning sign and symbols also 46 % of units were found either without protective gear or operated by unqualified personnel. The QC test results showed that 93 % had X-ray tube voltage within the tolerance limit of 10 % and HVL ≥ 2.3 mmAl, at 80 kV was observed in 98.2 % of the units, whereas 98 % of exposure had acceptable kV reproducibility within the tolerance limit of 5 %. Of the X-ray generators assessed, 93 % had tolerable mAs linearity. 93 % and 97 % had acceptable beam alignment and light beam diaphragm. Of the assessed units, 13 (93 %) had tube leakage < 1000 μGy/hr at 1m. For shielding tests, 47 % of units had radiation levels above 0.5 μSv/hr at the main door leading to the X-ray rooms and the registration area. The dose rates > 10 μSv/hr were recorded at viewing windows, walls and doors of control cubicles and behind the doors of changing cubicles. These dose rates indicating higher health risk to workers and member of public. (author)

  16. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisara Mhode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV. Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  17. Socio-economic and partner relationship factors associated with antenatal depressive morbidity among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, S F; Mbwambo, J K; Kilonzo, G P; Van Den Borne, H; Leshabari, M T; Fawzi, M C Smith; Schaalma, H

    2010-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy may negatively influence social functioning, birth outcomes and postnatal mental health. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline survey of a prospective study was undertaken with an objective of determining the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with depressive morbidity during pregnancy in a Tanzanian peri-urban setting. Seven hundred and eighty seven second to third trimester pregnant women were recruited at booking for antenatal care at two primary health care clinics. Prenatal structured interviews assessed socio-economic, quality of partner relationships and selected physical health measures. Depressive symptoms were measured at recruitment and three and eight months postpartum using the Kiswahili version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Completed antenatal measures available for 76.2% participants, showed a 39.5% prevalence of depression. Having a previous depressive episode (OR 4.35, Ppartner (OR 1.89, Peconomic measures. In conclusion, clinically significant depressive symptoms are common in mid and late trimester antenatal clinic attendees. Interventions for early recognition of depression should target women with a history of previous depressive episodes or low satisfaction with ability to access basic needs, conflict in partner relationships and relatively earlier booking for antenatal care. Findings support a recommendation that antenatal services consider integrating screening for depression in routine antenatal care.

  18. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    postabortion contraception. Follow-up information was obtained 12 months after the abortion among 59 percent of the women. Among these, 79 percent of the married women and 84 percent of the single women stated they were using contraception at 12 months. Condom use among the single women increased significantly...... contraceptive service intervention among women admitted with complications from unsafe abortions and to explore the women's long-term contraceptive adherence. METHODS: 392 women having experienced unsafe abortion were identified by an empathetic approach and offered postabortion contraceptive service, which...... included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...

  19. Factors associated with women’s intention to request caesarean delivery in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kamala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the past decade, the rate of caesarean section (CS has increased dramatically in many parts of the world. At Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH there has been a dramatic rise in the caesarean section rate over the past decade.Objective. To determine the incidence of maternal request for CS and factors associated with intention to request caesarean section at the MNH antenatal clinic.Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from August to October 2014. A structured questionnaire gathered participants’ background and obstetric information, perceptions and opinions regarding a request for caesarean section, and the respective reasons for the request. Confidence intervals were calculated and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results. The incidence of CS on maternal request was about 6%. The intention to request for CS in the index pregnancy was 8%. Higher-level education and formal-sector employment had higher odds for requesting CS (p=0.01 and p=0.05, respectively. Half of the participants agreed that maternal request for CS should be allowed; more private patients agreed that it could affect the doctor-patient relationship (p=0.02; more private patients agreed that request for CS was due to fear of losing a child (p=0.03. Previous history of CS was an independent predictor of maternal request for caesarean section (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.7 - 15.4 and (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.6 - 20.1, respectively.Conclusion. Maternal requests for CS exist at the national referral hospital in Tanzania. This was associated with factors other than women’s preferences, including perceived fear of child loss and events associated with previous CS.

  20. Patient satisfaction with health care services provided at HIV clinics at Amana and Muhimbili hospitals in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagashe, G A B; Rwebangila, F

    2011-08-01

    Since the establishment of free HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in Tanzania a lot of research has been done to assess how health care providers discharge their duties in these clinics. Little research however has been done regarding satisfaction of HIV patients with free health care services provided. To determine satisfaction of HIV patients with health care services provided at the HIV clinics and specifically, to determine patients' satisfaction with the general physical environment of the clinic and with services offered by doctors, nurses, laboratory, and pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) and Amana hospital. A total of 375 patients attending outpatient HIV clinics were selected randomly and interviewed using a questionnaire, after obtaining a verbal consent. Data collected was analyzed using Epi-info program version 6. Patients at Amana Hospital clinic were either very satisfied (44.3%) or satisfied (55.7%) and none were unsatisfied, while at MNH clinic 1.1% patients were very satisfied while (94.7%) were satisfied and (4.2%) were unsatisfied with health care services provided. Lack of privacy when consulting with doctors and the dispenser contributed to patients' unsatisfaction with the services. Most of the participants were satisfied with the services provided at the two clinics. However at MNH, a few patients were unsatisfied due to lack of privacy during consultation with doctors and with the pharmacy services.

  1. A community-based study on prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction among Kinondoni District Residents, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Nicholaus, Paulina; Kisenge, Peter; Mayala, Henry; Swai, Noel; Janabi, Mohamed

    2016-11-29

    Globally, erectile dysfunction burden (ED) is rising appreciably and it is projected to affect about 332 million men by the year 2025. This rise is attributable to the rising incidence of conditions associated with ED including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and depression. We conducted this community-based screening to elucidate on the prevalence of ED and its associated factors among men residing in an urban community in Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study and interviewed 441 men aged at least 18 years. Diabetes and hypertension were defined as per the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) respectively. The 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Scale was used to assess for erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with ED. The mean age was 47.1 years, 57.6 % had excess body weight, 8.2 % had diabetes and 61.5 % had high blood pressure. Overall, 24 % (106/441) of men in this study had some form of ED. Participants with age ≥55, positive smoking history, obesity, diabetes and hypertension displayed highest rates of ED in their respective subgroups. However, age ≥40 and diabetes were ultimately the strongest factors for ED after multivariate logistic regression analyses, (OR 5.0, 95 % CI 2.2-11.2, p Erectile dysfunction affects about a quarter of adult men living in Kinondoni district. Old age, obesity, smoking, hypertension and diabetes have the potential to increase the odds of ED up-to 5 times. In view of this, men with diabetes and hypertension should be offered screening services and treatment of ED as an integral component in their management.

  2. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the live...

  3. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  4. The First Master Program in Petroleum Geology at the University of Dar es Salaam : Lessons and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.; Boniface, N.; De Bresser, H.P.; Manya, S.; Nkotagu, H.; Ruitenbeek, F.

    2015-01-01

    The UDSM, supported by group of geoscientists from Universities of the Netherlands has been able to establish the first Master program in Petroleum Geology of the country. With the crucial financial support of BG-Group 13 students has enrolled for the program. Courses have been given in the first

  5. Toward the networked city? : Translating technological ideals and planning models in water and sanitation systems in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstadt, J.; Schramm, S.

    One of the most influential ideals for constructing and managing cities and infrastructures worldwide is that of the ‘networked city'. This ideal refers to the technological design and morphology of cities integrated and ordered by infrastructure networks and to a specific model in the operation,

  6. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls...

  7. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug. Implementation of ACT-based treatment guidelines must be complemented with educational campaigns to insure that mothers seek prompt help for their children within 24 hours of the onset of fever. Improved communication between health care providers and mothers of sick children can facilitate better adherence to ALu's recommended dosage. Community level interpretations of anti-malarials are multifaceted; integrating knowledge of local beliefs and practices surrounding consumption of anti-malarials into programmatic goals can help to significantly improve malaria control interventions.

  8. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyamuya, Eligius F; Aboud, Said; Urassa, Willy K; Sufi, Jaffer; Mbwana, Judica; Ndugulile, Faustin; Massambu, Charles

    2009-02-18

    Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Five rapid HIV assays: Determine HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical), SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), First Response HIV Card 1-2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd), HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc) and Uni-Gold HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech) were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics). Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold was 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9) and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7-98.9), respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6-100) while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9), 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8-99.7), 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9) and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3-99.9) for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold, Determine and SD Bioline assays. An alternative confirmatory HIV testing strategy based on initial testing on either SD Bioline or Determine assays followed by testing of reactive samples on the Determine or SD Bioline gave 100% sensitivity (95% CI; 99.1-100) and 100% specificity (95% CI; 96-99.1) with Uni-Gold as tiebreaker for discordant results.

  9. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold™, Determine and SD Bioline assays. Conclusion An alternative confirmatory HIV testing strategy based on initial testing on either SD Bioline or Determine assays followed by testing of reactive samples on the Determine or SD Bioline gave 100% sensitivity (95% CI; 99.1–100 and 100% specificity (95% CI; 96–99.1 with Uni-Gold™ as tiebreaker for discordant results.

  10. The extension of Ubungo power plant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to a combined cycle - A prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinneland, L; Oehrstroem, K

    1996-05-01

    The report deals with the consequences concerning a future extension of Ubungo Power Plant. Today the power plant consists of four gas turbines, two of model General Electric LM6000 and two of model ABB Stal GT10 of which the latter were the ones focused on. In the report four different applications are presented; Simple two pressure system, Two pressure system with reheat, Two pressure system with heat exchange between feedwater and condensate, and single pressure system with an additional evaporating loop. The calculations are divided into three sections; thermodynamic calculations, calculations of the heat exchanger surface areas, and economic calculations. From the thermodynamic calculations the applications with the highest thermal efficiency was selected. The power output increased with about 55% and the thermal efficiency of the complete combined cycle is 48.2%. This is, of course, a theoretical value calculated without consideration to a number of losses that will decrease both the power output and the thermal efficiency. At part load (50% load assumed, i.e. one gas turbine is operating) the thermal efficiency is 46.7%. The economic calculations indicated that the extension is highly worthwhile in an economic point of view; both cases studied have a payback time of less than six years for full load operation, provided that the charging system which is to be imposed by the World Bank has come into force. 18 refs, 33 figs

  11. Conditions and opportunities for green infrastructure – Aiming for green, water-resilient cities in Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Backhaus, Antje; Fryd, Ole

    2018-01-01

    capacity based on interviews and workshops with key urban stakeholders. A top-down master planning paradigm combined with a green institutional framework preoccupied with beautification seem to block possibilities of supporting and integrating GI experiments coming from outside the regime. The master plans...... agriculture authorities but also large land owners, informal settlers, urban farmers and local organisations are needed. Solutions must be attractive also for the actual green space managers − the individual plot- and condominium owners and local groups. Local niche experiments linking up to on-going coping...

  12. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Simon, E.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+

  13. Clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, treatment and diagnoses of febrile children presenting to the emergency department at Muhimbili national hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Ringo*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: A wide range of presentations and management were documented. There was a high rate of positive diagnostic test results. Malaria and pneumonia were top diagnoses, but a wide range of infections were diagnosed.

  14. Cervical cytological changes in HIV-infected patients attending care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan countries mostly affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, females being more vulnerable than males. HIV infected women appear to have a higher rate of persistent infection by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV strongly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cervical carcinoma. Furthermore, although HIV infection and cervical cancer are major public health problems, the frequency and HIV/HPV association of cervical cancer and HSIL is not well documented in Tanzania, thus limiting the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods A prospective unmatched, case-control study of HIV-seropositive, ≥ 18 years of age and consenting non-pregnant patients attending the care and treatment center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hoospital (MNH as cases was done between 2005 and 2006. HIV seronegative, non-pregnant and consenting women recruited from the Cervical Cancer Screening unit (CCSU at ORCI were used as controls while those who did not consent to study participation and/or individuals under Results A total of 170 participants from the two centers were recruited including 50 HIV-seronegative controls were from the CCSU. Ages ranged from 20-66 years (mean 40.5 years for cases and 20-69 years (mean 41.6 years for controls. The age group 36-45 years was the most affected by HIV (39.2%, n = 47. Cervicitis, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and carcinoma constituted 28.3% (n = 34, 38.3% (n = 46 and 5.8% (n = 7 respectively among cases, and 28% (n = 14, 34% (n = 17 and 2% (n = 1 for controls, although this was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.61. IHC showed that p53 was not detectable in HPV + Pap smears and cell blocks indicating possible degradation. Conclusions The frequency of SIL and carcinoma appeared to be higher among HIV-infected women on HAART compared to seronegative controls and as expected increased with age. HIV seropositive patients appeared to present earlier with SIL compared to those HIV seronegative suggesting a role of HIV in altering the natural history of HPV infection and cervical lesions. The absence of p53 immunoreactivity in HPV + lesions is indicative of the ability of HPV E6 proteins to interact with the tumor suppressor gene and pave way for viral-induced oncogenesis in the studied Tanzanian women.

  15. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children receiving HAART. The occurrence of oral lesions, in both HAART and non-HAART patients, correlated with WHO clinical staging and CD4+ less than 200 cells/mm3.

  16. Characterization of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in tissues of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakigonja, Amos Rodger; Lushina, Nyanda Elias; Mwanga, Ally

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths among women worldwide. In Tanzania there is no published data on human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2/neu) expression in breast carcinoma. Hormonal receptors and HER2/neu status reportedly influence post-mastectomy adjuvant therapy and predict treatment outcome and prognosis. Here we evaluate hormonal receptors and HER-2 status in biopsies of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). A cross-sectional study of female breast post-modified radical mastectomy (MRM)/incisional biopsies confirmed to be carcinoma at the Histopathology Unit (January-December 2013). Tissue blocks having poor morphology, without tumor, secondary tumors, cases outside the study period and male patients were excluded. Routine staining was done followed by immunohistochemistry for estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PgR) receptors and HER2. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 218 cases were confirmed to be carcinoma including 70 meeting inclusion criteria. Age at diagnosis ranged 18-75 years and mean age was 48.36 years. Majority (64.3%) were in the 36-55 years age-group. Histologically, most (88.6%) women had invasive ductal carcinoma including 43.1% of intermediate grade. A great majority (78%) were stage three. Due to logistical constrains, 75.7% ( n  = 53/70) cases where immunostained for hormones including 43.4% (ER+), 26.4% (PgR+), and 28% (ER+/PgR+). Furthermore, 65.7% ( n  = 46/70) cases were immunostained for HER-2 and 15.2% ( n  = 7/46) were positive, 45.6% were triple negative (ER-,PgR-,HER2-), 23.9% (ER+,PgR+,HER2-) or luminal B, 2.2% (ER+,PgR-,HER2+),13% (ER-,PgR-,HER2+) and 15% (ER+,PgR-,HER2-) with none being triple positive. Hormonal receptors and HER2 expression at MNH appears to be comparable to previous Africans/African Americans reports but not with studies among Caucasians and the current proportion of triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) is higher than in a previous Tanzanian report and majority are luminal. HER2 over-expression is relatively common. It is strongly recommended that receptor status assessment be made routine for breast cancer patients at MNH.

  17. Characterization of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in tissues of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Rodger Mwakigonja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths among women worldwide. In Tanzania there is no published data on human epidermal growth receptor-2 (HER2/neu expression in breast carcinoma. Hormonal receptors and HER2/neu status reportedly influence post-mastectomy adjuvant therapy and predict treatment outcome and prognosis. Here we evaluate hormonal receptors and HER-2 status in biopsies of women with breast cancer at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. Methods A cross-sectional study of female breast post-modified radical mastectomy (MRM/incisional biopsies confirmed to be carcinoma at the Histopathology Unit (January–December 2013. Tissue blocks having poor morphology, without tumor, secondary tumors, cases outside the study period and male patients were excluded. Routine staining was done followed by immunohistochemistry for estrogen (ER, and progesterone (PgR receptors and HER2. Data analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results A total of 218 cases were confirmed to be carcinoma including 70 meeting inclusion criteria. Age at diagnosis ranged 18–75 years and mean age was 48.36 years. Majority (64.3% were in the 36–55 years age-group. Histologically, most (88.6% women had invasive ductal carcinoma including 43.1% of intermediate grade. A great majority (78% were stage three. Due to logistical constrains, 75.7% (n = 53/70 cases where immunostained for hormones including 43.4% (ER+, 26.4% (PgR+, and 28% (ER+/PgR+. Furthermore, 65.7% (n = 46/70 cases were immunostained for HER-2 and 15.2% (n = 7/46 were positive, 45.6% were triple negative (ER-,PgR-,HER2-, 23.9% (ER+,PgR+,HER2- or luminal B, 2.2% (ER+,PgR-,HER2+,13% (ER-,PgR-,HER2+ and 15% (ER+,PgR-,HER2- with none being triple positive. Conclusions Hormonal receptors and HER2 expression at MNH appears to be comparable to previous Africans/African Americans reports but not with studies among Caucasians and the current proportion of triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC is higher than in a previous Tanzanian report and majority are luminal. HER2 over-expression is relatively common. It is strongly recommended that receptor status assessment be made routine for breast cancer patients at MNH.

  18. Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matee Mecky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%, while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%. None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1% with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  19. Influencing Health Behaviors via Short Message Service (SMS): Evidence for Best Practices From Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and Xi’an China

    OpenAIRE

    Heitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Text messaging, also known as short message services (SMS), is a burgeoning innovation area showing promise in eliciting health behavior changes. This dissertation details two intervention trials that each comparatively tests the efficacy of different text message sets intended to improve behaviors. In light of pervasive road traffic injuries amongst young men in Tanzania, the first intervention tested messaging strategies aimed at increasing helmet wearing amongst commercial motorcycle t...

  20. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambikile, Joel Semel; Outwater, Anne

    2012-07-05

    It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child's illness. Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are important in addressing these challenges.

  1. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and associated factors among diabetic men attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagaywa, Reuben Kato; Lutale, Janeth; Aboud, Muhsin; Kamala, Benjamin Anathory

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population especially among Diabetic patients. This seems to be neglected problem in low-income countries. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of ED and associated risk factors in diabetic patients attended at Diabetic Clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted among 312 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital between May and December 2011. More than half (55.1%) of the patients were found to have some form of ED (12.8% had mild dysfunction, 11.5% moderate and 27.9% severe dysfunction). The severity of ED was correlated with increased age. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that ED was significantly predicted by old age (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% CI 1.2-40.7), evidence of peripheral neuropathy (OR) =5.9, 95% CI 1.6-21.3), and evidence of peripheral vascular disease (OR =2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.3). Also longer duration of DM was marginally associated with ED (p=0.056). Patients with ED were also more likely to suffer other sexual domains (perectile dysfunction.

  2. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E

    2000-01-01

    women with IA and 241 with SA. They were compared with 307 AC women. IA women were significantly younger, more often better educated, unmarried, nulliparous and students than AC women. Regarding civil-status, educational level, proportion of nullipara and proportion of students, SA patients were similar...

  3. Challenges in day-to-day midwifery practice; a qualitative study from a regional referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremnes, Hanna Strømholt; Wiig, Åsil Kjøl; Abeid, Muzdalifat; Darj, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Maternal and infant mortality rates in Tanzania have decreased over the past decades, but remain high. One of the challenges the country faces, is the lack of skilled health care workers. High fertility rates make midwives and their patients particularly susceptible to stress as a result of understaffing. This paper explores the challenges midwives face in their day-to-day practice at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania, and investigates which measures the midwives themselves find necessary to implement to improve their situation. A qualitative study design with focus group discussions (FGDs) was employed to explore which challenges the midwives experienced. Each focus group consisted of five to six midwives. A FGD topic guide covering challenges, consequences, motivation, ideal situation and possible solutions was used. These data were analyzed using Systematic Text Condensation. A total of 28 Midwives, six men and 22 women, participated in five FGDs. Four categories emerged from the collected material: Feelings of demoralization, shortage of resources, societal challenges and personal struggles. A feeling of demoralization was especially prevalent and was caused by a lack of support from the leaders and little appreciation from the patients. Shortage of resources, and shortage of personnel in particular, was also highlighted as it led to an excessive workload resulting in difficulties with providing adequate care. These difficulties were intensified by lack of equipment, facilities and a non-optimal organization of the healthcare system. The challenges revealed during the FGDs prevent the midwives from providing sufficient midwifery care. To improve the situation, measures such as supportive leadership, reduction of workload, increasing availability of equipment and increasing knowledge of reproductive health in society, should be taken.

  4. Compliance to Occupational and Public Health Requirements and Associated Factors in Barbershops and Hair Dressing Salons, A Case of kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nshunju, Raphael Kyalakishaija

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing and barbering industry is one of occupations which employ significant number of young men and women. This population can be exposed to number of occupational problems such as poor posture, joint pain, prolonged standing, long working hours, missed meals, as well as being subjected to physical injuries. These problems can be reduced if barbershops and hair dressing salons are highly complying with occupational and public health regulatory and operational requirements (OHS and PH) ...

  5. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs) and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are important in addressing these challenges. PMID:22559084

  6. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important in addressing these challenges.

  7. Nurse-led educational campaign on blood borne pathogens and proper sharps disposal at an urban tertiary hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Otieno

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that even with very high levels of immediate and delayed retention of educational content as measured by exam, the impact of an educational intervention on behavioural change may be much more short-lived. This has implications regarding the need for continuous education to support for workplace safety campaigns.

  8. Report of the 6th Tanzania Joint Annual Health Sector Review 4th-6th April 2005 Kunduchi Beach Hotel,Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The 6th Annual Joint Health Sector Review was concluded successfully at Kunduchi Beach hotel,between 4th and 6th April 2005. It was preceded by a Technical preparatory meeting, held at Belinda Hotel. This year’s was the largest review yet, with over 200 participants. As well as government and donor representatives, the meeting was attended by a variety of civil society and NGO representatives. The Honourable Minister of Health opened the meeting. Judged by the milestones, performance over t...

  9. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforcetrained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning andenvironmental management laws in managing risky areas.

  10. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5fw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knockdown resistance (kdr and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+ while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E. In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3 at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa.

  11. Effectiveness of counseling at primary health facilities: level of knowledge of antenatal attendee and their attitude on Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in primary health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangwe, P J T; Nyasinde, M; Charles, D S K

    2014-03-01

    Children living with HIV worldwide majority are infected through mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) acquired during pregnancy. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral changes are pivot tools towards success of any interventions. To determine the effectiveness of counseling on HIV done in primary health facilities (PHF), level of knowledge gained and attitude changes towards PMTCT. A cross sectional study assessing pregnant women's knowledge and their attitude towards PMTCT was conducted in Temeke district from October 2010 to Jan 2011 using a structured questionnaire. A total of 383 antenatal attendees were referred to Temeke district for management after counselled and tested for HIV in PHFs. Majority (86.9%) had primary education and good knowledge on MTCT. Correct timing of ARVs prophylaxis (15.7%) as preventive measures for MTCT was poor. Education and employment were associated with good knowledge on MTCT of HIV. Women had positive attitudes towards HIV counseling and testing, but stigma was a barrier to disclosure of one's serostatus. There is knowledge gap in routine PMTCT counseling among antenatal attendees in our PHFs. Effective counseling on PMTCT in the PHFs will bridge the identified knowledge gap and help in reduction of pediatric HIV.

  12. The costs of providing antiretroviral therapy services to HIV-infected individuals presenting with advanced HIV disease at public health centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Findings from a randomised trial evaluating different health care strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Godfather Dickson; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Simms, Victoria; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Bottomley, Christian; Hawkins, Neil; Harrison, Thomas S; Jaffar, Shabbar; Guinness, Lorna

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the costs associated with health care delivery strategies is essential for planning. There are few data on health service resources used by patients and their associated costs within antiretroviral (ART) programmes in Africa. The study was nested within a large trial, which evaluated screening for cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis and a short initial period of home-based adherence support for patients initiating ART with advanced HIV disease in Tanzania and Zambia. The economic evaluation was done in Tanzania alone. We estimated costs of providing routine ART services from the health service provider's perspective using a micro-costing approach. Incremental costs for the different novel components of service delivery were also estimated. All costs were converted into US dollars (US$) and based on 2012 prices. Of 870 individuals enrolled in Tanzania, 434 were enrolled in the intervention arm and 436 in the standard care/control arm. Overall, the median (IQR) age and CD4 cell count at enrolment were 38 [31, 44] years and 52 [20, 89] cells/mm3, respectively. The mean per patient costs over the first three months and over a one year period of follow up following ART initiation in the standard care arm were US$ 107 (95%CI 101-112) and US$ 265 (95%CI 254-275) respectively. ART drugs, clinic visits and hospital admission constituted 50%, 19%, and 19% of the total cost per patient year, while diagnostic tests and non-ART drugs (co-trimoxazole) accounted for 10% and 2% of total per patient year costs. The incremental costs of the intervention to the health service over the first three months was US$ 59 (p<0.001; 95%CI 52-67) and over a one year period was US$ 67(p<0.001; 95%CI 50-83). This is equivalent to an increase of 55% (95%CI 51%-59%) in the mean cost of care over the first three months, and 25% (95%CI 20%-30%) increase over one year of follow up.

  13. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2001-01-01

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dinophyceae) in Central Coastal Areas of. Tanzania. Charles Lugomela. Department of Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, Faculty oquuatic Sciences and Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, R0. Box 35064 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  15. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sommers

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  16. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  17. Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on the Urban Poor in Dar es Salaam. ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Dar es Salaam is not perceived to be a panacea to the water problems facing the urban poor.

  18. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, ¿es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district ´s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiago´s metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en términos de apoyar el tamaño del flujo de vehículos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de población y ancho de la calle. El propósito de esta técnica es su incorporación al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificación de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsión del tráfico y la congestión. Sin embargo, la técnica no incluye ningún concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sería alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio público para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehículos solamente

  19. Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  20. Trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-28

    Dec 28, 2007 ... Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam P. O. Box 35179, Dar es .... digestion of bagasse, maize bran, coconut fibres, water ..... bacterium formicicum has shown nitrogen fixing abilities.

  1. contact metamorphism in the supracrustal rocks of the sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    University of Dar es Salaam, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geology,. P. O. Box 35052, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... bounded by rational crystal faces (decussate texture). Keywords. Contact metamorphism, intrusions ..... electron microbeam X-ray analysis of thick polished materials, thin films and.

  2. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF HIGH SILICA RHYOLITES IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    S Manya. Department of Geology, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35052 Dar es Salaam ... Victoria. The geological setting for the. Tanzania Craton and its subdivision into the high-grade Dodoman ..... Calculations are based on a decay constant of 6.54 x 10-12 per year for 147Sm and DM values for .... Short Paper.

  3. The reliability and usability of district health information software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Computer Science, University of Dar-es-Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania ... in order to assure usability and reduce the incidences and impact of human .... the questions were directed during the DHIS user.

  4. The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila. Abstract. The abundance of digenean larvae in snails at a pond in Mbezi-Temboni, Dar es Salaam, was investigated from July 1996 to June 1997. A total of 2,112 snails belonging to three species, ...

  5. Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture and Water ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapports. Proceedings of the Country Stakeholders Inception Workshop, held on Monday, 17th February 2012 at Blue Pearl Hotel, Ubungo Plaza, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Rapports. Proceedings of the AARC-ECAW Inception Workshop, Landmark Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, November 3 - 7, 2011. Rapports.

  6. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  7. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and Watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35061 Dar es Salaam, ... 50% of the tomatoes and watermelons indicating risks and concerns for public health. The ... Keywords: Pesticides, Fruits, Food, Contamination, Tanzania .... 197. 314. 258. 125. 286. 210. 65. 171. 47. 244. 134. 351. 322. 439. 404. 496.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 117 ... Vol 22, No 1 (2007), Psoriatic – Arthritis among Psoriasis Patients Attending Skin Clinics n Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Abstract ... Vol 25, No 2 (2011), Relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors among middle- aged men and women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Abstract. A Muhihi ...

  9. * Author to whom correspondence may be addressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Contraceptive Use among Secondary School Students in. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, P.O. BOX 65013,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... pharmacies and drug stores as their main source of contraceptives. These findings.

  10. Surgery of wisdom teeth at Muhimbili National Hospital Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their sex ratio (M: F) was1:1.13 and their age ranged from 17 to 60 years. The age groups 20-29 [48.1%] and 30-39 [25%] comprised majority of the patients who underwent disimpaction followed by age groups 11-19 [9.4%], 40-49 [11.8%] and 50-59 [5.2%]. Age group 60-69 [0.5%] had fewer patients. A high number of ...

  11. Suicidal ideation among school-attending adolescents in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2,176 students aged 11-16 years participated. ... well-being including: depression (Cash & Bridge, 2009), loneliness .... the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians understand your problems and worries?".

  12. Microbiological Quality of Juice Beverages Available in Dar es

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBZERO/BETAONE/VDOWN

    against 15 commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Reference ... contaminants. MATERIALS AND METHODS .... to both raw materials and ready-to-use juices. [27]. ... in place the Hazard Analysis Critical Control.

  13. Tidal Power Potential in the Submerged Channels of Dar es

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the tidal plateau, shallow water area on the sand banks and in the submerged channels, using self—recording .... in a Cartesian frame where iz is directed towards the vertical, ix points ..... Bongoyo, there is a 15 m deep channel that passes.

  14. History of diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases | Lubinza | Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To elucidate the evolutionary understanding of the cardiovascular system. 2. To show the historical discovery of some of ... The discovery of the sphygmomanometer was steered by reverend Hales who watched a horse's arterial blood climb 8 feet six inches high in a glass tube. Dr. Laennec heard heart sounds better using ...

  15. DUAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MANAGING STRESS, EUSTRESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  17. Fostering Entrepreneurship Development among Youth for Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Development: The Case of Zanzibar Technology and Business Incubator. ... Elders, Youth, Women and children in collaboration with COSTECH, Dar es Salaam ... start up business and incubating start up business to increase their success ...

  18. COSTECH - HURIA JOURNAL VOL. 24 (2) COSTECH FINAL_NEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Kigadye

    coconut and coconut-by products were almost doubled hence enabled an increase of .... varieties, seedling re-placing, and spacing, pest control, weeding and processing .... held at Kilimanjaro Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 17 to 21.

  19. Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation: The ... of students' accommodation at the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM) over the past 50 years. ... and the quality of learning, as well as the quality of students' life.

  20. ray diffraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam,. P.O. Box 35061 ... XRD analysis. XRD analysis identified kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite ..... Skoog DA and West DM 1980 Principles of. Instrumental Analysis 2nd Edn, Holt –. Saunders ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 165 ... Vol 14, No 2 (2011), Methods used to assess drug prescribing and ... of Antihypertensive Drugs in Private Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, .... Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts, Abstract PDF.

  2. EAMJ-MArch Oral health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... and Paediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus, Denmark. Request for reprints to: ... and mental retardation in Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. ... pupil's disability, parent's awareness and the willingness.

  3. Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English 1991-2001: Critical Appreciation and Reception; Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam, 2007, 236 pp. ISBN 9987449182/ISBN 13:978-9987-449-18-7.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 117 ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. ... Vol 4, No 1 (2002), MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IN ... Vol 9, No 2 (2007), Strategies For Financing Public University Libraries In Tanzania, Abstract ... P Manda, J Nawe.

  5. 17 (No. 1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Department of Restorative Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam. Gombo Mzee ... Composite crowns were then built up and all other carious teeth were restored. ... restored acrylic post-crown of 11 with a leaky.

  6. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmaceutical Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Kongola

    Key words: Pharmaceutical services, patient satisfaction, Dar es Salaam. INTRODUCTION ... business venture and therefore customer ... Factors that influenced patients to go to particular pharmacies. .... identified as affecting the utilization of.

  7. Two phase heuristic algorithm for the university course timetabling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Mathematics, Box 35062, University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania ... and rooms to a number of timeslots over a planning horizon, normally a week, while ... Solutions have been generated which greatly outperform the manually ...

  8. heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 4International Potato Center, Apartado 1558, Lima 12, Peru .... contamination, then peeled and sectioned into multiple longitudinal slices. .... non-additive gene effects play vital roles in the expression of RDM in early ...

  9. download full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In English, this class includes the particles how, too, so, and as (Ibid). (3) Mary is ...... Doctoral thesis (unpublished), University of Dar es Salaam. Goodness, D. .... manga. fat. corpulent. 36. mbindipindi. green. 37. mwalo. naughty. absurd. 38.

  10. analysis of the measured medical waste generation at amana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kagonji

    2011-08-16

    Aug 16, 2011 ... In this study the medical waste generation rates at Amana and Ligula hospitals ...... making the situation difficult to administrators to plan and budget. ..... Management Meeting, Peacock Hotel, Dar es Salaam, 9th-11th June,.

  11. Food insecurity and coping strategies among people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... 2Clinton Health Access Initiative, P.O. Box 7727, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... Food insecurity raises risks of HIV infection as people adopt behaviours to ..... Relatives. Friends. Neighbours. CBO/NGO/FBO. Others. 238. 210.

  12. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 Birth prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate based on hospital records in Dar es Salaam, ... lead to problems with eating, talking, and ear infection. .... the clefts were found in the lower birth weight groups ... variability, and early somatic development.

  13. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  14. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  15. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  16. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  17. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  18. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  19. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  20. Vulnerability and adaptation of rain fed agriculture to climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es salaam, Box 35097 Dar es ... Minimum temperature increased faster (R2 = 0.68, p<0.001) while maximum ... cash crops, increased insects and pests and eventually low income and food insecurity. ... negative impacts of climate change and variability in the study area.

  1. Infrastructure Investment Protection with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The primary goal of this research effort was to explore the wide variety of uses of LiDAR technology and to evaluate their : applicability to NCDOT practices. NCDOT can use this information about LiDAR in determining how and when the : technology can...

  2. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  3. ¿Es usted socialmente responsable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mosquera

    2016-06-01

    El objetivo de este ensayo es dar a conocer no solo a la comunidad laica sino a la sociedad que nuestra propuesta incluye un cambio de actitud, una revolución de prácticas sociales que serán plasmadas con toda la información detallada de la realización del proyecto antes mencionado y por consiguiente, se realizará la ejecución de un Manual de procedimientos con indicadores de prácticas sociales de la Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte de Guayaquil

  4. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  5. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  6. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  7. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  8. Abeeb olufemi Salaam Community Reintegration Oyo, Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    list of illegal drugs (e.g., cannabis, heroin, co- caine, amphetamines): (a) they had ever used in their life; (b) they had used during the past twelve months. Further to the list of illegal drugs, the participants were asked to indicate whether they had used any alcoholic beverag- es (e.g., dry gin, kokino), solvents (e.g., glue, petrol ...

  9. Levels of ABA, its precursors and dehydrin-like proteins during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P.O Box 35179, Dar ... to combat stress. Levels of ABA and proteins that cross reacted with an anti – dehydrin ...... Cambridge, Melbourne). Wang, X.-Q., Ullah ...

  10. Complex Urban LiDAR Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jinyong; Cho, Younggun; Shin, Young-Sik; Roh, Hyunchul; Kim, Ayoung

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set that targets complex urban environments. Urban environments with high-rise buildings and congested traffic pose a significant challenge for many robotics applications. The presented data set is unique in the sense it is able to capture the genuine features of an urban environment (e.g. metropolitan areas, large building complexes and underground parking lots). Data of two-dimensional (2D) and threedimensional (3D) LiDAR, which...

  11. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  12. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  13. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  14. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  16. Development of digital subtraction system DAR-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masumi; Shimizu, Yasumitsu; Ozaki, Takeshi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Uzuyama, Kazuhiro; Nishioka, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been of widespread use clinically, and it has attracted considerable attention in angiographic examination today. The merits of Shimadzu high resolution digital subtraction system DAR-1200 are reported in this paper. Furthermore, the principle and clinical usefullness of a new method of DSA called the Peak-Hold DSA are explained especially in details. (author)

  17. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  18. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  19. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  20. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th - 13th,...

  1. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  2. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 100 square miles and covers part of...

  3. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  4. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  5. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  6. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September 30th,...

  7. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  8. Novel Methods for Measuring LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrey, E.; Hayes, D. J.; Fraver, S.; Weiskittel, A.; Cook, B.; Kershaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of forest biometrics from airborne LiDAR data has become invaluable for quantifying forest carbon stocks, forest and wildlife ecology research, and sustainable forest management. The area-based approach is arguably the most common method for developing enhanced forest inventories from LiDAR. It involves taking a series of vertical height measurements of the point cloud, then using those measurements with field measured data to develop predictive models. Unfortunately, there is considerable variation in methodology for collecting point cloud data, which can vary in pulse density, seasonality, canopy penetrability, and instrument specifications. Today there exists a wealth of public LiDAR data, however the variation in acquisition parameters makes forest inventory prediction by traditional means unreliable across the different datasets. The goal of this project is to test a series of novel point cloud measurements developed along a conceptual spectrum of human interpretability, and then to use the best measurements to develop regional enhanced forest inventories on Northern New England's and Atlantic Canada's public LiDAR. Similarly to a field-based inventory, individual tree crowns are being segmented, and summary statistics are being used as covariates. Established competition and structural indices are being generated using each tree's relationship to one another, whilst existing allometric equations are being used to estimate diameter and biomass of each tree measured in the LiDAR. Novel metrics measuring light interception, clusteredness, and rugosity are also being measured as predictors. On the other end of the human interpretability spectrum, convolutional neural networks are being employed to directly measure both the canopy height model, and the point clouds by scanning each using two and three dimensional kernals trained to identify features useful for predicting biological attributes such as biomass. Predictive models will be trained and

  9. Application of Airborne LiDAR to the Determination of the Height of Large Structures. Case Study: Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martínez Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La mejor forma de calcular la altura de una presa es realizar una nivelación geométrica de precisión. No obstante, este método es demandante y costoso. La precisión de los datos obtenidos ha mejorado sustancialmente, esta tecnología puede proveer precisiones de 2 a 3 centímetros, más que suficiente para determinar la altura de presa y utilizar ésta como dato de partida para cualquier actividad posterior que así lo requiera. La densidad de adquisición de los datos LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging es importante para establecer la bondad de los resultados. Finalmente, como los sistemas LiDAR aerotransportados están basados en alturas elipsoidales, es necesario transformarlas a ortométricas. Este trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos usando un LiDAR de baja densidad (0.5 pts/m2 y su validación con observaciones GPS (Global Positioning System en postproceso. Los resultados demuestran que se puede obtener una precisión del orden de 10-25 cm, suficiente para la mayoría de las actividades relacionadas con la ingeniería civil.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epworth scores of 11 or more and experiencing sleepiness during work or driving are regarded as ... sectors while 23.4% of the residents were self-employed, and 34.6% were involved in petty business, ... passenger in a car for > 1hour, lying down to rest in the afternoon when circumstances permit, ... briefly in heavy traffic.

  11. UN ESTUDIANTE CONFLICTIVO PARA MUCHOS, ES EN REALIDAD UN PERSONAJE CON MUCHO QUE DAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEIDY NATALY MATEUS AGUILERA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this written presents a history that is repeat year to year for some educators that have as a goal to formation in aspects of type scientific and also as corresponding to social values; there is also a reflection that leads to evidence of bias, prejudice and the exclusion that is made, in some cases in the classroom, to students that present some difficulties, aspect that affects the formation of the student, the learning and evaluation. In the same way is presented as a suggestion the inclusion of values in the classroom regardless the area of knowledge, based on of a pedagogical model and psychological currents that allow establish academic links and reflections in the formation of human being.

  12. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and water in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 11 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Oral Health Status Of Handicapped Primary School Pupils In Dar Es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calculus, with highest mean scores mainly among the blind (p= 0.008). Conclusion: The caries prevalence among handicapped primary school pupils was quite low. However, there was relatively high level of gingival bleeding and calculus. Regarding treatment needs, 23% required dental fillings mainly of one and two ...

  14. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    collection. Key words: Solid waste, garbage, waste disposal, waste management, Multinomial Logit model. INTRODUCTION. Urbanization introduces society to a new, modern way of ..... Multinomial logistic estimation. .... The trend of using.

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    isolées de femmes enceintes atteintes d'infections urinaires asymptomatiques à Dar es-Salaam, en Tanzanie. 1. 2. *Mwambete KD. , Malaba P. Resume. Objectifs:Les infections des voies urinaires (UTI) sont parmi les principales causes de morbidité chez les femmes enceintes à cause des changements physiologiques ...

  16. Trapped in decline : a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru Mountains Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Donge, van, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look again at questions which arose during writing up. The research also reflects seven years' employment at the University of Dar es Salaam (1982-89)...

  17. 2004 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Portland, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The all returns ASCII files contain the X,Y,Z values of all the LiDAR returns collected during the survey mission. In addition each return also has a time stamp,...

  18. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    ncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır.La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des OttomansRésuméLa musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d

  19. Liquid waste management: The case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human beings pollute the environment with their industrial and domestic wastes. In Bahir Dar Town there is no conventional municipal waste water collection and treatment system. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the liquid waste disposal practices of the residents of Bahir Dar Town and to ...

  20. Analysis of inflow parameters using LiDARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technique for wind resource assessment and oncoming wind prediction in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons with other sensing elements thus, is of high importance for further

  1. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  2. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  3. Assessing LiDAR elevation data for KDOT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR-based elevation surveys are a cost-effective means for mapping topography over large areas. LiDAR : surveys use an airplane-mounted or ground-based laser radar unit to scan terrain. Post-processing techniques are : applied to remove vegetation ...

  4. Cucurbitacées

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2015 ... Environ 58,17% des consommateurs des produits à base des graines de Cucurbitacées consomment régulièrement la sauce liquide simple de courge. Elle est obtenue par deux différentes méthodes selon les consommateurs. La première(A1) pratiquée par les 64,12% des consommateurs de cette sauce.

  5. Object Classification Using Airborne Multispectral LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Suoyan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne multispectral LiDAR system,which obtains surface geometry and spectral data of objects,simultaneously,has become a fast effective,large-scale spatial data acquisition method.Multispectral LiDAR data are characteristics of completeness and consistency of spectrum and spatial geometric information.Support vector machine (SVM,a machine learning method,is capable of classifying objects based on small samples.Therefore,by means of SVM,this paper performs land cover classification using multispectral LiDAR data. First,all independent point cloud with different wavelengths are merged into a single point cloud,where each pixel contains the three-wavelength spectral information.Next,the merged point cloud is converted into range and intensity images.Finally,land-cover classification is performed by means of SVM.All experiments were conducted on the Optech Titan multispectral LiDAR data,containing three individual point cloud collected by 532 nm,1024 nm,and 1550 nm laser beams.Experimental results demonstrate that ①compared to traditional single-wavelength LiDAR data,multispectral LiDAR data provide a promising solution to land use and land cover applications;②SVM is a feasible method for land cover classification of multispectral LiDAR data.

  6. Processing LiDAR Data to Predict Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Ian; Crabtree, Robert; Hager, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    ELF-Base and ELF-Hazards (wherein 'ELF' signifies 'Extract LiDAR Features' and 'LiDAR' signifies 'light detection and ranging') are developmental software modules for processing remote-sensing LiDAR data to identify past natural hazards (principally, landslides) and predict future ones. ELF-Base processes raw LiDAR data, including LiDAR intensity data that are often ignored in other software, to create digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital feature models (DFMs) with sub-meter accuracy. ELF-Hazards fuses raw LiDAR data, data from multispectral and hyperspectral optical images, and DTMs and DFMs generated by ELF-Base to generate hazard risk maps. Advanced algorithms in these software modules include line-enhancement and edge-detection algorithms, surface-characterization algorithms, and algorithms that implement innovative data-fusion techniques. The line-extraction and edge-detection algorithms enable users to locate such features as faults and landslide headwall scarps. Also implemented in this software are improved methodologies for identification and mapping of past landslide events by use of (1) accurate, ELF-derived surface characterizations and (2) three LiDAR/optical-data-fusion techniques: post-classification data fusion, maximum-likelihood estimation modeling, and hierarchical within-class discrimination. This software is expected to enable faster, more accurate forecasting of natural hazards than has previously been possible.

  7. La educación inclusiva es nuestra tarea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meybol Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La educación inclusiva es un tema que se ha venido trabajando desde hace relativamente pocos años en el Perú, pero en otros países se viene realizando desde hace muchos años. Por ello esta investigación busca dar a conocer todos aquellos elementos que son necesarios para lograr una inclusión adecuada de los niños, tomando como centro al niño, reconociéndolo como un ser humano integral que no solo aprende conceptos, sino también aprende a convivir e interactuar con su medio. Es aquí donde debemos tomar en cuenta el respeto a la diversidad que se debe dar en el aula, ya que al convivir se comparten experiencias con personas diferentes, como pueden ser los niños con necesidades especiales o simplemente con las de un niño regular. En esta investigación hemos querido resaltar la importancia de los roles de los agentes educativos para el buen desarrollo de la inclusión de los niños, siendo estos indispensables para lograrlo.

  8. TENSOR MODELING BASED FOR AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the “raw” data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could keep the initial spatial structure and insure the consideration of the neighborhood. Based on a small number of component features a k nearest neighborhood classification is applied.

  9. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  10. COSIMA-ES-PORT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the results of the research project – WP3 East-west, Interreg IIIB – concerning the de¬velop¬ment of a new composite decision model, COSIMA-ES-PORT, for the assessment of three pre-feasibility studies situated at the Port of Esbjerg: a road project, a railway project...... and a multimodal terminal. The three studies indicates that a new road connection to the Port of Esbjerg is a very profitable project due to large travel time savings, whereas a new railway connection is not economically viable. However, a new multimodal terminal is also a very profitable project. The COSIMA...

  11. La convivencia no es tan obvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia García-Dalmás

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La promoción de una mejor convivencia a través de la generación o mejora de espacios públicos, básicamente plazas y parques, sigue siendo una de las principales propuestas con las que las políticas públicas, por lo menos en Uruguay, buscan dar respuesta a lo que identifican como “problemas sociales acuciantes”: la violencia, la inseguridad. El presente artículo toma como base una propuesta, la Estrategia por la Vida y la Convivencia, impulsada por el gobierno nacional que, entre otros aspectos, plantea que “el pacto de convivencia es un pacto de obviedad”. Desde la comunicación propone aproximaciones y preguntas que buscan desnaturalizar lo obvio, profundizar en cómo se construyen vínculos y sentidos en relación a los territorios y la cotidianidad de quienes los habitan.

  12. EL ORO ES TRISTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Corella Hurtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esas narraciones eran las mismas cantaletas de mis abuelos, de mis tíos, de los negros y los mineros, contadas bajo las torrenciales noches de lluvia o bajo los indignos soles. Mi madre también relataba de memoria, como una cotorra y con la misma exactitud mientras realizaba los oficios domésticos, bien sean los de la barraca del puerto de Barbacoas o los de la casa de Pasto. Los barbacoanos de esa lejana generación, debieron soportar los recuerdos nefastos de la historia enquistada con dolor porque crecieron coreando episodios con la misma y sorprendente precisión. Era, es y será por siempre, una carcoma dolorosa y perseverante, aquello de la draga. Es que lo sucedido en Barbacoas no debe olvidarse y menos repetirse. Esos sucesos me comprometían de alguna manera; vividos unos en carne propia y a oídas otros que mezclaban el dolor que causó a los paisanos la pobreza en que quedaron.

  13. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  14. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd - May...

  15. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  16. Shipborne LiDAR system for coastal change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, chang hwan; Park, chang hong; Kim, hyun wook; hyuck Kim, won; Lee, myoung hoon; Park, hyeon yeong

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas, used as human utilization areas like leisure space, medical care, ports and power plants, etc., are regions that are continuously changing and interconnected with oceans and land and the sea level has risen by about 8cm (1.9mm / yr) due to global warming from 1964 year to 2006 year in Korea. Coastal erosion due to sea-level rise has caused the problem of marine ecosystems and loss of tourism resources, etc. Regular monitoring of coastal erosion is essential at key locations with such volatility. But the survey method of land mobile LiDAR (light detection and ranging) system has much time consuming and many restrictions. For effective monitoring beach erosion, KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) has constructed a shipborne mobile LiDAR system. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system comprised a land mobile LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), an INS (inertial navigation system, MAGUS Inertial+), a RTKGPS (LEICA GS15 GS25), and a fixed platform. The shipborne mobile LiDAR system is much more effective than a land mobile LiDAR system in the measuring of fore shore areas without shadow zone. Because the vessel with the shipborne mobile LiDAR system is continuously moved along the shoreline, it is possible to efficiently survey a large area in a relatively short time. Effective monitoring of the changes using the constructed shipborne mobile LiDAR system for seriously eroded coastal areas will be able to contribute to coastal erosion management and response.

  17. Centre for Environment, Poverty an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... College of Engineering and Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, ... Tanzania enacted the Environmental Management Act (EMA) in 2004 ... It was thus concluded that; EIA process apart from identifying potential .... information to have required data for the .... found that many building permits for projects.

  18. The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. G S Mfinanga, E Ngadaya, R Mtandu, B Mutayoba, B Doulla, G Kimaro, T M Chonde, P Ngowi, S Mfaume, A M Kilale, S Egwaga, A Y Kitua ...

  19. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 20, No 2 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of dengue infection during an outbreak in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Neema Camara, Billy Ngasala, Germana Leyna, Ahmed Abade, Susan F. Rumisha, Ndekya M. Oriyo, Leonard ...

  20. PERii electronic journals: Assessing access and use by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on the findings of a study that assessed the awareness of Programme for Enhancement of Resources Initiative (PERii) electronic journals, their use and challenges encountered by postgraduate students. The study was carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam and involved postgraduate students in ...

  1. AFRICA LOSES AN EXCELLENT BOTANIST AND TEACHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    2017-04-20

    Apr 20, 2017 ... publications were illustrated with pictures of bats landing on moving pendulous inflorescences in the dark. He was always ready for a field ... University of Dar es Salaam. Unpublished mimeo. 19 Pages. Harris, B.J. & H.G. Baker (1958). Pollination in Kigelia africana Benth. Journal of West. African Science ...

  2. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 Oral health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    *Part of this work was presented at the Tanzania Dental Association, 19th Scientific and Annual General Meeting, 22nd. –24th September 2004, Golden Tulip Hotel, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. ... data on oral health behavior for children and adults ... were randomly selected and among them, sorted the ... to WHO criteria (13).

  3. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...

  4. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective-descriptive study involving visits to 200 private retail pharmacies (using a mystery shopper) and interviewing pregnant women at the municipal public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, ... There is therefore a need for continuing training of drug dispensers regarding antimalarial drugs use in pregnancy.

  5. Co-variations of Cholera with Climatic and Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant co-variations were found between seasonally adjusted cases and coastal ocean chlorophyll a and to some degree sea surface temperature, both lagged by one to four months. Cholera cases in Dar es Salaam were also weakly related to the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index lagged by 5 months, suggesting that it ...

  6. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 9, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to Recommended Environmental Quality Targets for the Western Indian Ocean · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JF Machiwa, 17-30 ...

  7. Morphodynamics of the Manyema Tidal Delta at Kunduchi, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Morphodynamics, Kunduchi, Manyema, shoreline change, tidal creek, tidal delta. Abstract—The prevailing northward longshore drift of beach sand on the northern part of Msasani Bay, north of Dar es Salaam, is interrupted at Kunduchi by the tidal flushing of ... Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.

  8. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  9. African Journal of Reproductive Health - Vol 6, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jennifer Smit, Lynn McFadyen, Abigail Harrison, Khangelani Zuma. Indigenous Healing Practices and Self-Medication amongst Pregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa. Naeemah Abrahams, Rachel Jewkes, Zodumo Mvo. Tetanus Immunity among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Dar es Salaam, ...

  10. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    aSchool of Environmental Science and Technology, Ardhi University, P.O. Box 35176, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; bDepartment of. Environmental and ... were used for sample preparation. Samples were quantified using pesticide standard mixture which had over 99 % certified purity. Laboratory glassware were washed with ...

  11. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McCurdy, S. Vol 10, No 1 (2011) - Articles HIV risk behaviours, perceived severity of drug use problems, and prior treatment experience in a sample of young heroin injectors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1531-4065. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  13. HIV risk behaviours, perceived severity of drug use problems, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviews were conducted with 203 male and 95 female heroin injectors aged 17 to 25 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nearly one-quarter of participants reported injecting with needles used by someone else. Few reported cleaning needles with bleach. Multiple sexual partnerships, unprotected sex, and trading sex for money ...

  14. Risk estimates of HIV and HBV infection to the dental operator via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RISK ESTIMATES OF HIV AND HBV INFECTION. TO THE DENTAL OPERATOR VIA. PRICK ACCIDENTS. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhirilbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. , Introduction. Intact skin provides ...

  15. Learner Diversity in Inclusive Classrooms: The Interplay of Language of Instruction, Gender and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possi, Mwajabu K.; Milinga, Joseph Reginard

    2017-01-01

    The research was conducted to look into learner diversity in inclusive classrooms focusing on language of instruction, gender and disability issues, and their implications for education practices. A qualitative research approach was used to obtain data addressing the research problem from two inclusive secondary schools in Dar es Salaam region,…

  16. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 36 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic Relationships of the Metazoan Parasites of the Clariid Fishes of Lake Victoria Inferred from Partial 18S rDNA Sequences · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Urban Dietary Heavy Metal Intake from Protein Foods and Vegetables in Dar Es Salaam · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  18. Instructor Support Services: An Inevitable Critical Success Factor in Blended Learning in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Christina; Mtebe, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of blended learning to widen access, reduce cost, and improve the quality of education is becoming prevalent in higher education in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. University of Dar es Salaam and the Open University of Tanzania offer various blended learning courses using Moodle system via regional centres scattered…

  19. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  20. Differences In Self Esteem Between Adopted and Looked After ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...

  1. Patient satisfaction after receiving dental treatment among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patient satisfaction is one of the indicators of the quality of care. Therefore it is one of the tools for evaluating the quality of care. Aim: To determine patient satisfaction after receiving dental treatment among patients attending public dental clinics in Dar-Es-Salaam. Material and methods: Five public dental clinics ...

  2. Patients' satisfaction with dental care provided by public dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Tanzania, patient satisfaction with dental services has received only minor attention. Objective: To assess patients' satisfaction with public dental health services in Dar es Salaam. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Five public dental clinics randomly selected from a list of all the nine public dental ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mboma, LM. Vol 15, No 1 (2006) - Articles ATM and customer satisfaction: A case of the banking industry in Tanzania Abstract · Vol 11, No 1-2 (2011) - Articles Management of Gender Relations and Response To Change at the University of Dar es Salaam: Some Reflections Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  4. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  5. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  6. Sources of Microbial Contamination of Local Herbal Medicines Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred traditional herbalists operating in an open air market in Ilala, Dar es. Salaam ... The containers in which the medicines were handled were washed .... Pots. 186 (60.0). -. Pans. 306 (86.0). -. Bottles. 194 (44.7). 315 (81.1). Cans.

  7. East African Medical Journal - Vol 78, No 9 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and characteristics of Myasthenia gravis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W. B. P. Matuja, E. A. Aris, J. Gabone, E. M. Mgaya, 473-477. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i9.8978 ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgaya, E. M.. Vol 78, No 9 (2001): - Articles Incidence and characteristics of Myasthenia gravis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  9. Irrational antibiotic usage in boarding secondary school settings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of antibiotic misuse among boarding secondary school students in Dar es Salaam. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over 3-month period amongst boarding secondary school students. A randomized sample of students was recruited from at least 3 ...

  10. Indigenous knowledge: examining its past and present status, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recommendations are that information professionals should evolve systems for organizing oral information, policies should be made to encourage the recording, documentation of IK, and national, regional and if possible, global networks can be created to facilitate this. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal Vol.

  11. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open intertidal areas on the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania. ... it is recommended that conservation efforts along the Tanzanian coast should focus here. Keywords: benthic macrofauna, community structure, littoral zone, Tanganyika, Western Indian Ocean ...

  12. Nitrogenase Activity in Intertidal Sediment Along the Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant differences in nitrogenase activity between the upper, mid and lower littoral zones, and between the three sampling locations, i.e. Tanga, Dar es Salaam and Mafia. A nitrogen fixation rate of 38 mmol N m-2y-1 was estimated. We conclude that diazotrophs contribute a substantial amount of nitrogen input to the ...

  13. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  14. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 27, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails at Mbezi-Temboni pond, Dar es Salaam. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ESP Kigadye, G Nkwengulila, 57-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v27i2.18346 ...

  15. Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania - Vol 20, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table of Contents. Articles. Editorial · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ESP Kigadye, iv. Assessment on Vulnerable Youths Integration to Dar es Salaam Solid Waste Management for Improvement: Kinondoni Municipality Case · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aboud, M. Vol 19, No 1 (2014) - Articles Adherence to Hippocratic Oath in the Treatment of Urinary Tract Stones by Minimally Invasive Surgery; A five Years Experience in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 1 (2006) - Articles Post-Circumcision Urethro-Cutaneous Fistula: The Key to Successful ...

  17. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal. The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health related issues in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, public and allied health sciences. Furthermore the DMSJ endeavours to disseminate research findings mainly of medical ...

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal pollution in the Mzinga creek mangrove stand was assessed and compared with a relatively pristine mangrove forest at Ras Dege in Dar es Salaam. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in sediment and polychaete worms (Capitella sp.) were analyzed by ICP-AES and mercury was ...

  19. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 6, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. ... Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediment and Polychaete Worms from the Mzinga Creek and Ras Dege Mangrove Ecosystems, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Learning from Health Care Workers' Opinions for Improving Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    was on management and follow‑up of neonatal cases 47.5% (19/40), second on a need ... the tertiary referral hospital (Pearson χ2 [2] = 53.8; P < 0.001). ...... Dar es Salaam, [Accessed on 13th July, .... Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2008;93:F69‑73.

  1. Caries status and opinions of people living with HIV/AIDS on oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the dental caries status and opinions of the People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) on how they should be handled by oral health care providers. Design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects and Methods The study was carried out among PLHA in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  2. Prevalence and awareness of early childhood caries among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) among attendees of a Reproductive and Child Health clinic at Mnazi Mmoja dispensary in Dar es Salaam. The parents or guardians were aged 16-55 years old, while the children were aged 6-36 months. Caries was ...

  3. Caries Occurrence among 12-year-old Urban Children in Kinondoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the occurrence of dental caries among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and to determine whether DMFT-score was associated with oral hygiene habits, knowledge of oral health-related questions, consumption of items containing ...

  4. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  5. The role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Zanzibar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in public diabetes clinics, hospital and community pharmacies in vicinity of diabetes clinics in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar to investigate the role of pharmacists in management of diabetes and diabetic patients' care. Face to face interviews were conducted with patients, ...

  6. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Management Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison was made between community pharmacists who graduated before and after the introduction of STDs/HIV management program in the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 1992. The aim was also to find out if these pharmacists have attended any training on STDs management after ...

  7. Prescribing Patterns and Cost of Antihypertensive Drugs in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Antihypertensive agents are used to prevent morbidity and mortality related to hypertension. Prescribing patterns and the cost of some antihypertensive were studied for 600 patients attending medical clinics in four private hospitals in Dar es. Salaam using the WHO drug use indicator forms. The average number of drugs ...

  8. Knowledge of Hypertensive Patients With or Without HIV on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study assessed the knowledge of both HIV and non-HIV hypertensive patients on hypertension and the role of pharmacists in their pharmaceutical care. Methods: The study was conducted at the hypertension and HIV clinics in government hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients were interviewed using ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk awareness, exposure to oral health information, oral health related beliefs and behaviors Among students attending higher learning institutions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract PDF · Vol 79, No 3 (2002): - Articles Multidimensional health locus of control scales: applicability among Ghanaian adolescents

  10. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta at Kunduchi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevailing northward longshore drift of beach sand on the northern part of Msasani Bay, north of Dar es Salaam, is interrupted at Kunduchi by the tidal flushing of Manyema Creek, a mangrove ecosystem partially developed for salt production. Shoreline changes around the creek mouth in recent decades have eroded ...

  11. FOOD PREFERENCE DATA BY FAECAL ANALYSIS FOR AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MITCHELL, B. L. 1963. A first list of plants collected in the Kafue National Park. Puku, I: 75-191. ORR, D. 1. C. 1964. Grazing succession of game animals in Ngorongoro Crater. Tanganyika. Game Department, Dar es Salaam (typescript). ROBERTS, B. R. 1963. Ondersoek in die plantegroei van die Willem Pretorius Wildtuin.

  12. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Faculty of Medicine, . Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. .... low occupational risk of acquiring. HIV infection despite frequent occupational exposre to persons at increased risk for HIV infection. (12). As a matter of fact, ...

  13. Trapped in decline : a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru Mountains Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donge, van J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 102 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2011), Cannabis use among young people in Dar es Salaam, ... in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of Contemporary Changes in the ... Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and ...

  15. The role of academic libraries in facilitating institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the implications of the University of Dar es Salaam Institutional Transformation Programme (ITP) on information services provision at Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) and University College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS) libraries. The paper is based on a ...

  16. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  17. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  18. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the

  19. The Impact of Smart-phones Usage on Third-Year Undergraduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of the use of smart-mobile phone by undergraduate students at the University of Dar es Salaam. Specifically, the study sought to establish the academic-related purposes for which university students use smart-phones and the impact of such usage on their academic life. To achieve these ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) tablets in two hundred and twenty eight adult malaria patients in Dar es Salaam region was carried out shortly before the drug was introduced as a first line treatment for malaria in Tanzania. Sources and dispensing practices with SP in the private community pharmacies were also assessed.

  1. Antimalarial Drugs for Pediatrics - Prescribing and Dispensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess dispensing and prescribing practices with regard to antimalarial drugs for pediatrics in private pharmacies and public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study that assessed the knowledge and practice of 200 drug dispensers in the private community ...

  2. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  3. ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION OF DISEASES IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Contamination and infection. Transmission of microorganisms ego bacteria, viruses; fungi and protozoa is a hazard in dental practice (1-4) .. Introduction of microorganisms.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 117 of 117 ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal. ... Vol 8, No 1 (2006), Trends in marketing library services in urban areas: A ... Malima P Nyerembe ... Forest Management as a Strategy for Sustainability of Kazimzumbwi and ...

  5. Planning the unplanned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant contributions to human health, livelihoods and food security, urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam has received relatively little political support from central and local government due to its informal state. As a result, many urban farmers' experience insecurity of land access ...

  6. 2028-IJBCS-Article-Stephen Samwell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    1Chemistry Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box ... The nine-day-old embryonated eggs in a set of five were used for testing through the .... viral strains and allowed to equilibrate for 30.

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early Diagenetic Alteration of Recently Deposited Organic. Matter in Coastal Marine Sediments West of Unguja Island,. Zanzibar. Alfred N. N. Muzuka. Institute ofMarine Sciences, University of Dar es salaam, P.0. Box 668, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Key words: diagenesis, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, ...

  8. Comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic products sold in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The average total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the scalp hair of females using mercury based cosmetic creams and soaps ranged from 7.0 ± 0.4 to 880 ± 12 ppm. Highest T-Hg concentrations ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riwa, P. Vol 80, No 6 (2003): - Articles Noise induced hearing loss among industrial workers in Dar es Salaam Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  10. malaria prevalence in under five children utilising insecticide treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country Profile, President's Malaria Initiative (PMI),. Tanzania April 2010. 9. Source: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and ORC. Macro. 2008. Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator. Survey 2007-8. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 10. Erica Nybro, Demographic Health Survey. 301-572. 11. Salim, A., Joanna, A., Rose, N., et al.

  11. Predictors of incident tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the predictors of tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed children. Design: A longitudinal cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Children born to 875 HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Results: A total of 82 children ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 270 of 270 ... Vol 7, No 1 (2008), The Seasonal Cycle of Sea Level in Sri Lanka and ... in the Submerged Channels of Dar es Salaam Coastal Waters, Abstract PDF ... Vol 3, No 2 (2004), Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile ...

  13. Internet use pattern of Undergraduate students at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends the provision of faculty computer laboratories equipped with internet facilities, installation of solar electric power back-up system, and the integration of Internet and computer literacy into the compulsory general studies programme of the University. University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal Vol.

  14. Encountering Gender in Student Life at UDSM: Chrester Tells Her ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tells the life history of a young female student, Chrester, as she enjoyed her life while encountering gender contradictions throughout her student life during 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s at the University of Dar es Salaam. The narration covers the age of naiveté as well as her mature age as a senior student.

  15. Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss in textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross sectional study measured the prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) in textile industries in Dar Es Salaam city and Morogoro municipality. Data were collected from 125 employees randomly selected from each of the textile factory mill in each region through structured questionnaires and audiogram ...

  16. Antimosquito Phenylpropenoids from the Stem and Root Barks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The plant species was identified on site and its identity was further confirmed at the Herbarium of the. Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam, where a voucher specimen is deposited. Extraction and Isolation: The air dried and pulverized root and stem barks were extracted sequentially with CHCl3 and MeOH, 2 x ...

  17. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students…

  18. Oral hygiene habits and knowledge on oral manifestation of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patients attending the Counselling and Therapy Centre at Temeke Hospital, Dar es Salaam. A cross sectional study was carried out from August to September 2005 whereby all patients with serological diagnosis of HIV aged 15 years or above were included. A structured questionnaire (in Kiswahili language) was used.

  19. Snail arboreality: the microdistribution of Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitats and patterns of vertical migration of the shell banding morphs of the snail Sitala jenynsi (Pfeiffer) were studied in Dar es Salaam and Wazo regions of central coastal Tanzania Both dimorphic and trimorphic populations were arboreal throughout the year. The snails occurred randomly within mid-heights 180 to ...

  20. Language learner's use of a bilingual dictionary: a comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrasts dictionary use and needs of language learners at the University of York in the United Kingdom and at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Five aspects are discussed in this study viz. dictionaries used, instructions and guidance on dictionary use, the functions for which students ...

  1. East African Journal of Public Health - Vol 8, No 4 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Factors Associated with Non – Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar es Salaam ... A study on job satisfaction among clinical and non-clinical hospital staff in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Wind Patterns of Coastal Tanzania: Their Variability and Trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Patterns in Tanzanian coastal winds were investigated in terms of their variability at the weather stations of Tanga, Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam and Mtwara. Three-hourly data collected over a 30-year period (1977-2006) were used for the study. Statistical analyses included regressions, correlations, spectral analysis,.

  3. Analysis of the indications for routine lumbar puncture and results of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lumbar puncture (LP) is an important diagnostic tool for investigating neurological conditions/diseases. This study was carried out to compare the indications for lumbar puncture and findings of cerebrospinal fluid examination in children admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania and Kilifi ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 270 ... ... L. 1758 (Bivalvia: Arcidae) from a Sandy/Muddy Beach near Dar es Salaam, .... Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya: Seasonality and Abundance, Abstract PDF ... Vol 15, No 1 (2016), Microalgal distribution, diversity and ... Vol 14, No 1&2 (2015), Micro-tidal dependent phytoplankton ...

  5. Psychological Effects of Mbagala Bombs Blasts in Children | Messo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncontrolled explosions on 29th April 2009, at the Tanzania People's Defence Forces (TPDF) armouries in Mbagala military facility, a main storage area for various armaments in Dar es Salaam -Tanzania, tore through the walls and roofs, and landed on the floors of people's residences situated within a wide radius from the ...

  6. Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study of antenatal clinics in Kinondoni municipality, Dar Es Salaam. ... was descriptive cross sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The sample population included nurse-midwives who manage ANC clinics in Kinondoni Municipality.

  7. Surgical site infection among patients undergone orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infection among patients undergone orthopaedic surgery at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... of surgical site infection at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute was high. This was associated with more than 2 hours length of surgery, lack of prophylaxis use, and pre-operative hospital stay.

  8. Gender Issues in Dairy and Beef Value Chains in Tanzania | Nombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the role and level of participation of women, men and youth in the dairy and meat value chains. The study also focused on gender constraints and challenges that hinder equitable involvement of women and men in the chains. Using Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Dar es Salaam as study areas ...

  9. Assessment of the Essential and Toxic Elements in Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the commonly used complementary foods (Unga wa Lishe) for children 0-5 years in Tanzania were analyze for essential and toxic elements in order to assess their nutritional levels. 60 samples were purchased from shops in Dar es Salaam, Moshi and Arusha regions and analyzed using Energy Dispersive ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 117 ... Vol 7, No 2 (2005), Assessment of the use of information and communication technology in the improvement of performance and efficiency in the banking sector: a case study of the National Micro Finance Bank (NMB) Dar es Salaam, Abstract PDF. Rehema Chande–Mallya. Vol 12, No 1 (2017), Auditing ...

  11. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa...

  12. Beyond the Gatekeeper State : African Infrastructure Hubs as Sites of Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana

    2018-01-01

    While Africa has often been portrayed as peripheral to major global economic flows, the copper mines in the South of the DRC as much as the port of Dar es Salaam are hubs of extraction and trade at the heart of the global economy. This article departs from the notion of the gatekeeper state that

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mtabaji, J. Vol 25, No 2 (2011) - Articles Relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors among middle- aged men and women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract. ISSN: 0856-0714. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  14. Growth Response of Selected Mangrove Species to Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sewage system of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania, serves only 15% of the population, making sewage one of the leading sources of marine pollution. This study was initiated to assess the potential of peri-urban mangrove forests as filters and phyto-remediators of sewage and the growth of two mangrove species under ...

  15. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 7 July 2000. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 STRAINS DURING TWO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN DAR ES SALAAM,. TANZANIA. W.K. Urassa, MD, MSc, MMed, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University ...

  16. 2236-IJBCS-Article-Stephen Samwell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Chemistry Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, ... observed high mosquito repellent activity for the essential oil fractions from A. hexapetalus could be attributed ... Keywords: Essential oils, mosquito repellent properties, Annonaceae, β-caryophyllene oxide, cadinol, cubenol.

  17. Engendering Curricula at Institutions of Higher Learning in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) celebrates 50 years of existence, a key indicator to measure its success remains the level at which it has translated gender and human right issues into academic programs. University education is a catalyst for gender equality, and is capable of changing gender discriminatory ...

  18. Use of Participatory Forest Management as a Strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the strategies for improving access to and use of information for forest management with particular reference to Kazimzumbwi and Pugu forest reserves in Coast Region located in the Pugu Hills area, about 20 km south-west of Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania. The review of literature and preliminary ...

  19. Accessing information to rural communities: case studies of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... facilities is, therefore, a basic need. This paper defines Telecentres, reviews Information Communication Technologies, and gives an overview of selected Telecentres in Uganda and their users. It concludes with discussing challenges and possible solutions. (University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal: 2003 5(1): 13-23) ...

  20. Maxillofacial fractures among patients attended at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence, types, and treatment and prognosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures at the dental school of the Muhimbili University College of Health SciencesNational Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: ... comprised of 25 (accounting for 21.3%) of the cases (p<0.001).

  1. The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam was made to determine the frequency of malignancy in patients with solitary non-toxic thyroid nodule (STN) and in those with multinodular goitre (MNG). There were 60 cases of STN and. 178 with MNG. Nodular goitre was found to be predominantly a disease of females with sex.

  2. Monitoring Shoreline Change using Remote Sensing and GIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), aerial photographs, shoreline change. Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality.

  3. The Major Cause of Observed Erosion Surge on the Beaches North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surges in coastal erosion north of Dar es Salaam city have been documented from 1977 to the early 1980s and around 1997/98. Analysis of the wind data shows that the documented increase in coastal erosion coincided with increased wind speeds. Extreme winds in excess of 10-11 m s-1 were experienced during ...

  4. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. 0 Box 6501 3, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Catholic. University of Leuven, Belgium. Thirty-three aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from thirty plant species, belonging to seventeen families were screened for cytotoxic activity against ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magwisha, H.B.. Vol 32, No 1 (2017) - Articles Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using faecal egg count reduction test at Luguruni farm, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Abstract · Vol 32, No 1 (2017) - Articles Molecular diversity of Theileria parva: a case study of Kilosa district, Morogoro, Tanzania

  6. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility attending gynaecological outpatient department (GOPD) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All women with infertility attending the ...

  7. Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania) | Page 2 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, poverty is still widespread and the government admits that micro-level achievement ought to be better. This grant will allow the Department of Economics, University of Dar-es-Salaam, to undertake microeconomic analysis in a few areas of policy concern (rural growth, manufacturing, private sector development) to ...

  8. the major cause of observed erosion surge on the beaches north

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    N Nyandwi. Institute of Marine Sciences, P. O. Box 668, Zanzibar – Tanzania ... by the problem e.g. Dar es Salaam area. (Alexander .... The profiles were measured down to the lowest water on .... buildup, reduction in the supply would lead.

  9. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic ...

  10. A study on sustainable energy for cement industries in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumaran, G.S.; Msinjili, N.S.; Schmidt, W.; Florea, M.V.A.; Nibasumba, P.

    2012-01-01

    Rwanda is a landlocked country in the East Africa. It is surrounded by Uganda, Tanzania, Congo and Burundi. Rwanda is a fast developing country and it spends most of its revenues to import fossil fuels from either through Mombasa Port in Kenya or Dar es Salaam port in Tanzania because the energy

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TxrF) analysis has been developed at the Dar es Salaam ... Fluorescence (TRXRF) analysis was introduced in extension to already existing ordinary Energy Dispersive .... Ca, Ti and V apart from soil sources come from the burning fuel from cars and the neighbouring soap ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 32 (2003), Clinical Implications Of Childhood Bilingualism, Abstract PDF. F Southwood. Vol 49 (2016), Code-switching in university classroom interaction: A case study of the University of Dar es Salaam, Abstract PDF. Nikuigize Erick Shartiely. Vol 36 (2008), Communicating across cultures in South African law courts: ...

  13. The Current Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current status of teachers and the teaching sector in Tanzania. It draws on experiences of teachers, parents, and students in Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya regions. Informed by the qualitative inquiry, the paper is largely empirical in character. Data was sought through interviews and document ...

  14. Predictive equations for spirometric reference values in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    men and 98 women were selected to the reference value group. ... adult population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and compare these equations to already ... which has proven to be suitable in field work as it operates on batteries and requires no ..... thought to be partly due to difference in body build and that Blacks have ...

  15. Upgrading transmission lines with aerial LiDAR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koop, J.E. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is described as an example of techniques used by hydro companies to increase their capacity with existing plants, and within tight budget constraints. LiDAR was chosen by Manitoba Hydro primarily because LiDAR's data collection method offers very fast turn-around time from collection to delivery, and most importantly because of LiDAR's highly accurate ability to map terrain and wire catenary shape in every span. The article describes a case study of the 'Nip and Tuck' method of wire re-tensioning based on LiDAR data, which was used by Manitoba Hydro to create a computer model of Saskatchewan Hydro's transmission line capacity on its 138 kV transmission line between Saskatoon and North Battleford. The model was needed to analyze the existing line conditions in an effort to minimize cascading failures on the 40-year old line. Using the 'Nip and Tuck' technology in combination with LiDAR, SaskPower engineers were able to complete the required modifications to raise transmission wire operating temperatures on the 135 km long line to 66 degree C in only 36 days, and at a cost that was 80 per cent less than the cost would have been using conventional techniques ($232,000 instead of the estimated $1.25 million).

  16. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and the...

  17. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  18. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  19. 2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Unclassified Topographic LiDAR: Puget Sound Lowlands Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 730 square miles and covers the...

  20. El Futuro es Hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Latiff Conde

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En ninguna otra época de la historia como en la nuestra se ha producido una transición tan rápida hacia el futuro, en el campo de la medicina.

    Lo que había sido una centuria de evolución desde la era Industrial a la era de la Informática, en la pasada década se ha convertido en una revolución.

    La cirugía laparoscopica que ha constituído el despertar a la edad de la informática como la tecnología lider es considerada ahora un standard en la práctica médica. En la actualidad tecnologias más avanzadas prometen mayores progresos en la medicina.

    La mayor revolución médica ocurrió en la cirugía en las postrimerias del siglo diecinueve cuando algunos gigantes de la medicina todavía caminaban sobre la tierra. Estos visionarios comprendieron la magnitud del cambio y dieron nacimiento a la nueva disciplina de la cirugía. Entre ellos estaban Bilroth, Lister, Virchow y Morton.

    Nunca trabajaron juntos, pero la integración espontánea de sus investigaciones y sus habilidades clínicas hicieron posible la nueva cirugía. Fue la convergencia de sus visiones y sus tecnologias las que dieron un vuelco a la cirugía. Bilroth aportó nuevas técnicas y nuevos instrumentos Lister aportó la asepsia, Virchow la patología y Morton la anestesia.

    Los antiguos mitos y muchos hechos empiricos hicieron creer por miles de años en la inviolabilidad del cuerpo humano. Las herramientas científicas de la Era Industrial convirtieron en realidad lo imposible y la ciencia dio nacimiento a la moderna cirugía. En un corto periodo de tiempo se establecieron los fundamentos de una cirugía que permitiría a las siguientes generaciones liderar nuevos avances y tecnologias.

    Nada estremeció más los fundamentos de la medicina como esta explosión de la cirugía. Comprender el shock, la cirugía cardiaca y coronaria, los trasplantes, tuvieron un enorme impacto que conmocionó la medicina. Es obvio que los cambios producidos

  1. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users

  2. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  3. Waveform LiDAR across forest biomass gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Nelson, R. F.; Dubayah, R.; Sun, G.; Ranson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed information on the quantity and distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) is needed to understand how it varies across space and changes over time. Waveform LiDAR data is routinely used to derive the heights of scattering elements in each illuminated footprint, and the vertical structure of vegetation is related to AGB. Changes in LiDAR waveforms across vegetation structure gradients can demonstrate instrument sensitivity to land cover transitions. A close examination of LiDAR waveforms in footprints across a forest gradient can provide new insight into the relationship of vegetation structure and forest AGB. In this study we use field measurements of individual trees within Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) footprints along transects crossing forest to non-forest gradients to examine changes in LVIS waveform characteristics at sites with low (field AGB measurements to original and adjusted LVIS waveforms to detect the forest AGB interval along a forest - non-forest transition in which the LVIS waveform lose the ability to discern differences in AGB. Our results help identify the lower end the forest biomass range that a ~20m footprint waveform LiDAR can detect, which can help infer accumulation of biomass after disturbances and during forest expansion, and which can guide the use of LiDAR within a multi-sensor fusion biomass mapping approach.

  4. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans / Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Darüşşifalarında Müzikle Tedavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    ncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır. La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des Ottomans Résumé La musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d

  5. Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

    2014-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the

  6. 2004 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. The LiDAR files were converted from .PTS format to LAS...

  7. 2007 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District US Virgin Islands LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) bare-earth classified LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the USACE USVI LiDAR Project. These data were...

  8. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  9. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  10. Study on environmental test technology of LiDAR used for vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yang, Jianfeng; Ou, Yong

    2018-03-01

    With the development of intelligent driving, the LiDAR used for vehicle plays an important role in it, in some extent LiDAR is the key factor of intelligent driving. And environmental adaptability is one critical factor of quality, it relates success or failure of LiDAR. This article discusses about the environment and its effects on LiDAR used for vehicle, it includes analysis of any possible environment that vehicle experiences, and environmental test design.

  11. Relationship between LiDAR-derived forest canopy height and Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Pascual; Antonio Garcia-Abril; Warren B. Cohen; Susana. Martin-Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The mean and standard deviation (SD) of light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-derived canopy height are related to forest structure. However, LiDAR data typically cover a limited area and have a high economic cost compared with satellite optical imagery. Optical images may be required to extrapolate LiDAR height measurements across a broad landscape. Different spectral...

  12. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  13. A multiscale curvature algorithm for classifying discrete return LiDAR in forested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Evans; Andrew T. Hudak

    2007-01-01

    One prerequisite to the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) across disciplines is differentiating ground from nonground returns. The objective was to automatically and objectively classify points within unclassified LiDAR point clouds, with few model parameters and minimal postprocessing. Presented is an automated method for classifying LiDAR returns as ground...

  14. Tree filtering for high density airborne LiDAR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution Airborne LiDAR data creates better opportunity for an individual tree measurement and provides valuable results for more precise forest inventory. This paper presents tree filtering approach that able to separate dominant tree and undergrowth vegetation. The results can be used for

  15. Nitrogen concentration estimation with hyperspectral LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nevalainen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lands have strong impact on global carbon dynamics and nitrogen availability. Monitoring changes in agricultural lands require more efficient and accurate methods. The first prototype of a full waveform hyperspectral Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR instrument has been developed at the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI. The instrument efficiently combines the benefits of passive and active remote sensing sensors. It is able to produce 3D point clouds with spectral information included for every point which offers great potential in the field of remote sensing of environment. This study investigates the performance of the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument in nitrogen estimation. The investigation was conducted by finding vegetation indices sensitive to nitrogen concentration using hyperspectral LiDAR data and validating their performance in nitrogen estimation. The nitrogen estimation was performed by calculating 28 published vegetation indices to ten oat samples grown in different fertilization conditions. Reference data was acquired by laboratory nitrogen concentration analysis. The performance of the indices in nitrogen estimation was determined by linear regression and leave-one-out cross-validation. The results indicate that the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument holds a good capability to estimate plant biochemical parameters such as nitrogen concentration. The instrument holds much potential in various environmental applications and provides a significant improvement to the remote sensing of environment.

  16. San Clemente Island Baseline LiDAR Mapping Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    full-waveform LiDAR (Riegl® Q680i), a hyperspectral sensor (Specim AISA EAGLE), an SLR camera, and supporting instruments for geolocation and...manual editing would be necessary for detailed gully identification. Figure 12. Extensive gully erosion on the southwest part of San Clemente. Figure 13

  17. Liquid waste management: The case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    liquid waste management practices of the community; to assess the .... Logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of factors on the .... the ever-growing Bahir Dar Town with modern buildings using flush toilets will ...

  18. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...

  19. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  20. Adolescents' Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisi, Francis; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kajula, Lusajo J; Kilonzo, Gad P; Onya, Hans; Wubs, Annegreet; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study.

  1. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in apple for genetic linkage maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, H.J.; Weg, van de, W.E.; Carling, J.; Khan, S.A.; McKay, S.J.; Kaauwen, van, M.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in two mapping populations and their integration with other marker types showed that DArT is a powerf...

  2. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in apple for genetic linkage maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, Henk J.; van de Weg, W. Eric; Carling, Jason; Khan, Sabaz Ali; McKay, Steven J.; van Kaauwen, Martijn P. W.; Wittenberg, Alexander H. J.; Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J. J.; Noordijk, Yolanda; Gao, Zhongshan; Rees, D. Jasper G.; Van Dyk, Maria M.; Jaccoud, Damian; Considine, Michael J.; Kilian, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in two mapping populations and their integration with other marker types showed that DArT is a powerf...

  3. 2005 Mississippi Merged LiDAR Data (2005 LiDAR data merged with 2005 Post-Katrina LiDAR data to create a bare-earth product for flood plain mapping in coastal Mississippi).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pre- and post-hurricane Katrina LiDAR datasets of Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS, were merged into a seamless coverage by URS. The pre-Katrina LiDAR...

  4. es

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bernal Valls

    Full Text Available El uso de ejercicios en el tratamiento de pacientes con déficit vestibular crónico está incrementándose de forma notable, lo que evidencia que se trata de un procedimiento que resulta beneficioso para este tipo de pacientes. Los buenos resultados que se obtienen sugieren que los ejercicios vestibulares dan lugar a una estabilidad postural y a una disminución de la sensación de desequilibrio.

  5. ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Katie; Abramczyk, Joseph; Berliner, Jeff; Irwin, Annette; Jensen, Jack; Kowsika, Murthy; Mertz, Harold J; Rouhana, Stephen W; Scherer, Risa; Shi, Yibing; Sutterfield, Aleta; Xu, Lan; Tylko, Suzanne; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2002-11-01

    This technical paper presents the results of biomechanical testing conducted on the ES-2 dummy by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership and Transport Canada. The ES-2 is a production dummy, based on the EuroSID-1 dummy, that was modified to further improve testing capabilities as recommended by users of the EuroSID-1 dummy. Biomechanical response data were obtained by completing a series of drop, pendulum, and sled tests that are outlined in the International Organization of Standardization Technical Report 9790 that describes biofidelity requirements for the midsize adult male side impact dummy. A few of the biofidelity tests were conducted on both sides of the dummy to evaluate the symmetry of its responses. Full vehicle crash tests were conducted to verify if the changes in the EuroSID-1, resulting in the ES-2 design, did improve the dummy's testing capability. In addition to the biofidelity testing, the ES-2 dummy repeatability, reproducibility and durability are discussed. Finally, this technical paper will compare the biofidelity ratings of the current adult side impact dummies with the ES-2 dummy, which received an overall dummy biofidelity rating of 4.6.

  6. Real-time computational photon-counting LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Matthew; Johnson, Steven; Phillips, David; Padgett, Miles

    2018-03-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost, and high-speed MEMS-based spatial light modulators has generated widespread interest in alternative sampling strategies for imaging systems utilizing single-pixel detectors. The development of compressed sensing schemes for real-time computational imaging may have promising commercial applications for high-performance detectors, where the availability of focal plane arrays is expensive or otherwise limited. We discuss the research and development of a prototype light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system via direct time of flight, which utilizes a single high-sensitivity photon-counting detector and fast-timing electronics to recover millimeter accuracy three-dimensional images in real time. The development of low-cost real time computational LiDAR systems could have importance for applications in security, defense, and autonomous vehicles.

  7. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  8. LiDAR observation of the flow structure in typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is subject to 3.4 landfall typhoons each year in average, generally occurring in the third quarter of every year (July-September). Understanding of boundary-layer turbulence characteristics of a typhoon is needed to ensure the safety of both onshore and offshore wind turbines used for power generation. In this study, a floating LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) was deployed in a harbor to collect data of wind turbulence, atmospheric pressure, and temperature in three typhoon events (Matmo typhoon, Soulik typhoon, Trami typhoon). Data collected from the floating LiDAR and from meteorological stations located at Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung are adopted to analyse the wind turbulence characteristics in the three typhoon events. The measurement results show that the maximum 10-min average wind speed measured with the floating LiDAR is up to 24 m/s at a height of 200 m. Compared with other normal days, the turbulence intensity is lower in the three typhoon events where the wind speed has a rapid increase. Changes of wind direction take place clearly as the typhoons cross Taiwan from East to West. Within the crossing intervals, the vertical momentum flux is observed to have a significant pattern with both upward and downward propagating waves which are relevant to the flow structure of the typhoons.

  9. Development of a regional LiDAR field plot strategy for Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind Bhuta; Leah Rathbun

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) Pacific Northwest Region (R6) has been flying LiDAR on a per project basis. Additional field data was also collected in situ to many of these LiDAR projects to aid in the development of predictive models and estimate values which are unattainable through LiDAR data alone (e.g. species composition, tree volume, and downed woody material...

  10. Peregrinaciones parisinas: Rubén Darío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Colombi

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Hacia 1900 se nuclea en París un grupo de corresponsales latinoamericanos conformando una suerte de enclave que reúne a figuras como Rubén Darío, Manuel Ugarte, Amado Nervo o Enrique Gómez Carrillo. Desde sus respectivas columnas estos cronistas construyen imágenes del mundo moderno atravesadas por el conflicto de pertenencia y marginalidad respecto al mismo. Este trabajo analiza las entregas que Rubén Darío escribe para La Nación de Buenos Aires durante la Feria Internacional de Paris de 1900, en relación con su contexto discursivo. En la enunciación de estas crónicas se alternan pasajes donde prima la superficialidad de la crónica elegante parisina con otras secciones argumentativas que dan cuenta de los desplazamientos de este sujeto entre el 'chroniqueur' y el intelectual que interviene -con la autoridad que le otorga su liderazgo estético- en el campo de los sucesos políticos, desmoronando cualquier 'fetichización' del espectáculo. Darío trama en su crónica la línea 'ondulante' de su prosa de artista con la línea 'informativa' de su tarea de diarista, imponiendo una marca 'modern style' a su escritura, que privilegia imágenes donde se fusionan elementos de ámbitos dispares; también se contamina de la retórica del acontecimiento moderno, en una hibridez propia del efecto sumativo de ese vasto mercado. Las crónicas, reunidas luego en Peregrinaciones de 1901, señalan también el pasaje entre el gran mercado cultural y el pequeño mercado estético, en una posición anfibia propia de esta textualidad

  11. El duelo es un trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Clara Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Esta pregunta por lo nuevo en la atención en duelo invita a pensar en varias direcciones: qué hay de nuevo como oferta médica para ayudar a soportar la situación de pérdida que el duelo arrastra consigo, por un lado, pero por otro, qué hay de nuevo en el duelo? Es difícil saber si las condiciones de elaboración del duelo se modifican con las particularidades de una época o con las particularidades propias de cada modalidad de sufrimiento, igualmente existe una tesis que afirma que nuestra épo...

  12. Performance testing of LiDAR exploitation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-04-01

    Mobile LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the field of geoscience. One of most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing. Several software solutions for data processing are available in the market, but users are often unknown about the methodologies to verify their performance accurately. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and six different suites are studied: QT Modeler, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Mars 7, Fledermaus, Carlson and TopoDOT (all of them in x64). Results depict as QTModeler, TopoDOT and AutoCAD Civil 3D allow the loading of large datasets, while Fledermaus, Mars7 and Carlson do not achieve these powerful performance. AutoCAD Civil 3D needs large loading time in comparison with the most powerful softwares such as QTModeler and TopoDOT. Carlson suite depicts the poorest results among all the softwares under study, where point clouds larger than 5 million points cannot be loaded and loading time is very large in comparison with the other suites even for the smaller datasets. AutoCAD Civil 3D, Carlson and TopoDOT show more threads than other softwares like QTModeler, Mars7 and Fledermaus.

  13. El duelo es un trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Cecilia Mesa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pregunta por lo nuevo en la atención en duelo invita a pensar en varias direcciones: qué hay de nuevo como oferta médica para ayudar a soportar la situación de pérdida que el duelo arrastra consigo, por un lado, pero por otro, qué hay de nuevo en el duelo? Es difícil saber si las condiciones de elaboración del duelo se modifican con las particularidades de una época o con las particularidades propias de cada modalidad de sufrimiento, igualmente existe una tesis que afirma que nuestra época no es ya la época de la muerte romántica más bien que la condición de guerra haría a su vez que las
    coordenadas del duelo podrían pensarse de manera distinta, sin embargo detrás de lo nuevo siempre encontramos lo viejo: la muerte. Parafraseando el último verso de “Las Flores del Mal” de Baudelaire:

  14. Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es).

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es). en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Natural(es) remisión de V. ciencias natural(es). in the dictionary Dicter.

  15. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  16. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in apple for genetic linkage maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, H.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Carling, J.; Khan, S.A.; McKay, S.J.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for

  17. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid

  18. Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS CONTRACT: 07CRCN0006 TASK ORDER NUMBER: G09PD00300...

  19. Status and prospects for LiDAR remote sensing of forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Wulder; N. C. Coops; A. T. Hudak; F. Morsdorf; R. Nelson; G. Newnham; M. Vastaranta

    2013-01-01

    The science associated with the use of airborne and satellite Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to remotely sense forest structure has rapidly progressed over the past decade. LiDAR has evolved from being a poorly understood, potentially useful tool to an operational technology in a little over a decade, and these instruments have become a major success story in...

  20. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. 25.401 Section 25.401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401...