WorldWideScience

Sample records for danish marine environment

  1. The 10. Danish marine research meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 10th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Hirtshals (Denmark) on January 21 - 27, 1998, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulations, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (EG)

  2. 8. Danish meeting for marine researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The publication comprises the programme for the 8th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Odense (Denmark) on January 25th - 27th, 1994, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulation, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (AB)

  3. Presentations at the seventh Danish marine research meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents contributions from the 7th Danish marine research meeting, arranged by the Danish National Oceanologic Board the 21-24 Jan 1992 in the new Marine Geology Research centre of the Aarhus University. 310 participants presented 76 lectures and 35 posters in the field of marine geology, hydrology, biology contamination monitoring etc. (EG)

  4. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlloef, I.; Andersen, Jesper H.

    2009-07-15

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  5. Hazardous and radioactive substances in Danish marine waters. Status and temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlloef, I.; Andersen, Jesper H.

    2009-07-01

    This book fulfils the Danish reporting obligations in relation to the OSPAR Trend Assessment on Dangerous Substances, and describes the degree of contamination from hazardous and radioactive substances and their temporal trends, as well as the effects of some of these hazardous substances, in the Danish marine environment. The assessment is based on existing information, primarily data collected via national and regional Danish monitoring activities until 2004. (author)

  6. Psychosocial work environment among immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    Non-Western cleaners have been shown to have poorer health than their Danish colleagues. One reason could be a poorer psychosocial work environment. However, it is unknown if differences in self-reported psychosocial work environment exist between non-Western and Danish workers within the same...... social class. The aim of this study was to investigate such differences among cleaners with the hypothesis that the non-Western compared with Danish cleaners would report a generally poorer psychosocial work environment....

  7. Sphingomonads from marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavicchioli, R; Fegatella, F; Ostrowski, M; Eguchi, M; Gottschal, J

    1999-01-01

    Sphingomonas species play an important role in the ecology of a range of marine habitats. Isolates and 16S-rRNA clones have been obtained from corals, natural and artificial sources of marine hydrocarbons and eutrophic and oligotrophic waters, and have been isolated as hosts for marine phages. In

  8. The Danish experience of strategic environment assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    2004-01-01

    The article recounts a number of examples of the Danish experience with Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).......The article recounts a number of examples of the Danish experience with Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)....

  9. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  10. Corrosion Failures in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    R. Krishnan

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of typical marine environments and the most common form of corrosion of materials used in this environment. Some typical case histories of failures pertaining to pitting, bimetallic corrosion, dealloying, cavitation and stress corrosion cracking are illustrated as typical examples of corrosion failures.

  11. Engineering subcultures and working environment in Danish enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Engineers' role in the management of working environment has been studied in 20 Danish enterprises based on questionnaires to 680 engineers. In general, engineers are not aware that they may influence the working environment of other people through their decisions. It is suggested that engineering...... subcultures be examined in order to change engineers' attitudes toward the working environment of workers and users....

  12. Transuranic behaviour in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    This document summarizes the following specific studies concerning the transuranic behaviour in marine environment: 1. Radionuclides in deep sea amphipods; 2. Actinides, 55 Fe and 137 Cs in N. pacific water columns; 3. Vertical profile of artificial radionuclide concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean; 4. Bioturbation and the distributions of fallout radionuclides in Pacific Ocean sediments

  13. Microplastics Monitoring in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the need for future spatiotemporal comparisons of microplastic abundance across marine environment, through standardized methods for microplastic sampling and analysis in sea water, beach and seabed sediment and marine organism. Pretreatment of the sample prior to the elimination of organic matter should be done using appropriate reagents was also described. Extraction of microplastics from environmental matrices is based on the different density of targeted microplastics with saturated salt solutions (NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, ZnCl2 and lithium metatungstate. Quantification can be achieved by microscopic techniques (binocular, stereomicroscope, fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope and discussion on identification methods including FTIR, Pyr-GC/MS and Raman spectroscopy will be provided. This review also endorses the importance of further study regarding the fate and impact of microplastics on marine biota and human health, especially when we acknowledge that co-pollution may occur during the transport on microplastic in marine environment.

  14. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes is widely distributed on the ground primarily in marine environments. Nowadays, more than 340 isotopes has been identified exist in our earth especially in marine environment. From that total, 80 isotopes was radioactive. The existence of radioactivity in the marine environment is through the direct and indirect distribution of radionuclides

  15. Radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to an editorial by Dr. Goldberg (Mar. Pollut. Bull.; 8:49 (1977)) in which he proposed that concerned scientists should combine their expertise both to gather information of radioactive disposal to the marine environment and to assess the implications of such pollution on marine resources. It is here stated that such data on their own, unsupported by any guidance as to their significance in environmental terms, may simply cause unwarranted alarm and provide yet another source of uninterpreted data to feed uninformed environmental discussion. Some examples of such observations and commentary are cited. In a reply Dr. Goldberg asserts that the possible misinterpretations of either the data or their evaluation is a small risk compared to the benefits to be gained from joint efforts by scientists of many nations to describe and predict possible jeopardies to the ocean system. (U.K.)

  16. Marine environment news. Vol. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is the first issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter which is hoped to inform Member States, research partners, visitors and other stakeholders of highlights of the marine projects, surveys, hot issues, discoveries and training programmes being delivered by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. In this issue the mission of the MEL and its various activities are presented

  17. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    In this issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter topics including radiotracers as new barometers of ocean-climate coupling, bio-indicatos species in detecting marine radioactvity and pollution as well as training activities are covered

  18. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  19. Ethnography in the Danish Veterinary Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will

  20. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  1. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  2. Field study of the indoor environment in a Danish prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogbeh, Audrey; Jomaas, Grunde; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... with their general indoor environment and all responding inmates expressed dissatisfaction with the thermal climate. Dissatisfaction was mostly caused by a lack of airflow and air movement in the space as well as excessive direct sunlight from the windows. Security is a leading factor in the design of prisons, so...... a compromise must be found to ensure that the building can comply with minimum health and comfort standards. The findings of this study can be used as background for recommendations for renovation of prison buildings....

  3. Evaluation of the indoor environment in 8 Danish passive houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Daniels, Ole; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    have clearly shown that even though the houses are built in a colder northern context than typical passive houses, the solar shading must be an integrated part of the project. Examples and effects of different solar shading solutions are included in the paper. Evaluation and design of thermal indoor......In correlation with the increasing demands for energy savings in the residential area, the building envelope has been improved and made more resilient to heat loss, both with regards to utilisation of more insulation and by making the building more air tight. With less infiltration and less heat...... loss the indoor environment is more sensitive to the operation of the building, with regard to both thermal and indoor air quality. In 8 passive houses (the Comfort Houses) built in a Danish context measurements of the indoor environment have been conducted, where 5 minute values have made it possible...

  4. Natural radioactivity aspects of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the natural radioactivity distributions and their movement in the oceans and their significance, is of considerable interest, while attempting to understand the impact of man-made radioactivity sources on the marine environment. In this context the interesting environmental behaviour of Radium isotopes ( 226 Ra and 228 Ra) and 210 Pb and 210 Po pair of radionuclides in the marine environment -occurring in 238 U and 232 Th natural radionuclides series have been the subject of considerable investigations as part of the marine biogeochemical studies, some aspects of which are discussed

  5. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  6. Steps toward nation-wide monitoring of non-indigenous species in Danish marine waters under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Kallenbach, Emilie; Hesselsøe, Martin

    This report is the outcome of MONIS 2 – or in full, “Monitoring of Non-Indigenous Species in Danish Marine Water, phase 2” – and includes three deliverable: (1) a national Target Species List including 50 species, (2) a draft Technical Guidance Report, and (3) in silico designed and tested primers......) and adapted to the requirements of the Danish NOVANA programme. In addition, the report includes suggestions for next steps to take to implement and improve monitoring and assessment activities in regard to non-indigenous species in Danish marine waters....

  7. The psychosocial work environment and fatigue in Danish ferry shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild Dohrmann, Solveig

    and endangerment of occupational safety, and in ferry shipping employees’ fatigue can lead not only to poor individual health and wellbeing but also to accidents, which can potentially jeopardize passengers’ safety. Objective Due to the risk of fatigue in the ferry shipping industry – and a lack of prior research...... the results of a cross-sectional study among Danish ferry ship employees. Main findings of article 2 were that job demands and job control were more important for fatigue than disturbance from the physical working environment, and effects tended to be stronger for psychological than for physical aspects...... of fatigue. In particular higher levels of demands were related to higher levels of fatigue on four of the five SOFI-subscales, i.e. lack of energy, physical exertion, lack of motivation and sleepiness, respectively, while a negative association was found between job control and the three psychological sub...

  8. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Cowie, G; Naqvi, S W A

    2013-01-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  9. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  10. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  11. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter carries articles on Tracers to reveal Global Role of Southern Oceans in Climate Change, a Technical Cooperation project on contamination in Mediterranean Sea and an article Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) and Harmful Algal Blooms: nuclear methods serving seafood toxicity management. News items on training, personnel and intercomparison exercise are also covered

  12. Actinide isotopes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of actinide isotopes in the environment are important not only from the viewpoint of their radiological effects on human life, but also from the fact that they act as excellent biochemical and geochemical tracers especially in the marine environment. For several of the actinide isotopes there is still a lack of basic data on concentration levels and further investigations on their chemical and physical speciation are required to understand their behaviour in the marine environment. The measured and estimated activity concentration levels of artificial actinides are at present in general a few orders of magnitude lower than those of the natural ones and their concentration factors in biota are relatively low, except in a few species of macroalgae and phytoplankton. The contribution from seafood to total ingestion of actinides by the world population is a few per cent and, therefore, the dose to man from these long-lived radionuclides caused by seafood ingestion is usually low. (orig.)

  13. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  14. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...... invitations to a sample of the Danish housing stock. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The outdoor temperature, solar radiation and type of supplementary...... heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...

  15. Radioecological studies in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.; Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Nagaya, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment have been regarded as useful tracers in the study of natural geochemical and oceanographic processes occurring in the ocean. Quantitative collection of Cs-137 from surface seawater by copper ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was examined and the same method was also applied to open ocean sea water. To get inherent bioconcentration coefficients of marine fish from the coastal seas of Japan, laboratory tracer experiments using some radioisotopes were carried out. Uptake, through both radioactive seawater and food, and excretion of radionuclides by marine fish were observed for about 8 weeks. The results showed that seawater and food equally contribute to accumulation of Cs-137 by fish. The adult rockfish and Japanese flounder seemed to take up Ru-103 mainly from seawater, while juvenile fish take it from seawater and food equally. Much information on concentrations, distributions and chemical forms of stable isotopes in marine organisms is important to predict the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea or to study metal metabolism in the body of marine organisms. Approximately 40 elements corresponding to important radionuclides in more than 300 species of marine organisms, collected off the coast of Japan, were analyzed with ICP-AES, ICP-MS and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The concentrations of Mn and Zn in the dried granules of the kidney of a marine bivalve were 44,200 and 22,800 μg/g, respectively. The high accumulation of certain elements in the kidney resulted from the existence of metal containing granules. (author)

  16. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  17. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Brungot, A.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Helldal, H.E.; Brown, J.; Iosjpe, M.; Christensen, G.

    2001-07-01

    A new, comprehensive national programme for monitoring of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) was established in 1999. This program is based on a proposal developed by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), the Directorate for Nature Conservation (DN) and the State pollution authorities (SFT) on behalf of the Ministry of Environment. NRPA, as the responsible authority on radiation protection, co-ordinates the programme whilst sampling at sea is conducted in close co-operation with IMR as part of the regular monitoring of the marine environment and its living resources. The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and along the Norwegian coast. The programme also collects updated information on both Norwegian and other sources of radioactive contamination, and carries out assessments of radiation exposures of humans and biota. This new national monitoring programme has been co-ordinated with existing programmes funded by the Ministry of Fisheries. The monitoring programme for Marine Fish and Seafood was established in 1994. In previous reports from the programme established in 1994, (Sickel et al, 1995; Brungot et al, 1997, 1999) information regarding radioactivity in sea water, sediments and seaweed was included. However, the main purpose of this program is to document levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and other seafood caught in Norwegian waters. This information is then made available to the relevant authorities, fishing industries and the general public as documentation regarding the quality of the marine products. The work in this programme is performed as a co-operation between the NRPA and the Directorate of Fisheries. In addition, results from the monitoring program conducted by the National Food Control Authority are also included

  18. Glass stability in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.H.; Fyfe, W.S.; Tazaki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Similarities in corrosion behavior have been found in static leaching experiments on natural (basaltic and rhyolitic) and waste form (PNL76-68, ABS-118) glasses in seawater and marine sediments. Grainy but cohesive magnesium-rich surface layers form on both natural and waste form glasses. Basaltic and ABS-118 glasses exhibit especially similar corrosion behavior and have comparable corrosion rates. As fresh basaltic and rhyolitic glasses are common in sediments as old as Miocene (∼ 15 my) in two deep-sea drilling sites, it appears that fine natural glass can survive for a few million years. Metal encapsulated, massive glass pieces could therefore survive for millions of years if buried in appropriate marine sediments in the submarine environment. (author)

  19. Quorum Sensing in Marine Microbial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates. The most well-studied QS systems in the ocean occur in surface-attached (biofilm) communities and rely on AHL signaling. AHL-QS is highly sensitive to the chemical and biological makeup of the environment and may respond to anthropogenic change, including ocean acidification and rising sea surface temperatures.

  20. Prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in Danish marine fishes and its occurrence in new host species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Mellergaard, Stig

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyse the occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaerma virus (VHSV) in the marine waters around Denmark, staff from the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research participated in 5 research cruises during 1998 to 2002 as a follow-up to 4 research cruises performed in 1996...

  1. Hydrogen fuel in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuis, I.J.S.; Richardson, R.N.; Stone, H.B.J. [School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Hydrogen may offer considerable potential as a marine fuel. The lower fuel mass when compared with existing hydrocarbon fuels can usefully increase payload which in turn benefits the economics of oceanic transport and provides the opportunity to compete in new markets. The potential to virtually eliminate pollution at the point of use may prove significant at a time when exhaust emissions from shipping are becoming a matter of global concern. The potential for hydrogen in the marine environment, the current state of transferable technologies and the particular technical and economic issues that need to be addressed are considered in the context of a design study being conducted on a high-speed foil-assisted catamaran capable of transporting 600TEU at speeds of up to 64 kn (118.5 km/h) over trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic trade routes. It is concluded that such a vessel is technically feasible and could achieve door-to-door delivery times, as part of an integrated transport chain, otherwise only possible by airfreight but at a fraction of the cost. (author)

  2. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  3. A cross-sectional study of psychosocial work environment and stress in the Danish symphony orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Paarup, Helene M; Baelum, Jesper

    2012-08-01

    To investigate psychosocial work environment and stress in Danish symphony orchestra musicians. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of psychosocial work factors and stress symptoms among 441 musicians in six Danish symphony orchestras. The response rate was 78% (n = 342). The questions were from COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Mean values of 19 COPSOQ-scales were compared by gender and instrument group. The results for the musicians were compared with results for the general Danish work force (COPSOQ database). Female musicians reported higher work demands and higher stress symptoms than their male colleagues. Between instrument groups, 2nd violinists seemed to be of particular risk compared with the other instrumental groups in aspects of work pace, work organization, and content, whereas 1st violinists perceived higher emotional stress compared with 2nd violinists. The musicians' experience of increased work demands as well as deteriorated, work organization and job content, interpersonal relations and leadership, and work-individual interface was significantly associated with increasing stress symptoms. Compared to the general workforce independently of gender, Danish symphony orchestra musicians reported higher emotional demands, lower influence, lower social support, lower sense of community, and lower job satisfaction. However, the musicians reported a higher commitment to the workplace. The findings indicate a more demanding psychosocial work environment exposure among symphony orchestra musicians than among Danish workers in general. Critical results are the relatively high work demands, low influence, and low social support, females being of higher risk than males.

  4. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...... and lower moisture excess were demonstrated in the houses ventilated according to the Danish building regulations than in houses not fulfilling the requirements. Though, the results showed large variations between the eight houses but also between the parameters examined....

  5. Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah; Kalaycı, Gülşah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Behaviour and fate of artificial redionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment, effect of the physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides. Behavior of radionuclides in the physical and biological environments and general evaluation of transfers [fr

  8. Technological enhancement of natural radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Baxter, M.S.; Scott, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review summarizes aspects of technologically enhanced radioactivity in the UK marine environment, considers briefly related investigations in western Europe and then discusses some models for the kinetics of series decay and ingrowth which can be applied to technological inputs of series members to the marine environment and to their differential elemental biogeochemistries. (author)

  9. The Danish National badminton center: A successful talent development environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid; Storm, Louise Kamuk; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    A specific shared feature of the successful environments is a strong and coherent organizational culture characterized by a close coherence between espoused and enacted values. Organizational culture of elite and talent development environments and sporting organizations exerts an important impact...

  10. Danish Working Environment Regulation. How reflexive - how political? -a Scandinavian case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    an understanding of the directions of the reforms made in this period. The paper operate with two analytical perspectives: The reflexive regulation perspective and the political process perspective. Danish working environment regulation is discussed through the general political initiatives taken, and through four......This article discuss whether the development of the public regulation of the working environment leads to new power patterns in enterprises. The main emphasis is on discussing the development of Danish working environment regulation in the last twenty years, and through this analysis obtaining...... specific regulation topics: The Occupational Health Services (OHS), regulation of the psychological working environment, the 'Monotonous Repeated Work'-plan and the workers' compensation. Taking the last twenty years' development as a whole the main developments in the regulation is a further shift...

  11. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  12. Associations between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant and Danish cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper Vinther; Carneiro, Isabella G; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2012-01-01

    was assessed by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). In each population, multivariate logistic regressions were applied testing for an association between each of the COPSOQ scales and hypertension. RESULTS: Models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, workplace and physical work exertion showed......INTRODUCTION: Non-Western cleaners have reported better psychosocial work environment but worse health compared with their Danish colleagues. The aim of this study was to compare the association between psychosocial work environment and hypertension among non-Western immigrant cleaners and Danish...... cleaners. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five cleaners from nine workplaces in Denmark participated in this cross-sectional study. The cleaners were identified as non-Western immigrants (n = 137) or Danes (n = 148). Blood pressure was measured in a seated position, and psychosocial work environment...

  13. Radioactive waste in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The introduction of radionuclides into near-shore marine areas is considered in relation to Federal Regulations and to the hazards posed to man and to marine organisms living near the site of introduction of the contaminants. The use of the critical pathway concept, for evaluating hazards to man from radionuclides in his food, is discussed and the specific activity concept is applied to demonstrate the degree of hazard to man which could result from normal reactor operation using sea water for the coolant. The relative hazards to marine organisms from naturally occurring and reactor-produced radionuclides are also evaluated. (U.S.)

  14. Impact of aquaculture on coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    Since aquaculture is intimately linked with aquatic environmental quality, entry of pollutants to coastal waters constitutes the greatest threat to marine environmental quality and, hence, to long term viability of coastal aquaculture. Fish...

  15. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    invitations to addresses obtained from a Danish register along with information on dwelling characteristics. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Four control mechanisms (window open/closed, heating on/off, lighting on/off and solar shading in/ not in use) were analysed...... separately by means of multiple logistic regression in order to quantify factors influencing occupants’ behaviour. The window opening behaviour was strongly related to the outdoor temperature. The perception of the environment and factors concerning the dwelling also impacted the window opening behaviour....... The proportion of dwellings with the heating turned on was strongly related to the outdoor temperature and the presence of a wood burning stove. The solar radiation, dwelling ownership conditions and the perception of the indoor environment also affected the use of heating. The results of the statistical...

  16. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    . Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...... for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section...... to issues covered by the Danish CSR reporting requirement, which in addition to environment and climate change mitigation measures broadly applies to human rights, social issues such as working conditions, and anti-corruption measures. The ‘mapping paper’ by way of introduction describes the context...

  17. Marine Corps Private Cloud Computing Environment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    leveraging economies of scale through the MCEITS PCCE, the Marine Corps will measure consumed IT resources more effectively, increase or decrease...flexible broad network access, resource pooling, elastic provisioning and measured services. By leveraging economies of scale the Marine Corps will be able...IaaS SaaS / IaaS 1 1 LCE I ACE Dets I I I I ------------------~ GIG / CJ Internet Security Boundary MCEN I DISN r :------------------ MCEN

  18. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). Keywords: hypoxia, marine ecosystem, sensitivity, hysteresis, global change The purpose of this focus issue is to consolidate recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in marine...-ocean low-oxygen events to biogeochemical cycling of critical elements, and then scaling up to ecosystem responses and social impacts, mitigation and adaptive management. Articles in this focus issue provide data from observations and monitoring, modeling...

  19. Danish activities concerning noise in the environment (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Fritz

    1982-01-01

    the country in international collaboration. It is claimed that noise abatement will be diffuse and weak, if it is not based on a national strategy. The discussion of noise in the environment covers: external industrial noise, road traffic noise, and air traffic noise. The principles on which the maximum....... The regulations concerning road traffic noise are based on results of extensive interviews of persons living in areas with various exposure levels. The results of these interviews will be reported as well as the conclusions drawn....

  20. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  1. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.P.; Raghu, K.; Sherkhane, P.D.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14 C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14 C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14 C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14 C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14 C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14 C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14 C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14 C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  2. Educating for the marine environment: Challenges for schools and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2017-11-30

    Environmental education has long been recognized as critical for achieving environmental awareness, values and attitudes, skills and behaviour consistent with sustainable development and for effective participation in environmental decision-making. Since the Declaration of the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment concerns about marine pollution and ecotoxicology, among other environmental challenges, should be included in environmental education. However, in the more than forty years since this significant environmental Declaration, marine education has struggled to find a place in the school curriculum of most countries, even though issues such as climate change, chemical contamination of marine environments, coastal eutrophication, and seafood safety continue to threaten human and other species' well-being. This viewpoint discusses how marine education is marginalized in school education, and how marine specialists need to embed school education in their action plans. Particular questions include: who should be educated, about what, where and with what goals in mind? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  4. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed. (HLW)

  5. Associations between built environment and active transport in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars

    adolescents (11-13 years) attending 5th or 6th grade in 14 different schools in Region Southern Denmark. Measures: - 5-day commuting diary. Mode of transport was reported from home to school and return (walk, bike, car, bus, train and other). - Web based questionnaire to asses perceived safety of bike route......Introduction: Active commuting to school in Denmark is common but differentiates between schools. What is the association between the surrounding school environment assessed with a three component index and active commuting in adolescents? Methods: Materials: The study material consists of 1348...... to and from school (very safe to very unsafe). - Area median household income (statistic records). GIS measures: -Individual network distance from home to school. -Index consisting of summed rank-score of the following three components (1-14 each; summed 3-42): Pedshed: ‘Area of 2 km school service area’ / ‘2...

  6. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL, formerly the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR)) was founded in the premises of the Musee oceanographique de Monaco. In 1961, at the time the IAEA laboratory was founded, there was indeed very little information on what happens when radionuclides enter the sea and whether their concentration (if any) through the marine food chain would represent a risk to man or to the integrity of the marine environment itself. The awakening of international concern for the marine environment was not restricted to radioactive substances. During the 1960s public attention was turned to the threats of oil spills, bioaccumulation of pesticides in marine and terrestrial birds and poisoning by heavy metals in industrial effluents. The growing concern regarding the deleterious environmental impact of some forms of development and the lack of a co-ordinated international response led to the United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in June 1972. This international activity, which gave the IAEA-MEL new partners, was important because it would have been virtually impossible to disconnect the study of marine radioactivity from that of other contaminants associated with economic development. Moreover, nuclear techniques (such as neutron activation analysis) had already proven to be invaluable for the study of non-radioactive contaminants and natural and man-made radionuclides were yielding quantitative information on oceanic and sea floor processes which could not be obtained by other means

  7. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation and unsustainable development were addressed on a global scale at the UN Summits in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002. This article presents analyses of Danish television coverage of these two summits and related topics viewing the media stories as exemplary...... cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...

  8. Food ingredients from the marine environment. Marine biotechnology meets food science and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Boziaris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment disposes a plethora of bioactive compounds with unique properties and remarkable potential for biotechnological applications. A lot of those compounds can be used by the food industry as natural preservatives, pigments, stabilizers, gelling agents, etc., while others exhibits beneficial effects and can be used as functional food ingredients, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and prebiotics. Interdisciplinary approach is required to increase our knowledge, explore the potential of marine environment and produce value-added food for all.

  9. Durability of composites in a marine environment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajapakse, Yapa

    2014-01-01

    Composites are widely used in marine applications. There is considerable experience of glass reinforced resins in boats and ships but these are usually not highly loaded. However, for new areas such as offshore and ocean energy there is a need for highly loaded structures to survive harsh conditions for 20 years or more. High performance composites are therefore being proposed. This book provides an overview of the state of the art in predicting the long term durability of composite marine structures. The following points are covered: •       Modelling water diffusion •       Damage induced by water •       Accelerated testing •       Including durability in design •       In-service experience. This is essential reading for all those involved with composites in the marine industry, from initial design and calculation through to manufacture and service exploitation. It also provides information unavailable elsewhere on the mechanisms involved in degradation and how to t...

  10. Marine metagenomics: strategies for the discovery of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications from marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson Alan DW

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metagenomic based strategies have previously been successfully employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the unculturable component of microbial communities from various terrestrial environmental niches. Both sequence based and function based screening approaches have been employed to identify genes encoding novel biocatalytic activities and metabolic pathways from metagenomic libraries. While much of the focus to date has centred on terrestrial based microbial ecosystems, it is clear that the marine environment has enormous microbial biodiversity that remains largely unstudied. Marine microbes are both extremely abundant and diverse; the environments they occupy likewise consist of very diverse niches. As culture-dependent methods have thus far resulted in the isolation of only a tiny percentage of the marine microbiota the application of metagenomic strategies holds great potential to study and exploit the enormous microbial biodiversity which is present within these marine environments.

  11. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Pavitran; C.B. Jagtap; S. Bala Subramanian; Susan Titus; Pradeep Kumar; P.C. Deb

    2006-01-01

    Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-...

  12. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaotian; Wu, Pengcheng; Guo, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    Experimental work was carried out to develop information about mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) in marine environment. By using the seawater and dry-wet circulation to simulate the marine environment, specimens of RC were tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. Based on the analysis of the stress-strain curves (SSCs) and compressive strength, it is revealed that RC' peak value and elastic modulus decreased with the increase of replacement percentage and corroding time in marine environment. And the failure of recycled concrete was speeded up with more obvious cracks and larger angles of 65° to 85° in the surface when compared with normal concrete. Finally, the grey model (GM) with equal time intervals was constructed to investigate the law of compressive strength of recycled concrete in marine environment, and it is found that the GM is accurate and feasible for the prediction of RC compressive strength in marine environment.

  13. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  14. Multimodal perception for a mobile robot in marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In the field of robotics, the autonomous surface vehicles play an important role. They can perform dangerous operations such as marine environment monitoring or hydrographic surveys. Before considering the movement of an autonomous surface vehicle, it is necessary to ensure its perception of the environment. It consists of observing, locating and avoiding obstacles. Due to technological constraints, the complexity of the natural environment and the diverse situations encountered, it is diffic...

  15. Aerosol mass loading over the marine environment of Arabian Sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2+. (6%). Over the marine environment of. Arabian Sea, the non-sea-salt component dominates accounting to ~76% of the total aerosol mass. The spatial variations of the various ions are examined in the light of prevailing meteorological conditions and airmass back trajectories. 1. Introduction. The impact of aerosols on the ...

  16. From The Human-Environment Theme Towards Sustainability – Danish Geography and Education for Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2013-01-01

    Research on geography in relation to education for sustainable development (ESD), has only recently climbed the research agenda. The geopolitics of intended learning outcomes in the ESD debate, carries policy that produce dilemmas and challenges confronted with disciplinary traditions....... In this article it is examined dialectically how the changing climate and the paradigm of sustainability have been dealt with in Danish geographical university education. It is shown how curriculum programs in higher geographical education have taken different approaches to address issues of sustainability...... and climate change and how geographers articulate their role and function as knowledge on human-environment interactions changes. The analysis of the geographical education reveal that geographers’ find their discipline contribute considerably to ESD, and thus the human environment theme seems...

  17. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from...... a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjobing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. RESULTS: Approximately 5......% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high...

  18. Marine environment news. Vol. 5, no. 1, September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) new programmes and strategic outreach efforts (e.g. Mission visits, Newsletter, displays at IAEA's 50th General Conference) have resulted this year in a record number of Marine Technical Co-operation (TC) projects. They increased from 17 in 2006 to 28 in 2007/08 and included 9 regional and 3 interregional projects, now directly benefiting 64 Member States (MS). This is clear evidence of increased interest by Member States to fully utilize the Agency's expertise to better understand and protect their diverse marine environments and resources. I would also like to thank MEL staff for rising to the challenge of supporting these new TC projects. We are also pleased to report that in June 2007, we had a record number of Vienna-based Missions (22 representatives) including the Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors, the DDG, Mr. W. Burkart, and two Ministers from Monaco visiting MEL in Monaco. The VIP delegates toured MEL's world class laboratories and concluded with a round table discussion on training MS in marine radioactivity and radioecology, on applying new isotopic tools for marine pollution and ocean climate change studies, and on investing in essential equipment at MEL. I am also pleased to report that the IAEA Board of Governors have just approved the replacement of MEL's ageing High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) now planned for 2008

  19. Understanding the paleo environment in the Danish North Sea using 2D and 3D seismic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Lasse K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the first detailed and integrated mapping of buried Quaternary valleys, river systems and iceberg scourings from the Danish North Sea region. The mapped features coincide spatially but have very different characteristics and incision levels which allow us to constrain their relative timing and differentiate their environment of formation (subglacial, proglacial and marine). The results of the study bring new critical information regarding the paleoenvironment of the North Sea Basin during the latest Quaternary deglaciation period and our analysis provide a well-tested workflow for utilizing 2D and 3D seismic data in relation to paleogeographical reconstructions. Our analysis is based on interpretation of conventional 3D seismic and high-resolution sparker data from the Southern Danish Central Graben. The project forms part of the portfolio for the 'Danish Hydrocarbon Research and Technology Centre' and aims at building a high-resolution 3D geological-geotechnical model of the shallow subsurface by using geophysical data combined with geological and geotechnical data from shallow borings. One of the objectives is to map potential geohazards for offshore installations such as buried valleys and constrain their geotechnical properties. The central North Sea is known to have been covered by glaciers several times during the Quaternary with climate changing between arctic and boreal. Marine conditions periodically prevailed and large river systems mainly from central Europe dominated during periods of subaerial exposure. Hence, many buried erosional incisions, primarily tunnel valleys but also river systems, can be observed within the upper 200-400 meters of the Quaternary succession throughout the central North Sea region. A high-resolution mapping of the infill of the tunnel valleys and river systems have however not previously been presented. Our analysis shows that within the study area at least four generations of tunnel valley formation and

  20. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively

  1. IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory - Monaco: Biennial report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report contains the results of the scientific tasks carried out in 1989-90 by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. The methods development and analytical quality assurance for radionuclide measurements, studies for evaluating environmental impacts of radionuclide releases into the sea, contribution to international marine pollution monitoring and research including special missions are presented. In addition, lists of the visiting consultants/experts, trainees/fellows, publications/meetings, committee/expert group membership, courses and research/technical contracts are given. Figs and tabs

  2. A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Willem Maria Stienen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop management strategies for sustainable useand conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful,but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuationmaps that compile and summarize all available biological andecological information for a study area, and that allocate anoverall biological value to subzones, can be used as baselinemaps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper providesa concept for marine biological valuation which is based on aliterature review of existing valuation criteria and the consensusreached by a discussion group of experts.

  3. Particles in the oceans: Implication for a safe marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Julian; Corsi, Ilaria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    Strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of engineered particles entering the marine environment are urgently needed. As the application of nanoparticles in science and technology grows, the need to understand their impact on the marine environment becomes increasingly important. This Editorial introduces a Special Issue on the topic of a sustainable and safety use of nanoparticles for protecting, recovering and supporting the oceans' environment and consequently human health. The issue focus on the impact of micro/nano-plastics and metallic nanoparticles on marine organisms, as well as some methodological aspects associated to the eco/toxicity and analytical approaches for in deep physico-chemical characterization of nanoparticles in marine waters and sediment media. Important and urgent topics are addressed in the field of nano-ecosafety in order to assess more precisely both exposure routes and environmental hazards of nanoparticles in the ocean. Ecotoxicological and toxicological data, obtained using a wide variety of organisms representative of different trophic levels and biological organization, from whole animals to macromolecules, will be useful for a better definition of cleaner and safer nanoparticles. Efforts in developing a broad understanding of target species, expected results, benchmarks and timelines, will be of primary importance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Methodology for impact assessment in the estuarine/marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Impacts on the estuarine/marine environment can be assessed in economic terms by tracing the impact flow out of the economic sector through the marine environment and back into the economic sector as changes in natural resource availability. An impact can then be measured by the changes created in the economic sector by changes in resource availability. Primary emphasis is placed on the development of an appropriate ecological model of the estuarine environment for this purpose. Two types, an ecological input/output model and a dynamic (difference equation) model, are proposed. Acceptability criteria for these models include the ability to track lethal and sublethal, direct and indirect (food web), and short- and long-term effects of a variety of pollutants related to the production and use of various energy resources

  5. Environmental parasitology: Parasites as accumulation bioindicators in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Milen; Sures, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Parasites can be used as effective monitoring tools in environmental impact studies as they are able to accumulate certain pollutants (e.g. metals) at levels much higher than those of their ambient environment and of free-living sentinels. Thus, they provide valuable information not only about the chemical conditions of their and their hosts' environment but also deliver insights into the biological availability of allochthonous substances. While a large number of different freshwater parasites (mainly acanthocephalans and cestodes) were investigated in terms of pollutant bioaccumulation, studies based on marine host-parasites systems remain scarce. However, available data show that different marine parasite taxa such as nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans exhibit also an excellent metal accumulation capacity. The biological availability of metals and their uptake routes in marine biota and parasites differ from those of freshwater organisms. We assume that a large part of metals and other pollutants are also taken up via the digestive system of the host. Therefore, in addition to environmental conditions the physiology of the host also plays an important role for the accumulation process. Additionally, we highlight some advantages in using parasites as accumulation indicators in marine ecosystems. As parasites occur ubiquitously in marine food webs, the monitoring of metals in their tissues can deliver information about the spatial and trophic distribution of pollutants. Accordingly, parasites as indicators offer an ecological assessment on a broader scale, in contrast to established free-living marine indicators, which are mostly benthic invertebrates and therefore limited in habitat distribution. Globally distributed parasite taxa, which are highly abundant in a large number of host species, are suggested as worldwide applicable sentinels.

  6. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  7. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  8. Impact of oil and related chemicals on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This review updates a previous review entitled ''Impact of Oil on the Marine Environment''. It covers oil and individual hydrocarbons, used lubricating oils, chemical control agents for oil spills, and wastes from offshore petroleum operations. It considers all major knowledge generated since the mid-1970s. The review covers its topics comprehensively, from a consideration of the composition, sources and inputs of oil to its ecological and human health effects and its effects on man's use of the sea. The review addresses several key questions on the present levels of contamination, the impact of hydrocarbons and related chemicals on marine biota, the recovery potential of marine ecosystems exposed to these contaminants, the degree of protection required for marine ecosystems known to be vulnerable and sensitive, and recommended research and other actions to fill gaps in knowledge. The review describes the hazards of marine oil pollution and associated chemicals and wastes as they are understood currently, and clarifies the importance of reducing oil inputs in coastal and offshore waters. It assists in considering fundamental questions, asked by the public and decision-makers alike, such as: how much oil is entering our oceans, and how much harm is it doing? (author)

  9. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  10. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  11. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  12. Production of metabolites as bacterial responses to the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-03-17

    Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe(3+) ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon

  13. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  16. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 0 28' N and 13 0 15' N longitudes 100 0 35' E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C 14 , Sr 90 , Pu 239,240 , Po 210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  17. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, J.; Currivan, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report represents the results of the Board's monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish marine environment during 1987. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to obtain estimates of radiation doses to the Irish public arising from caesium-137 and caesium 134, the main contaminating radionuclides. Estimates are presented of the radiation doses to the Irish public arising from the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with radiocaesium

  18. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  19. Pollution in the Gulf: Monitoring the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    More than 2 years after the Gulf conflict, scientists are continuing to keep a close watch on marine pollution stemming from the war. Following the conflict in early 1991, major concern was raised worldwide when an estimated four to eight million barrels of crude oil were directly released into the Persian Gulf from the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. Such amounts clearly made it the largest oil spill in history. The catastrophe was exacerbated when Kuwaiti oil fields were ignited. The magnitude of the pollution, and the types of toxic contaminants involved, led to a worldwide response through the United Nations system. An inter-agency plan of action was developed quickly. As one of its steps, the co-ordinating agency - the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - asked the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco to help make a preliminary assessment of the situation. The Laboratory's main goal in initial surveys was to map the extent and general degree of the war-related pollution throughout the Gulf. Since the initial surveys were done, IAEA-MEL scientists have been engaged in regional follow-up activities in ongoing attempts to obtain a clearer picture of the oil pollution's effects on the Gulf's marine environment. This article highlights the laboratory's work in the Gulf following the 1991 conflict, within the context of co-operative programmes and projects. 1 fig

  20. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  1. Mercury pollution for marine environment at Farwa Island, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Adel A S; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Al-Gheethi, A A S

    2016-01-01

    Farwa is an Island in Libya receives petrochemical wastes generated from General Company of Chemical Industries (GCCI) since more than 40 years. The present work aimed to determine the concentrations of mercury (Hg(+2)) in fish, marine plants and sediment collected from Farwa lagoon to evaluate effect of industrial wastewater from GCCI on the marine environment. Hundred and twelve samples of fish, pearl oyster, cuttlefish sediments and marine plants were analyzed to determine Hg(2+) concentration during the period from January to August 2014 by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The highest concentration of Hg(2+) was detected in Pinctada radiata (11.67 ± 3.30 μgg (-1)) followed by Serranus scriba (6.37 ± 0.11 μg g (-1)) and Epinephelus marginatus (6.19 ± 0.02 μg g (-1)). About 75 % of marine plants contained the maximum contaminations during the summer season. In fish samples Hg(2+) concentrations exceeded the levels provided by international standards. The fish at Farwa lagoon is heavily contaminated with Hg(2+) which may represent a source for mercury poisoning for human.

  2. Marine environment news Vol. 4, no. 1, June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The last six months have been a frenetically busy time for us in Monaco. Our Marine Programmes have been positively reviewed by the Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Applications (SAGNA) and by an External Evaluation of our Programme. Both Groups report to the Director General, Mr Mohammed ElBaradei, and we hope that new investment in personnel and equipment may eventually result from their evaluations and feedback. We were honoured by the visit of His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco in March 2006 to our facilities. HSH continues to take a personal interest in MEL's isotopic and pollutant analyses of biota and environmental samples from the Arctic environment which we sampled during His Highness' cruise in June 2005 (see Vol. 3. No 2. MEL Newsletter). This issue also shows that MEL has hosted several important workshops and meetings. The US Research Vessel Endeavour visited the port of Monaco in April and MEL hosted an informal reception for the crew. The visit was in connection with ongoing, joint MEL-US studies in ocean carbon sinks in the Mediterranean (the MEDFLUX programme). More recently, MEL has been involved in discussion with Gulf Member States for a Marine Radioactivity Baseline Study. Finally, I am pleased to note that our MEL Newsletter is clearly having a positive outreach with Member States, since we are currently witnessing a doubling in Member States requests through the TC Concept Proposals (2007-2008) for fellowships, courses and capacity building in marine environment

  3. Incidence of work injuries amongst Danish adolescents and their association with work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D; Nielsen, Kent J; Andersen, Johan H

    2011-02-01

    The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a birth cohort comprising all adolescents born in 1989 (n = 3,687) living in Ringkjøbing County, Denmark. The questionnaire contained items on self-reported number of accidents and number of working hours in both rounds and on work environment factors in the second round. Approximately 5% of the adolescents who held a job, experienced a work injury at the age of 17. This equals an incidence of 65 accidents per million working hours. Most adolescents had decent working conditions, although nearly half reported that their work was heavy, monotonous or psychologically demanding. Heavy work, high psychological demands and low social support increased the risk of experiencing work injuries after adjustment for a number of factors. The incidence of work injuries among adolescents appears to be higher than the incidence among their older colleagues. Lack of social support from management significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the

  5. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    to assess the radiological exposure from radioactivity in North European marine waters. In 1986 the Chernobyl accident occurred and the Baltic and the Black Seas in particular were contaminated. In the 1990s military dumping activities carried out previously by the FSU in the Arctic Ocean have been in focus......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  6. The impacts of radionuclide releases into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The impact of radiation on the marine environment has been of interest to the international community since the advent of nuclear fission. This interest continues with the increasing industrial use of nuclear power and the associated need for the disposal of nuclear waste. Continued dumping of low-level waste into the sea and direct discharge of liquid effluents into coastal waters, as well as potential radionuclide additions to the deep ocean from other sources, dictates that the possible long-term effects on the seas must be closely watched. By means of field studies in contaminated environments, our knowledge of long-lived radionuclides, especially the transuranium elements, is increasing. We are far from the goal, however, of being able to predict the behaviour of these elements in the marine environment, particularly in the deep sea. We know even less about other long-lived radionuclides such as technetium, whose inventory may be as high as 170 000 kg by the year 2000 according to some projections. Clearly, attempts to unravel the behaviour and fate of these long-lived radionuclides introduced into the sea will present a challenge to the environmental scientist during the next decade. In addition, the new philosophy of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as set out in Publication No.26, emphasizes justification and optimization both in the release of radioactive effluents into the sea and in the sea-dumping of radioactive solid wastes. To satisfy the demands of this new philosophy requires a broader range of environmental information than has previously been available. The papers assembled for this symposium represent an authoritative account of the subject's global status in 1980. The object of the meeting was to review the origins, measurements, behaviour, fate and impacts of artificial radioactive additions to the marine environment

  7. Impact of thermal discharge on marine environment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, A.G.; Rameshwari, S.; Sukumaran, N.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal pollution has been used to indicate the detrimental effects of heated effluents discharged by power plants and other industries. It denotes the impairment of quality and deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial environment through heated effluent and fly ash. Various industrial plants like thermal, atomic, nuclear, coal fired plants, oil field generators, factories and mills utilize water for cooling purposes. In India, there are about 60 thermal power plants, which produce 30 million tonnes of fly ash every year. The heated effluents from power plants is discharged at a temperature, which is 8-10 degC higher than that of intake marine water. The adverse effect of thermal discharge are visible in microorganism, fish, biotic life and the over all ecosystems. The discharge of heated effluents actually affects the fish respiration, metabolism and other physiological activities of marine organisms, which ultimately leads to death. This could be due to synergism because of toxic chemical such as copper, nickel, chromium and chlorine, which are used to remove slimes in the pipelines. The major waste material from thermal power station is the fly ash that creates enormous pollution problem to air, water and soil environment. Fly ash possess large amounts of lead, cobalt, chromium, cadmium etc. When this fly ash is released out through water carriage system it leads to turbidity, over deposition and flood also. Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (TTPS) has installed five power generation units each of 250 MW capacities. About 1.35 lakhs m 3 /hr water is drawn from the sea, utilized for cooling and then the heated effluent is discharged into the same environment. Therefore, this paper deals with various impacts associated with thermal discharge on marine environment. (author)

  8. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, C; Milodowski, A E; Baker, A C

    2014-02-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm(-2) y(-1) and 2.5-48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Joensen, H.P. [Froskaparsetur Foeroya. Faroe Islands, Torshavn (Denmark); Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Logemann, K. [Univ. of Iceland (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir Rikisins (Iceland); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Suolanen, V. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW{sub th} reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the

  10. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Cunningham, J.D.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  11. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.; Lahtinen, J.; Logemann, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Roos, P.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-02-01

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW th reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen

  12. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  13. Marine palynology and its use for studying nearshore environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernal, A de

    2009-01-01

    Palynology is the study of microfossils composed of highly resistant organic matter called palynomorphs. In the sediments of neritic environments, palynomorphs may include cysts of dinoflagellates, phycoma of prasinophytes, organic linings of benthic foraminifers and thecamoebians, in addition to inputs from the terrestrial vegetation (pollen grains and spores) or the freshwater biota (chlorococcales). Marine palynology is thus used for characterizing the type of sedimentary environment, identifying the source of organic matter in the sediment, and weighting the relative importance of fluvial and pelagic inputs. Among marine palynomorphs, dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts usually dominate the assemblages. Dinocysts comprise phototrophic and heterotrophic taxa and occur in almost all aquatic environments. Along the continental margins, assemblages are usually characterized by high species diversity and cyst concentrations reaching up to 10 5 cysts cm -3 . The distribution of dinocyst assemblages in sediments shows latitudinal patterns in addition to onshore to offshore gradients. Multivariate analyses illustrate close relationships between dinocyst assemblages and sea-surface parameters such as sea-ice cover, salinity, temperature, seasonality and productivity. Transfer functions developed from dinocysts permit the reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity and the evaluation of past productivity, with applications dealing with climate changes and eutrophication. Dinocysts are also used for the study of harmful algal blooms since a few taxa relate to toxic species.

  14. Marine palynology and its use for studying nearshore environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernal, A de [GEOTOP, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, PO Box 8888, succursale ' centre ville' Montreal, Qc, H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: devernal.anne@uqam.ca

    2009-01-01

    Palynology is the study of microfossils composed of highly resistant organic matter called palynomorphs. In the sediments of neritic environments, palynomorphs may include cysts of dinoflagellates, phycoma of prasinophytes, organic linings of benthic foraminifers and thecamoebians, in addition to inputs from the terrestrial vegetation (pollen grains and spores) or the freshwater biota (chlorococcales). Marine palynology is thus used for characterizing the type of sedimentary environment, identifying the source of organic matter in the sediment, and weighting the relative importance of fluvial and pelagic inputs. Among marine palynomorphs, dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts usually dominate the assemblages. Dinocysts comprise phototrophic and heterotrophic taxa and occur in almost all aquatic environments. Along the continental margins, assemblages are usually characterized by high species diversity and cyst concentrations reaching up to 10{sup 5} cysts cm{sup -3}. The distribution of dinocyst assemblages in sediments shows latitudinal patterns in addition to onshore to offshore gradients. Multivariate analyses illustrate close relationships between dinocyst assemblages and sea-surface parameters such as sea-ice cover, salinity, temperature, seasonality and productivity. Transfer functions developed from dinocysts permit the reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity and the evaluation of past productivity, with applications dealing with climate changes and eutrophication. Dinocysts are also used for the study of harmful algal blooms since a few taxa relate to toxic species.

  15. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  16. Exploring Marine Environments To Unravel Tolerance Mechanisms To Relevant Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    of interest, HPLC analyses were performed in order to distinguish between compound-degrading and tolerant bacteria. This led to the identification of seven tolerant and non-degrading isolates, the most interesting ones belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. These will be studied using genomic...... and transcriptomic approaches to identify the tolerance mechanisms used. Exploring new ecological niches, as contaminated marine environments allows the identification of naturally tolerant bacteria to the compounds of interest and most likely to the discovery of new mechanisms of tolerance....

  17. Path Planning Method in Multi-obstacle Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Sun, Hanxv

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm for particle swarm optimization is proposed for the application of underwater robot in the complex marine environment. Not only did consider to avoid obstacles when path planning, but also considered the current direction and the size effect on the performance of the robot dynamics. The algorithm uses the trunk binary tree structure to construct the path search space and A * heuristic search method is used in the search space to find a evaluation standard path. Then the particle swarm algorithm to optimize the path by adjusting evaluation function, which makes the underwater robot in the current navigation easier to control, and consume less energy.

  18. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Radioecological assessment of marine environment: complexity, sensitivity and uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    A compartment modelling approach is widely used to evaluate the consequences after the release of radionuclides into the marine environment, by taking into account: (i) dispersion of radionuclides in water and sediment phases, (ii) bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota and (iii) dose assessments for marine organisms and human populations. The NRPA box model includes site-specific information for the compartments, advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediment, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing, a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers and radioactive decay. The contamination of biota is calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumption, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota is calculated on the basis of radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. This modelling approach requires the use of a large set of parameters (up to several thousand), some of which have high uncertainties linked to them. This work consists of two parts: A radioecological assessment as described above, and a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, which was applied to two release scenarios: (i) a potential accident with a nuclear submarine and (ii) unit uniform atmospheric deposition to selected marine areas. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is based on the calculation of local and global sensitivity indexes, and then compare this approach to the Monte-Carlo Methods. The simulations clearly demonstrate the complexities encountered when using the compartment modelling approach. It is shown that the results can strongly depend on the time being analyzed. For example, the change of a given parameter may either

  20. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....

  1. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Murosaki, T.; Noguchi, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Kakugo, A.; Kurokawa, T.; Saito, J.; Chen, Y. M.; Furukawa, H.; Gong, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In marine environment, the antifouling properties against marine sessile organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles, etc.) were tested on various kinds of hydrogels in a long term. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can ensure at least 2 months in marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited amazing antifouling activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles as long as 330 days. The antifouling ability of hydrogels to barnac...

  2. Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of /sup 113m/Cd previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. /sup 113m/Cd has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States in an area contaminated only with global fallout debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (T/sub 1/2/ = 14.6 yr) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominant anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analyzed. Dose to man from /sup 113m/Cd ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be done at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment.

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238 Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  4. Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, S; Suvathi, Sugasini S; Aysha, O S; Nirmala, P; Vinoth, Kumar P; Reena, A

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes.

  5. Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena F Stern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known "species", as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments.In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean, including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species.COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of natural diversity in dinoflagellates. This highlights

  6. Pesticides in tropical marine environments: Assessing their fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    While forecasts of economic and population trends are notoriously contentious, it seems to be fairly widely accepted that there will be approximately 11,000 million people to feed in the year 2050, which is about twice as many as there were in 1990. There seems little doubt that pesticides will remain an essential component of many agricultural systems. Although it is estimated that insect pests alone still destroy about one-third of the world's crops, yields would probably decline by a further 30% to 75% without crop protection chemicals. It is hardly surprising therefore that worldwide pesticide usage is on the order of 5 million tons per year with a value of US $26 billion. Data on the behaviour of pesticides in the tropical marine environment are very limited in comparison with information on the fate of pesticides in temperate regions. Preliminary surveys carried out be the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in coastal lagoons in Central America indicate the presence of high concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in sediments and aquatic organisms. OP compounds, such as chlorpyrifos, were also found to be widespread contaminants in these lagoons. To develop relevant studies, the IAEA is organizing a co-ordinated research programme (CRP) through its Laboratory at Monaco and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The CRP is entitled the Distribution, Fate, and Effects of Pesticides in Biota in the Tropical Environment; support has been offered by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It will concentrate on various aspects of the problem. 2 figs

  7. A landscape ecological perspective on the regulation of N, P and organic matter in the Danish agri-environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling; Vejre, Henrik; Dalgaard, Tommy

    of the Danish approach to (non)targeting. Today there is a broad consensus among stakeholders and farmers on the need for spatially differentiation and the next generation of measures are likely to reflect this. This will target the mitigation efforts towards high load areas affecting vulnerable ecosystems......, legislation and strategies implemented in Denmark to reduce the impact on the terrestrial and aquatic environment. The aim of this paper is to analyse three decades of environmental regulation of the farming sector in Denmark, with a focus on the underlying landscape paradigms and agro- and landscape...... is increasingly questioned as to their reliability arguing that on-site specific measurements rather than model results are needed. The models and data required to design and assess spatially differentiated measures to reduce the nutrients load from Danish agriculture has been developed and improved considerably...

  8. Microplastic Generation in the Marine Environment Through Degradation and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, M. E.; Jambeck, J.; Woodson, C. B.; Locklin, J.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic use has become requisite in our global economy; as population continues to increase, so too, will plastic production. At its end-of-life, some amount of plastic is mismanaged and ends up in the ocean. Once there, various environmental stresses eventually fragment plastic into microplastic pieces, now ubiquitous in the marine environment. Microplastics pose a serious threat to marine biota and possibly humans. Though the general mechanisms of microplastic formation are known, the rate and extent is not. Currently, no standard methodology for testing the formation of microplastic exists. We developed a replicable and flexible methodology for testing the formation of microplastics. We used this methodology to test the effects of UV, thermal, and mechanical stress on various types of plastic. We tested for fragmentation by measuring weight and size distribution, and looked for signs of degraded plastic using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Though our results did not find any signs of fragmentation, we did see degradation. Additionally, we established a sound methodology and provided a benchmark for additional studies.

  9. Contamination of the Gulf marine environment following the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readman, J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; Villeneuve, J.-P.; Cattini, C.; Oregioni, B.; Mee, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Following the Gulf war, controversy and speculation have surrounded the extent to which the massive spillage of petroleum and the burning of oil wells in Kuwait have damaged marine ecosystems in the region. We report here the results of a rapid assessment survey of hydrocarbon contamination undertaken in the coastal marine environment from Kuwait to Oman during mid-1991. Our results show that severe oil pollution was restricted primarily to the Saudi Arabian coastline within ∼ 400km from the spillages, and that during the four months following the conflict and preceding our survey, the spilled oil had extensively degraded. Surprisingly, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and bivalve molluscs from Bahrain in June 1991 were lower than those recorded from our pre-war (1983-86) surveys at the same site, probably as a result of decreased tanker traffic and associated deballasting during and after the conflict. As for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during burning of the oil wells, we found that concentrations in sediments from even the most heavily contaminated sites were relatively low, and comparable to levels reported for the Baltic Sea, coastal locations of the northeastern United States and United Kingdom estuaries. (author)

  10. MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

  11. Modelling light and photosynthesis in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The overriding and far-reaching aim of our work has been to achieve a good understanding of the processes of light interaction with phytoplankton in the sea and to develop an innovative physical model of photosynthesis in the marine environment, suitable for the remote sensin gof marine primary production. Unlike previous models, the present one takesgreater account of the complexity of the physiological processes in phytoplankton. We have focused in particular on photophysiological processes, which are governed directly or indirectly by light energy, or in which light, besides the nutrient content in and the temperature of seawater, is one of the principal limiting factors.    To achieve this aim we have carried out comprehensive statistical analyses of the natural variability of the main photophysiological properties of phytoplankton and their links with the principal abiotic factors in the sea. These analyses have made use of extensive empirical data gathered in a wide diversity of seas and oceans by Polish and Russian teams as well as by joint Polish-Russian expeditions. Data sets available on the Internet have also been applied. As a result, a set of more or less complex, semi-empirical models of light-stimulated processes occurring in marine phytoplankton cells has been developed. The trophic type of sea, photo-acclimation and the production of photoprotecting carotenoids, chromatic acclimation and the production of various forms of chlorophyll-antennas and photosynthetic carotenoids, cell adaptation by the package effect, light absorption, photosynthesis, photoinhibition, the fluorescence effect, and the activation of PS2 centres are all considered in the models. These take into account not only the influence of light, but also, indirectly, that of the vertical mixing of water; in the case of photosynthesis, the quantum yield has been also formulated as being dependent on the nutrient concentrations and the temperature of seawater

  12. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; O'Grady, J.; Rush, T.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of the monitoring programme for the two-year period from January 1985 to December 1986. Information on the radioactive contamination of the marine environment is obtained from the analysis of environmental samples taken at a number of locations along the coastline and various sampling stations in the western Irish Sea. These usually include samples of surface seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the Irish public from the consumption of fish and shellfish during the period 1985-1986. These doses are assessed in terms of the system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and embodied in the Basic Safety Standards Directive of the European Community

  13. Sources and distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in different marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of the distribution in time and space radiologically important radionuclides from different sources in different marine environments is important for assessment of dose commitment following controlled or accidental releases and for detecting eventual new sources. Present sources from nuclear explosion tests, releases from nuclear facilities and the Chernobyl accident provide a tool for such studies. The different sources can be distinguished by different isotopic and radionuclide composition. Results show that radiocaesium behaves rather conservatively in the south and north Atlantic while plutonium has a residence time of about 8 years. On the other hand enhanced concentrations of plutonium in surface waters in arctic regions where vertical mixing is small and iceformation plays an important role. Significantly increased concentrations of plutonium are also found below the oxic layer in anoxic basins due to geochemical concentration. (author)

  14. Dynamics of extracellular DNA in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; Jeffrey, W.H.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The production and turnover of dissolved DNA in subtropical estuarine and oligotrophic oceanic environments were investigated. Actively growing heterotrophic bacterioplankton (i.e., those capable of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation) were found to produce dissolved DNA, presumably through the processes of death and lysis, grazing by bacteriovores, and excretion. Production of dissolved DNA as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation was ≤4% of the ambient dissolved DNA concentration per day. In turnover studies, the addition of [ 3 H]DNA (Escherichia coli chromosomal) to seawater resulted in rapid hydrolysis and uptake of radioactivity by microbial populations. DNA was hydrolyzed by both cell-associated and extracellular nucleases, in both estuarine and offshore environments. Kinetic analysis performed for a eutrophic estuary indicated a turnover time for dissolved DNA as short as 6.5 h. Microautoradiographic studies of bacterial populations in Tampa Bay indicated that filamentous and attached bacteria took up most of the radioactivity from [ 3 H]DNA. Dissolved DNA is therefore a dynamic component of the dissolved organic matter in the marine environment, and bacterioplankton play a key role in the cycling of this material

  15. Marine environment news Vol. 3, no. 2, December 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue is MEL's fifth Marine Environment News. Over the last 6 months MEL's programmes have been subjected to detailed evaluation first by an External Expert Panel that scrutinised our 5 year outputs and reported to the Director General, then by IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Application (SAGNA) which looked at our future marine programmes and challenges. Overall, both panels commended MEL for the volume, quality and relevance of MEL's outputs including our research findings, peer reviewed publications, training expertise and services to Member States. They also welcomed our decision to integrate our studies and services on non-nuclear contaminants with nuclear and isotopic projects, thereby providing Member States with value-added information on sources, fluxes and fates of contaminants in the coastal environment. They re-iterated previous recommendations for regular budget support to stabilise and re-launch a strategy for new extra budgetary partnerships. The reviews also welcomed the consolidation of MEL's carbonbased projects into a new Subprogramme H3 Ocean Climate Coupling and Carbon Cycling (OC4) for 2006-2007. (See our Website for New Subprogrammes). The Philippines Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was officially designated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre for their work on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We plan joint research on tracking the food-chain mobility, impact and fate of HABs biotoxins using radiolabelled analogues. We were pleased to offer support to HSH Prince Albert II's Centenary Expedition to Spitzbergen and so contribute in a modest but symbolic way to the Centenary legacy of Oceanography in Monaco

  16. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Biogeochemical cycle of mercury species in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, M.

    1987-10-01

    Mercury contamination of the coastal marine environment is an important concern as highly toxic methyl-mercury may be formed biogenically in sediments rich in organic matter. The present study was conducted using a highly sensitive adaptation of Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) in which mercury was re-mineralised from a variety of marine matrices (water, sediments and organisms), separated and concentrated by ion-exchange chromatography, trapped as an amalgam in gold wool and subsequently re-released by heating to 900 deg. C. Total and organomercury forms were detected respectively by measuring, in the case of seawater, sample extracts treated and untreated with uv light and, in the case of solid matrices, by ''total digestion'' and 6M HCl extractions. Detection limits were 0.1 ng/1 from a 200 ml water sample and 0.2 μg/kg for a lg solid sample. Water, sediments and organisms were collected by scuba diving from the unpolluted Sibenik aquatorium (including the Krka river estuary), Yugoslavia, and the polluted Kastela Bay, which receives discharge from a chlor-alkali plant. Mercury levels were low in the Sibenik aquatorium (0.34-2.4 ng/dm 3 water, 78-1522 μg/kg sediments and 24-39 μg/kg w.w. in mussels). Organo-mercury was generally below detection limits in water and represented below 0.5% of the total Hg in sediments but 13-88% of the mercury in mussels and fish. In the Kastela Bay, up to 90 ng/dm 3 (water), 11870 μg/kg w.w. (mussels) and 48600 μg kg w.w. (oysters) of Hg was detected. Fortunately methyl-mercury was below 0.5% of this total in all matrices. Hg levels in mussels decreased to 41.3 μg/kg w.w. at 600 m from the source. Further research will now be conducted on the biogeochemical cycle of Hg in estuarine and marine environments, with special attention being paid to the fresh/saline water interface. 9 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  19. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  20. Performance of concrete blended with pozzolanic materials in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Asad-ur-Rehman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concretes structures located at or near the coast line needs to be repaired more frequently when compared to structures located elsewhere. This study is continuation of previous studies carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan to study the performance of concrete made up of cements blended by pozzolonic materials. Different pozzolanic materials (blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume were used in the study. Tests conducted during the study to compare the performance of samples cast from concrete of different mix designs were Compressive Strength Test (ASTM C 39, Flexural Strength Test (ASTM C 293, Rapid Migration Test (NT Build 492, Absorptivity of the oven-dried samples (ASTM C 642 and Half Cell Potential (ASTM C 876. Use of cements blended with pozzolanic materials, used during the study, proved to be effective in enhancing the performance of the concrete exposed to marine environment. Use of pozzolans in concrete not only provides a sustainable and feasible solution to the durability problems in coastal areas, it also helps in conservation of natural resources and reduction of pollution and energy leading to a green environment.

  1. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  2. Biofouling of various metal oxides in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougo, T.; Kuroda, D.; Wada, N.; Ikegai, H.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Biofouling has induced serious problems in various industrial fields such as marine structures, bio materials, microbially induced corrosion (MIC) etc. The effects of various metals on biofouling have been investigated so far and the mechanism has been clarified to some extent(1,2), and we proposed that Fe ion attracted lots of bacteria and formed biofilm very easily(3). In this study, we investigated the possibility for biofouling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various metal oxides such as Fe2O3, TiO2, WO3, AgO, Cr2O3 etc. And in addition of such a model experiment on laboratory scale, they were immersed into actual sea water as well as artificial sea water. As for the preparation of metal oxides, commercial oxide powders were used as starting material and those whose particle sizes were under 100 micrometers were formed into pellets by a press. Some of them were heated to 700 °C and sintered for 10 hours at the temperatures. After the calcinations, they were immersed into the culture of P. aeruginosa at 35 °C in about one week. After the immersion, they were taken out of the culture and the biofouling behaviors were observed by optical microscopy, low pressure scanning electron microscopy (low pressure SEM) etc. Biofouling is generally classified into several steps. Firstly, conditioning films composed of organic matters were formed on specimens. Then bacterial were attached to the specimen's surfaces, seeking for conditioning films as nutrition. Then bacteria formed biofilm on the specimens. In marine environment, more larger living matters such as shells etc would be attached to biofilms. However, in the culture media, only biofilms were formed.

  3. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  4. Behaviour of 210Po in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgust, Mark Antony

    The naturally occurring alpha-emitter polonium-210 (210Po) is one of the most radiotoxic elements in the environment. Moreover, it contributes more than 150 times towards the effective radiation dosage received by humans from the consumption of fish and shellfish than from anthropogenic 137Cs. Polonium-210 is known to be strongly accumulated by marine organisms but its biochemistry is poorly understood. The research described here had two main aims: first, to investigate the factors causing temporal variations of 210Po in the temperate coastal waters and marine biota and second, to examine the biokinetics of 210Po in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. These questions were investigated by a field study and a series of laboratory experiments. In the field study more than 99% of 210Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved 210Po levels peaked during the phytoplankton bloom and I proposed that this was related to preferential scavenging of 210Po by increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in 210Po specific activity in the winkle Liittorina littorea are thought to be related to a fall in body weight following spawning. The specific activity of 210Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was strongly correlated with changes in seawater suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metals revealed correlations between class B and Borderline metals. In the laboratory digestion of 210Po-labelled Isochrysis galbana occurred via a biphasic process, characteristic of a rapid (extracellular) and slow (intracellular) digestion typical of marine bivalves. The mantle/gill and foot have no known digestive role, yet their 210Po specific activities increased after 24 hours. I proposed that this increase in 210Po specific activity was related to 210Po incorporated into these tissues from that assimilated from I. galbana during extracellular digestion. I also propose that the linear loss of 210Po

  5. Danish seine - An environmental friendly fishing method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Eggers, Florian; Frandsen, Rikke

    of the total landings where the seine fleet and catches are decreasing. The Danish seine is a specific type of encircling net to catch demersal fish. It is characterized by moderate fuel consumption and no use of heavy weights or doors, probably resulting in a relatively gentle bottom-contact and low......-valuable species will be regarded Estimation of potential interactions of the gear with the sea bottom Assessment of survival chance of discarded animals Observation of fish behavior during capture process Combination of all single parts to provide an overall picture of effects of the Danish seine fishery...... on the marine environment This study may contribute to increase understanding the catching process in the seine fishery and the gears interaction with seabed during the different stages of the fishing process. The outcome of such studies will be highly relevant in future discussions on the impacts Danish...

  6. Contamination of butyltin compounds in Malaysian marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ismail, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Concentration of butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) and total tin (ΣSn) were determined in green mussel (Perna viridis), 10 species of muscle fish and sediment from coastal waters of Malaysia. BTs were detected in all these samples ranging from 3.6 to 900 ng/g wet wt., 3.6 to 210 ng/g wet wt., and 18 to 1400 ng/g dry wt. for mussels, fish and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of BTs in several locations of this study were comparable with the reported values from some developed countries and highest among Asian developing nations. Considerable concentration of BTs in several locations might have ecotoxicological consequences and may cause concern to human health. The parent compound TBT was found to be highest than those of its degradation compounds, DBT and MBT, suggesting recent input of TBT to the Malaysian marine environment. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation: r 2 =0.82, P<0.0001) was found between BTs and ΣSn, implying considerable anthropogenic input of butyltin compounds to total tin contamination levels. Enormous boating activities may be a major source of BTs in this country, although aquaculture activities may not be ignored. - Lack of any regulation of TBT clearly resulted in a heavy contamination of BTs in Malaysia

  7. Design of marine structures with improved safety for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanac, Alan; Varsta, Petri

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for design of marine structures with increased safety for environment, considering also the required investment costs as well as the aspects of risk distribution onto the maritime stakeholders. Practically, the paper seeks to answer what is the optimal amount that should be invested into certain safety measure for any given vessel. Due to the uneven distribution of risk, as well as the differing impact of costs emerging from safety improvements, stakeholders experience conflicting ranking of alternatives. To solve this multi-stakeholder decision-making problem, in which each stakeholder is a decision-maker, the method applies concepts of group decision-making theory, namely the Game Theory. The method fosters axiomatic definition of the optimum solution, arguing that the solution, or the final selected design, should satisfy the non-dominance, efficiency, and fairness. These three are thoroughly discussed in terms of structural design, especially the latter. Considering the coupling of environmental risk and structural design, the method also builds on the preference structure of four maritime stakeholders: yards, owners, oil receivers and the public, who either share the risks or directly influence structural design. Method is presented on a practical study of structural design of a tanker with a crashworthy side structure that is capable of reducing the risk of collision. The outcome of this study outlines a number of possibilities for successful improvement of tanker safety that can benefit, concurrently, all maritime stakeholders.

  8. The impact of nuclear waste disposals to the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report provides a critical review of current scientific literature concerning the environmental impact of discharges and dumping of radioactive waste to the coastal marine and deep ocean environments. It concludes that although knowledge of the effects of dispersed radioactivity has greatly increased in the last two decades, there are still significant areas of uncertainty which have major implications for current and future nuclear waste management policy. For example, there is now evidence of discharged plutonium formerly thought to be locked on sediments returning to man via biogeochemical cycles. Discharges of this extremely toxic element have been banned elsewhere because of this eventuality, and the report recommends elimination of plutonium discharges, and in the light of recent radiobiological evidence, a fivefold reduction in exposures to the public as a result of the other Windscale discharges. In the case of ocean dumping, the report acknowledges that there is no evidence of health effects from past disposals. However, recent monitoring shows contamination of the ocean bed due to leaking containers, and it is argued that oceanographic and radioecological data are insufficient to predict future effects, especially having regard to the steadily increasing quantities dumped. (author)

  9. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; McMahon, C.A.; Dowdall, A.

    2003-04-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000 and 2001. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the North West of England continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 2000 and again in 2001. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the artificial radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser radiological significance than caesium-137. The main pathway contributing to the

  10. Flow-structure-seabed interactions in coastal and marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    related to structures such as marine pipelines, offshore windfarms, and multiuse offshore platforms. Tsunamis, which received considerable attention after two recent extreme events (2004 Indonesia tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami) are also included in the discussion. Marine hydro-geomechanics is highlighted...

  11. 40 CFR 125.122 - Determination of unreasonable degradation of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of unreasonable degradation of the marine environment. 125.122 Section 125.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... environment. (a) The director shall determine whether a discharge will cause unreasonable degradation of the...

  12. Applications of wireless sensor networks in marine environment monitoring: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-09-11

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring.

  13. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring.

  14. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks in Marine Environment Monitoring: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Shen, Weiming; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and the economy, an increasing number of human activities have gradually destroyed the marine environment. Marine environment monitoring is a vital problem and has increasingly attracted a great deal of research and development attention. During the past decade, various marine environment monitoring systems have been developed. The traditional marine environment monitoring system using an oceanographic research vessel is expensive and time-consuming and has a low resolution both in time and space. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently been considered as potentially promising alternatives for monitoring marine environments since they have a number of advantages such as unmanned operation, easy deployment, real-time monitoring, and relatively low cost. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of marine environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks. It first describes application areas, a common architecture of WSN-based oceanographic monitoring systems, a general architecture of an oceanographic sensor node, sensing parameters and sensors, and wireless communication technologies. Then, it presents a detailed review of some related projects, systems, techniques, approaches and algorithms. It also discusses challenges and opportunities in the research, development, and deployment of wireless sensor networks for marine environment monitoring. PMID:25215942

  15. The use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the use of economic forecasts in Danish economic policy, with special emphasis on energy and the environment. Two different approaches have been used to forecast energy consumption and its effects on environment in Denmark and other countries. These are the macro economic and the technical approaches. The technical approach is based on technical expertise related to energy production and energy consumption, and the article asks whether the forecasts produced by this approach are superior to macro economic forecasts of energy consumption. This question is interesting because the implications for policy resulting from the two approaches seem to be different. The analysis may have relevance to other areas outside the main economic field. (au) 22 refs

  16. Development of Anticorrosive Polymer Nanocomposite Coating for Corrosion Protection in Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, L.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The marine environment is considered to be a highly aggressive environment for metal materials. Steels are the most common materials being used for shipbuilding. Corrosion is a major cause of structural deterioration in marine and offshore structures. Corrosion of carbon steel in marine environment becomes serious due to the highly corrosive nature of seawater with high salinity and microorganism. To protect metallic materials particularly steel against corrosion occurrence various organic and inorganic coatings are used. The most used are the polymeric protective coatings. The nanostructured TiO2 polymer coating is able to offer higher protection to steel against corrosion, and performed relatively better than other polymer coatings.

  17. Some enzymes in marine environment: prospective applications found in patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Marine enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity although the related environmental conditions are present also in many non-marine environments. Novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics usually possessed by these biocatalysts, increase their interest from scientific and applicative points of view both in academia and in research industry. Chemical and pharmaceutical fields, embracing almost the whole body of applications based on marine catalysts, strictly rely upon their (stereo) chemical features. This review article is organized in two distinct parts. In the first, examples of different types of enzymes identified in marine environment are tabulated showing the importance of marine bioprospecting: in fact, the marine habitat is one of the most important natural locations for enzyme bioprospecting activity. In the second part technological processes based on marine enzymes are described: remarkable or unusual bioprocesses are performed by marine biocatalysts taking advantages by the habitat-related characteristics above mentioned which are desirable features recognized from a general biotechnological perspective. With this aim in mind this review did not search just for novelty in most recent patents but for important aspects within each report, enabling the reader to appreciate the importance of marine environment as source of very useful biocatalyst.

  18. Radioactivity Distribution in Malaysian Marine Environment. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    The marine radioactivity distribution mapping in malaysia was developed with the aim to illustrate the pattern of the distribution of both anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seawater and sediments. The data collected will form the basis for an anthropogenic radioactivity.

  19. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : volume ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  20. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  1. Fungi living in diverse extreme habitats of the marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Manohar, C.S.

    has shown the common presence of terrestrial species. Cryptic species and novel lineages have also been discovered . Extremophilic, or extremotolerant marine fungi could prove to be useful for biotechnological applications....

  2. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to (1) plankton samples, (2) sandy and muddy sediments, (3) vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion, and (4) chemical pollutant interactions. All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed. Highlights: • >100 works on microplastic marine pollution were reviewed and discussed. • Microplastics (fibres, fragments, pellets) are widespread in oceans and sediments. • Microplastics interact with POPs and contaminate the marine biota when ingested. • The marine food web might be affected by microplastic biomagnification. • Urgently needed integrated approaches are suggested to different stakeholders. -- Microplastics, which are ubiquitous in marine habitats, affect all facets of the environment and continuously cause unexpected consequences for the environment and its biota

  3. Marine environment news. Vol. 3, no. 1, May 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This issue presents a guest article on selective biomagnification of metals and radionuclides in marine food chains. Major news items include that MEL joins the international study in South Pacific, inter-agency collaboration in the study of marine pollution, IAEA-UNESCO coordinate studies on submarine ground water discharge and collaborative research on nuclear and isotopic studies of the El Nino phenomenon launched in 2004

  4. Test methods for microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.; Mansfeld, F.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques such as measurements of corrosion and redox potentials, polarization curves, polarization resistance, electrochemical impedance and electrochemical noise have been used to evaluate the impact of marine microorganisms on corrosion processes. Surface analytical techniques including microbiological culturing, scanning electron microscopy, microprobes and microelectrodes have been used to characterize metal surfaces after exposure to marine waters. A combination of electrochemical, surface analytical and microbiological techniques is the most promising approach for determining mechanisms of MIC

  5. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems.

  6. Human Habitations along the Kenyan Shoreline and their Impacts on the Marine Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwa, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Human habitations along the Kenya coast are a result of the following activities: fishing, tourism, urbanization and farming. It is therefore important to know the impact of each type of human habitation on the marine environment.

  7. Durability of precast prestressed concrete piles in marine environment : reinforcement corrosion and mitigation - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Research conducted in Part 1 has verified that precast prestressed concrete piles in : Georgias marine environment are deteriorating. The concrete is subjected to sulfate and : biological attack and the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement...

  8. Durability of precast prestressed concrete piles in marine environment, part 2. Volume 1 : concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to determine methods which may be applied : economically to mitigate corrosion of reinforcement in precast prestressed concrete piles in : Georgias marine environments. The research was divided into two par...

  9. Foraminiferal abundance in the modified marine environment of Cola Bay region of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Narayanan, V.

    perforate foraminifera are found to be very abundant over all other types in the living populations. In the Cola Bay region of Goa, where the marine environment is affected by the industrial effluents, the foraminiferal distribution shows that @i...

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the aquatic environment (marine and freshwater)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident of 1986 on the freshwater and marine environment of the British Isles is discussed. Particular reference is made to the monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs such as shellfish, molluscs, trout, watercress and laverbread and the possible restrictions on their consumption by the public. Attention is drawn to the effects of the accident on the marine environment in a wider context. (U.K.)

  11. Oil, oil dispersants and related substances in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, W.; Gassmann, G.

    1980-03-01

    Of all substances threatening life in the seas, oil has received by far the most attention from the public, administrators, politicians and scientists. The main reasons for this are: (1) even limited amounts of oil are easily visible; (2) oil can exert obvious negative effects, e. g. extensive damage to birds and other animals, impairment of the recreational value of beaches and marinas, losses in fisheries due to tainting of catches and rejection by the public of seafood from areas known to have been recently polluted. In addition, dramatic tanker accidents are widely publicized. During the last decade tens of thousands of papers have been published about the impact of oil on the marine environment, and we are well informed about most basic facts, such as input and fate of oil, toxicity to adult organisms and recolonization. Due to considerable sophistication of analytical techniques, especially the introduction of glass-capillary gas chromatography, we are well aware that recently formed biogenic hydrocarbons by far extend the input directly due to pollution. Large gaps exist in our knowledge about sedimentation and transport of weathered oil, natural degradation rates, and the flow of hydrocarbons through the food web. Relatively little is known about the influence of oil and dispersants upon complex ecosystems. The often mentioned suspicion of increased cancer probability in humans due to seafood contaminated by hydrocarbons has not been substantiated; in fact, it seems unlikely that such an effect exists. By far the greatest uncertainty about potential oil impact concerns possible negative effects of hydrocarbons on chemical communication mechanisms between organisms. Intensive studies of behaviour scientists working with concentrations far below the toxic level are needed in fisheries biology, zoology and botany. Most cases of oil contamination known thus far have been limited in space and time; the oil has turned out to be degradable by natural processes

  12. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of Occupant behavour and control of the indoor environment in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings in September to October 2006 and again in February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were internet based and were carried out......: Outdoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation, the outdoor temperature had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with windows open and heating on. The solar radiation had a small effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on, while none of the parameters seemed to affect....../offices with windows open or heating on. The outdoor temperature did not seem to affect the proportion of dwellings with solar shading in use....

  14. The Romanian environment and energy sector - An introduction by the Royal Danish Embassy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Romania suffers - even for Eastern European standards - from extensive problems in the energy and environmental sector. This is due mainly to the industrial development process during 40 years of communism, involving energy-intensive industries such as the chemical, metallurgy and cement industries and the development of densely populated areas. None of these developments were followed by an environmental strategy of the communist regime. The public investment over the past twelve years has not been adequate to close the gap that 40 years of communism left. The goal of EU-membership in 2007 means that the efforts towards closing the gap have to be intensified. This has given a new impetus to the environmental reforms in Romania. Especially improving the quality of the drinking water, handling wastewater, improving the efficiency of the district heating system, waste disposal and management, reducing air pollution as well as and improving efficiency in the electricity sector requires big public investments. These major challenges offer good opportunities for Danish companies in these areas. Furthermore, also the private companies will have to make major investments in order to meet especially environmental requirements. Due to the EU-accession process and agreements with IMF, the World Bank and others good possibilities for international financing of projects exist. From the EU alone Romania will receive over EUR 2.5 billions in the period from 2004 to 2007. This report will give the Danish investor, consultant, or subcontractor, interested in the Romanian environmental and energy sector, a basis for evaluating the opportunities in this promising sector of the Romanian economy. (au)

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. A report prepared by the Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment of the Committee on Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be

  16. Factors behind increasing ocean use: the IPAT equation and the marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2018-01-01

    to the need for specific management and governance intended to protect the marine environment. With reference to a few, selected examples related to fishing, which is one of the main anthropogenic stressors of the marine environment, it is illustrated how increasing ocean use—and associated pressure...... on the marine environment—can be seen as rooted in a combination of increasing population and human development. In doing so, the chapter departs from the IPAT equation, which is a classic way to explain changes in the environmental impacts of human activities as a product of three factors: population...

  17. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue... Programme has a history of 45 years, and continues to build capacity in the fi eld of marine pollution research and management. Identify the need for monitoring Monitor physical, biological and chemical parameters in the vicinity of the outfall...

  18. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-06-08

    To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The psychosocial work environment and certified occupational health and safety management systems in the public sector – experience from two Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Hohnen, Pernille; Helbo, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Certified occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems are expected to cover the psychosocial work environment. We studied certified OHSM systems implemented in two medium-sized to large Danish municipalities. The cases show that the process of adopting OHSM systems from...

  20. A Moessbauer and Electrochemical Characterization of the Corrosion Products Formed from Marine and Marine-Antartic Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. A.; Quagliata, E.

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion products formed on low alloy steel under two marine environments are characterised. Both environments are classified as C4 according to the ISO 9223 Standard. The corrosion products are identified and their relative proportion is determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy (transmission geometry). Free potentials of corrosion are measured to evaluate the activity of their surfaces. Structural characterisation by XRD were performed on selected samples. It is concluded that the principal phases are goethite, lepidocrocite, ferrihidrite and maghemite. The relative amount of each of them changes with time and with the atmospheric dynamics of each environment.

  1. Enhancing the sustainability of the Marine Coastal Environment of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2012-01-01

    This project enhances the national capabilities to monitor and assess contaminants in the marine environment that could be organic pollutants, radioactive materials and toxins. This will be very beneficial as, the monitoring processes and control of marine pollution is a very strategic important objective of the national institutes concerned with environmental protection and rehabilitation of the marine environment. (author)

  2. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, P.G.; Moore, C.J. C.J.; Franeker, van J.A.; Moloney, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and

  3. Converted waves in shallow marine environments : Modelling and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Allouche, N.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow marine subsurface is explored for various engineering purposes e.g. constructing installations and platforms, laying pipelines and dredging for sand. Knowledge of the soil properties is essential to minimize the risks involved with these offshore activities. Energy resources in the form

  4. Determination of plutonium, americium and curium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaut, CLaude; Germain, Pierre; Miramand, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory for plutonium, americium and curium determination in marine samples (water, sediments, animals, plants) is presented. It is a modification of a procedure based on adsorption on ion exchange resins developed by other authors. The preliminary preparation of the samples, the radiochemical procedures and electrodeposition are described so as to be used as a practical handbook [fr

  5. The IAEA inventory databases related to radioactive material entering the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.C.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter (LC 1972) have requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for developing and maintaining the inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from different sources can be assessed and compared. Five anthropogenic sources of radionuclides entering the marine environment can be identified. These sources are: radioactive waste disposal at sea; accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material; discharge of low level liquid effluents from land-based nuclear facilities; the fallout from nuclear weapons testing; and accidental releases from land-based nuclear facilities. The first two of these sources are most closely related to the objective of the LC 1972 and its request to the IAEA. This paper deals with the Agency's work on developing a database on radioactive material entering the marine environment from these two sources. The database has the acronym RAMEM (RAdioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment). It includes two modules: inventory of radioactive waste disposal at sea and inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

  6. A framework for interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous marine data in an integrated problem solving environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Chen, Ge; Yao, Shifeng; Tian, Fenglin; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated marine visualization framework which focuses on processing, analyzing the multi-dimension spatiotemporal marine data in one workflow. Effective marine data visualization is needed in terms of extracting useful patterns, recognizing changes, and understanding physical processes in oceanography researches. However, the multi-source, multi-format, multi-dimension characteristics of marine data pose a challenge for interactive and feasible (timely) marine data analysis and visualization in one workflow. And, global multi-resolution virtual terrain environment is also needed to give oceanographers and the public a real geographic background reference and to help them to identify the geographical variation of ocean phenomena. This paper introduces a data integration and processing method to efficiently visualize and analyze the heterogeneous marine data. Based on the data we processed, several GPU-based visualization methods are explored to interactively demonstrate marine data. GPU-tessellated global terrain rendering using ETOPO1 data is realized and the video memory usage is controlled to ensure high efficiency. A modified ray-casting algorithm for the uneven multi-section Argo volume data is also presented and the transfer function is designed to analyze the 3D structure of ocean phenomena. Based on the framework we designed, an integrated visualization system is realized. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework is demonstrated. This system is expected to make a significant contribution to the demonstration and understanding of marine physical process in a virtual global environment.

  7. Radioactivity of marine environment: pr occupations of the Romanian Institute of Marine Research at Constanta (1977-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, Al.A.; Patrascu, V.

    1996-01-01

    A nuclear laboratory installed in the frame of Romanian Institute of Marine Research has been initially charged with the study of primary plankton productivity as a basic element of bio-productivity using the C-14 method. The results contributed with significant data to complete the ecological picture of the marine environment regarding particularly the nutrient basis of living resources. The laboratory developed its activities by a systematic space-time monitoring of the marine radioactivity making use of a large network of measuring stations extended from Danube mouths through the southern limit of Romanian seashore and occasionally offshore up to 90 miles. Currently, global beta measurements, radiochemical determinations (for Sr-90 for instance) and high resolution gamma spectroscopic measurements (especially on K-40, Cs-134, and Cs-137) are carried out. At the end of 199 a tritium determination chain has been installed to monitor continuously the environment from around Cernavoda NPP across the Dobrogea up to the sea shore. These measurements and studies were made under technical co-operation contracts with IAEA and other national or international organisations while the results were incorporated in two important documents: 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity of Mediterranean Sea (CIESEM/GIRMED)' and 'A Global Data Base of Marine Radioactivity (IAEA/GLOMARD)'

  8. Remote sensing in the marine environment. A description of facilities, applications, needs and opportunities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shannon, LV

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Against a background of the techniques and instrumentation available for remote sensing in the marine environment, this report considers the rationale for their use by the South African marine community. Local applications of remote sensing...

  9. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infreque...

  10. The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, Thomas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Nordstrøm, Claus

    Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 64 pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 162. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR162.pdf......Aarhus University, DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, 64 pp. Scientific Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 162. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/SR162.pdf...

  11. Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Ilaria; Cherr, Gary N; Lenihan, Hunter S; Labille, Jerome; Hassellov, Martin; Canesi, Laura; Dondero, Francesco; Frenzilli, Giada; Hristozov, Danail; Puntes, Victor; Della Torre, Camilla; Pinsino, Annalisa; Libralato, Giovanni; Marcomini, Antonio; Sabbioni, Enrico; Matranga, Valeria

    2014-10-28

    The widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in a variety of technologies and consumer products inevitably causes their release into aquatic environments and final deposition into the oceans. In addition, a growing number of ENM products are being developed specifically for marine applications, such as antifouling coatings and environmental remediation systems, thus increasing the need to address any potential risks for marine organisms and ecosystems. To safeguard the marine environment, major scientific gaps related to assessing and designing ecosafe ENMs need to be filled. In this Nano Focus, we examine key issues related to the state-of-the-art models and analytical tools being developed to understand ecological risks and to design safeguards for marine organisms.

  12. Marine environment protection for the North and Baltic Seas. Special Report - February 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The marine environment of the North Sea and Baltic Sea is still heavily polluted. The marine ecosystems are under severe stress from overfishing, water pollution, raw materials production and tourism. Environmental protection in this region necessitates decisive political initiatives and strict corrections especially in fishery policy, agricultural policy and chemical substances control. This is the balance of the special expert opinion of the Council of Environmental Experts. The publication specifies the main problem areas, the current pollution situation, the fields where action is most urgently required - especially in fishery, chemical substances, agricultural and sea travel policies - and presents suggestions for an integrated European and national marine protection policy including a regional development concept for the marine environment. (orig.)

  13. A review of the biological and geochemical behaviour of technetium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    Present understanding of the behavior of Tc in the marine environment is summarised. The prevalent valence state of Tc in oxygenated seawater is +7, arguing that pertechnetate ion, TcO - 4 , represents the most likely form of this radioelement in seawater. Laboratory experiments using radio-labeled pertechnetate ion have shown that binding of this anion to different classes of marine sediments is slight. Concentration factors for the majority of marine organisms studied to date are small; notable exceptions are seen in certain species of brown algae, polychaetes and macrocrustaceans. Uptake and loss kinetics are generally rapid with the majority of the Tc being associated with shell, exoskeleton and gut. There are, as yet, no data supporting the contention that stable element analogs such as iodate can be used to predict the long-term behavior of 99 Tc (as pertechnetate) in the marine environment. (author)

  14. Engineers' Role in the Management of Working Environment in Danish Enterprises: Results of a National Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Nanette Juhler; Høgsbo, Mette Maribo

    1998-01-01

    This study confirms that many engineers are not aware that they influence the working environment of other people through their engineering. Also, it indicates that the extent of influence dependends on engineering domain and task content. Many engineers and enterprises have an espoused theory...... expressing a positive attitude towards working environment considerations in engineering. However, the theory-in-action seems to be quite different. Engineers do not know what to do in relation to working environment considerations. They mainly point to solidifying their knowledge in the area combined...... inside and outside the enterprise expect them to consider working environment aspects in engineering. The formalized working environment management system seems not able to engage the engineers in preventive actions....

  15. Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Dehaut, Alexandre; Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; Jezequel, Ronan; Soudant, Philippe; Duflos, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. The present work reviewed the main class of plastic additives identified in the literature, their occurrence in the marine environment, as well as their effects on and transfers to marine organisms. This work identified polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), phthalates, nonylphenols (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and antioxidants as the most common plastic additives found in marine environments. Moreover, transfer of these plastic additives to marine organisms has been demonstrated both in laboratory and field studies. Upcoming research focusing on the toxicity of microplastics should include these plastic additives as potential hazards for marine organisms, and a greater focus on the transport and fate of plastic additives is now required considering that these chemicals may easily leach out from plastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of two autoinducer-2 quantification methods for application in marine environments

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tian-Nyu

    2018-02-11

    This study evaluated two methods, namely high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay, for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quantification in marine samples. Using both methods, the study also investigated the stability of AI-2 in varying pH, temperature and media, as well as quantified the amount of AI-2 signals in marine samples.HPLC-FLD method showed a higher level of reproducibility and precision compared to V. harveyi BB170 bioassay. Alkaline pH > 8 and high temperature (> 37°C) increased the instability of AI-2. The AI-2 concentrations in seawater were low, ca. 3.2-27.6 pmol l-1 whereas 8- week old marine biofilm grew on an 18.8 cm2 substratum accumulated ca. 0.207 nmol of AI-2.Both methods have pros and cons for AI-2 quantification in marine samples. Regardless, both methods reported a ubiquitous presence of AI-2 in both planktonic and biomass fractions of seawater, as well as in marine biofilm.In this study, AI-2 signals were for the first time enumerated in marine samples to reveal the ubiquitous presence of AI-2 in this environment. The findings suggest a possible role of AI-2 in biofilm formation in marine environment, and the contribution of AI-2 in biofilm-associated problems such as biofouling and biocorrosion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.-C.; Fraizier, Andre

    1975-09-01

    A preliminary observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment was carried out and showed that concentration of the radionuclide was lower when marine organisms stood at a higher trophic level. This observation supplemented by an investigation on contamination pathways showed that plutonium was not concentrated along the food chain and its uptake occured preferentially by direct contact of species with seawater, a process chiefly affecting producers and primary consumers. It appeared that the marine sediment was not a significant vector of plutonium transfer in burrowing species [fr

  18. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  19. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  20. The concentration of 137Cs in the surface of the Greek marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological status of the Greek marine environment, prior to the Chernobyl accident, was characterized mainly by the fallout from nuclear weapon tests. However, the release of radioactivity into the environment from the accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and its deposition in the Greek marine environment resulted in an increase of the 137 Cs activity concentration by approximately one order of magnitude. In addition, the direct transport of radiocaesium into the North Aegean Sea has been further influenced by the late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek marine environment, related to the transfer of 137 Cs, mainly through the Dnieper but also the Danube rivers, to the Black Sea and further to the North Aegean Sea through the Straits of Dardanelles. The aim of this work is to provide a present day picture of the geographic variation of the concentration of 137 Cs in the surface layer of the Greek marine environment and hence, to evaluate the annual committed effective dose delivered to humans through the ingestion pathway from marine sources.

  1. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  2. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    commenced, the world ocean became radioactively contaminated. The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons peaked in the early 1960s and so did the radioactive contamination of the world ocean. In the mid 1970s the authorised liquid discharges, first of all of Cs-137, from the nuclear reprocessing plant...... to assess the radiological exposure from radioactivity in North European marine waters. In 1986 the Chernobyl accident occurred and the Baltic and the Black Seas in particular were contaminated. In the 1990s military dumping activities carried out previously by the FSU in the Arctic Ocean have been in focus...

  3. Control of radioactive waste disposal into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The body of this publication is intended to provide adequate information on the broad aspects of radioactive waste disposal into the sea. The introduction of radionuclides into the sea from uncontrollable sources, such as weapons test explosions, is outside the scope of this publication, as are releases of radionuclides from nuclear-powered vessels. It should be stressed that agreements on practices for the marine disposal of wastes are being developed and the understanding of oceanographic processes is rapidly progressing; therefore, the conclusions presented here should always be considered in the context of changes in both knowledge and practice that occur subsequent to the completion of this text

  4. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  5. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-10

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  6. Danish Vernacular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyams, Inger Louise Berling

    2014-01-01

    the beginning of Danish architecture as a professional discipline, there has also been a formation of a certain Danish vernacular. This paper explores how the teaching of and interest in Danish historical buildings could have marked the education of Danish architecture students. Through analysis of the drawings......Despite the number of internationally successful Danish architects like Jacobsen, Utzon and in recent years Ingels just to name a few, Danish architecture has always leaned greatly on international architectural history and theory. This is only natural for a small nation. However, since...

  7. Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    ENHANCING THE SECURITY COOPERATION MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE TO SATISFY THE NEEDS OF THE UNCERTAIN GLOBAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT... THE NEEDS OF THE UNCERTAIN GLOBAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

  8. Transuranium and other alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Marine environment contains naturally occurring alpha-emitting transuranium nuclides which are discharged from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants into the marine environment. Calculation of their potential of both the inhalation pathway and ingestion pathway to man, their residence time in the oceans, their loss to sediments, the chemical state in which they exist in sea water, their oxidation states in sea water, and their biological availability to sea organisms are discussed. The areas where data are lacking are indicated. Studies on the Windscale Site (U.K.) are extensively referred to in the discussion of above-mentioned aspects. It is brought out that the study of the naturally occurring actinides can be useful in the understanding of behaviour of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, because many of the former are good analogues of the latter. (M.G.B.)

  9. Threat of plastic ageing in marine environment. Adsorption/desorption of micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; D'Almeida, Mélanie; Magueresse, Anthony; Le Grand, Adélaïde; Duval, Hélène; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Le Tilly, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    Ageing of various plastics in marine environment was monitored after immersion of two synthetic (polyvinylchloride, PVC, and polyethylene terephthalate, PET) and one biodegradable (poly(butylene adipate co-terephtalate), PBAT) plastics for 502days in the bay of Lorient (Brittany, France). Data analysis indicates that aged PVC rapidly releases estrogenic compounds in seawater with a later adsorption of heavy metals; PET undergoes a low weakening of the surface whereas no estrogenic activity is detected; PBAT ages faster in marine environment than PVC. Aged PBAT exhibits heterogeneous surface with some cavities likely containing clay minerals from the chlorite group. Besides, this degraded material occasionally shows a high estrogenic activity. Overall, this study reports, for the first time, that some aged plastics, without being cytotoxic, can release estrogenic compounds in marine environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Analysis of SCC sensitive areas for X65 pipeline structure in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L. Y.; Zhou, H.; Gao, L.; Yin, Q.; Jiang, K. B.

    2017-11-01

    SCC sensitive areas of welded specimens in the marine environment was investigated by means of magnetic field distribution detection, residual stress measurement and corrosion morphology observation. The study found that both HAZ and parent material surfaces of welded specimens could generate high-level stress concentration areas under the action of marine environment, thereby becoming sensitive areas of SCC. The combined effect of residual stress and corrosion damage results in the formation of SCC sensitive areas. Meanwhile, SCC sensibility on HAZ and parent material surfaces are determined by residual stress level and corrosion damage degree on the structure surface, respectively. Appropriate preventive measures should be taken according to the determinant of HAZ and parent material surfaces’ SCC sensibility when SCC preventive measures of X65 pipeline structure servicing in the marine environment are designed.

  11. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter M

    2017-11-30

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; Moore, Charles J; van Franeker, Jan A; Moloney, Coleen L

    2009-07-27

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally.

  13. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G.; Moore, Charles J.; van Franeker, Jan A.; Moloney, Coleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris has significant environmental and economic impacts in marine systems. Monitoring is crucial to assess the efficacy of measures implemented to reduce the abundance of plastic debris, but it is complicated by large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and by our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate. To date, most monitoring has focused on beach surveys of stranded plastics and other litter. Infrequent surveys of the standing stock of litter on beaches provide crude estimates of debris types and abundance, but are biased by differential removal of litter items by beachcombing, cleanups and beach dynamics. Monitoring the accumulation of stranded debris provides an index of debris trends in adjacent waters, but is costly to undertake. At-sea sampling requires large sample sizes for statistical power to detect changes in abundance, given the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Another approach is to monitor the impacts of plastics. Seabirds and other marine organisms that accumulate plastics in their stomachs offer a cost-effective way to monitor the abundance and composition of small plastic litter. Changes in entanglement rates are harder to interpret, as they are sensitive to changes in population sizes of affected species. Monitoring waste disposal on ships and plastic debris levels in rivers and storm-water runoff is useful because it identifies the main sources of plastic debris entering the sea and can direct mitigation efforts. Different monitoring approaches are required to answer different questions, but attempts should be made to standardize approaches internationally. PMID:19528052

  14. Research into fisheries and the marine environment 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This biannual report includes notes on the work of the Aquatic Environment Protection Division of the Directorate of Fisheries Research, Lowestoft in relation to assessment and monitoring of radioactive waste disposal and research into the environmental behaviour of radionuclides. (UK)

  15. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    today is putting a strain on the environment, infrastructure and the country's natural resources. Today industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization, urbanization and land degradation are all worsening problem due...

  16. Occurrence and toxicity of musks and UV filters in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Rainieri; A, Barranco; M, Primec; T, Langerholc

    2017-06-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants in the marine ecosystem represent a threat to the environment and also to human health due to insufficient knowledge about their toxicity and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Consequently, many of them are not regulated. In this review we focus on musks and organic UV filters. For both groups of compounds we describe occurrence in the marine environment, toxic effects identified so far and methods used to identify such effects. The final objective of this work is to identify gaps in the understanding of their toxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Dennis; Duarte, Bernardo; Paiva, Filipa; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João

    2016-09-01

    The permanent presence of microplastics in the marine environment is considered a global threat to several marine animals. Heavy metals and microplastics are typically included in two different classes of pollutants but the interaction between these two stressors is poorly understood. During 14 days of experimental manipulation, we examined the adsorption of two heavy metals, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), leached from an antifouling paint to virgin polystyrene (PS) beads and aged polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fragments in seawater. We demonstrated that heavy metals were released from the antifouling paint to the water and both microplastic types adsorbed the two heavy metals. This adsorption kinetics was described using partition coefficients and mathematical models. Partition coefficients between pellets and water ranged between 650 and 850 for Cu on PS and PVC, respectively. The adsorption of Cu was significantly greater in PVC fragments than in PS, probably due to higher surface area and polarity of PVC. Concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly on PVC and PS over the course of the experiment with the exception of Zn on PS. As a result, we show a significant interaction between these types of microplastics and heavy metals, which can have implications for marine life and the environment. These results strongly support recent findings where plastics can play a key role as vectors for heavy metal ions in the marine system. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of monitoring marine litter and heavy metals, mainly associated with antifouling paints, particularly in the framework of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  18. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.

  19. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  20. Exposures and effects in the marine environment after the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives i Batlle, J

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiation doses to marine biota near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have been estimated for the immediate aftermath and subsequent period of the accident. Dose estimations using monitoring data have been complemented by means of dynamic transfer modelling, improving on the more traditional equilibrium transfer approach. Earlier assessments using equilibrium transfer models overestimated the exposures in the immediate aftermath of the accident, whereas dynamic transfer modelling brings them more in line with the doses calculated from monitored activity concentrations in the biota. On that basis, marine biota populations in the vicinity of Fukushima do not seem to be at significant risk. The situation in the late post-accident period shows a tendency for lower exposures, but radiocaesium in sediments and biota persists to this day, with some organisms inhabiting local hotspots. Little is known about how long radionuclides will continue to remain in the local environment, or the long-term effects on populations due to limited knowledge on the effects of chronic radiation exposures to marine organisms. Therefore, the marine environment at Fukushima needs further study. The Fukushima nuclear accident remains an ongoing problem for marine radioecology, requiring constant re-evaluation of the cumulative extent of contamination and effects on the environment for years to come. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. The Ocean State Report of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schuckmann, Karina

    2017-04-01

    COPERNICUS is the European Earth observation and monitoring programme, which aims to give the European Union autonomous and operational capability in space-based observation facilities (see the Sentinel missions) and in situ (measurements in the atmosphere, in the ocean and on the ground), and to operate six interlinked environmental monitoring services for the oceans, the atmosphere, territorial development, emergency situations, security and climate change. In this context, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service provides an open and free access to regular and systematic information about the physical state and dynamics of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the global ocean and six European regional seas. Mercator Ocean, the French center of global ocean analysis and forecast has been entrusted by the EU to implement and operate the Copernicus Marine Service. The first Ocean State Report Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service has been prepared, and is planned to appear at an annual basis (fall each year) as a unique reference for ocean state reporting. This report contains a state-of-the-art value-added synthesis of the ocean state for the global ocean and the European regional seas from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service data products and expert analysis. This activity is aiming to reach a wide audience -from the scientific community, over climate and environmental service and agencies, environmental reporting and bodies to the general public. We will give here an overview on the report, highlight main outcomes, and introduce future plans and developments.

  2. Mercury in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic: review of recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, Birgit; Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc; Brown, Tanya; Clayden, Meredith; Evans, Marlene; Fisk, Aaron; Gaden, Ashley; Girard, Catherine; Hare, Alex; Kirk, Jane; Lehnherr, Igor; Letcher, Robert; Loseto, Lisa; Macdonald, Robie; Mann, Erin; McMeans, Bailey; Muir, Derek; O'Driscoll, Nelson; Poulain, Alexandre; Reimer, Ken; Stern, Gary

    2015-03-15

    This review summarizes data and information which have been generated on mercury (Hg) in the marine environment of the Canadian Arctic since the previous Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was released in 2003. Much new information has been collected on Hg concentrations in marine water, snow and ice in the Canadian Arctic. The first measurements of methylation rates in Arctic seawater indicate that the water column is an important site for Hg methylation. Arctic marine waters were also found to be a substantial source of gaseous Hg to the atmosphere during the ice-free season. High Hg concentrations have been found in marine snow as a result of deposition following atmospheric mercury depletion events, although much of this Hg is photoreduced and re-emitted back to the atmosphere. The most extensive sampling of marine sediments in the Canadian Arctic was carried out in Hudson Bay where sediment total Hg (THg) concentrations were low compared with other marine regions in the circumpolar Arctic. Mass balance models have been developed to provide quantitative estimates of THg fluxes into and out of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. Several recent studies on Hg biomagnification have improved our understanding of trophic transfer of Hg through marine food webs. Over the past several decades, Hg concentrations have increased in some marine biota, while other populations showed no temporal change. Marine biota also exhibited considerable geographic variation in Hg concentrations with ringed seals, beluga and polar bears from the Beaufort Sea region having higher Hg concentrations compared with other parts of the Canadian Arctic. The drivers of these variable patterns of Hg bioaccumulation, both regionally and temporally, within the Canadian Arctic remain unclear. Further research is needed to identify the underlying processes including the interplay between biogeochemical and food web processes and climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  3. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stern, R. F.; Horák, Aleš; Andrew, R. L.; Coffroth, M. A.; Andersen, R. A.; Kupper, F. C.; Jameson, I.; Hoppenrath, M.; Véron, B.; Kasai, F.; Brand, J.; James, E. R.; Keeling, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2010), e13991 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Keywords : RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENE * FREE-LIVING STRAIN * SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE * TOXIC DINOFLAGELLATE * MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY * COASTAL WATERS * NATURAL-ENVIRONMENT * RDNA SEQUENCES * SYMBIODINIUM Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010

  4. Marine protected area restricts demographic connectivity: Dissimilarity in a marine environment can function as a biological barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n  = 1,525 anemones, p  fishing zones ( n  = 384 females, p  = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.

  5. Corrosion Prediction Model of Q235 Steel in Polluted Marine Atmospheric Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of Q235 steel in Qingdao and Wanning of China,the two kinds of polluted marine environment were simulated by cyclic immersion test, and the correlation of indoor cyclic immersion test and outdoor marine atmospheric corrosion test of Q235 steel were studied. The corrosion morphologies, corrosion products, corrosion kinetics of Q235 steel were investigated with methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and mass loss. The results reveal that the corrosion morphologies and compositions of corrosion products after cyclic immersion test agree with those after the real atmospheric test. Corrosion prediction model of Q235 steel in two kinds of marine atmospheric environment was built combined with Grey correlation method: T QD=137.002 t 1.093, T WN=102.398 t 0.952.

  6. Radioactivity in the sea. Scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (1991-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document provides list of scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL). The studies cover a broad spectrum of environmental issues of behaviour of radioactive substances as well as fate of non-nuclear pollutants in the marine environment. Studies of the Gulf war aftermath, the carbon cycle and the Greenhouse Effect, Chernobyl radioactivity in the oceans, the consequences of nuclear testing on the South Pacific and of nuclear dumping in the Arctic Seas and in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and of pesticide tun-off and toxicity to coastal fisheries are just a few areas in which the IAEA-MEL has recently been active. Increasingly, the emphasis is placed on the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to improve understanding of the marine environment and of pollutant behaviour

  7. Corrosion products of reinforcement in concrete in marine and industrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, R. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: rvera@ucv.cl; Villarroel, M. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Carvajal, A.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Construccion Civil, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Vera, E.; Ortiz, C. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Avenida Central Norte, Km 2, Tunja (Colombia)

    2009-03-15

    The corrosion products formed on embedded steel in concrete under simulated marine and industrial conditions and natural marine environment were studied. A 0.50 water/cement ratio concrete was used and 3.5% NaCl and 180 g L{sup -1} of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} with 70 ppm of chloride ions solutions were used to simulate the synthetic medium. The initial electrochemical variables of the steel and pH, chlorides and sulfates profiles were measured according to the concrete depth. The morphology of the corrosive attack was determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the composition of the corrosion products was determined using an X-ray analyzer and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The protective power of the corrosion products was evaluated through anodic polarization curves in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. The results from XRD and SEM show that all the resulting corrosion products correspond to lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite mixtures; moreover, akaganeite was also identified under natural and simulated marine environments. Siderite was only detected in samples exposed to a natural marine environment. Concerning the protective nature of the corrosion products, these show lower performance in a simulated industrial environment, where the corrosion rate of the steel is up to 1.48 {mu}m year{sup -1}.

  8. Corrosion products of reinforcement in concrete in marine and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, R.; Villarroel, M.; Carvajal, A.M.; Vera, E.; Ortiz, C.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion products formed on embedded steel in concrete under simulated marine and industrial conditions and natural marine environment were studied. A 0.50 water/cement ratio concrete was used and 3.5% NaCl and 180 g L -1 of H 2 SO 4 with 70 ppm of chloride ions solutions were used to simulate the synthetic medium. The initial electrochemical variables of the steel and pH, chlorides and sulfates profiles were measured according to the concrete depth. The morphology of the corrosive attack was determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the composition of the corrosion products was determined using an X-ray analyzer and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The protective power of the corrosion products was evaluated through anodic polarization curves in a saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution. The results from XRD and SEM show that all the resulting corrosion products correspond to lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite mixtures; moreover, akaganeite was also identified under natural and simulated marine environments. Siderite was only detected in samples exposed to a natural marine environment. Concerning the protective nature of the corrosion products, these show lower performance in a simulated industrial environment, where the corrosion rate of the steel is up to 1.48 μm year -1

  9. Scientific Forum: The Blue Planet - Nuclear Applications for a Sustainable Marine Environment. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Forum brought together scientists, experts and policy makers from different fields to initiate dialogue and build new partnerships and cooperation to protect and preserve the ecological balance that is vital for the survival of the coastal regions and marine environment

  10. Utility of sea snakes as bio-indicators for diverse marine environments including coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shallow tropical marine ecosystems are under great anthropogenic pressure due to overfishing, habitat destruction, shrimping, climate change and tourism. This is an issue of global concern, as this environment holds a tremendous biodiversity, much of which remains to be described...

  11. Global assessments of the state of the marine environment: Contemporary initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewers, J.M.; Boelens, R.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of assessments of regional marine areas have been conducted in recent years for a variety of purposes. Periodic reviews of the state of the marine environment have been undertaken by the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). The most recent of these global assessments was published in 1990. The international adoption of a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities in 1995 has led to additional demand for regional assessments and a global review. The regional assessments are either completed or in train largely through mechanisms associated with the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. The global assessment has been assigned to GESAMP and incorporated into its plans for the preparation of a new global review to be completed in the year 2002. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, (IOC) the Scientific Committee for Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) are collaborating in a review of ocean science. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) recently approved funding for a 'Global International Waters Assessment' (GIWA) partly as a means of determining priorities within its International Waters Portfolio. This paper outlines the nature of, and contemporary activities within, these various assessments. (author)

  12. Development of marine flyash concrete and evaluation of its performance with respect to physico-chemical and biological factors in marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; VijayKumar, V.; Kundaikar, T.J.; Venugopal, C.; Sawant, S.S.

    The aim of the research was to develop flyash concrete and assess various factors controlling its durability in the marine environment. Hence the research was planned with the following objectives in mind: (1) Development of flyash concrete...

  13. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  14. VECTORS of change in the marine environment: Ecosystem and economic impacts and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, M. C.; Crowe, T. P.; Elliott, M.; Paterson, D. M.; Peck, M. A.; Piraino, S.

    2018-02-01

    Human use of the European marine environment is increasing and diversifying. This is creating new mechanisms for human induced-changes in marine life which need to be understood and quantified as well as the impact of these changes on ecosystems, their structures (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. productivity), and the social and economic consequences that arise. The current and emerging pressures are multiple and interacting, arising, for example, from transport, platforms for renewable and non-renewable energy, exploitation of living and non-living resources, agricultural and industrial discharges, together with wider environmental changes (including climate change). Anticipating the future consequences of these pressures and vectors of change for marine life and of adaptation and mitigation measures (such as the introduction of new technologies and structures, new ballast water practices, ocean and offshore wind energy devices and new fishing strategies) is a prerequisite to the development and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations to manage the marine environment, such as the IMO Convention on ballast water management and the EU Maritime Policy and Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  15. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1991 and 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.; Lyons, S.; McEnri, C.; Ryan, T.; O'Colmain, M.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents the results of the Radiological Protection Institute's programme of monitoring of radioactivity in the seas around Ireland during 1991 and 1992. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to review the risks to human health arising from the Sellafield discharges. Secondary objectives include studies of the distribution of the significant contaminating radionuclides in the marie environment and the identification of trends with a view to assessing possible future effects. Estimates of the radiation doses to the Irish public are also presented in this report. 23 refs. 24 tabs. 9 figs

  16. Synthetic aperture radar products for the African marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of ecologically-sensitive environments, such as mangroves and coral reefs. Major economic activities along the continental shelf of the Agulhas Current include fish- ing, oil and mineral exploration as well as intense shipping traffic, with the transport... are routinely used around the world to detect and map oil spills. Coupled with vessel-monitoring systems, SAR?s capacity to detect vessels at sea could be used effectively to take action against illegal fishing and illegal oil dumping, or to monitor...

  17. Scientific Visualization and Simulation for Multi-dimensional Marine Environment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T.; Liu, H.; Wang, W.; Song, Z.; Jia, Z.

    2017-12-01

    As higher attention on the ocean and rapid development of marine detection, there are increasingly demands for realistic simulation and interactive visualization of marine environment in real time. Based on advanced technology such as GPU rendering, CUDA parallel computing and rapid grid oriented strategy, a series of efficient and high-quality visualization methods, which can deal with large-scale and multi-dimensional marine data in different environmental circumstances, has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, a high-quality seawater simulation is realized by FFT algorithm, bump mapping and texture animation technology. Secondly, large-scale multi-dimensional marine hydrological environmental data is virtualized by 3d interactive technologies and volume rendering techniques. Thirdly, seabed terrain data is simulated with improved Delaunay algorithm, surface reconstruction algorithm, dynamic LOD algorithm and GPU programming techniques. Fourthly, seamless modelling in real time for both ocean and land based on digital globe is achieved by the WebGL technique to meet the requirement of web-based application. The experiments suggest that these methods can not only have a satisfying marine environment simulation effect, but also meet the rendering requirements of global multi-dimension marine data. Additionally, a simulation system for underwater oil spill is established by OSG 3D-rendering engine. It is integrated with the marine visualization method mentioned above, which shows movement processes, physical parameters, current velocity and direction for different types of deep water oil spill particle (oil spill particles, hydrates particles, gas particles, etc.) dynamically and simultaneously in multi-dimension. With such application, valuable reference and decision-making information can be provided for understanding the progress of oil spill in deep water, which is helpful for ocean disaster forecasting, warning and emergency response.

  18. Plutonium in the arctic marine environment--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, Lindis

    2004-06-18

    Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers.

  19. Plutonium in the Arctic Marine Environment — A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindis Skipperud

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers.

  20. Using GIS to analyze animal movements in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Philip N.; Eichenlaub, William M.; Solomon, Elizabeth K.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Bez, Nicolas; Booth, Anthony; Dorn, Martin W.; Hills, Susan; Lipcius, Romuald N.; Pelletier, Dominique; Roy, Claude; Smith, Stephen J.; Witherell, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced methods for analyzing animal movements have been little used in the aquatic research environment compared to the terrestrial. In addition, despite obvious advantages of integrating geographic information systems (GIS) with spatial studies of animal movement behavior, movement analysis tools have not been integrated into GIS for either aquatic or terrestrial environments. We therefore developed software that integrates one of the most commonly used GIS programs (ArcView®) with a large collection of animal movement analysis tools. This application, the Animal Movement Analyst Extension (AMAE), can be loaded as an extension to ArcView® under multiple operating system platforms (PC, Unix, and Mac OS). It contains more than 50 functions, including parametric and nonparametric home range analyses, random walk models, habitat analyses, point and circular statistics, tests of complete spatial randomness, tests for autocorrelation and sample size, point and line manipulation tools, and animation tools. This paper describes the use of these functions in analyzing animal location data; some limited examples are drawn from a sonic-tracking study of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in Glacier Bay, Alaska. The extension is available on the Internet at www.absc.usgs.gov/glba/gistools/index.htm.

  1. Impact of oil in the tropical marine environment. Technical pub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cintron, G.; Lugo, A.E.; Martinez, R.; Cintron, B.B.; Encarnacion, L.

    1981-11-01

    Oil spills have a devastating effect on biologically rich coastal environments. This report investigates this problem, covering damage by oil to biological systems, the use of dispersants (toxicity and considerations for dispersant use), impact of oil and dispersants on coral reefs, impact of oil on seagrass beds and sandy beaches, impact of oil on mangroves (seedling survival and tolerance, regeneration, forest type vulnerability, and cleanup and recovery activities in mangroves), conclusions, and recommendations. The study concludes that coral reefs and seagrass beds may escape significant spill damage if pollution is not chronic and if dispersants are not used. Sandy and rocky shores may be severely impacted but recover quickly. Mangroves are the most vulnerable coastal ecosystem. Recommendations are that oil spill contingency plans must be prepared for all areas, and that the necessary equipment for the plans must be in place.

  2. Bioindicators for monitoring radioactive pollution of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1981-05-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are globally used as bioindicators for pollution of coastal and estuarine environments by metals and radionuclides. The aim of this work has been to improve the use of Mytilus edulis as a bioindicator by gaining knowledge on its accumulation and loss of certain radionuclides ( 65 Zn, 57 Co, 54 Mn, 51 Cr, 59 Fe and 134 Cs) under different fieldcomparable environmental conditions. A laboratory set-up in which natural concentrations of suspended phytoplankton are kept constant for weeks was evolved for the accumulation experiments with mussels. It is argued that continuous feeding at very low (natural) levels is necessary if field-comparable experiments are to be performed with suspension feeding bivalves. Accumulation via food intake was studied by comparing experiments with different concentrations of contaminated phytoplankton (Phaeodactylum tricornutum). This comparison showed no effect of varying the phytoplankton concentration. Decreasing the salinity and increasing the temperature elevated the influx (initial rate of accumulation) of the radionuclides. During one year excretion experiments were performed by weekly wholebody countings of laboratory contaminated mussels which had been re-introduced in their natural environment. A seasonal effect on the biological half life was detected for 65 Zn. It is concluded that mussels are useful bioindicators provided the variability due to environmental factors, e.g. season and salinity, is taken into consideration. Brown algae, expecially Fucus vesiculosus, were used to trace the controlled liquid discharges (mainly 60 Co, 58 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn and sup(110m)Ag) from two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Ringhals)> Fucus showed higher accumulation than Mytilus. Transfer factors between discharge and sample from a specified location are presented. It is argued that these transfer factors may be useful in estimating the magnitude of an uncontrolled accidental release of activity and its

  3. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  4. Contribution to the study of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.

    1982-06-01

    The following topics were emphasized: the role of 210 Po as a major source of natural radiation dose received by marin organisms; the contribution of 210 Po to the total α radioactivity in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans or mollusc cephalopods is more than 95%; in the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, the main source of 210 Po is the food they consume; the possible use of 210 Po as a natural biological tracer of the feeding of deep-sea mesopelagic animals; the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio is a good indicator of the importance of biological processes in the marine environment [fr

  5. Study of the marine environment of the northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Progress in studies of the marine environment of the northern Gulf of California is described. A ship was chartered in Mexico, staffed with local seamen, equipped for oceanographic work, and is now conducting monthly cruises of 47 stations, collecting ground observations for correlation with ERTS-1 imagery in the Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site laboratory in Tucson. Progress is reported on fabrication of instrument buoys equipped with marine-adapted DCP's to transmit ground observations via satellite to Tucson. Data handling processes are described. Coordination of work with Mexican scientists is detailed.

  6. Long-Term Stability of PEG-Based Antifouling Surfaces in a Marine Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Kiil, Søren; Hvilsted, Søren

    The work presented here concerns the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to reduce marine biofouling on ship hulls. The long-term stability of PEG towards degradation in a marine environment is reviewed, and the results of experiments designed to test the degradation of polyethylene glycol moieties...... structure and the end-group on the degradation of different PEG-containing compounds in accelerated conditions, while showing very little degradation in real exposure tests in seawater after 3 months. Further experiments will be discussed involving long-term stability and degradation pathways involved...

  7. Black Sea ecology. Pollution research in Turkey of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research is leading to answers that can help protect the Black Sea marine environment. Through projects supported by the IAEA and other cooperative channels, countries in the Black Sea region are applying their expertise and capabilities to expand scientific knowledge of chemical and radioactive pollution. Turkey stands among the countries engaged in studies of the Black Sea, for a number of reasons related to environmental, economic, and health issues. Our scientific knowledge of pollution problems in the marine environment promises to expand in years ahead. Advances in the integration of biokinetic, ecotoxicology and risk analysis with environmental monitoring studies could make it possible to eventually determine the sensitivity to pollutants of human populations and marine organisms. Such integrated studies are being conducted by the Radioecology Laboratory of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) in Turkey. The Laboratory has gained considerable experience over the years, including through its collaboration since 1970 with the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. Agency technical cooperation projects and research programmes additionally have benefited the laboratory. This article highlights selected Turkish studies of the Black Sea related to both radioactive and chemical pollution

  8. Elucidation of corrosion factors based on the data acquisition simulating complex real environment. Examples of marine environment and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study has devised a test method simulating real environment as an accelerated corrosion test, and has elucidated the factors that determine the actual corrosion phenomena based on analysis of the obtained data. As part of this effort, this paper explains implemented contents on the corrosion phenomena of nuclear facilities associated with radioactive materials and marine environment. As for the macroscopic corrosion phenomena of common steel in the marine environment, the process where the maximum of corrosion rate just below a tidal zone proceeds under natural environment was analyzed using an experimental tank. The mechanism was assumed like this: At just under the tidal zone, anode current flows at the time of high tide flow by a larger amount than in the underwater part, whose effect makes the anode current continuously flow even at the time of low tide flow, which increases a corrosion amount. This study also examined in detail the intergranular corrosion phenomena of stainless steel under Np-containing conditions at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The result showed that Np contained in boiling nitric acid solution was reduced to pentavalent on metal's surface, corroding stainless steel, and it afterwards was re-oxidized to hexavalent in the solution. The mechanism to accelerate corrosion by repeating this process could be proposed. As for the corrosion phenomena of stainless steel in a light-water reactor, the measurement results suggested the corrosion environment containing oxygen or hydrogen peroxide produced by radiolysis. (A.O.)

  9. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radionuclides in the marine environment near the Farallon Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated sediment areas containing plutonium and cesium radionuclide concentrations exceeding Pacific Ocean global radionuclide fallout levels have been reported in the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal area, west of San Francisco. We find the total 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs inventory of Farallon water columns to be within global fallout levels. The quantity of these radionuclides from nonfallout sources contaminating the sedimentary environment is unknown, but their contribution to the total water column inventory is insignificant compared with present fallout levels. Fish and invertebrates from the disposal region contain body burdens of 239+240 Pu and 137 Cs no greater than similar species exposed to global fallout. Within deep (2000 m) Farallon sediments, we do find that 238 Pu concentrations exceeding anticipated fallout levels are being remobilized to bottom waters. Fallout plutonium appears to be displaced laterally from the continental shelf down the slope into deeper offshore waters. Remobilized waste from the disposal site probably is displaced in the same manner

  11. Degradation of common polymer ropes in a sublittoral marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Natalie A; Cowie, Phillip R

    2017-05-15

    Contamination by microplastic particles and fibres has been observed in sediment and animals sampled from the Firth of Clyde, West Scotland. In addition to microplastics released during clothes washing, a probable source is polymer ropes in abandoned, lost and discarded fishing and recreational sailing gear. The fragmentation of polypropylene, polyethylene, and nylon exposed to benthic conditions at 10m depth over 12months was monitored using changes in weight and tensile properties. Water temperature and light levels were continuously monitored. The degree of biofouling was measured using chlorophyll a, the weight of attached macroalgae, and colonising fauna. Results indicate microplastic fibres and particles may be formed in benthic environments despite reduced photodegradation. Polypropylene, Nylon, and polyethylene lost an average of 0.39%, 1.02%, and 0.45% of their mass per month respectively. Microscope images of the rope surface revealed notable surface roughening believed to be caused by abrasion by substrate and the action of fouling organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments - processes and impact on the fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Kasten, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Huguet, C.; Koch, B. P.; de Lange, G. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Prahl, F. G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wakeham, S. G.

    2009-07-01

    The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the Research Centre Ocean Margins, the International Graduate College EUROPROX and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A) the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B) the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C) past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments.

  13. Interpreting Biosignatures in the Context of Marine Evaporitic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Vogel, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    A biosignature is an object, substance and/or pattern whose origin specifically requires a biological agent. The usefulness of a biosignature is determined, not only by the probability of life creating it, but also by the improbability of nonbiological processes producing it. So what sets life apart from the rest? Life as we know it is the harnessing of free energy to sustain and perpetuate, by molecular replication and evolution, a high density of information in the form of functional complex molecules and functionally-related larger structures. Accordingly, biosignatures can arise from key attributes such as converting solar to chemical energy, exploiting the versatility of organic chemistry to sustain metabolic processes and preserve information, and maintaining microenvironments that enhance these functions. The external environment affects such functions and so it must be defined in order to interpret effectively the biosignatures that emerge from them. Hypersaline benthic cyanobacterial communities at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico provide illustrative examples of biosignatures research that is relevant to our early biosphere and to Mars. Where brines are undersaturated with respect to gypsum, filamentous cyanobacteria dominate over unicellular cyanobacteria and can trap and bind sedimentary grains more effectively, thus altering their response to sedimentary processes and creating laminated fabrics. Biofilms in gypsiferrous sediments also can alter the response of the clastic or crystal matrix to chemical and physical sedimentary processes such as erosion or precipitate accumulation. Gypsum precipitating within biofilms offers compelling evidence of biological influences on crystal textures and habits. Such gypsum exhibits dissolution textures, accessory mineral precipitation and unique crystal form aspect ratios. Irregular textures include conchoidal and globular features associated with both dissolution and nucleation that are likely affected

  14. Plutonium diffusion in the marine environment: a quantitative study on marine species of the channel shores, from Brest to Honfleur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Guary, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium levels were measured on marine species of the Channel shores, from Cancale to Honfleur in 1975, from Brest to the Cap de La Hague in 1976. Measurements carried out on a lichen: Lichina pygmaea, two algae: Corallina officinalis and Fucus serratus, a spongiae: Hymeniacidon sanguinea and a crustacean: Balanus balanoides, showed the effect of waste disposal from a fuel reprocessing plant on the radioactivity levels of these organisms. This effect, decreasing progressively appeared at distances of at least 150 km from the point of release. As compared to the values observed for samples taken as the far west end of Brittany and also to the plutonium levels in the marine environment resulting from atmosphere fallout only, the levels observed in the studied area were higher and varying according to the geographic position, increasing by a factor of 100 near the emissary. These data are an actual instance of radioactive dispersal following disposal into the sea; they should bring valuable information for the assessment of the radiological capacity of a given coastal area [fr

  15. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptomyces Species Reveals Their Adaptation to the Marine Environment and Their Diversity at the Genomic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Zhewen; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Meili; Li, Jie; Chen, Fei; Yang, Jin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Changsheng; Long, Lijuan; Xiao, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Over 200 genomes of streptomycete strains that were isolated from various environments are available from the NCBI. However, little is known about the characteristics that are linked to marine adaptation in marine-derived streptomycetes. The particularity and complexity of the marine environment suggest that marine streptomycetes are genetically diverse. Here, we sequenced nine strains from the Streptomyces genus that were isolated from different longitudes, latitudes, and depths of the South China Sea. Then we compared these strains to 22 NCBI downloaded streptomycete strains. Thirty-one streptomycete strains are clearly grouped into a marine-derived subgroup and multiple source subgroup-based phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analyses have revealed the dynamic process underlying streptomycete genome evolution, and lateral gene transfer is an important driving force during the process. Pan-genomics analyses have revealed that streptomycetes have an open pan-genome, which reflects the diversity of these streptomycetes and guarantees the species a quick and economical response to diverse environments. Functional and comparative genomics analyses indicate that the marine-derived streptomycetes subgroup possesses some common characteristics of marine adaptation. Our findings have expanded our knowledge of how ocean isolates of streptomycete strains adapt to marine environments. The availability of streptomycete genomes from the South China Sea will be beneficial for further analysis on marine streptomycetes and will enrich the South China Sea’s genetic data sources. PMID:27446038

  16. The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F

    2014-02-01

    Recently, research examining the occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment has substantially increased. Field and laboratory work regularly provide new evidence on the fate of microplastic debris. This debris has been observed within every marine habitat. In this study, at least 101 peer-reviewed papers investigating microplastic pollution were critically analysed (Supplementary material). Microplastics are commonly studied in relation to (1) plankton samples, (2) sandy and muddy sediments, (3) vertebrate and invertebrate ingestion, and (4) chemical pollutant interactions. All of the marine organism groups are at an eminent risk of interacting with microplastics according to the available literature. Dozens of works on other relevant issues (i.e., polymer decay at sea, new sampling and laboratory methods, emerging sources, externalities) were also analysed and discussed. This paper provides the first in-depth exploration of the effects of microplastics on the marine environment and biota. The number of scientific publications will increase in response to present and projected plastic uses and discard patterns. Therefore, new themes and important approaches for future work are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parameters for the Evaluation of the Fate, Transport, and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    included in this review. Ecotoxicological parameters used for assessing potential ecological effects have also been reviewed elsewhere,11 although the...Perspective, in Textbook of Military Medicine : Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, US...the Marine Environment, Nantes, France, 15-19 March 2004. 287 Neff, M. N., Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment, Environ. Tox. Chem

  18. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  19. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...

  20. Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

  1. Different microbiomes associated with the copepods Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis from the same marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorosz, Julia Natalia A; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Microbiomes of the neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis collected in coastal Danish waters were investigated by use of 16S rRNA gene-Amplicon highthroughput sequencing. In contrast to current assumptions and findings, microbiomes of the 2 copepod species from the same...... environment were significantly different in bacterial species composition, particularly in terms of relative abundance of bacteria associated with each copepod species. The microbiomes of both species, likewise, differed from that of A. tonsa reared in laboratory culture, but similarities were also observed...... between wild and laboratory-reared A. tonsa. Alpha proteobacteria dominated A. tonsa microbiomes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were most abundant in T. longicornis microbiomes. The overall diversity of bacteria associated with the 2 copepod species was to some extent in harmony with previous findings...

  2. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Fatigue analysis of assembled marine floating platform for special purposes under complex water environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the fatigue lives of a new type of assembled marine floating platform for special purposes were studied. Firstly, by using ANSYS AQWA software, the hydrodynamic model of the platform was established. Secondly, the structural stresses under alternating change loads were calculated under complex water environments, such as wind, wave, current and ice. The minimum fatigue lives were obtained under different working conditions. The analysis results showed that the fatigue life of the platform structure can meet the requirements

  4. Pollution Prevention and Control Guidelines for the Coastal and Marine Environment of Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pollution is in the form of solid waste and effluent discharge is a major threat to the coastal and marine environment in Kenya. These guidelines have been developed to provide practical guidance to decision makers, managers, planners, developers, the community and other stakeholders to adopt best practices in their social and economic activities to enhance their level of compliance with set environmental standards. In developing the pollution prevention and control guidelines, it was realise...

  5. The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

  6. Toward a Harmonized Approach for Monitoring of Riverine Floating Macro Litter Inputs to the Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    González-Fernández, Daniel; Hanke, Georg

    2017-01-01

    A high percentage of the litter entering the marine environment is assumed to come from land-based sources, but freshwater litter inputs have not been quantified. The lack of data and knowledge on fluxes of riverine litter to the sea, i.e. quantities and sources, hinders implementation of appropriate environmental regulations and mitigation measures. Estimations of riverine litter inputs require a consistent and harmonized approach to gather comparable data. The visual observation of floating...

  7. Degradation and mechanism of the mechanics and durability of reinforced concrete slab in a marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-xing; Liu, Guan-guo; Bian, Han-bing; Lv, Wei-bo; Jiang, Jian-hua

    2016-04-01

    An experimental research was conducted to determine the corrosion and bearing capacity of a reinforced concrete (RC) slab at different ages in a marine environment. Results show that the development of corrosion-induced cracks on a slab in a marine environment can be divided into three stages according to crack morphology at the bottom of the slab. In the first stage, cracks appear. In the second stage, cracks develop from the edges to the middle of the slab. In the third stage, longitudinal and transverse corrosion-induced cracks coexist. The corrosion ratio of reinforcements nonlinearly increases with the age, and the relationship between the corrosion ratio of the reinforcements and the corrosion-induced crack width of the concrete is established. The flexural capacity of the corroded RC slab nonlinearly decreases with the age, and the model for the bearing capacity factor of the corroded RC slab is established. The mid-span deflection of the corroded RC slab that corresponds to the yield of the reinforcements linearly increases with the increase in corrosion ratio. Finally, the mechanisms of corrosion morphology and the degradation of the mechanical properties of an RC slab in a marine environment are discussed on the basis of the basic theories of steel corrosion in concrete and concrete structure design.

  8. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  9. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  10. Sources of radioactivity in the marine environment and their relative contributions to overall dose assessment from marine radioactivity (MARDOS). Final report of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The document provides data on radionuclide levels in the marine environment and estimates doses from marine radioactivity through ingestion of sea food. Two radionuclides -natural Po210 and Cs 137 -are studied, as they are radiologically the most important representatives of each class of marine radioactivity on global scale. The results of the study confirm that the dominant contribution to doses comes from natural Po 210 in fish and shellfish and that the contribution of anthropogenic Sc 137 (mostly coming from nuclear weapons test) is negligible (100 to 1000 time lower) 14 refs, 12 figs, 13 tabs

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratios of lipid biomarkers and their applications in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolosa, I.; Mora, S. de

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of lipid biomarkers in the environment help elucidate biogeochemical processes, but recent findings have significantly reduced the specificity of some biomarkers. The analytical development of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-IRMS (GC-C-IRMS) allows the determination of the δ 13 C of specific biomarkers, thereby improving the veracity of source apportionment. In this report, we present a brief description of the analytical approach for sample preparation and carbon isotope measurements of individual biomarkers. Selected examples of the applications in the use of GC-C-IRMS for biomarker source elucidation in the marine environment and potential applications to paleoclimatological studies are reviewed. (author)

  12. Corrosion products formed from marine environments: structural variables and corrosion potential vinculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, M.; Caraballo, R.; Dalchiele, E. a.; Guineo-Cobs, G.; Martinez-Luaces, V.; Qauagliata, E.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and electrochemical analysis of rust formed from low alloy steel was performed. The samples, generated in the framework of MICAT project, were exposed in two marine environments: subtropical and sub polar Antarctic. the results suggested for formation of oxides and oxihidroxides of low crystallinity and poor protective properties. The evolution of the results is analyzed tacking to account the different environments. The electrochemical activity and phases concentration of corrosion products are analyzed by cluster diagrams with the objective of adjusting qualitative models. (Author)

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein-Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chouksey, M.K.; Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    /$ - see front matter C211 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.04.007 in the marine environment Kadam b , M.D. Zingde b , Versova, Mumbai 400 061, India Bungalows, Andheri (West), Mumbai 400 053, India www... and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Bulletin of Environment Contamination and Toxicology 55, 155–162. Agard, J.B.R., Boodoosingh, M., Gobin, J., 1988. Petroleum residues in surficial sediments from the Gulf...

  14. Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F; Fok, L

    2016-10-01

    This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation. Both macroplastics and microplastics pose a risk to organisms in the natural environment, for example, through ingestion or entanglement in the plastic. Many studies have investigated the potential uptake of hydrophobic contaminants, which can then bioaccumulate in the food chain, from plastic waste by organisms. To address the issue of plastic pollution in the marine environment, governments should first play an active role in addressing the issue of plastic waste by introducing legislation to control the sources of plastic debris and the use of plastic additives. In addition, plastics industries should take responsibility for the end-of-life of their products by introducing plastic recycling or upgrading programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D; Rasmussen, Kurt; Kyed, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews of the literature on the health and work environment of ambulance personnel have indicated an increased risk of work-related health problems in this occupation. The aim of this study was to compare health status and exposure to different work environmental factors among ambulance......,691) and was compared to reference samples of the Danish work force. The questionnaire contained measures of physical and psychosocial work environment as well as measures of musculoskeletal pain, mental health, self-rated health and sleep quality. Results Ambulance personnel have half the prevalence of poor self...... with higher levels of poor mental health and poor sleep quality. To improve work environment, attention should be paid to musculoskeletal problems and the presence of positive organizational support mechanisms that can prevent negative effects from the high levels of emotional demands....

  16. The organic complexation of iron in the marine environment: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eGledhill

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for marine organisms, and it is now well established that low Fe availability controls phytoplankton productivity, community structure and ecosystem functioning in vast regions of the global ocean. The biogeochemical cycle of Fe involves complex interactions between lithogenic inputs (atmospheric, continental or hydrothermal, dissolution, precipitation, scavenging, biological uptake, remineralisation and sedimentation processes. Each of these aspects of Fe biogeochemical cycling is likely influenced by organic Fe-binding ligands, which complex more than 99% of dissolved Fe. In this review we consider recent advances in our knowledge of Fe complexation in the marine environment and their implications for the biogeochemistry of Fe in the ocean. We also highlight the importance of constraining the dissolved Fe concentration value used in interpreting voltammetric titration data for the determination of Fe speciation. Within the published Fe speciation data, there appear to be important temporal and spatial variations in Fe-binding ligand concentrations and their conditional stability constants in the marine environment. Excess ligand concentrations, particularly in the truly soluble size fraction, seem to be consistently higher in the upper water column, and especially in Fe-limited, but productive, waters. Evidence is accumulating for an association of Fe with both small, well-defined ligands, such as siderophores, as well as with larger, macromolecular complexes like humic substances, exopolymeric substances and transparent exopolymers. The diverse size spectrum and chemical nature of Fe-ligand complexes corresponds to a change in kinetic inertness which will have a consequent impact on biological availability. However, much work is still to be done in coupling voltammetry, mass spectrometry techniques and process studies to better characterize the nature and cycling of Fe-binding ligands in the marine

  17. A global review of cumulative pressure and impact assessments in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuli Korpinen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever more extensive use of marine space by human activities and greater demands for marine natural resources has led to increases in both duration and spatial extent of pressures on the marine environment. In parallel, the global crisis of decreasing biodiversity and loss of habitats has revitalized scientific research on human impacts and lead to methodological development of cumulative pressure and impact assessments (CPIA. In Europe alone, almost twenty CPIAs have been published in the past 10 years and some more in other sea regions of the world. In this review, we have analysed 36 recent marine CPIAs and focused on their methodological approaches. We were especially interested in uncovering methodological similarities, identifying best practices and analysing whether the CPIAs have addressed the recent criticism. The review results showed surprisingly similar methodological approaches in >50% of the studies, raising hopes for finding coherence in international assessment efforts. Although the CPIA methods showed relatively few innovative approaches for addressing the major caveats of previous CPIAs, the most recent studies indicate that improved approaches may be soon found.

  18. Potential Impacts of PCBs on Sediment Microbiomes in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the tropical marine study site of Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are subjected to coastal and oceanic currents coupled with marine microbial and geochemical processes. To evaluate these processes a hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the transport of PCBs within nearshore and offshore marine areas of Guánica Bay. Material transport and circulation information from the model were matched with measurements from samples collected from within the bay. These samples, consisting of both intertidal and submerged sediments, were analyzed for physical characteristics (organic carbon, grain size, and mineralogy, microbial characteristics (target bacteria levels and microbial community analyses, presence of PCBs, and PCB-degrading enzymes. Results show that the bay geometry and bathymetry limit the mixing of the extremely high levels of PCBs observed in the eastern portion of the bay. Bay bottom sediments showed the highest levels of PCBs and these sediments were characterized by high organic carbon content and finer grain size. Detectable levels of PCBs were also observed within sediments found along the shore. Microbes from the bay bottom sediments showed a greater relative abundance of microbes from the Chloroflexi, phylum with close phylogenetic associations with known anaerobic PCB-degrading organisms. Based on quantitative PCR measurement of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene, the intertidal sediments showed the greatest potential for aerobic PCB degradation. These results elucidate particular mechanisms of PCB’s fate and transport in coastal, tropical marine environments.

  19. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Fauziah, S H

    2017-05-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plastics in the marine environment: the dark side of a modern gift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jort; Kraak, Michiel H S; Parsons, John R

    2012-01-01

    Plastics are cheap, strong, and durable and offer considerable benefits to humanity. They potentially can enhance the benefits that both medical and scientific technology will bestow to humankind. However, it has now been several decades since the use of plastics exploded, and we have evidence that our current approach to production, use, transport and disposal of plastic materials has caused, and is still causing serious effects on wildlife, and is not sustainable. Because of frequent inappropriate waste management practices, or irresponsible human behavior, large masses of plastic items have been released into the environment, and thereby have entered the world's oceans. Moreover, this process continues, and in some places is even increasing. Most plastic debris that now exists in the marine environment originated from ocean-based sources such as the fishing industry. Plastics accumulate in coastal areas, at the ocean surface and on the seabed. Because 70% of all plastics are known to eventually sink, it is suspected that ever increasing amounts of plastic items are accumulating in seabed sediments. Plastics do not biodegrade, although, under the influence of solar UV radiations, plastics do degrade and fragment into small particles, termed microplastics. Our oceans eventually serve as a sink for these small plastic particles and in one estimate, it is thought that 200,000 microplastics per km(2) of the ocean's surface commonly exist. The impact of plastic debris has been studied since the beginning of the 1960's. To date, more than 267 species in the marine environment are known to have been affected by plastic entanglement or ingestion. Marine mammals are among those species that are most affected by entanglement in plastic debris. By contrast, marine birds suffer the most from ingestion of plastics. Organisms can also be seriously absorbed by floating plastic debris, or the contaminants may derive from plastic additives that are leached to the environment

  1. Durability of precast prestressed concrete piles in marine environment, part 2. Volume 2 : stainless steel prestressing strand and wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to determine methods which may be applied : economically to mitigate corrosion of reinforcement in precast prestressed concrete piles in : Georgias marine environments. The research was divided into two par...

  2. Return to work among sickness-absent Danish employees: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study/National Register on Social Transfer Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    , no post-school education, being employed by a public employer, working at a workplace with 20 or more employees, high emotional demands in work, high job insecurity and sedentary work. There were no associations between health behaviour variables and return to work. The study indicates a potential...... for promoting return to work through interventions targeting emotional job demands, job insecurity and decreasing the risks associated with sedentary work.......This study investigates the determinants within socio-demography, health behaviour, employer characteristics, and psychosocial and physical work environment for return to work. In 2000, a total of 5357 employees were interviewed regarding age, gender, family status, education, health behaviour...

  3. Software for marine ecological environment comprehensive monitoring system based on MCGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Ma, R.; Cao, X.; Cao, L.; Chu, D. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T. P.

    2017-08-01

    The automatic integrated monitoring software for marine ecological environment based on MCGS configuration software is designed and developed to realize real-time automatic monitoring of many marine ecological parameters. The DTU data transmission terminal performs network communication and transmits the data to the user data center in a timely manner. The software adopts the modular design and has the advantages of stable and flexible data structure, strong portability and scalability, clear interface, simple user operation and convenient maintenance. Continuous site comparison test of 6 months showed that, the relative error of the parameters monitored by the system such as temperature, salinity, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen was controlled within 5% with the standard method and the relative error of the nutrient parameters was within 15%. Meanwhile, the system had few maintenance times, low failure rate, stable and efficient continuous monitoring capabilities. The field application shows that the software is stable and the data communication is reliable, and it has a good application prospect in the field of marine ecological environment comprehensive monitoring.

  4. Isolation and characterization of pigmented bacteria showing antimicrobial activity from Malaysian marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Natural products play a prominent role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs in the treatment ofhuman diseases. Much of nature remains to be explored, especially marine and microbial environments.Methodology and results: Fifty-five pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from sponges, seawater, mangrovesediment, sea cucumber and mussel from different coastal area of Malaysia. The antimicrobial activities of thesebacteria were investigated by disk diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria. Out of 55 isolates, 18 isolates exhibitedantimicrobial activity, which based on morphological characterization, 53% of them were Gram positive and 47% wereGram negative. All active isolates were able to tolerate more than 4% NaCl in the nutrient agar medium that indicatedthey were autochthonous to marine environment and moderate salt tolerant in nature. Molecular identification of isolatesby the strong antimicrobial activities indicates that isolates WPRA3 (JX020764 and SM11-3j belong to genus Serratiaand isolate SDPM1 (JQ083392 belongs to genus Zooshikella.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of present study revealed that the active isolates arepotential producer of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and might be utilized as drug candidate.

  5. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  6. Overview of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service Products Available for the Arctic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kholod

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service is one of six services (ocean, atmosphere, land, emergency situations, security and climate changes launched by the European Union within the EU Earth observation program. The data in the monitoring system covers both the entire World Ocean and individual European basins. The paper reviews the products of the Copernicus Marine Service operational system available in the Arctic. At the present time this region is of the increased interest both in Russia and in the world community. The system products include information on the thermodynamic, biogeochemical and bio-optical state of the marine environment. The system products are accessed through the electronic catalog of products. Selection criteria and possibilities for searching interesting information through the interactive web-portal are given in the paper. The system products containing the data of model calculations, satellite and in situ measurement results are considered. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the products are given, information on by whom, how the product was obtained and what is its accuracy is represented. The results of the system products visualization by the integrated tools (they allow one to construct and analyze time series, profiles, horizontal and vertical sections are shown. All the system data is publicly available to the registered users. Regular changes and updates of the system products as well as the mechanisms for accessing them take place. This information is sent to users by e-mail and is available on the news flash of the web-portal.

  7. Estimates of oil entering the marine environment in the past decade : GESAMP Working Group 32 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Grey, C.; Wells, P.; Koefoed, J.; Nauke, M.; Meyer, T.; Campbell, J.; Reddy, S.

    1998-01-01

    A meeting of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Protection (GESAMP), Working Group 32, was held to discuss a new approach for evaluating available data sources on the input of oil into the marine environment from sea-based activities. GESAMP Working Group on Estimates of Oil Entering the Marine Environment, Sea Based Activities (Working Group 32) will collect and analyze data on oil inputs over the last decade from shipping, offshore and coastal exploration and production, pipelines, atmospheric emissions from sea-based activities, coastal refineries and storage facilities, oil reception facilities, materials disposed of at sea, and natural seepage. The group will compare its oil input estimate model to estimates made by the National Research Council, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and GESAMP in previous decades, to evaluate the efficacy of IMO conventions and other pollution reduction efforts in the last 10 years. The group will also consider the amounts of oil entering the sea through operational and accidental spillage in relation to the quantities of oil transported by ship and through pipelines, and in relation to offshore and coastal oil production. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Corrosion characteristics of DMR-1700 steel and comparison with different steels in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurrappa, I.; Malakondaiah, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a systematic corrosion study has been carried out on DMR-1700 steel to understand the protective nature of oxide scale that forms on its surface under marine environmental conditions. Further, the studies related to oxide scales as well as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of both stainless steels and widely used low alloy steel EN24 in marine environment have been studied for comparison purpose. The surface morphologies of corroded steels have been observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to understand the nature of corrosion. A high performance protective coating that has been developed for protection of low alloy steels DMR-1700 and EN24 against corrosion is presented after stressing the importance of surface engineering in enhancing the life of steels. Based on the studies with different techniques, DMR-1700 steel has been recommended for manufacture of components used in aerospace systems in association with appropriate protective coating for improving their efficiency

  9. Development of a methodology for assessing the environmental impact of radioactivity in Northern Marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Hosseini, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Borretzen, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Thorring, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, N-1332, Osteras (Norway)]. E-mail havard.thorring@nrpa.no

    2006-10-15

    The requirement to assess the impacts of radioactivity in the environment explicitly and transparently is now generally accepted by the scientific community. A recently developed methodology for achieving this end for marine ecosystems is presented within this paper. With its clear relationship to an overarching system, the marine impact assessment is built around components of environmental transfer, ecodosimetry and radiobiological effects appraisal relying on the use of 'reference organisms'. Concentration factors (CFs), dynamic models and, in cases where parameters are missing, allometry have been employed in the consideration of radionuclide transfer. Dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) have been derived for selected flora and fauna using, inter alia, dose attenuation and chord distribution functions. The calculated dose-rates can be contextualised through comparison with dose-rates arising from natural background and chronic dose-rates at which biological effects have been observed in selected 'umbrella' endpoints.

  10. Development of a methodology for assessing the environmental impact of radioactivity in Northern Marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Hosseini, A.; Borretzen, P.; Thorring, H. . E-mail havard.thorring@nrpa.no

    2006-01-01

    The requirement to assess the impacts of radioactivity in the environment explicitly and transparently is now generally accepted by the scientific community. A recently developed methodology for achieving this end for marine ecosystems is presented within this paper. With its clear relationship to an overarching system, the marine impact assessment is built around components of environmental transfer, ecodosimetry and radiobiological effects appraisal relying on the use of 'reference organisms'. Concentration factors (CFs), dynamic models and, in cases where parameters are missing, allometry have been employed in the consideration of radionuclide transfer. Dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) have been derived for selected flora and fauna using, inter alia, dose attenuation and chord distribution functions. The calculated dose-rates can be contextualised through comparison with dose-rates arising from natural background and chronic dose-rates at which biological effects have been observed in selected 'umbrella' endpoints

  11. Sentinel-1 provides ice drift observations for Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto

    Sea ice drift information with an accuracy that allows also ice deformation (divergence, shear, vorticity) to be derived is being operationally generated in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS).The method is based on 2-dimensional digital cross correlation where subsections......View project in 2007 when large volumes of ENVISAT ASAR images of the Polar regions became available during the International Polar Year. A dataset of daily ice drift vectors of the Polar Regions (North and South) is now available covering the time period from 2007 to the present time.In 2009 the processing...... became part of the GMES Marine Core Service MyOcean and when ENVISAT seized operation in 2012, this enabled a switch to daily RADARSAT-2 coverage of key regions in both hemispheres covered by the GMES Space Component Data Access (GSC-DA) grant.From October 2014, the data provision has switched...

  12. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, Chiara; Onorati, Fulvio; Lamberti, Claudia Virno; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented

  13. Degradation of Herbicides in the Tropical Marine Environment: Influence of Light and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; O'Brien, Jake; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Widespread contamination of nearshore marine systems, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon, with agricultural herbicides has long been recognised. The fate of these contaminants in the marine environment is poorly understood but the detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides in the GBR year-round suggests very slow degradation rates. Here, we evaluated the persistence of a range of commonly detected herbicides in marine water under field-relevant concentrations and conditions. Twelve-month degradation experiments were conducted in large open tanks, under different light scenarios and in the presence and absence of natural sediments. All PSII herbicides were persistent under control conditions (dark, no sediments) with half-lives of 300 d for atrazine, 499 d diuron, 1994 d hexazinone, 1766 d tebuthiuron, while the non-PSII herbicides were less persistent at 147 d for metolachlor and 59 d for 2,4-D. The degradation of herbicides was 2-10 fold more rapid in the presence of a diurnal light cycle and coastal sediments; apart from 2,4-D which degraded more slowly in the presence of light. Despite the more rapid degradation observed for most herbicides in the presence of light and sediments, the half-lives remained > 100 d for the PS II herbicides. The effects of light and sediments on herbicide persistence were likely due to their influence on microbial community composition and its ability to utilise the herbicides as a carbon source. These results help explain the year-round presence of PSII herbicides in marine systems, including the GBR, but more research on the transport, degradation and toxicity on a wider range of pesticides and their transformation products is needed to improve their regulation in sensitive environments.

  14. OceanSense-A general application development framework for marine environment monitoring with multi-sensors Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a component-based framework OceanSense which supports rapid development of marine environment monitoring application with multi-sensors. By decomposing systems into relatively independent, mature and reusable modules, component-based programming provides stability, reliability and extensibility compared to other programming methods. The framework covers kernel components for marine monitoring application, which are data management component, data transmission component, electronic nautical chart component, sensor communication component. OceanSense supports commonly used marine environment monitoring sensors, which increases its availability. A real project is carried on to validate the framework and result shows its availability.

  15. A review of strategies to monitor water and sediment quality for a sustainability assessment of marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Rezayi, Majid; Salleh, Aishah; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    The basic aim of this work is (1) to review and present practically operational requirements for a sustainability assessment of marine environment, such as describing the monitoring process, research approaches, objectives, guidelines, and indicators and (2) to illustrate how physico-chemical and biological indicators can be practically applied, to assess water and sediment quality in marine and coastal environment. These indicators should meet defined criteria for practical usefulness, e.g. they should be simple to understand and apply to managers and scientists with different educational backgrounds. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of marine ecosystems.

  16. The Danish Twin Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based twin registers represent a valuable tool for genetic epidemiological research, since twin studies aim at separating the effect of genes and environment for complex traits. The Danish Twin Register's history, size, ascertainment and completeness of data, as well as dat......-1952 og 1983-1993 are being ascertained at the moment. The register is available for research given certain conditions are fulfilled. CONCLUSION: This register will in a few years be the most comprehensive twin register in the world. It is a very valuable Danish research resource....

  17. The Danish Energy Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, P.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998 Denmark has been in a process of re-regulating its energy market introducing competition and incentive based economic regulation. The ''Danish model'' reflects specific Danish political priorities on energy, environment and the role of the energy consumers. The paper focuses on the electricity sector, tracing the reasons why Denmark re-regulates the way it does and what are the results. Denmark is a small country of 43000 2 kilometers and 5.3 million inhabitants. Denmark is a net-exporter of oil and gas produced in the North Sea. The hydro-resources are negligible. Renewable energy, however, covers 11 percent of gross energy consumption.(author)

  18. Action of the Ministry of Environment with regard to protection of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lys, M.

    The activity of the Ministry of Environment is reviewed in the following contexts: general cleaning up of the coastline; installation of nuclear power plants; open-sea burning of chlorinated industrial wastes; fight against pollution caused by ships at sea [fr

  19. Marine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of paralic and shallow marine Upper Jurassic sandstones in the northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen, Peter N.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Paralic and shallow marine sandstones were deposited in the Danish Central Graben during Late Jurassic rifting when half-grabens were developed and the overall eustatic sea level rose. During the Kimmeridgian, an extensive plateau area consisting of the Heno Plateau and the Gertrud Plateau was situated between two highs, the Mandal High to the north, and the combined Inge and Mads Highs to the west. These highs were land areas situated on either side of the plateaus and supplied sand to the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus. Two graben areas, the Feda and Tail End Grabens, flanked the plateau area to the west and east, respectively. The regressive–ransgressive succession consists of intensely bioturbated shoreface sandstones, 25–75 m thick. Two widespread unconformities (SB1, SB2 are recognised on the plateaus, forming the base of sequence 1 and sequence 2, respectively. These unconformities were created by a fall in relative sea level during which rivers may have eroded older shoreface sands and transported sediment across the Heno andGertrud Plateaus, resulting in the accumulation of shoreface sandstones farther out in the Feda and Tail End Grabens, on the south-east Heno Plateau and in the Salt Dome Province. Duringsubsequent transgression, fluvial sediments were reworked by high-energy shoreface processes on the Heno and Gertrud Plateaus, leaving only a lag of granules and pebbles on the marine transgressive surfaces of erosion (MTSE1, MTSE2.The sequence boundary SB1 can be traced to the south-east Heno Plateau and the Salt Dome Province, where it is marked by sharp-based shoreface sandstones. During low sea level, erosion occurred in the southern part of the Feda Graben, which formed part of the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus, and sedimentation occurred in the Norwegian part of the Feda Graben farther to the north. During subsequent transgression, the southern part of the Feda Graben began to subside, and a succession of backstepping back

  1. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  2. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia's enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada's reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia's sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It's co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the

  3. Effects of emissions from aluminium industry in the marine environment; Effekter av utslipp fra aluminiumsindustri i det marine miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutzen, J.; Naes, K.

    1994-12-31

    This report gives a brief presentation of a literature study of what is known about the effects of PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) on the marine environment and somewhat more summarily about fluoride, acidification and cyanide. Results are also reported for the seven Norwegian fjords which are recipients for aluminium production plants. Norwegian and foreign observations are discussed in relation to critical loads and lack of knowledge. The PAH can accumulate in sediments and organisms and some are potentially carcinogenic. PAH bound to soot particles such as from aluminium production appear not to cause ecological damage beyond one or two km from the emission. However, by elevated PAH levels in sediments the emissions from the aluminium works have been traceable to 30-40 km and more. Lately, large reductions of emission have significantly improved the situation in many of the recipients. Increased content of fluoride and reduced pH is with one exception only a factor within the primary dilution zone of the emission. For fluoride, pH and cyanide, stipulation of critical loads and corresponding acceptable load can be based on water quality criteria. This is not possible for PAH, as there is a lack of water quality criteria and sediment criteria and of reliable toxicity data for PAH. 49 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. "My Husband Usually Makes Those Decisions": Gender, Behavior, and Attitudes Toward the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Misse; Eklund, Britta

    2011-07-01

    Human behavior impacts the environment we live in. In order to better understand how one group, boat owners, in three Nordic countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea; Sweden, Finland and Denmark, viewed the relationship between the marine environment, leisure boats and issues of responsibility, a survey study was conducted ( n = 1701). The results show that there are differences between gender in many areas and those women in general are more environmentally friendly than men in their views and behavior. Men and women seek information about boating by different channels and this knowledge may be used in future information campaigns. Both men and women ranked boat owners as having the lowest impact on the marine environment and perceived these to be responsible for addressing environmental issues caused by leisure boat activities. The results also show that it is important to prove the effectiveness of an environmentally safe product since this factor is ranked higher than price when considering buying a product. The results suggest that once environmentally friendly behavior is established, such as recycling, this behavior continues. One implication of this study is that small changes in human behavior are seen as acceptable but larger commitments are more difficult to achieve. If individuals do not feel responsible for causing environmental damage, this aspect needs to be addressed in information aimed at this group. Novel approaches on framing the information and new ways of disseminating information are needed.

  5. Application of a multimolecular marker approach to fingerprint petroleum pollution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Assem O.; Mostafa, Alaa R.; Rullkoetter, Juergen; Hegazi, Abdel Rahman

    1999-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the suitability of a multibiological marker approach for defining the origin of petroleum pollution in marine systems, the aliphatic hydrocarbon composition of tar ball samples collected from the beaches of a small island impacted by heavy tar loads were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The tar ball samples, as collected, were at low stages of biodegradation and had diverse physical appearance. The majority of the samples (as many as 7 of the 10) appeared to be heavy fuel oils - possibly Bunker C. The GC traces for the other three tar balls, however, indicated that they were crude oils probably from tanker ballast washings or other non-point sources like the oil entering from the adjacent North Mediterranean. The biomarkers for the sterane and hopane series in these samples, however, had remained unaffected by weathering, and their distributions revealed significant differences among the samples suggesting multiple sources of the tar balls. The tar ball samples could be genetically subdivided into four groups on the basis of their biomarker fingerprints. A marine carbonate or evaporite, hypersaline, anoxic depositional environment of the petroleum source rock for Type I residues could be inferred from the even-carbon-number predominance of n-alkanes, the high relative abundance of gammacerane and the predominance of C 35 relative to C 34 17α(H)-homohopanes. Higher plant contribution and a deltaic environment of source rock deposition could be concluded for Type II residues from the high concentrations of oleanane and diasteranes. On the other hand, Type III residues possessed geochemical characteristics consistent with a normal marine carbonate or evaporite source depositional environment under normal saline, reducing conditions. Finally, type IV residues had biomarker signatures intermediate between Types II and III. (Author)

  6. Bacterial colonization of metallic surfaces exposed in marine environment. Use of bacterial lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezennec, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Addressing fouling and more particularly biofouling phenomena occurring notably on structures in marine environment, this research thesis first describes the fouling phenomenon (components, sequences of biofouling development, bio-film chemical composition). The author reports the study of the composition of the biological veil (microbiological methods, presentation of the different components), addresses the various types of lipids (bacterial markers and others). Then, after a presentation of the experimental equipment and methods (test cells, sample preparation, gas phase chromatography, hydrogenation and bromination, mass spectrometry), the author discusses the influence of different parameters such as the substrate type, speed, season, chlorination, and correlation with thermal transfer [fr

  7. Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy exposed to a tropical marine environment for 4 years was investigated. Weight loss of 2A12 alloy in the log-log coordinates can be well fitted with two linear segments, attributing to the evolution of the corrosion products. EIS results indicate that the corrosion product layer formed on the specimens exposed for 12 months or longer presents a good barrier effect. Corrosion morphology changes from pitting corrosion to severe intergranular corrosion with the extension of exposure time, resulting in the reduction of the mechanical properties.

  8. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  9. Childhood social environment and risk of drug and alcohol abuse in a cohort of Danish men born in 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Nordentoft, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-04-01

    In a 32-year follow-up study, the authors analyze how social circumstances during early life, childhood social participation, and school performance affect the risk of being admitted to a hospital or dying from a diagnosis closely related to drug or alcohol abuse in young adulthood. A total of 11,376 Danish males born in 1953, for whom data from birth certificates and conscription board examinations had been traced, were followed until 2002 through linkage to the Danish Psychiatric, National Patient, and Cause of Death registries. At age 12 years, 7,877 subjects completed a questionnaire on social participation and school performance. During follow-up, 12 percent of these were given a diagnosis indicating drug or alcohol abuse. Having a single mother and a working-class father were each associated with an increased risk of drug or alcohol abuse in adult life. At age 12 years, those who disliked school, scored low on a school test, or preferred to visit a youth club during leisure time showed a greater risk of adult substance abuse. These associations were slightly attenuated when adjusted for educational status at conscription. Deprived social circumstances during childhood, poor school performance in early adolescence, and attending a youth club seemed to be independent markers of substance abuse in adult life.

  10. Radioecological synthesis of the various compartments of La Hague (Cotentin) marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Permits for low level radioactive liquid waste releases by the LA HAGUE (Cotentin, France) fuel reprocessing plant are based on an accurate radioecological study of the marine environment. Since 1967, the monitoring of indicators such as seawater, sediments and marine organisms (Fucus serratus, Laminaria sp., Mytilus sp., ...) have made it possible to create an important environmental data base. A statistical treatment has been used to quantify the spatio-temporal (daily, seasonal, local and regional) variabilities of these indicators from 1975 up to now. It has demonstrated the interest of F. serratus seaweed as bioindicators of radioactivity. Moreover it appears that seawater-soluble radionuclides such as 125 Sb and 137 Cs are monitored through longer distance from the outlet than those bound to particles such as 144 Ce. A study of the sestonic load by satellite images suggested a number of geographical sites of potential accumulation through particle transport, some of which were verified by radioactivity measurements of sediments. However, such accumulation was not confirmed by the particle size distribution at the level of the Cap de LA HAGUE associated with radioactive measurements of seawater. A spectral analysis of biota radioactive levels vs radioactive waste releases showed a time delay of 2 - 4 months for F. serratus and Mytilus sp. collected in the local area of LA HAGUE after either an increase or a decrease of the releases. Modeling of marine currents fields associated with a transfer model can now be used to predict, at small time scales, the radioactivity levels inthe various Cotentin marine compartments from the liquid waste releases [fr

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment in the marine environment: A comparison of legal frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Flávia, E-mail: f.c.diasguerra@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Grilo, Catarina [Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, 1500-124 Lisboa (Portugal); Pedroso, Nuno M. [Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica — CENA, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes — cE3c, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Henrique [MARE — Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established practice in most developed countries, even though its application to projects in the marine environment is at a much earlier stage of development. We use the Portuguese example to address marine EIA legislation since its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is currently the third largest in the European Union and its EIA legislation does not require various offshore activities with potentially negative environmental impacts to undergo EIA before being licensed. This paper aims to determine whether three types of projects implemented within Portuguese maritime zones – artificial reefs using sunken ships, hydrocarbon prospecting and wave-energy generation – would benefit from application of an appropriately designed EIA. We have conducted a structured review of EIA legal provisions from seven other countries, and considered whether a full EIA was required for each project type. Consequently, 12 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) have been compared to identify patterns of (dis)similarity across countries and project types. Additionally, we identified key descriptors and predicted impacts for each project type referred to in their EIS. The main conclusion is that ultimately all three projects would benefit from mandatory EIA in Portugal. This paper is relevant for countries with large maritime areas and underdeveloped marine EIA legislation, helping improve international policy-making relating to these three types of marine projects. - Highlights: • EIA is not mandatory for some project types developed in Portuguese maritime zones. • Artificial reefs, oil&gas prospecting and wave-energy licensing differ in 8 countries. • EIA should be mandatory in Portugal for artificial reefs and oil&gas prospecting. • However, an AEInc approach is enough for wave-energy projects in Portugal. • Findings could be extended to other EU countries with extensive maritime zones.

  12. The Marine Corps’ Warrior Ethos: Practicality for Today’s Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    contributes to the overall warrior ethos ensuring recruits volunteer for the right reason. The Marine Corps advertising campaign communicates a consistent... unethical conduct by Marines in a combat zone. On 26 April 2006 in Hamdania, Iraq Marines from 2d Platoon, Company K, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines...understanding of the warrior ethos among all Marines. There is not a complete lack of discipline or unethical behavior within the Marine Corps

  13. Adaptation of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria to permanently cold marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, MF; Jørgensen, BB

    1996-01-01

    degrees C. The rates of sulfate reduction were measured by the (SO42-)-S-35 tracer technique at different experimental temperatures in sediment slurries, In sediment slurries from Mariager Fjord, sulfate reduction showed a mesophilic temperature response which was comparable to that of other temperate...... environments, In sediment slurries from Antarctica, the metabolic activity of psychrotrophic bacteria was observed with a respiration optimum at 18 to 19 degrees C during short-term incubations, However, over a 1-week incubation, the highest respiration rate was observed at 12.5 degrees C. Growth......The potential for sulfate reduction at low temperatures was examined in two different cold marine sediments, Mariager Fjord (Denmark), which is permanently cold (3 to 6 degrees C) but surrounded by seasonally warmer environments, and the Weddell Sea (Antarctica), which is permanently below 0...

  14. Methodologies for assessment of power plant ecological effects in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Various types of models or methodologies relevant to the assessment of entrainment, thermal, and impingement impacts of power plant operation in the marine environment are presented. The majority of methodologies available for assessing power plant effects are focused at the organism or population level. The most widely applied approaches for estimating entrainment effects on fish populations are the equivalent adult and trophic-conversion methodologies. Current methods to predict the number of fish and distribution of species impinged consider physical factors of the environment but not the biological or behavorial characteristics of fish. With proper validation, ecosystem-level models that consider aggregate responses of biological components to stress may prove to be a viable approach for investigating power plant ecological effects

  15. Oil spill sensing in marine and coastal environments using laser-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. E.; Fingas, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) under development by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada, which has the ability to detect and classify oil on water, land and conditions of snow and ice, real-time from an airborne platform, was described. Also under development are a scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) to detect and map oil in complex marine and shoreline environments where other nonspecific sensors are not effective, and a laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor, which is expected to provide a measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. Details of each of these remote sensing technologies are provided, along with a discussion of expected benefits to the oil spill response community. 12 refs

  16. Potential transfer of organic pollutants from littoral plastics debris to the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Víctor M; García, Inés; González, Emilia; Samper, Raquel; Fernández-González, Verónica; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad

    2018-02-05

    Plastic polymers act as passive samplers in air system and concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants by sorption or specific interactions, which can be transported to other systems such as the marine environment. In this study plastic debris was sampled in the surrounding area of a Mediterranean lagoon in order to determine the concentration of persistent and emerging organic contaminants. More specifically, desorption of 91 regulated and emerging organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, current-use pesticides, personal care products, other pesticides and plastic additives) was characterized for the first 24 h from different polymers to seawater and the remaining content of these contaminants was also extracted by ultrasonic extraction with methanol. All samples were analyzed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction coupled to GC/MS. A significant fraction of sorbed contaminants in polymers was desorbed in the first 24 h, particularly for triazines and organophosphorus pesticides due to their lower hydrophobicity than other considered analytes. The remaining contaminants contained in plastics can be also transferred to seawater, sediments or biota. Considering 24 h desorbed fraction plus the remaining methanol extracted fraction, the highest transfer levels corresponded to personal care products, plastic additives, current-use pesticides and PAHs. This is the first study to show the relevance of the transport of organic contaminants on plastic debris from littoral areas to the marine environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time surveillance system for marine environment based on HLIF LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, Sergey; Sobolev, Innokenti; Aleksejev, Valeri; Sõro, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The operational monitoring of the risk areas of marine environment requires cost-effective solutions. One of the options is the use of sensor networks based on fixed installations and moving platforms (coastal boats, supply-, cargo-, and passenger vessels). Such network allows to gather environmental data in time and space with direct links to operational activities in the controlled area for further environmental risk assessment. Among many remote sensing techniques the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based on Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is the tool of direct assessment of water quality variations caused by chemical pollution, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton composition. The Hyperspectral LIF (HLIF) LiDAR acquires comprehensive LIF spectra and analyses them by spectral pattern recognition technique to detect and classify the substances in water remotely. Combined use of HLIF LiDARs with Real-Time Data Management System (RTDMS) provides the economically effective solution for the regular monitoring in the controlled area. OCEAN VISUALS in cooperation with LDI INNOVATION has developed Oil in Water Locator (OWL™) with RTDMS (OWL MAP™) based on HLIF LiDAR technique. This is a novel technical solution for monitoring of marine environment providing continuous unattended operations. OWL™ has been extensively tested on board of various vessels in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and Caribbean Sea. This paper describes the technology features, the results of its operational use in 2014-2017, and outlook for the technology development.

  18. Speciation and bioaccumulation in a model organism of U, Np and Am in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloubier, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The fate of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment remains a major concern in our modern nuclearized societies. Among the environmental compartments, the hydrosphere is ubiquitous and can transport compounds or elements over very long distances. The recent event of Fukushima demonstrated that the marine environment could be directly affected and this raises both scientific and societal questions. Moreover, some studies have already shown that radionuclides present in seawater can be strongly accumulated by marine organisms although their speciation is most of the time unknown. Yet this knowledge is essential to better understand the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere and to evaluate their global impact on humans. In this work, we chose to experimentally determine the speciation of three actinides in doped seawater: uranium(VI), neptunium(V) and americium(III) (and the chemical surrogate europium(III)) by coupling speciation modeling with spectroscopic tools among which Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Then, we have studied the accumulation process in the sponge A. cavernicola, chosen here because it is considered as a bio-monitor of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation of europium(III), americium(III) and uranium(VI) in A. cavernicola were investigated at trace and ultra-trace levels. Besides, for europium, X-ray and electronic imaging permit to localize the accumulated element in the sponge and to specify its speciation [fr

  19. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.L. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Obbard, J.P. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail esejpo@nus.edu.sg

    2006-07-15

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 {mu}m) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 {mu}m) and subsurface layer (1 m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  1. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial and physical work environment, and risk of pelvic pain in pregnancy. A study within the Danish national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sparse knowledge of the aetiology of pelvic pain in pregnancy makes evidence based prevention a limited option. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between pelvic pain in pregnancy and physical and psychosocial working conditions. METHODS: This study used self reported...... data on working conditions for 1219 cases and 1539 controls, sampled as a nested case-control study within the Danish national birth cohort. Cases and controls were selected on the basis of self reported pelvic pain intensity, pain localisation, and pain impact on daily living activities. Exposure data...... were collected prospectively; early in pregnancy and before the onset of pelvic pain. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for pelvic pain in pregnancy as a function of physical and psychosocial working conditions. RESULTS: Pregnant women with fixed evening work and with rotating shifts (without...

  3. Regional survey of radionuclides in the marine environment of the French Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve; Arnaud, Mireille; Duffa, Celine; Charmasson, Sabine; Dimeglio, Yves [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM/ARM c/o Ifremer, CS 20330 Zone Portuaire de Bregaillon, 83507 La Seyne sur Mer Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) runs a continuous monitoring program of the marine environment as a mandatory task. For the French Mediterranean coast, this monitoring activity focuses on two bio-indicators species: the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the red mullet (Mullus sp.) sampled on a regular basis from natural populations at ten locations along the coast. Radionuclides are measured using direct low-level gamma spectrometry as a routine technique. In addition to this long-lasting monitoring, a broad survey of radionuclide baseline levels is conducted on all compartments of the coastal zone: water, sediments and a large selection of fish species among those most currently fished and marketed. This extended data collection is necessary to fulfill the information requirements of the UE Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its implementation by member states. This information is also essential for impact assessment of any incident or accident, included from a remote source. Levels of less commonly measured radionuclides like {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and U, Pu isotopes are investigated. Fish sampling relies mostly on scientific stock assessment campaigns. Mussel sampling is complemented by transplanted mussels on 40 specific sites. This regional survey also focuses on two possibly impacted areas: the Rhone river mouth coastal zone, with inputs from nuclear power plants along the river and the Bay of Toulon sheltering Navy harbor of nuclear-powered sub-marines and aircraft-carrier. First results show that the activity levels of artificial radionuclides are very low for most bio-indicator species, in accordance with previous monitoring trends. {sup 137}Cs is the only artificial radionuclide regularly detected by gamma spectrometry in mussel and fish samples at a level below 1 Bg.kg{sup -1} of dry weight. Values of {sup 3}H (organically bound Tritium) in the same samples lies under

  4. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  5. Transitions between marine and freshwater environments provide new clues about the origins of multicellular plants and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittami, Simon M; Heesch, Svenja; Olsen, Jeanine L; Collén, Jonas

    2017-08-01

    Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here, we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized freshwater on a maximum of six known occasions, and angiosperms have made the transition to marine environments only two or three times. Next, we review the early evolutionary events leading to the colonization of current habitats. It is commonly assumed that the conquest of land proceeded in a sequence from marine to freshwater habitats. However, recent evidence suggests that early photosynthetic eukaryotes may have arisen in subaerial or freshwater environments and only later colonized marine environments as hypersaline oceans were diluted to the contemporary level. Although this hypothesis remains speculative, it is important to keep these alternative scenarios in mind when interpreting the current habitat distribution of plants and algae. Finally, we discuss the roles of structural and functional adaptations of the cell wall, reactive oxygen species scavengers, osmoregulation, and reproduction. These are central for acclimatization to freshwater or to marine environments. We observe that successful transitions appear to have occurred more frequently in morphologically simple forms and conclude that, in addition to physiological studies of euryhaline species, comparative studies of closely related species fully adapted to one or the other environment are necessary to better understand the adaptive processes. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Non-sectarian scenario experiments in socio-ecological knowledge building for multi-use marine environments: Insights from New Zealand's Marine Futures project

    KAUST Repository

    Le Heron, Richard

    2016-01-29

    management directions in multi-use marine environments.

  7. Nutrients and Other Environmental Factors Influence Virus Abundances across Oxic and Hypoxic Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Finke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Models of varying complexity were tested and compared for best fit with the Akaike Information Criterion, and revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, as well as prokaryote abundances, either individually or combined, had significant effects on viral abundances in all but hypoxic environments, which were only explained by a combination of physical and chemical factors. Nonetheless, multivariate models of environmental variables showed high explanatory power, matching or surpassing that of prokaryote abundance alone. Incorporating both environmental variables and prokaryote abundances into multivariate models significantly improved the explanatory power of the models, except in hypoxic environments. These findings demonstrate that environmental factors could be as important as, or even more important than, prokaryote abundance in describing viral abundance across wide-ranging marine environments

  8. Observations from Space: Marine Ecosystem and Environment Response to Typhoon/ Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danling; Yi, Sui

    Isoguchi, 2005. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula. JGR-Bio-geo. VOL. 111, G01010, doi:10.1029/2005JG000050, 2006. Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, Hai Doan-Nhu, W Takahashi , 2004. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) off the coast of southeastern Vietnam. J. of Geophysical Research (Ocean).Vol 109, doi:10.1029/2003JC002045; Tang, DanLing, H Kawamura, TV Dien. MA Lee, 2004. Offshore phytoplankton biomass increase and its oceanographic causes in the South China Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 268: 31-41; Tang, DanLing, H ZHAO, B. Satyanarayana, GM ZHENG, RP. SINGH, JH LV, 2009, Enhancement of Chlorophyll-a in the Northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian Tsunami, Int. J. Remote Sensing doi10.1080/01431160802603778 , Vol.30 (17):4553-4565; Zhao, H., DanLing Tang, and Y. Wang, 2008, Comparison of phyto-plankton blooms triggered by two typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds in the South China SeaMar Ecol Prog Ser, 365, 57-65; Zheng, GM. and DanLing Tang ,2007Off-shore and nearshore chlorophyll increases induced by typhoon winds and subsequent terrestrial rainwater runoff, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 333, 61-72; H Zhao, DanLing TANG, DX Wang, 2009, Phytoplankton blooms near the Pearl River Estuary induced by Typhoon Nuri, Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans. 114, C12027; YQ Chen, DanLing Tang, 2010, Cold eddies and eddy-shape phytoplankton blooms induced by tropical cyclone Linfa in the South China Sea. In preparation; XX Yang, DanLing Tang, 2010, Sea Surface Temperature Decreasing in the Northern South China Sea Induced by Typhoon. In preparation.

  9. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  10. The influence of thermal effects on the wind speed profile of the coastal marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The wind speed profile in a coastal marine environment is investigated with observations from the measurement program Rodsand, where meteorological data are collected with a 50 m high mast in the Danish Baltic Sea, about 11 km from the coast. When compared with the standard Monin-Obukhov theory t...

  11. A humidity controlled Nephelometer system to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Aditya; O'Dowd, Colin; Jennings, S. Gerard

    2010-05-01

    A Humidograph system has been designed to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols for different air-masses and for different seasons in the marine environment. Since ambient marine aerosols are likely to be found in a metastable state, and in accordance with recommendations of WMO/GAW to sample dry aerosol, a drying unit (Nafion based) is placed just after the inlet to dry the aerosols to a relative humidity (RH) Gore-Tex based humidifier followed by a single-wavelength TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer. The humidifier is used to vary the RH from 40% to 90%. While the TSI-3563 Integrating Nephelometer will operate at RH < 40%, the TSI-3561 Integrating Nephelometer will operate under varying RH conditions. Software developed in LabVIEW is used to control the hardware components and to log the data in a predefined format. Results of the performance of the Humidograph system in the laboratory and at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are presented.

  12. Chemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Nelson, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment have provided a wealth of information regarding the physical, biological, and chemical processes which control the behavior of these and many other pollutants in the oceans. Their value as tracers for the dispersion, transport, and fate of pollutants in the oceans is largely dependent on the chemical properties of each individual radioelement. Differences in these properties, particularly in relation to their interaction with biotic or abiotic particulate matter, result in the separation of parent-daughter radioisotopes in the natural radioelement series or in changes in the ratios of fission and activation products. Such differences have provided the means to provide time scales for a variey of transport processes and to determine sedimentation rates. The properties of these radionuclides in the oceans can, in general, be predicted from the chemical properties of the stable elements. For those elements such as plutonium, for which there are no naturally-occurring stable isotopes, studies of their distribution in the oceans have provided a new important understanding of their chemical behavior. This behavior has not always agreed with what would have been predicted from laboratory studies carried out at far higher concentrations. Differences between observed distributions and laboratory predictions have highlighted the importance of correct experimental conditions in order to avoid confusing experimental artifacts. The interaction of radionuclides with particles in the oceans and marine sediments can be described in terms of simple ion exchange or adsorption equilibria

  13. Field scale simulation of axial hydrokinetic turbines in a natural marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Commercialization of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy technologies is still in the development stage. Existing technologies need fundamental research to enable efficient energy extraction from identified MHK sites. We propose a large eddy simulation (LES)-based framework to investigate the site-specific flow dynamics past MHK arrays in a real-life marine environment. To this end, we use advanced computational tools developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) to resolve the vast range of scales present in the flow. The new generation unstructured Cartesian flow solver, coupled with a sharp interface immersed boundary method for 3D incompressible flows, is used to numerically investigate New York City's East River, where an array of MHK turbines is to be deployed as part of the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project. Multi-resolution simulations on locally refined grids are used to simulate the flow in a section of the East River with detailed river bathymetry and inset turbines at field scale. The results are analyzed in terms of the wake recovery, overall wake dynamics, and the power produced by the turbines. These results will help develop design guidelines for the site-specific turbine array configuration. This work was supported by NSF Grant IIP-1318201.

  14. Polystyrene plastic: a source and sink for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Manzano, Carlos; Hentschel, Brian T; Simonich, Staci L Massey; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-12-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on virgin polystyrene (PS) and PS marine debris led us to examine PS as a source and sink for PAHs in the marine environment. At two locations in San Diego Bay, we measured sorption of PAHs to PS pellets, sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. We detected 25 PAHs using a new analytical method with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Several congeners were detected on samples before deployment. After deployment, some concentrations decreased (1,3-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,6-methylnaphthalene), while most increased [2-methylanthracene and all parent PAHs (PPAHs), except fluorene and fluoranthene], suggesting that PS debris is a source and sink for PAHs. When sorbed concentrations of PPAHs on PS are compared to the five most common polymers [polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP)], PS sorbed greater concentrations than PP, PET, and PVC, similar to HDPE and LDPE. Most strikingly, at 0 months, PPAHs on PS ranged from 8 to 200 times greater than on PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE, and PP. The combination of greater PAHs in virgin pellets and large sorption suggests that PS may pose a greater risk of exposure to PAHs upon ingestion.

  15. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  16. Marine environment status assessment based on macrophytobenthic plants as bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Tamara; Danowska, Beata

    2017-05-15

    The main aim of study was to develop the environmental quality standards (EQS MP ) for selected heavy metals: Pb, Cd, Hg and Ni bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine macrophytobenthic plants: Chara baltica, Cladophora spp., Coccotylus truncatus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Polysiphonia fucoides, Stuckenia pectinata and Zanichellia palustris, collected in designated areas of the southern Baltic Sea in period 2008-2015. The calculated concentration ratios (CR), which attained very high values: 10 4 Lkg -1 for lead, 10 3 Lkg -1 for nickel and mercury and even 10 5 Lkg -1 for cadmium formed the basis for the determination of EQS MP values. The EQS MP values were: 26mgkg -1 d.w. for Pb, 33mgkg -1 d.w. for Cd, 32mgkg -1 d.w. for Ni and 0.4mgkg -1 d.w. for Hg. The application of macrophytobenthic plants as bioindicators in marine environment status assessment of certain areas of the Baltic Sea is also described in the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments; processes and impact on the sedimentary record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. F. Zonneveld

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence MARUM "The Ocean in the Earth System", the International Graduate College EUROPROX, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments.

    It appears that most of the factors influencing OM preservation have been identified, but many of the mechanisms by which they operate are partly, or even fragmentarily, understood. Some factors have not even been taken carefully into consideration. This incomplete understanding of OM breakdown hampers proper assessment of the present and past carbon cycle as well as the interpretation of OM based proxies and proxies affected by OM breakdown.

    To arrive at better proxy-based reconstructions "deformation functions" are needed, taking into account the transport and diagenesis-related molecular and atomic modifications following proxy formation.

    Some emerging proxies for OM degradation may shed light on such deformation functions. The use of palynomorph concentrations and selective changes in assemblage composition as models for production and preservation of OM may correct for bias due to selective degradation. Such quantitative

  18. Selective preservation of organic matter in marine environments; processes and impact on the sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Kasten, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Emeis, K.-C.; Huguet, C.; Koch, B. P.; de Lange, G. J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Prahl, F. G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Wakeham, S. G.

    2010-02-01

    The present paper is the result of a workshop sponsored by the DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence MARUM "The Ocean in the Earth System", the International Graduate College EUROPROX, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. The workshop brought together specialists on organic matter degradation and on proxy-based environmental reconstruction. The paper deals with the main theme of the workshop, understanding the impact of selective degradation/preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments on the interpretation of the fossil record. Special attention is paid to (A) the influence of the molecular composition of OM in relation to the biological and physical depositional environment, including new methods for determining complex organic biomolecules, (B) the impact of selective OM preservation on the interpretation of proxies for marine palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, and (C) past marine productivity and selective preservation in sediments. It appears that most of the factors influencing OM preservation have been identified, but many of the mechanisms by which they operate are partly, or even fragmentarily, understood. Some factors have not even been taken carefully into consideration. This incomplete understanding of OM breakdown hampers proper assessment of the present and past carbon cycle as well as the interpretation of OM based proxies and proxies affected by OM breakdown. To arrive at better proxy-based reconstructions "deformation functions" are needed, taking into account the transport and diagenesis-related molecular and atomic modifications following proxy formation. Some emerging proxies for OM degradation may shed light on such deformation functions. The use of palynomorph concentrations and selective changes in assemblage composition as models for production and preservation of OM may correct for bias due to selective degradation. Such quantitative assessment of OM degradation may lead to more

  19. Microplastic in Danish wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the role of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the emission of microplastic to the environment in terms of amounts and types of plastic polymers emitted and if possible, to evaluate which sources these plastic polymers could originate...... investigations (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy imaging applying a Focal Plane Array). This method allows both determination of the microplastic concentrations in the samples and identification of the type of plastic polymer of each microplastic particle....

  20. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  1. Mathematical model for simulation of the fate of copper in a marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlob, G.T.; Hrovat, D.; Wakeman, T.; Harrison, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model for the simulation of the fate of copper in a marine environment was developed. The model, which describes the kinetics of copper transformation from ionic copper to complexes with dissolved organic matter and sorption on suspended sediment, is imbedded in a two-dimensional finite element model which is capable of simulating advection and diffusion processes in natural receiving waters. Kinetic rate and equilibrium constants for the model were developed independently in laboratory experiments. A test simulation was performed under realistic conditions of slug discharge of ionic copper with the cooling water from a nuclear power station situated on the California coast. Results show that the model performed correctly under the conditions assumed. Future research and development is directed toward improving description of copper kinetics under varying environmental conditions and exploring the sensitivity of the model

  2. Corrosion Behavior of Primid Solidified Polyester Powder Coating in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU He-rong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of primid-curing solidified polyester powder coating defects in marine environment was investigated by CASS test, immersion test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning Kelvin probe (SKP. The results show that the primid-curing polyester powder coating has a small amount of blisters along the scratch edge, the maximu single side corrosion width is less than 0.5mm, and the surface adhesion is 0 after 240 hours' CASS test. The EIS map in 0.6mol/L NaCl solution exhibits that the corrosion rate of aluminu alloy is decreased with increasing immersion time and gradually stable. The scanning Kelvin spectrum reveals that the corrosion of the metal under the coating of the polyester powder is extended from scratch to the coating, the anode and the cathode are alternately changed, which leads to the expansion of the corrosion area.

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Active Screen Plasma Nitrided 38CrMoAl Steel under Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; He, Yongyong; Mao, JunYuan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The 38CrMoAl steels were nitrided at different temperatures for 7 h using active screen plasma discharge. The analysis showed that the thick compound layer composed of ɛ-Fe2-3N and γ‧-Fe4N was formed on the surface. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by measuring the anodic polarization curves in natural sea water (similar 3.5% NaCl solution), and observation of corroded surface were conducted. The electromechanical measurements indicated that the corrosion potential of the nitrided specimens shifted to a nobler value compared to that of untreated specimens. Passive regions were also observed in the polarization curves for all the nitrided specimens. These results indicate that active screen plasma nitriding can enhance the corrosion resistance of the 38CrMoAl steel under marine environment.

  4. Applications of gamma spectrometry to the study of the marine environment of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicque, G.

    1975-01-01

    The paper surveys such methods and assemblies as are conceivable for studies of marine environments with gamma emitting radionuclides. An important application is found in the case of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, which occupy a key position in any large scale program for atomic power plants. The tracers chosen are 137 Cs and 106 Ru, which constitute an important part of liquid wastes. The characteristics of two assemblies using NaI(Tl) crystals are given. Their thresholds are of the order of a few pCi/l to a few 10pCi/l for a counting time of one hour, respectively for 137 Cs and 106 Ru. These equipments are utilised for the monitoring of the Hague reprocessing plant, one of the most important in Europe. They yield data on the circulation, diffusion and sedimentation of liquid wastes. Measured activities have always been found to be much lower than maximum admissible concentrations (M.A.C.) [fr

  5. Assessment of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrification and its expression in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L; Buchwald, Carolyn; Santoro, Alyson E; Frame, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification is a microbially-catalyzed process whereby ammonia (NH(3)) is oxidized to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequently to nitrate (NO(3)(-)). It is also responsible for production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a climatically important greenhouse gas. Because the microbes responsible for nitrification are primarily autotrophic, nitrification provides a unique link between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios have provided insights into where nitrification contributes to the availability of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), and where it constitutes a significant source of N(2)O. This chapter describes methods for determining kinetic isotope effects involved with ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation, the two independent steps in the nitrification process, and their expression in the marine environment. It also outlines some remaining questions and issues related to isotopic fractionation during nitrification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    originates from at least two sources of different quality. The radioecological implication of the observed variations is that the use of plutonium isotope ratios in quantitatively determining the influence of different plutonium sources is a very complex affair requiring substantial data sets.......In January 1968, a B52 plane carrying 4 nuclear weapon!: crashed on the sea ice similar to 12 km from the Thule Air Base, in northwest Greenland. The benthic marine environment in the 180-230 m deep Bylot Sound was then contaminated with similar to1.4 TBq Pu-239,Pu-240 (similar to0.5 kg). The site...... was revisited in August 1997, 29 years after the accident. Water and brown algae data indicate that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area...

  7. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vera; Acuna Gonzalez, Jenaro; Vargas Zamora, Jose A.; Garcia Cespedes, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms [es

  8. High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

    2004-06-01

    The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system.

  9. Spectroscopic identification of protective and non-protective corrosion coatings on steel structures in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Desmond C.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion research, and the need to fully understand the effects that environmental conditions have on the performance of structural steels, is one area in which Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a required analytical technique. This is in part due to the need to identify and quantify the nanophase iron oxides that form on and protect certain structural steels, and that are nearly transparent to most other spectroscopic techniques. In conjunction with X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman analyses, the iron oxides that form the rusts on steels corroded in different marine and other environments can be completely identified and mapped within the rust coating. The spectroscopic analyses can be used to determine the nature of the environment in which structural steels have been, and these act as a monitor of the corrosion itself. Moessbauer spectroscopy is playing an important role in a new corrosion program in the United States and Japan in which steel bridges, old and new, are being evaluated for corrosion problems that may reduce their serviceable lifetimes. Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to characterize the corrosion products that form the protective patina on weathering steel, as well those that form in adverse environments in which the oxide coating is not adherent or protective to the steel. Moessbauer spectroscopy has also become an important analytical technique for investigating the corrosion products that have formed on archaeological artifacts, and it is providing guidance to aid in the removal of the oxides necessary for their conservation

  10. A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matthew Drenner

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.

  11. Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing "zetaproteobacteria" and mild steel corrosion in nearshore marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Joyce M; Little, Brenda J; Ray, Richard I; Farrar, Katherine M; Emerson, David

    2011-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of mild steel in seawater is an expensive and enduring problem. Little attention has been paid to the role of neutrophilic, lithotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) in MIC. The goal of this study was to determine if marine FeOB related to Mariprofundus are involved in this process. To examine this, field incubations and laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted. Mild steel samples incubated in nearshore environments were colonized by marine FeOB, as evidenced by the presence of helical iron-encrusted stalks diagnostic of the FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a member of the candidate class "Zetaproteobacteria." Furthermore, Mariprofundus-like cells were enriched from MIC biofilms. The presence of Zetaproteobacteria was confirmed using a Zetaproteobacteria-specific small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene primer set to amplify sequences related to M. ferrooxydans from both enrichments and in situ samples of MIC biofilms. Temporal in situ incubation studies showed a qualitative increase in stalk distribution on mild steel, suggesting progressive colonization by stalk-forming FeOB. We also isolated a novel FeOB, designated Mariprofundus sp. strain GSB2, from an iron oxide mat in a salt marsh. Strain GSB2 enhanced uniform corrosion from mild steel in laboratory microcosm experiments conducted over 4 days. Iron concentrations (including precipitates) in the medium were used as a measure of corrosion. The corrosion in biotic samples (7.4 ± 0.1 mM) was significantly higher than that in abiotic controls (5.0 ± 0.1 mM). These results have important implications for the role of FeOB in corrosion of steel in nearshore and estuarine environments. In addition, this work shows that the global distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is far greater than previously thought.

  12. Sulfide production and consumption in degrading wood in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Galand, Pierre E; Fagervold, Sonja K; Contreira-Pereira, Leonardo; Le Bris, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Woody debris is known to be transported to the seas and accumulate on the seafloor, however, little is known on the consequences of its degradation in the marine environment. In this study we monitored the degradation product sulfide with Au/Hg voltammetric microelectrodes on the surface and interior of an experimentally immersed wood for 200 d. After 5 weeks of immersion, the interior became sulfidic, and steady-state conditions were established after 13 weeks with sulfide concentration reaching about 300 μM. Although sulfide was briefly detected at the surface of wood, its concentration remained lower than 20 μM, indicating that this compound was effectively oxidized within the substrate. Fitting these data to a kinetic model lead to an estimated microbial sulfide production rate in the range of 19-28 μM d(-1) at steady state. As much as 24 μM d(-1) nitrate could be consumed by this process in the steady-state period. Before the establishment of the steady state conditions, steep fluctuations in sulfide concentration (between 1mM and several μM) were observed in the wood interior. This study is the first to document the temporal dynamics of this unsteady process, characterized by fast sulfide fluctuation and consumption. Our results point to the complex mechanisms driving the dynamics of wood biogeochemical transformations, and reveal the capacity of woody debris to generate sulfidic conditions and act as a possible sink for oxygen and nitrate in the marine environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments: the Ribe Vesterå river and the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergely, Aron; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Teglbrænder-Bjergkvist, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Shallow water environments in the land-sea transition zone are challenging to map in high spatial resolution at large spatial scales. Historically this has led to gaps (white ribbons) between terrestrial and marine surveys. Topobathymetric LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), also referred...... and vertical precision of green LiDAR based on object detection; and 2) to assess the potential of topobathymetric LiDAR as a tool to combine and integrate terrestrial and marine mapping and related investigations in the land-sea transition zone. Topobathymetric LiDAR surveys were carried out in spring 2014......) were placed within the survey area in the river section, and in a back-barrier tidal channel and on a back-barrier salt marsh in the tidal inlet system, respectively. The exact locations of the three objects were determined by a Trimble® R8 GNSS Receiver. The preliminary results show...

  14. Characterization of the Acoustic Field in Marine Environments with Anthropogenic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shane

    Most animals inhabit the aquatic environment are acoustical-oriented, due to the physical characteristics of water that favors sound transmission. Many aquatic animals depend on underwater sound to navigate, communicate, find prey, and avoid predators. The degradation of underwater acoustic environment due to human activities is expected to affected these animals' well-being and survival at the population level. This dissertation presents three original studies on the characteristics and behavior of underwater sound fields in three unique marine environments with anthropogenic noises. The first study examines the soundscape of the Chinese white dolphin habitat in Taiwan. Acoustic recordings were made at two coastal shallow water locations, Yunlin and Waisanding, in 2012. Results show that croaker choruses are dominant sound sources in the 1.2--2.4 kHz frequency band for both locations at night, and noises from container ships in the 150--300 Hz frequency band define the relative higher broadband sound levels at Yunlin. Results also illustrate interrelationships among different biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic elements that shape the fine-scale soundscape in a coastal environment. The second study investigates the inter-pulse sound field during an open-water seismic survey in coastal shallow waters of the Arctic. The research uses continuous acoustic recordings collected from one bottom-mounted hydrophone deployed in the Beaufort Sea in summer 2012. Two quantitative methods were developed to examine the inter-pulse sound field characteristics and its dependence on source distances. Results show that inter-pulse sound field could raise the ambient noise floor by as much as 9 dB, depending on ambient condition and source distance. The third study examines the inter-ping sound field of simulated mid-frequency active sonar in deep waters off southern California in 2013 and 2014. The study used drifting acoustic recorder buoys to collect acoustic data during sonar

  15. Comments on report ''The impact of nuclear waste disposals to the marine environment'' by Political Ecology Research Group (RR-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    A series of statements made by the Political Ecology Research Group in a report ''The Impact of Nuclear Waste Disposals to the Marine Environment'' are commented on by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Areas covered include radioactive discharges, health effects, recommendations for reducing discharge arising from the Windscale Inquiry and solid waste disposal to the deep ocean. (author)

  16. Effects of sea water environment on glass fiber reinforced plastic materials used for marine civil engineering constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Espinel, J.D.; Castro-Fresno, D.; Parbole Gayo, P.; Ballester-Muñoz, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater environment over composite material that are suitable for civil applications. • Seawater intake is linked to tensile and flexural strength degradation in GFC. • Fatigue performance of glass composites is similar in seawater environment than in air. - Abstract: Glass fiber composites (GFRP) are common in civil engineering projects, but not in marine structures. One reason is that seawater effects degrade GFRP composites mechanical properties and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). Here, influence of seawater environment is studied to determine the best composite materials for marine civil engineer applications, studying the influence of several factors in their mechanical properties. This is to determine safety factors to use in the design of structural calculations for marine applications. Glass/epoxy composites are the safest materials to use in marine civil structures as mechanical properties degradation becomes stabilized after moisture saturation level. UV and water cyclic analysis must be done to determine affection to transversal strength. Only vinylester GFRP has problems with biodegradation. GFRP fatigue performance is not influenced by seawater environment

  17. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention

  18. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dueker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s−1 the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28

  19. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2012-02-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog

  20. Evaluating Effects of Marine Energy Devices on the Marine Environment - A Risk-Based and In-Water Testing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Klimes, G.; Copping, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The portfolio of emerging renewables includes generating power from offshore winds, tides, waves, and ocean currents, as well as seawater temperature and salinity differentials. These new systems are collectively known as marine renewable energy (MRE). MRE development worldwide is in the early stages of design, deployment, and commercialization. A major barrier to bringing these systems into commercial use is the need to overcome uncertainties in environmental effects that slow siting and permitting of devices. Using a risk-based approach, this paper will discuss pathways for evaluating potential effects of tidal turbines and wave energy converters (WECs) on marine animals, habitats, and ecosystem processes. Using basic biological principles and knowledge of specific MRE technologies, the Environmental Risk Evaluation System has been used to narrow pertinent risks from devices, enabling laboratory and field studies to focus on the most important interactions. These interactions, include: potential collisions and behavioral disturbances of marine mammals, fish and other organisms; effects of underwater sound on animal communication and navigation; changes in sediment transport, benthic habitats, and water quality constituents; and effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. It is then necessary to apply these findings to the projects themselves. Another uncertainty is how to measure these key interactions in high-energy locations where MRE deployment is desirable. Consequently, new systems are being developed: instrumentation, innovative platforms for deployment, and new management strategies for collecting and analyzing very large data streams. Inherent in this development pathway is the need to test, deploy, and calibrate these monitoring systems. The Triton initiative is designed to enable this development, and has initiated testing of devices in Washington State to move the MRE industry forward while protecting marine animals, habitats and processes.

  1. Feeding environment and other traits shape species' roles in marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Eklöf, Anna

    2018-04-02

    Food webs and meso-scale motifs allow us to understand the structure of ecological communities and define species' roles within them. This species-level perspective on networks permits tests for relationships between species' traits and their patterns of direct and indirect interactions. Such relationships could allow us to predict food-web structure based on more easily obtained trait information. Here, we calculated the roles of species (as vectors of motif position frequencies) in six well-resolved marine food webs and identified the motif positions associated with the greatest variation in species' roles. We then tested whether the frequencies of these positions varied with species' traits. Despite the coarse-grained traits we used, our approach identified several strong associations between traits and motifs. Feeding environment was a key trait in our models and may shape species' roles by affecting encounter probabilities. Incorporating environment into future food-web models may improve predictions of an unknown network structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ruschel Lopes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Water chlorophyll-α concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

  3. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organic pollutants are present as complex mixtures in the marine environment. ► The competitive sorption of phenanthrene and DDT in a bi-solute system was investigated onto PVC and PE. ► DDT outcompeted phenanthrene for sorption onto plastic. ► DDT also appeared to have a negative effect on the sorption of phenanthrene onto plastic when added at high concentration. - Abstract: Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4′-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  4. Comparative biogeochemical behaviors of iron-55 and stable iron in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Langford, J.C.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric aerosols have demonstrated that much of the 55 Fe associated with the aerosol input to the oceans is present as either an amorphous or hydrous iron oxide or as very small particulate species attached to the surfaces of the large aerosol particles. By comparison, nearly all of the stable iron is bound in the mineral phase of aerosol particles. This difference in the chemical and physical forms of the radioactive and stable iron isotopes results in the 55 Fe being more biologically available than is the stable iron. This difference in availability is responsible for the transfer of a much higher specific activity 55 Fe to certain ocean organisms and man relative to the specific activity of the total aerosol or of sea water. This differential biological uptake of the radioactive element and its stable element counterpart points out that natural levels of stable elements in the marine environment may not effectively dilute radioelements or other stable elements of anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of dilution by natural sources depends on the chemical and physical forms of the materials in both the source terms and the receiving environments. The large difference in specific activities of 55 Fe in aerosols and sea water relative to ocean organisms reflects the independent behaviors of 55 Fe and stable iron

  5. Sensor Fusion and Autonomy as a Powerful Combination for Biological Assessment in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Moline

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ocean environment and the physical and biological processes that govern dynamics are complex. Sampling the ocean to better understand these processes is difficult given the temporal and spatial domains and sampling tools available. Biological systems are especially difficult as organisms possess behavior, operate at horizontal scales smaller than traditional shipboard sampling allows, and are often disturbed by the sampling platforms themselves. Sensors that measure biological processes have also generally not kept pace with the development of physical counterparts as their requirements are as complex as the target organisms. Here, we attempt to address this challenge by advocating the need for sensor-platform combinations to integrate and process data in real-time and develop data products that are useful in increasing sampling efficiencies. Too often, the data of interest is only garnered after post-processing after a sampling effort and the opportunity to use that information to guide sampling is lost. Here we demonstrate a new autonomous platform, where data are collected, analyzed, and data products are output in real-time to inform autonomous decision-making. This integrated capability allows for enhanced and informed sampling towards improving our understanding of the marine environment.

  6. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    measured during the first cruise ranges from about 110 to 1500 ng · m-2day-1. This range is 1-2 order of magnitude higher than most of marine environments (Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Artic Ocean) and some important polluted marine areas, such as the Tokyo Bay (19-259 ng · m-2day-1)b and the Yellow Sea (156-722 ng · m-2day-1)c. Further estimates on Hg atmospheric deposition flux (wet and dry) and biomonitoring are required for finally assessing a mass balance of Hg in Augusta basin. aLindberg et al., 2007. A Journal of the Human Environment, 3, 19-33. bNarukawa et al., 2006. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 249-257. cCi et al., 2011. Atmosphere Chemistry and Physics, 11, 2881-2892.

  7. Assessing Heat-to-Heat Variations Affecting Mechanism Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Monel K-500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    commonly used in marine applications due to its excellent combination of corrosion resistance, strength, and fracture toughness. For such applications...34Assessing Heat-to-Heat Variations Affecting Mechanism Based Modeling of Hydrogen Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine ...Environment Cracking (HEAC) in High Strength Alloys for Marine Applications: Monel K-500 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0506 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  8. 210Po in the marine environment with emphasis on its behaviour within the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    The distribution and behaviour of the natural-series alpha-emitter polonium-210 in the marine environment has been under study for many years primarily due to its enhanced bioaccumulation, its strong affinity for binding with certain internal tissues, and its importance as a contributor to the natural radiation dose received by marine biota as well as humans consuming seafoods. Results from studies spanning nearly 5 decades show that (210)Po concentrations in organisms vary widely among the different phylogenic groups as well as between the different tissues of a given species. Such variation results in (210)Po concentration factors ranging from approximately 10(3) to over 10(6) depending upon the organism or tissue considered. (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in marine species are generally greater than unity and tend to increase up the food chain indicating that (210)Po is preferentially taken up by organisms compared to its progenitor (210)Pb. The effective transfer of (210)Po up the food chain is primarily due to the high degree of assimilation of the radionuclide from ingested food and its subsequent strong retention in the organisms. In some cases this mechanism may lead to an apparent biomagnification of (210)Po at the higher trophic level. Various pelagic species release (210)Po and (210)Pb packaged in organic biodetrital particles that sink and remove these radionuclides from the upper water column, a biogeochemical process which, coupled with scavenging rates of this radionuclide pair, is being examined as a possible proxy for estimating downward organic carbon fluxes in the sea. Data related to preferential bioaccumulation in various organisms, their tissues, resultant radiation doses to these species, and the processes by which (210)Po is transferred and recycled through the food web are discussed. In addition, the main gaps in our present knowledge and proposed areas for future studies on the biogeochemical behaviour of (210)Po and its use as a tracer of

  9. Ecosystem objectives to support the UK vision for the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S I; Tasker, M L; Earll, R; Gubbay, S

    2007-02-01

    European Maritime States already have commitments to protect species and habitats and maintain quality standards in coastal and offshore waters. These are a direct response to environmental legislation in Europe and commitments made to biodiversity conservation in OSPAR and at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. An integrated approach to management requires that these are consistent with the requirements for sustainable development, and include wider social considerations and active stakeholder participation. This review describes a hierarchical framework that incorporates the marine objectives and delivery statements of ecological, social and economic sectors. The framework leads from the UK's guiding principles for sustainable development, through visionary statements and strategic goals for high level delivery, to operational objectives and statements of action which deliver management. Parts of this hierarchy can already be populated for the UK, especially those at the higher levels. At the operational level, however, there is less clarity. The review shows that, despite some gaps, existing commitments for ecological components of the ecosystem are transparent and generally conform to this framework, due largely to high profile government funding of environmental protection and science and a single national vision for the marine environment. Specific objectives for six components of the ecosystem were developed; benthic habitats, seabirds and mammals, phytoplankton and zooplankton, fish, and physical/chemical quality of the water and atmosphere. The objectives included some that avoided limits and others that aimed to achieve targets, and for management to be effective it will be important to have a common understanding of how these can together be interpreted and made operational. In a review of 13 social and economic sectors, few provided a clear breakdown of objectives leading from a high level vision or a sustainable development principle. Six

  10. Radioactivity in the marine environment. Report from the national surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickel, M.A.; Selnaes T.D.; Christensen, G.C.

    1995-02-01

    During 1994 a large number of samples from the marine environment have been measured. Regarding fish, 22 samples have been measured for all gamma emitting radioisotopes using HPGe detectors. Four pooled samples have been analyzed for 90 Sr, three pooled and seven single samples have been measured for plutonium. Approximately 900 samples have been analyzed for radiocaesium using equipment with higher detection limit. In addition, 21 samples of minke whale, one sample of prawns, ten samples of seaweed, and four samples of sea-water have been analyzed for gamma emitters. Three seaweed samples and three sea-water samples have been analyzed for 90 Sr and plutonium. So far, all the samples have confirmed the low levels of radioactivity in the North Atlantic Ocean. The fish samples which have been measured for all gamma emitting isotopes show activity levels of 137 Cs of approximately 1 Bq/kg and up to 3 Bq/kg for one single sample of meat. In addition, selected samples are measured for 90 Sr and plutonium isotopes. These radionuclides are found in levels up to 0.5 Bq/kg and 1.3 mBq/kg for 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu, respectively. Compared to the intervention levels for foodstuffs, the levels found in marine fish from the Norwegian fishing areas are negligible. Measurements have also been carried out on other kinds of seafood, i.e. prawns and whale meat. These samples showed a maximum value of 0.18 and 5.9 Bq/kg 137 Cs, respectively. Samples of seaweed and sea-water also confirm these low levels of contamination. 19 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Toward a harmonized approach for environmental assessment of human activities in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; de Vries, Pepijn; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Lagerveld, Sander; Jak, Robbert G; Karman, Chris C; Van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Slijkerman, Diana Me; Klok, Chris

    2016-10-01

    With a foreseen increase in maritime activities, and driven by new policies and conventions aiming at sustainable management of the marine ecosystem, spatial management at sea is of growing importance. Spatial management should ensure that the collective pressures caused by anthropogenic activities on the marine ecosystem are kept within acceptable levels. A multitude of approaches to environmental assessment are available to provide insight for sustainable management, and there is a need for a harmonized and integrated environmental assessment approach that can be used for different purposes and variable levels of detail. This article first provides an overview of the main types of environmental assessments: "environmental impact assessment" (EIA), "strategic environmental assessment" (SEA), "cumulative effect assessment" (CEA), and "environmental (or ecological) risk assessment" (ERA). Addressing the need for a conceptual "umbrella" for the fragmented approaches, a generic framework for environmental assessment is proposed: cumulative effects of offshore activities (CUMULEO). CUMULEO builds on the principle that activities cause pressures that may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Basic elements and variables are defined that can be used consistently throughout sequential decision-making levels and diverse methodological implementations. This enables environmental assessment to start at a high strategic level (i.e., plan and/or program level), resulting in early environmental awareness and subsequently more informed, efficient, and focused project-level assessments, which has clear benefits for both industry and government. Its main strengths are simplicity, transparency, flexibility (allowing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data), and visualization, making it a powerful framework to support discussions with experts, stakeholders, and policymakers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:632-642. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Environmental impact of condenser effluents into coastal marine environments: need for continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Electric plants working on the principle of steam-water cycle require large amounts of water for condenser cooling purpose. Nuclear power plants require, on an average, about 3m 3 cooling water per minute per megawatt of electricity generated. Owning to the scarcity of large sources of freshwater for cooling, newer power plants, particularly in water-stressed parts of the world, tend to get located in coastal regions, where they can make use of the abundant seawater. However, this also poses a problem, in terms of the biofouling potential of coastal marine environments. Sessile benthic organism, which are generally present as part of the coastal marine ecosystem, extend their habitat into the cooling water system of the power plant. It is often observed that massive growth of such fouling organisms may endanger normal operation of the cooling water system, unless appropriate control measures are adopted. Presence of calcareous organisms such as mussels and barnacles in the pre-condenser sections of the power plant is a common sight; but these organisms, when lodged inside condenser tubes, can not only reduce the heat transfer efficiency but also can cause localized corrosion and tube leakage, leading of ingress of seawater into the steam-water system. It is, therefore, important that appropriate control measures are adopted to discourage the growth of the organisms. However, this needs to be done in an environmentally sustainable manner, as the cooling water is ultimately discharged back into the sea. The presentation aims to give and overview of the biofouling problems generally encountered in a typical tropical coastal power station operating in India and the chemical control measures adopted and their effectiveness. The talk also throws light on the more recent advances in biofouling control such as surface modification and use of nanotechnology which, in the foreseeable future, may provide more lasting and environmentally sustainable solutions. (author)

  13. Biological transfer of radionuclides in marine environments - Identifying and filling knowledge gaps for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.

    2004-01-01

    A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those

  14. Determination of sediment metal background concentrations and enrichment in marine environments - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F

    2017-02-15

    'Background' is the concentration of metals in pristine sediment, unaltered by human activity and 'enrichment' is the extent present-day sediment metal concentrations exceed pre-anthropogenic levels (the magnitude of human-induced change). Background and enrichment are becoming more frequently used for management measures to bring sediment and the environment back to near-pristine levels. Of the six empirical methods reviewed for determining background (global values, pristine marine and fluvial sediments, catchment soils and rocks), the use of sedimentary cores has the greatest advantage. Most of the eight statistical methods reviewed are adversely affected by the polymodality and an absence of normality or log-normality, however robust regression procedures are most commonly used. Sorption hypothesis techniques require further development. Indices used to determine enrichment incorporate background levels (enrichment indices) or do not (contamination indices). Of the 20 indices reviewed, the New Nemerow Index and the Mean Enrichment Quotient rate highly in performance, based on 5 beneficial attributes assessed: use of background and normalised data, provision of thresholds, a classification scheme, and inclusion of multiple metals. Variance in background metal concentrations determined in the 43 global projects reviewed is surprisingly moderate, however regional variability may be considerable due to local catchment mineralisation. Chemical analysis of sediment should not include metals bound in the mineral matrix and weak acid extractions are advisable. The use of appropriate and effective indicators of environmental condition are critical to the protection and restoration of marine regions and ensuring that human activities are carried out in a sustainable manner to promote safe, healthy and productive ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-rescue of marine environments: On the track of microbially-based metal/metalloid remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina R

    2016-09-15

    The recent awareness of the huge relevance of marine resources and ecological services is driving regulatory demands for their protection from overwhelming contaminants, such as metals/metalloids. These contaminants enter and accumulate in different marine niches, hence deeply compromising their quality and integrity. Bioremediation has been flourishing to counteract metal/metalloid impacts, since it provides cost-effective and sustainable options by relying on ecology-based technologies. The potential of marine microbes for metal/metalloid bioremediation is the core of many studies, due to their high plasticity to overcome successive environmental hurdles. However, any thorough review on the advances of metal/metalloid bioremediation in marine environments was so far unveiled. This review is designed to (i) outline the characteristics and potential of marine microbes for metal/metalloid bioremediation, (ii) describe the underlying pathways of resistance and detoxification, as well as useful methodologies for their characterization, (iii) identify major bottlenecks on metal/metalloid bioremediation with marine microbes, (iv) present alternative strategies based on microbial consortia and engineered microbes for enhanced bioremediation, and (v) propose key research avenues to keep pace with a changing society, science and economy in a sustainable manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  17. A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seas

    OpenAIRE

    Kharlampyeva Nadezhda

    2011-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.

  18. A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharlampyeva Nadezhda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.

  19. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  20. Integrating natural and social sciences to manage sustainably vectors of change in the marine environment: Dogger Bank transnational case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Daryl; Boyes, Suzanne J.; Elliott, Michael; Smyth, Katie; Atkins, Jonathan P.; Barnes, Richard A.; Wurzel, Rüdiger K.

    2018-02-01

    The management of marine resources is a complex process driven by the dynamics of the natural system and the influence of stakeholders including policy-makers. An integration of natural and social sciences research is required by policy-makers to better understand, and manage sustainably, natural changes and anthropogenic activities within particular marine systems. Given the uncertain development of activities in the marine environment, future scenarios assessments can be used to investigate whether marine policy measures are robust and sustainable. This paper develops an interdisciplinary framework, which incorporates future scenarios assessments, and identifies four main types of evaluation needed to integrate natural and social sciences research to support the integrated management of the marine environment: environmental policy and governance assessments; ecosystem services, indicators and valuation; modelling tools for management evaluations, and risk assessment and risk management. The importance of stakeholder engagement within each evaluation method is highlighted. The paper focuses on the transnational spatial marine management of the Dogger Bank, in the central North Sea, a site which is very important ecologically, economically and politically. Current management practices are reviewed, and research tools to support future management decisions are applied and discussed in relation to two main vectors of change affecting the Dogger Bank, namely commercial fisheries and offshore wind farm developments, and in relation to the need for nature conservation. The input of local knowledge through stakeholder engagement is highlighted as a necessary requirement to produce site-specific policy recommendations for the future management of the Dogger Bank. We present wider policy recommendations to integrate natural and social sciences in a global marine context.

  1. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Statement of Canadian practice with respect to the mitigation of seismic sound in the marine environment : background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the background research conducted by federal and provincial governments to prepare the statement of Canadian practice with respect to the mitigation of seismic sound in the marine environment. The statement was prepared to establish the minimum standards applicable to all seismic activities that used air source arrays in non-ice covered marine waters. The statement was designed to complement current environmental assessment processes and existing regulatory requirements governing marine seismic activities. The biological impacts of seismic sound on marine life were examined in relation to the physical, physiological and behavioural impacts to marine organisms. A peer review process was used to develop a risk-based approach to direct, indirect, chronic, and cumulative impacts. The background studies showed that biological impacts range from species to species as well as in relation to the proximity of the sound source arrays. Seismic sounds result in auditory impairment or other direct physical impacts to many marine animals. The peer review process demonstrated that mitigation measures should be used where potentially detrimental population-scale impacts may occur, or where adverse impacts may lead to the death, harm or harassment of marine mammals or turtles listed as endangered. Results of the research program and review process were used to develop mitigation requirements for planning seismic surveys; establishing safety zones; prescribing marine mammal and detection measures; and establishing prescribed start-up and shut-down procedures. It was concluded that variations to the mitigative measures can be used when environmental assessment processes point to regional specificities requiring modifications.

  3. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  4. Effect of steel surface conditions on reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete exposed to marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzola, E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methods and experimental tests were deployed in the present study to evaluate corrosion in reinforced concrete exposed to marine environments. Reinforcing steel exhibiting two different surface conditions prior to embedment in concrete were studied, one the one hand to assess the electrochemical behaviour of the bars during exposure of the concrete specimens to a simulated marine environment, and on the other to determine the strength of the steel/concrete bond. The reinforced concrete specimens prepared were adapted as required for electrochemical potential and corrosion rate testing. A total of 56 7x15-cm cylindrical specimens containing 3/8" steel rods anchored at a depth of 11.5 cm were made to evaluate the steel / concrete bond and exposed to a natural marine environment for 28 or 190 days prior to testing. All the specimens were made with ready-mixed concrete. It may be concluded from the results of the corrosion tests on reinforcing steel with different surface conditions that the oxide initially covering the bars was dissolved and the steel passivated by the alkalinity in the concrete. The chief finding of the bonding study was that the layer of oxide formed in pre-embedment steel deterioration contributed to establishing a better bond.

    En el contexto de esta investigación, se tomaron en consideración métodos y ensayos experimentales de laboratorio, que permiten hacer una evaluación de la corrosión del hormigón armado expuesto en ambientes marinos. Por una parte se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de dos condiciones de estados superficiales del acero embebido en el hormigón, exponiéndolo en un ambiente marino simulado y, por otra parte, se estudió la adherencia entre el acero y el hormigón, con los mismos estados superficiales usados para la evaluación electroquímica. Las probetas se fabricaron de hormigón con acero de refuerzo en su interior, adecuándolas para realizar los ensayos de potenciales

  5. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (marine environment. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the main component of the aliphatic fraction in most cases demonstrating some petroleum inputs in all areas, but high values of the ratio unresolved to resolved compounds (U/R), which are clearly indicative of petroleum residues, were measured only in Asopos, Axios and Evros estuary (U/R: 5.1-10.4). The n-alkane distribution was generally similar with that of total aliphatics. The high molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is

  6. Anthropogenic pollution indicators in marine environment of the Eastern Part of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakovskaya, Zoya; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Mamontova, Varvara; Khoroshko, Larisa; Chernova, Ekaterina; Russkikh, Iana

    2014-05-01

    Pollution involving hazardous substances is considered one of the major problems affecting the state of the Baltic marine environment. However, assessment of the vast majority of the hazardous substances (including accepted as pollution indicators) in the environment have not been monitored in Russian Federation yet. Moreover there are no official guideline values for their presence or release in environment. For our investigation we have selected the organotin biocides and widespread pharmaceutical diclofenac. The study is focused on surface marine water and bottom sediments, collected from the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland during the navigation seasons of 2012-2013. Organotin compounds belong to a large group of key marine contaminants. They had been widely used in the world industry as antifouling paints, fungicides and biocides until the middle of 1980s. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are the most hazardous of all organotin compounds, causing such biological effects as shell deformation, endocrine disruption, imposex and intersex phenomena at the concentration of 2 ng/L. The use of TBT in antifouling paints was banned within EU in 2003 and within Russian Federation in 2008. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were analysed as ethyl derivatives using electron impact gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI) in single ion monitoring mode (SIM). TBT and TPhT were frequently found above MAC of 1.5 ng/L and 2 ng/g dw respectively in both water and bottom sediment samples collected from the Gulf of Finland water basin. The highest detected concentration detected mainly in coastal areas with dense ship traffic were 670 ng/L (TBT) in water samples, 440 ng/g dw (TBT), 160 ng/g dw (TPhT) in sediment samples. Potential risks from the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP), such as medicine, hormones, means of personal hygiene, etc. reveal in abnormal physiological

  7. Modelling the cohesive sediment transport in the marine environment: the case of Thermaikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Krestenitis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of fine-grained sediments in the marine environment entails risks of pollutant intrusions from substances absorbed onto the cohesive flocks' surface, gradually released to the aquatic field. These substances include nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate and silicate compounds from drainage from fertilization of adjacent cultivated areas that enter the coastal areas through rivers and streams, or trace metals as remainders from urban and industrial activities. As a consequence, knowledge on the motion and distribution of sediment particles coming from a given pollutant source is expected to provide the 'bulk' information on pollutant distribution, necessary for determining the region of influence of the source and to estimate probable trophic levels of the seawater and potential environmental risks. In that aim a numerical model has been developed to predict the fate of the sediments introduced to the marine environment from different pollution sources, such as river outflows, erosion of the seabed, aeolian transported material and drainage systems. The proposed three-dimensional mathematical model is based on the particle tracking method, according to which matter concentration is expressed by particles, each representing a particular amount of sedimentary mass, passively advected and dispersed by the currents. The processes affecting characteristics and propagation of sedimentary material in the marine environment, incorporated in the parameterization, apart from advection and dispersion, include cohesive sediment and near-bed processes. The movement of the particles along with variations in sedimentary characteristics and state, carried by each particle as personal information, are traced with time. Specifically, concerning transport processes, the local seawater velocity and the particle's settling control advection, whereas the random Brownian motion due to turbulence simulates turbulent diffusion. The

  8. The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen; Rugulies, Reiner; Garde, Anne Helene; Burr, Hermann

    2010-02-01

    Interpersonal relations at work as well as individual factors seem to play prominent roles in the modern labour market, and arguably also for the change in stress symptoms. The aim was to examine whether exposures in the psychosocial work environment predicted symptoms of cognitive stress in a sample of Danish knowledge workers (i.e. employees working with sign, communication or exchange of knowledge) and whether performance-based self-esteem had a main effect, over and above the work environmental factors. 349 knowledge workers, selected from a national, representative cohort study, were followed up with two data collections, 12 months apart. We used data on psychosocial work environment factors and cognitive stress symptoms measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), and a measurement of performance-based self-esteem. Effects on cognitive stress symptoms were analyzed with a GLM procedure with and without adjustment for baseline level. Measures at baseline of quantitative demands, role conflicts, lack of role clarity, recognition, predictability, influence and social support from management were positively associated with cognitive stress symptoms 12 months later. After adjustment for baseline level of cognitive stress symptoms, follow-up level was only predicted by lack of predictability. Performance-based self-esteem was prospectively associated with cognitive stress symptoms and had an independent effect above the psychosocial work environment factors on the level of and changes in cognitive stress symptoms. The results suggest that both work environmental and individual characteristics should be taken into account in order to capture sources of stress in modern working life.

  9. Norwegian monitoring (1990-2015) of the marine environment around the sunken nuclear submarine Komsomolets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Flo, Janita K; Sværen, Ingrid; Gäfvert, Torbjörn; Haanes, Hallvard; Føyn, Lars; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2018-02-01

    Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected 134 Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of 137 Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993. Since then and up to 2015, no increased activity concentrations of radionuclides above values typical for the Norwegian Sea have been observed in any environmental sample collected by Norwegian monitoring. In 2013 and 2015, Norwegian monitoring was carried out using an acoustic transponder on the sampling gear that allowed samples to be collected at precise locations, ∼20 m from the hull of Komsomolets. The observed 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in surface sediments sampled close to Komsomolets in 2013 did not indicate any releases of Pu isotopes from reactor or the torpedo warheads. Rather, these values probably reflect the overprinting of global fallout ratios with fluxes of these Pu isotopes from long-range transport of authorised discharges from nuclear reprocessing facilities in Northern Europe. However, due to the depth at which Komsomolets lies, the collection of seawater and sediment samples in the immediate area around the submarine using traditional sampling techniques from surface vessels is not possible, even with the use of acoustic transponders. Further monitoring is required in order to have a clear understanding of the current status of Komsomolets as a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Norwegian marine environment

  10. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Jiang

    Full Text Available Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB. In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III. Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating

  11. Integrative study of the behavior of transuranic elements in the marine environment. Progress report, June 1, 1982-May 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Morse, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The adsorption of actinides from marine solutions into sediments was studied to model the distribution and speciation of transuranic elements in the marine environment. The basic plan involves measuring the complexity and hydrolysis constants of actinides in oxidation states III to VI and studying a limited number of common sediment components to determine which factors determine the partitioning of actinides among these components. Individual sediment components then will be combined in synthetic sediments of increasing complexity and the distributions studied between these sediments and solutions

  12. Validation of the PHEEM instrument in a Danish hospital setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspegren, Knut; Bastholt, Lars; Bested, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) has been translated into Danish and then validated with good internal consistency by 342 Danish junior and senior hospital doctors. Four of the 40 items are culturally dependent in the Danish hospital setting. Factor analysis...

  13. The psychosocial work environment among physicians employed at Danish oncology departments in 2009. A nationwide cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2013-01-01

    Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present st...

  14. On the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments: the Ribe Vesterå river and the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergely, Aron; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Teglbrænder-Bjergkvist, Mathias

    to as green LiDAR which is able to penetrate through water, holds the potential to close this gap. However, water column turbidity poses limitations to the penetration of the green laser beam, and water column refraction of the laser beam poses limitations to the scale of features which can be resolved...... at the seabed. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments in relation to resolving small-scale morphological features at landscape scale. More specifically, the objectives are: 1) to determine the spatial resolution as well as the horizontal...... on an app. 7 km reach of the Ribe Vesterå river and in a 5 km x 10 km section of the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea using the airborne hydrographic laser scanner RIEGL® VQR-820-G. Prior to the surveys three geometrically defined objects (steel frames with dimensions of 0.8 m x 0.8 m x 0.25 m...

  15. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Silver-Plated Circuit Boards in a Simulated Marine Environment with Industrial Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kui; Yi, Pan; Yan, Lidan; Bai, Ziheng; Dong, Chaofang; Dong, Pengfei; Gao, Xiong

    2017-07-06

    The electrochemical corrosion behavior of a silver-plated circuit board (PCB-ImAg) in a polluted marine atmosphere environment (Qingdao in China) is studied through a simulated experiment. The morphologies of PCB-ImAg show some micropores on the surface that act as the corrosion-active points in the tests. Cl - mainly induces microporous corrosion, whereas SO₂ causes general corrosion. Notably, the silver color changes significantly under SO₂ influence. EIS results show that the initial charge transfer resistance in the test containing SO₂ and Cl - is 9.847 × 10³, while it is 3.701 × 10⁴ in the test containing Cl - only, which demonstrates that corrosion accelerates in a mixed atmosphere. Polarization curves further show that corrosion potential is lower in mixed solutions (between -0.397 V SCE and -0.214 V SCE) than it in the solution containing Cl - only (-0.168 V SCE), indicating that corrosion tendency increases with increased HSO₃ - concentration.

  17. Regime shifts in the marine environment: the scientific basis and political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberg, Alexandra C; Wasmund, Norbert; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Schiedek, Doris; Wiltshire, Karen H; Mieszkowska, Nova

    2011-01-01

    Regime shifts in the marine environment have recently received much attention. To date, however, few large-scale meta-analyses have been carried out due to insufficient data coverage and integration between sustained observational datasets because of diverse methodologies used in data collection, recording and archival. Here we review the available data on regime shifts globally, followed by a review of current and planned policies with relevance to regime shifts. We then focus on the North and Baltic Seas, providing examples of existing efforts for data integration in the MarBEF Network of Excellence. Existing gaps in data coverage are identified, and the added value from meta-analyses of multiple datasets demonstrated using examples from the MarBEF integrated data project LargeNet. We discuss whether these efforts are addressing current policy needs and close with recommendations for future integrated data networks to increase our ability to understand, identify and predict recent and future regime shifts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elemental Analysis on Marine Sediments Related to Depositional Environment of Bangka Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Sampurno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Study of elemental composition in sediment has been proven useful in interpreting the depositional environmental changes. Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL is a non-destructive analysis that measures several parameters in sediment core including magnetic susceptibility and elemental composition. Magnetic susceptibility and elemental analysis were measured in four selected marine sediment cores from western part of Bangka Strait (MBB-67. MBB-119, MBB-120 and MBB-173 by using magnetic susceptibility and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF sensors attached to the MSCL. The data was collected within 2 cm interval. Scatter plots of Y/Zr and Zr/Ti show singular trend demonstrated by sediments from MBB-173 and two groups that composed of MBB-67 (Group 1 and MBB-119 + MBB-120 (Group 2. MBB-67 that is located adjacent to Klabat Granite shows upward changes in mineralogy, slight increase of grain size and negligible change in Y concentration. Cores MBB-119 and MBB-120 are inferred to be deposited during regression that resulted in the accummulation of Y-bearing zircon in MBB-119 before the mineral could reach MBB-120. Core MBB-173 is interpreted to be the product of plagioclase weathering that is submerged by rising sea level. This core contains a horizon of rich Y-bearing zircon at 60 cm. Keywords: Multi Sensor Core Logger, X-Ray Fluorescence, magnetic susceptibility, depositional environment, Bangka Island

  19. Characterizing habitat suitability for a central-place forager in a dynamic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Dana K; Fossette, Sabrina; Scales, Kylie L; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Maxwell, Sara M; McHuron, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Patrick W; Kuhn, Carey; Costa, Daniel P; Crowder, Larry B; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success. We explore how lactating females may select habitat and respond to environmental variability over broad spatial and temporal scales within the California Current System. We combine near-real-time remotely sensed satellite oceanography, animal tracking data ( n  = 72) from November to February over multiple years (2003-2009) and Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) to determine the probability of sea lion occurrence based on environmental covariates. Results indicate that sea lion presence is associated with cool ( habitat maps generated from these biophysical associations suggest winter foraging areas are spatially consistent in the nearshore and offshore environments, except during the 2004-2005 winter, which coincided with an El Niño event. Here, we show how a species distribution model can provide broadscale information on the distribution of female California sea lions during an important life history stage and its implications for population dynamics and spatial management.

  20. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Silver-Plated Circuit Boards in a Simulated Marine Environment with Industrial Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical corrosion behavior of a silver-plated circuit board (PCB-ImAg in a polluted marine atmosphere environment (Qingdao in China is studied through a simulated experiment. The morphologies of PCB-ImAg show some micropores on the surface that act as the corrosion-active points in the tests. Cl− mainly induces microporous corrosion, whereas SO2 causes general corrosion. Notably, the silver color changes significantly under SO2 influence. EIS results show that the initial charge transfer resistance in the test containing SO2 and Cl− is 9.847 × 103, while it is 3.701 × 104 in the test containing Cl− only, which demonstrates that corrosion accelerates in a mixed atmosphere. Polarization curves further show that corrosion potential is lower in mixed solutions (between −0.397 V SCE and −0.214 V SCE than it in the solution containing Cl− only (−0.168 V SCE, indicating that corrosion tendency increases with increased HSO3− concentration.

  2. Corrosion Behavior of 7B04 Al-alloy in Simulated Marine Atmospheric Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion of aluminum alloy in marine atmospheric environment was an essential electrochemical corrosion under thin electrolyte film, which was different from the corrosion in bulk solution, the corrosion rate was related to the thickness and composition of thin electrolyte film. The relationship among film thickness, relative humidity and salt deposit on aluminum alloy surface was established and verified by experiment. The electrochemical properties of 7B04 Al-alloy under thin electrolyte film with different thickness and different NaCl concentration were studied. The results indicate that the free-corrosion potential of 7B04 Al-alloy under thin electrolyte film is easier to reach steady state than that in bulk solution, both free-corrosion potential and corrosion rate are higher under thin electrolyte film. With the decrease of film thickness, the cathodic polarization current density of 7B04 Al-alloy increases, and the anode reaction is suppressed. With the increase of NaCl concentration in thin electrolyte film, the free-corrosion potential of 7B04 Al-alloy decreases, and the corrosion rate increases, but the polarization of the anode and cathode have little effect on the change of NaCl concentration. The free-corrosion potential of 7B04 Al-alloy is no longer changed when the mass fraction of NaCl reaches 5%.

  3. Corrosion damage diagnosis of a reinforced concrete beam after 40 years natural exposure in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupard, O.; L'Hostis, V.; Catinaud, S.; Petre-Lazar, I.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the chloride induced corrosion damage was performed on a 40 years old reinforced concrete beam exposed in marine environment. Visual observations, electrochemical measurements, carbonation depth, total chloride content were carried out. Half-cell potential measurements were used to locate corrosion areas. It appeared that the interpretation based on gradient of the potential was in good concordance with real state of damage. Complementary destructive methods are applied to observe the real corrosion state of steel rebars and characterize the corrosion products and the steel/concrete interface (optical and electronical microscopy tools (XRD, SEM, EDS and μ-Raman). All these data indicate that on the beam, one may distinguish two types of areas: 'high-corrosion zones' and 'low-corrosion zones.' Given the fact that the 'high corrosion zones' were found to be close to corrosion induced cracks and that they have a different morphology, this contribution concludes that the position of these areas did not shift in time

  4. Wave Glider Monitoring of Sediment Transport and Dredge Plumes in a Shallow Marine Sandbank Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Van Lancker

    Full Text Available As human pressure on the marine environment increases, safeguarding healthy and productive seas increasingly necessitates integrated, time- and cost-effective environmental monitoring. Employment of a Wave Glider proved very useful for the study of sediment transport in a shallow sandbank area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. During 22 days, data on surface and water-column currents and turbidity were recorded along 39 loops around an aggregate-extraction site. Correlation with wave and tidal-amplitude data allowed the quantification of current- and wave-induced advection and resuspension, important background information to assess dredging impacts. Important anomalies in suspended particulate matter concentrations in the water column suggested dredging-induced overflow of sediments in the near field (i.e., dynamic plume, and settling of finer-grained material in the far field (i.e., passive plume. Capturing the latter is a successful outcome to this experiment, since the location of dispersion and settling of a passive plume is highly dependent on the ruling hydro-meteorological conditions and thus difficult to predict. Deposition of the observed sediment plumes may cause habitat changes in the long-term.

  5. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yáñez-Serrano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia. Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  6. On some physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, I; Bagaev, A; Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2016-07-15

    Simplified physical models and geometrical considerations reveal general physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles (0.5-5mm) of different density, shape and size in marine environment. Windage of extremely light foamed particles, surface area and fouling rate of slightly positively buoyant microplastic spheres, films and fibres and settling velocities of negatively buoyant particles are analysed. For the Baltic Sea dimensions and under the considered idealised external conditions, (i) only one day is required for a foamed polystyrene particle to cross the sea (ca. 250km); (ii) polyethylene fibres should spend about 6-8months in the euphotic zone before sinking due to bio-fouling, whilst spherical particles can be retained on the surface up to 10-15years; (iii) for heavy microplastic particles, the time of settling through the water column in the central Gotland basin (ca. 250m) is less than 18h. Proper physical setting of the problem of microplastics transport and developing of physically-based parameterisations are seen as applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of a polymer sealant coating in an arctic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.; Cowgill, M.; Griffith, A.; Chernaenko, L.; Diashev, A.; Nazarian, A.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of using a polymer-based coating, Polibrid 705, to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment has been successfully demonstrated using a combination of field and laboratory testing. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Northern Navy and deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading dock. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors, exposed to the full annual Arctic weather cycle. The 12 months of field testing gave rise to little degradation of the sealant coating, except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at a research laboratory in St. Petersburg. The laboratory tests examined a variety of properties, including bond strength between the coating and the substrate, thermal cycling resistance, wear resistance, flammability, and ease of decontamination. The Polibrid 705 coating met all the Russian Navy qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities

  8. Transfer of tritium released into the marine environment by French nuclear facilities bordering the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiévet, Bruno; Pommier, Julien; Voiseux, Claire; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Laguionie, Philippe; Cossonnet, Catherine; Solier, Luc

    2013-06-18

    Controlled amounts of liquid tritium are discharged as tritiated water (HTO) by the nuclear industry into the English Channel. Because the isotopic discrimination between 3H and H is small, organically bound tritium (OBT) and HTO should show the same T/H ratio under steady-state conditions. We report data collected from the environment in the English Channel. Tritium concentrations measured in seawater HTO, as well as in biota HTO and OBT, confirm that tritium transfers from HTO to OBT result in conservation of the T/H ratio (ca. 1 × 10(-16)). The kinetics of the turnover of tritium between seawater HTO, biota HTO, and OBT was investigated. HTO in two algae and a mollusk is shown to exchange rapidly with seawater HTO. However, the overall tritium turnover between HTO and the whole-organism OBT is a slow process with a tritium biological half-life on the order of months. Nonsteady-state conditions exist where there are sharp changes in seawater HTO. As a consequence, for kinetic reasons, the T/H ratio in OBT may deviate transiently from that observed in HTO of samples from the marine ecosystem. Dynamic modeling is thus more realistic for predicting tritium transfers to biota OBT under nonsteady-state conditions.

  9. Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewert, Berit; Plassmann, Merle M; MacLeod, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Each year vast amounts of plastic are produced worldwide. When released to the environment, plastics accumulate, and plastic debris in the world's oceans is of particular environmental concern. More than 60% of all floating debris in the oceans is plastic and amounts are increasing each year. Plastic polymers in the marine environment are exposed to sunlight, oxidants and physical stress, and over time they weather and degrade. The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. In this paper we review available information about the degradation pathways and chemicals that are formed by degradation of the six plastic types that are most widely used in Europe. We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids.

  10. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  11. Acoustic sources of opportunity in the marine environment - Applied to source localization and ocean sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Christopher M.

    Controlled acoustic sources have typically been used for imaging the ocean. These sources can either be used to locate objects or characterize the ocean environment. The processing involves signal extraction in the presence of ambient noise, with shipping being a major component of the latter. With the advent of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) which provides accurate locations of all large commercial vessels, these major noise sources can be converted from nuisance to beacons or sources of opportunity for the purpose of studying the ocean. The source localization method presented here is similar to traditional matched field processing, but differs in that libraries of data-derived measured replicas are used in place of modeled replicas. In order to account for differing source spectra between library and target vessels, cross-correlation functions are compared instead of comparing acoustic signals directly. The library of measured cross-correlation function replicas is extrapolated using waveguide invariant theory to fill gaps between ship tracks, fully populating the search grid with estimated replicas allowing for continuous tracking. In addition to source localization, two ocean sensing techniques are discussed in this dissertation. The feasibility of estimating ocean sound speed and temperature structure, using ship noise across a drifting volumetric array of hydrophones suspended beneath buoys, in a shallow water marine environment is investigated. Using the attenuation of acoustic energy along eigenray paths to invert for ocean properties such as temperature, salinity, and pH is also explored. In each of these cases, the theory is developed, tested using numerical simulations, and validated with data from acoustic field experiments.

  12. Marine environment microfiber contamination: Global patterns and the diversity of microparticle origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A P W; Cathey, S E; Petersen, C W

    2018-02-26

    Microplastic and microfiber pollution has been documented in all major ocean basins. Microfibers are one of the most common microparticle pollutants along shorelines. Over 9 million tons of fibers are produced annually; 60% are synthetic and ∼25% are non-synthetic. Non-synthetic and semi-synthetic microfibers are infrequently documented and not typically included in marine environment impact analyses, resulting in underestimation of a potentially pervasive and harmful pollutant. We present the most extensive worldwide microparticle distribution dataset using 1-liter grab samples (n = 1393). Our citizen scientist driven study shows a global microparticle average of 11.8 ± 24.0 particles L -1 (mean ± SD), approximately three orders of magnitude higher than global model predictions. Open ocean samples showed consistently higher densities than coastal samples, with the highest concentrations found in the polar oceans (n = 51), confirming previous empirical and theoretical studies. Particles were predominantly microfibers (91%) and 0.1-1.5 mm in length (77%), a smaller size than those captured in the majority of surface studies. Using μFT-IR we determined the material types of 113 pieces; 57% were classified as synthetic, 12% as semi-synthetic, and 31% as non-synthetic. Samples were taken globally, including from coastal environments and understudied ocean regions. Some of these sites are emerging as areas of concentrated floating plastic and anthropogenic debris, influenced by distant waste mismanagement and/or deposition of airborne particles. Incorporation of smaller-sized microfibers in oceanographic models, which has been lacking, will help us to better understand the movement and transformation of synthetic, semi-synthetic and non-synthetic microparticles in regional seas and ocean basins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NRPA. Radioactivity in the marine environment 2008 and 2009. Results from the Norwegian national monitoring programme (RAME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaefvert, T.; Heldal, H. E.; Brungot, A. L.; Gwynn, J.; Svaeren, I.; Kolstad, A. K.; Moeller, B.; Straalberg, E.; Christensen, G. C.; Drefvelin, J.; Dowdall, M.; Lind, B.; Rudjord, A. L.

    2011-04-15

    The issue of present and potential radioactive contamination in the marine environment has received considerable attention in Norway. In the late 1980s several accidents and incidents involving nuclear-powered submarines,demonstrated that the risk of the release of radionuclides into the Barents Sea should be considered more carefully. In particular, it became evident that better documentation concerning the radioactivity levels in fish and other seafood was important for the seafood export industries. Furthermore, in the early 1990s, information concerning the dumping of nuclear waste emerged through bilateral environmental cooperation between Norway and Russia. In the years that followed, concern grew regarding the safety of military and civil nuclear installations in the northwest of Russia. This concern was associated not only with possible reactor accidents, but also with the prolonged or sudden release of radio-nuclides from radioactive waste facilities.In addition to the potential threats outlined above, radionuclides originating from nuclear weapons fallout, the Chernobyl accident and waste discharged from European reprocessing facilities have been detected in the Norwegian marine environment. In 1994 and 1995, the discharge of 99Tc from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield in the UK increased sharply, and although this discharge has been reduced, it continued at a high level up to 2003. There has been much public concern about the consequences of such kinds of release, as the radionuclides discharged to the Irish Sea are transported by ocean currents via the North Sea into the Norwegian coastal current and to the Barents Sea. In response to this concern, programmes for the monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment have been established. Due to the economic importance of the fishing industry and its vulnerability to contamination, as well as any rumours of radioactive contamination, one of the main objectives of these programmes is to

  14. NRPA. Radioactivity in the marine environment 2008 and 2009. Results from the Norwegian national monitoring programme (RAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaefvert, T.; Heldal, H. E.; Brungot, A. L.; Gwynn, J.; Svaeren, I.; Kolstad, A. K.; Moeller, B.; Straalberg, E.; Christensen, G. C.; Drefvelin, J.; Dowdall, M.; Lind, B.; Rudjord, A. L.

    2011-04-01

    The issue of present and potential radioactive contamination in the marine environment has received considerable attention in Norway. In the late 1980s several accidents and incidents involving nuclear-powered submarines,demonstrated that the risk of the release of radionuclides into the Barents Sea should be considered more carefully. In particular, it became evident that better documentation concerning the radioactivity levels in fish and other seafood was important for the seafood export industries. Furthermore, in the early 1990s, information concerning the dumping of nuclear waste emerged through bilateral environmental cooperation between Norway and Russia. In the years that followed, concern grew regarding the safety of military and civil nuclear installations in the northwest of Russia. This concern was associated not only with possible reactor accidents, but also with the prolonged or sudden release of radio-nuclides from radioactive waste facilities.In addition to the potential threats outlined above, radionuclides originating from nuclear weapons fallout, the Chernobyl accident and waste discharged from European reprocessing facilities have been detected in the Norwegian marine environment. In 1994 and 1995, the discharge of 99Tc from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield in the UK increased sharply, and although this discharge has been reduced, it continued at a high level up to 2003. There has been much public concern about the consequences of such kinds of release, as the radionuclides discharged to the Irish Sea are transported by ocean currents via the North Sea into the Norwegian coastal current and to the Barents Sea. In response to this concern, programmes for the monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment have been established. Due to the economic importance of the fishing industry and its vulnerability to contamination, as well as any rumours of radioactive contamination, one of the main objectives of these programmes is to

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  16. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of danish marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.

    2005-01-01

    are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present...

  17. Landing Marine-derived Renewable Energy: Optimising Power Cable Routing in the Nearshore Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rosalind, ,, Dr.; Keane, Tom; Mullins, Brian; Phipps, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a vast unexploited source of energy can be derived from the marine environment. Recent evolution of the energy market and looming EU renewable energy uptake targets for 2020 have driven a huge explosion of interest in exploiting this resource, triggering both governments and industry to move forward in undertaking feasibility assessments and demonstration projects for wave, tidal and offshore wind farms across coastlines. The locations which naturally lend themselves to high yield energy capture, are by definition, exposed and may be remote, located far from the end user of the electricity generated. A fundamental constraint to successfully exploiting these resources will be whether electricity generated in high energy, variable and constantly evolving environments can be brought safely and reliably to shore without the need for constant monitoring and maintenance of the subsea cables and landfall sites. In the case of riverine cable crossings superficial sediments would typically be used to trench and bury the cable. High energy coastal environments may be stripped of soft sediments. Any superficial sediments present at the site may be highly mobile and subject to re-suspension throughout the tidal cycle or under stormy conditions. EirGrid Plc. and Mott MacDonald Ireland Ltd. have been investigating the potential for routing a cable across the exposed Shannon estuary in Ireland. Information regarding the geological ground model, meteo-oceanographic and archaeological conditions of the proposed site was limited, necessitating a clear investigation strategy. The investigation included gathering site information on currents, bathymetry and geology through desk studies, hydrographic and geophysical surveys, an intrusive ground investigation and coastal erosion assessments at the landfall sites. The study identified a number of difficulties for trenching and protecting a cable through an exposed environment such as the Shannon

  18. Strong climate coupling of terrestrial and marine environments in the Miocene of northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, T.H.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Munsterman, D.K.; Kloosterboer-van Hoeve, M.L.; Buckles, L.K.; Pancost, R.D.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    A palynological and organic geochemical record from a shallow marine paleoenvironmental setting in SE Netherlands documents the coupled marine and terrestrial climate evolution from the late Burdigalian (∼ 17 Ma) through the early Zanclean (∼ 4.5 Ma). Proxy climate records show several coeval

  19. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In

  20. Mathematical modeling of biotransformations of oil hydrocarbons in the marine environment of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Chicherina, O.V.; Fashchuk, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is routinely used to study the behaviour of oil hydrocarbons (OHCs) during spills. In this study, mathematical modelling was used to examine the conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and its self-purification as a result of transport by water flows and biochemical decomposition. The waters of Karkinitskii Bay in the Black Sea was chosen as the study site the because the exploitation of gas deposits since the 1980s has resulted in higher OHC concentrations. The conditions of marine environmental pollution by OHCs and water self-purification were reproduced based on available data and estimates of long-term mean monthly values of temperature, transparency, total light intensity, atmospheric precipitation, photo-period, water regime, and data on concentrations of biogenic substances and OHCs in the Danube water. OHC biotransformations in the marine environment were simulated by reproducing the biochemical activity of microflora and effecting substrate consumption processes, metabolic product excretions and biomass decay. The model provided estimates of the rates of decomposition of OHCs and oxygen consumption. The model results were in good agreement with experimental data. The model estimated the time needed for OHC concentrations to reach the maximum admissible concentration after pollution of the marine environment. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  2. Indian deep-sea environment experiment (INDEX): Monitoring the restoration of marine enviroment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Erratum Marine Georesources and Geotechnology vol. 23, no. 4 (September–December 2005) was a special issue, but this was not indicated. The correct special issue information is below. Indian Deep-Sea Environment Experiment (INDEX): Monitoring... the restoration of marine environment after artificial disturbance to simulate deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin Guest Editor Rahul Sharma Note from guest editor A special issue on Indian Deep-sea Environment Experiment (INDEX) conducted by the scientists...

  3. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  4. History, applications, methodological issues and perspectives for the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine and freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo E; Moyer, Gregory R

    2014-12-01

    Genetic material (short DNA fragments) left behind by species in nonliving components of the environment (e.g. soil, sediment, or water) is defined as environmental DNA (eDNA). This DNA has been previously described as particulate DNA and has been used to detect and describe microbial communities in marine sediments since the mid-1980's and phytoplankton communities in the water column since the early-1990's. More recently, eDNA has been used to monitor invasive or endangered vertebrate and invertebrate species. While there is a steady increase in the applicability of eDNA as a monitoring tool, a variety of eDNA applications are emerging in fields such as forensics, population and community ecology, and taxonomy. This review provides scientist with an understanding of the methods underlying eDNA detection as well as applications, key methodological considerations, and emerging areas of interest for its use in ecology and conservation of freshwater and marine environments.

  5. Recruited into Danishness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines emergence of Danishness via an autoethnography of passing as Danish. Drawing on feminist scholarship, the author conceptualizes passing as an embodied, affective and discursive relation; simultaneously spontaneous and laboured, fleeting and solid, emergent...... to un(re)marked majority comprised a unique boundary position for tracing Danishness. Her body and Danishness became aligned, while other bodies were ejected. These fluctuating (dis)alignments highlighted potentialities of proximity to Danishness. Using autoethnography and memory work, the author...

  6. Relieving loading on tidal turbines operating in a turbulent environment: proposal for load alleviation device for a marine turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Garden, Sarah Rosaline

    2016-01-01

    Tidal turbines operate in marine currents characterised by strong turbulence. This environment impacts on the life of the device, blades, transmission and running train ancillaries, bearings and seals, for example. The reduction of the transient load on the turbine blade can be achieved through a range of measures; in this investigation, modifications to the blade comprising blowing actuators will be modelled using the FLUENT CFD RANS solver with the k-ω SST turbulence model. ...

  7. Establishment of a database for Japan Sea parameters on marine environment and radioactivity (JASPER). Volume 1: Anthropogenic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshimichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Tsuneyama, Teppei; Togawa, Orihiko

    2007-03-01

    A database for Japan Sea parameters on marine environment and radioactivity (JASPER) has been established by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as one of final products of the Japan Sea expeditions (phase I), carried out covering the Exclusive Economic Zones of Japan and Russian Federation. And now, the part of anthropogenic radionuclides in the JASPER database has been opened to the public, as the first volume in a series of partworks consisted of other radionuclides and oceanographic parameters. At the beginning of this report (chapter 1), backgrounds, objectives and a brief overview of this report are given as an introduction. Then, specifications of this database and methodologies in obtaining the concentration data are described in chapter 2. The data stored in the database are presented in tabular and figure forms in chapter 3. Finally, concluding remarks are assigned in chapter 4. In the present, 252 data records are stored in the database including 193 data for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, 163 data for 238 Pu and 236 data for 239+240 Pu obtained from seawater, seabed sediment and filtered particle with support data. By establishing the database, recent features of the Japan Sea environment have been recorded using very possible parameter for us. We believe that this database would be a strong tool for the purposes of monitoring for contamination of the Japan Sea by anthropogenic radionuclides, studies of material transport in the sea and development and validation of models for numerical simulations. Furthermore, it is being prepared that the database is linked to MARIS (Marine Information System) of International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratories in order to contribute the world-wide study and monitoring of anthropogenic radionuclides in marine environment. (author)

  8. De la connaissance des milieux marins à la gestion raisonnée des ressources From the knowledge of marine environments to the management of marine resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Augier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de cet article introductif au dossier thématique sur les ressources marines, les auteurs rappellent les enjeux liés aux usages et types de consommation, à leurs modalités de protection et systèmes de gouvernance. Ils rappellent leur importance environnementale, sociale mais aussi économique pour bon nombre de pays et de communautés côtières. Ils mettent l’accent sur les actions déjà mises en œuvre et sur la nécessité d’approfondir les connaissances dans ce domaine.In this introductory article of the issue paper on marine resources, the authors review the issues with usage and consumption patterns, in terms of protection and governance systems. They stress their environmental significance, social but also economic for many country and coastal communities. They focus on the actions already implemented and the need to deepen knowledge in this field.

  9. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  10. Mitigation measures to avert the impacts of plastics and microplastics in the marine environment (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunola, Oluniyi Solomon; Onada, Olawale Ahmed; Falaye, Augustine Eyiwunmi

    2018-04-01

    The increasing demand for and reliance on plastics as an everyday item, and rapid rise in their production and subsequent indiscriminate disposal, rise in human population and industrial growth, have made the material an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many research. Historically, plastic production has increased tremendously to over 250 million tonnes by 2009 with an annual increased rate of 9%. In 2015, the global consumption of plastic materials was reported to be > 300 million tonnes and is expected to surge exponentially. Because plastic polymers are ubiquitous, highly resistant to degradation, the influx of these persistent, complex materials is a risk to human and environmental health. Because microplastics are principally generated from the weathering or breakdown of larger plastics (macroplastics), it is noteworthy and expedient to discuss in detail, expatiate, and tackle this main source. Macro- and microplastic pollution has been reported on a global scale from the poles to the equator. The major problem of concern is that they strangulate and are ingested by a number of aquatic biota especially the filter feeders, such as molluscs, mussels, oysters, from where it enters the food chain and consequently could lead to physical and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms and human being as final consumers. To this end, in order to minimise the negative impacts posed by plastic pollution (macro- and microplastics), a plethora of strategies have been developed at various levels to reduce and manage the plastic wastes. The objective of this paper is to review some published literature on management measures of plastic wastes to curb occurrence and incidents of large- and microplastics pollution in the marine environments.

  11. Seasonal Changes of Relationship Between Marine Environment and Squid Fishing Resources in North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Feng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of marine environment and squid fishing fluctuation in North Pacific Ocean was analyzed with the method of production gravity center and generalized additive model(GAM, through the surface temperature, sea chlorophyll and ocean current data got by satellite remote sensing inversion technology, and the statistic of boat fishing in the North Pacific from 2002 to 2012. The results showed that gravity center of fisheries was located in the eastern and central fishing grounds in May and June. The range was 168°~171°E, 38°~39°N. Gravity center of fisheries was located in western traditional fishing grounds from July to November with range of 150°~160°E, 40°~44°N. Gravity center of fisheries had obvious seasonal changes. GAM module analysis indicated that appropriate sea surface temperature scope of high squid fisheries was 14~19 ℃. The appropriate chlorophyll concentration scope of high squid fisheries was 0.22~0.55 mg·m-3. The distribution range was 154°~157°E in longitude, and 41°~44°N in latitude. There was a feeding migration to north and spawning migration to south every year, its relationship with environmental factors showed different characteristics, especially the best correlation of sea surface temperature. The gravity center of fisheries and sea surface temperature were positively correlated during the northward migration from May to September, while negatively correlated during the south migration from September to November. It showed obvious seasonal changes. Current also had an important impact on fisheries. Under the interaction of Kuroshio and Oyashio, high catch fishing grounds usually located in the forward of Kuroshio and nearby the northern side of Oyashio, with the shift of warm and cold current changing.

  12. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Brownawell, Bruce J. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); González-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log K{sub F} between 0.8–1.2 and 1.46–4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. - Highlights: • AEO and PEG levels in estuaries are influenced by tides and suspended solids. • Sediment–water partition coefficients in the lab and in the field are comparable. • Sorption is depending on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. • Sorption data fits Freundlich isotherms, showing K{sub F} values from 29 to 24,892 L/kg. • Sorption is very weakly influenced by salinity changes.

  13. Subregional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environment: The Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  14. A Landscape Disturbance Process in the Marine Environment: Revising Expectations of Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, C.; Halpin, P. M.; Schrecengost, R.; Orr, D.; Aleman-Zometa, J.

    2016-02-01

    Episodic disturbance is a ubiquitous feature of natural communities. An archetype for theory in the marine environment is wave-torn gaps in the cover of intertidal mussel beds. We mapped gap formation in eight mussel beds over eight successive years in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. We constructed a GIS database integrating small-scale measurements of topography, wave force, the 3-D structure of the mussel aggregations, and photo-mosaics of the mussel covers. Photographic analysis showed that gaps recurred predominantly in the center of the beds. The more stable peripheral regions of the beds are continually thinned by physical and biotic stresses, while the center region thickens and differentiates into layers. The mussels comprising the superficial layer attach to each other and have no direct attachment to the rock. Furthermore, the superficial layer suppresses mussels in the interior, weakening their attachment. Spatial analyses showed that it is these structural differences, rather than the spatial distribution of wave force, that account for landscape patterns of gap formation. Thus, sub-regions of disturbance arise from processes intrinsic to the community, including self-organization of the mussel aggregation, which interact with the external forcing of waves in a stochastic but coherent landscape process. This view differs from published models, which assume wave force alone generates gaps randomly across the mussel beds. Long-term records of seismographic activity and indicate the wave beat on the shore is increasing with global warming. We may fail to accurately anticipate the consequences of the elevated wave forcing, unless we also take into consideration changes in ocean production and other factors affecting mussel bed structure.

  15. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COWGILL, M.G.; MOSKOWITZ, P.D.; CHERNAENKO, L.M.; NAZARIAN, A.; GRIFFITH, A.; DIASHEV, A.; ENGOY, T.

    2000-01-01

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  16. Sub regional cooperation and protection of the arctic marine environments: The Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-07-01

    The report deals with questions related to effectiveness of subregional co-operation in the Barents Sea. Efforts have differed from global processes by their clearer programmatic profile. Relatively more resources, in terms of both expertise and financial funds, have been invested in order to enhance the knowledge-base for management decisions in the region as well as the administrative and technical capacity to avoid behaviour liable to threaten the marine environment. Many of the programmatic activities encouraged at other levels have been planned, financed and organised at the subregional level. Comparatively less attention has been given to establishing new regulative norms for environmental protection from either industrial or military activity in the region. The Regional Council ensures that both county level decision makers and representatives of the indigenous population are involved. A point is the general balance between the environmental and the economic component. Moreover, the inclusiveness of the Barents Council provides linkages to potential partners in development found beyond the Barents Sea area. The subregional level has served to relate environmental protection to broader foreign policy issues and has strengthened environmental networks across the Nordic Russian divide which in turn has generated financial resources and expertise. The main reason for the higher fund raising capacity of subregional processes is that geographic proximity ensures denser networks of interdependence partly by the fact that Nordic neighbours have a clear self interest in financing environmental projects in Russia, particularly those addressing industrial pollution from the border areas and those designed to prevent dumping of radioactive waste and partly by ensuring that environmental projects may serve broader purposes associated with national security. The willingness on the part of Norway and other Nordic states to use their financial powers for problem solving

  17. The biochemical diversity of life near and above 100°C in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M W

    1998-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic micro-organisms grow at temperatures above 90 °C with a current upper limit of 113 °C. They are a recent discovery in the microbial world and have been isolated mainly from marine geothermal environments, which include both shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. By 16S rRNA analyses they are the most slowly evolving of all extant life forms, and all but two of the nearly 20 known genera are classified as Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria). Almost all hyperthermophiles are strict anaerobes. They include species of methanogens, iron-oxidizers and sulphate reducers, but the majority are obligate heterotrophs that depend upon the reduction of elemental sulphur (S°) to hydrogen sulphide for significant growth. The heterotrophs utilize proteinaceous materials as carbon and energy sources, although a few species are also saccharolytic. A scheme for electron flow during the oxidation of carbohydrates and peptides and the reduction of S° has been proposed. Two S°-reducing enzymes have been purified from the cytoplasm of one hyperthermophile (T(opt) 100 °C) that is able to grow either with and without S°. However, the mechanisms by which S° reduction is coupled to energy conservation in this organism and in obligate S°-reducing hyperthermophiles is not known. In the heterotrophs, sugar fermentation is achieved by a novel glycolytic pathway involving unusual ADP-dependent kinases and ATP synthetases, and novel oxidoreductases that are ferredoxin- rather than NAD(P)-linked. Similarly, peptide fermentation involves several unusual ferredoxin-linked oxidoreductases not found in mesophilic organisms. Several of these oxido-reductases contain tungsten, an element that is rarely used in biological systems. Tungsten is present in exceedingly low concentrations in normal sea water, but hydrothermal systems contain much higher tungsten concentrations, more than sufficient to support hyperthermophilic life. 1998 Society of Applied Microbiology.

  18. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer

  19. Marine diatoms in polar and sub-polar environments and their application to Late Pleistocene paleoclimate reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosta, Xavier, E-mail: x.crosta@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [UMR-CNRS 5805 EPOC, Universite Bordeaux 1, Avenue des Facultes, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Diatoms are one of the major phytoplankton groups in polar and sub-polar marine environments along with green algae and chrysophytes. Diatoms are composed of two components, a two-valve test made of amorphous silica and an organic cell encapsulated into the test. Mucilage covering the test and proteins embedded in the silica lattice of the test completes the organic pool of the diatoms. The preservation of these two components into deep-sea sediments allows for a large set of diatom-based proxies to infer past oceanographic and climatic changes in polar and sub-polar marine environments. Most diatom species in polar and sub-polar marine environments exhibit a narrow range of ecological preferences, especially in terms of sea-surface temperature and sea ice conditions. Preserved diatom assemblages in deep-sea sediments mirror the diatom assemblages in the phytoplankton. It is subsequently possible to extrapolate the relationships between diatom assemblages in surface sediments and modern parameters to down-core fossil assemblages to document past changes in sea-surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. Congruent analysis of biogenic silica and organic carbon and stable isotope ratios (O, Si in the silica matrix and C, N in the diatom-intrinsic organic matter) provides information on siliceous productivity, nutrient cycling and water mass circulation. Measurements of diatom biomarkers give complementary information on sea ice conditions and siliceous productivity.

  20. Occurrence and partitioning of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the marine environment of Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Add knowledge regarding the fate of EDCs in marine environment. ► Nonylphenols and its ethoxylates are the dominant pollutants. ► EDCs originated from mainly from river and urban effluents. ► The partition coefficients negatively correlated to suspended particulate matter. ► Mussels exhibited low bioconcentartion factors for nonylphenol and octylphenol. - Abstract: An integrated study was conducted to determine the presence of phenolic and steroid endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), in the marine environment of Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea, Greece. Seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediments and biota were examined for nonylphenol, octylphenol, their mono- and diethoxylate oligomers, bisphenol A, estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, mestranol and 17 α-ethynylestradiol. Phenolic compounds were detected in all of the compartments, with nonylphenol and its ethoxylates being the dominant pollutants. The occurrence of nonylphenol in sediments presents a significant risk to the biota. Mussels exhibited relatively low concentrations and low bioconcentration factors for NP and OP. The effect of terrestrial sources of the EDCs on the marine environment is discussed. The influence of suspended particulate matter and organic carbon in the partition of the EDCs between the dissolved and the particulate phase was investigated.

  1. Marine diatoms in polar and sub-polar environments and their application to Late Pleistocene paleoclimate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosta, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are one of the major phytoplankton groups in polar and sub-polar marine environments along with green algae and chrysophytes. Diatoms are composed of two components, a two-valve test made of amorphous silica and an organic cell encapsulated into the test. Mucilage covering the test and proteins embedded in the silica lattice of the test completes the organic pool of the diatoms. The preservation of these two components into deep-sea sediments allows for a large set of diatom-based proxies to infer past oceanographic and climatic changes in polar and sub-polar marine environments. Most diatom species in polar and sub-polar marine environments exhibit a narrow range of ecological preferences, especially in terms of sea-surface temperature and sea ice conditions. Preserved diatom assemblages in deep-sea sediments mirror the diatom assemblages in the phytoplankton. It is subsequently possible to extrapolate the relationships between diatom assemblages in surface sediments and modern parameters to down-core fossil assemblages to document past changes in sea-surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. Congruent analysis of biogenic silica and organic carbon and stable isotope ratios (O, Si in the silica matrix and C, N in the diatom-intrinsic organic matter) provides information on siliceous productivity, nutrient cycling and water mass circulation. Measurements of diatom biomarkers give complementary information on sea ice conditions and siliceous productivity.

  2. The Resistome of Low-Impacted Marine Environments Is Composed by Distant Metallo-β-Lactamases Homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Fonseca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide dispersion and sudden emergence of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined the need in uncovering which environment participate most as their source and reservoir. ARGs closely related to those currently found in human pathogens occur in the resistome of anthropogenic impacted environments. However, the role of pristine environment as the origin and source of ARGs remains underexplored and controversy, particularly, the marine environments represented by the oceans. Here, due to the ocean nature, we hypothesized that the resistome of this pristine/low-impacted marine environment is represented by distant ARG homologs. To test this hypothesis we performed an in silico analysis on the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS metagenomic project dataset focusing on the metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs as the ARG model. MβLs have been a challenge to public health, since they hydrolyze the carbapenems, one of the last therapeutic choice in clinics. Using Hidden Markov Model (HMM profiles, we were successful in identifying a high diversity of distant MβL homologs, related to the B1, B2, and B3 subclasses. The majority of them were distributed across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans being related to the chromosomally encoded MβL GOB present in Elizabethkingia genus. It was observed only a reduced number of metagenomic sequence homologs related to the acquired MβL enzymes (VIM, SPM-1, and AIM-1 that currently have impact in clinics. Therefore, low antibiotic impacted marine environment, as the ocean, are unlikely the source of ARGs that have been causing enormous threat to the public health.

  3. Novel, resistant microalgal polyethers: An important sink of organic carbon in the marine environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Boogers, I.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Hatcher, P.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1996-01-01

    Five out of seven marine microalgal species investigated were found to biosynthesize nonhydrolysable, mainly aliphatic, biomacromolecules (algaenans). The molecular structure of the algaenan isolated from the microalga Nannochloropsis salina of the class Eustigmatophyceae was determined by solid

  4. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin and manatees in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  6. Assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is radio-ecological assessment of permissible low-level releases of radionuclides in sea waters ensuring the radiological protection of the human population, as well as marine biota. (author)

  7. Do low oxygen environments facilitate marine invasions? Relative tolerance of native and invasive species to low oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo E; Barneche, Diego R; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear. We measured water flow and oxygen availability in marinas and piers at the scales relevant to sessile marine invertebrates (mm). We then measured the capacity of invasive and native marine invertebrates to maintain metabolic rates under decreasing levels of oxygen using standard laboratory assays. We found that marinas reduce water flow relative to piers, and that local oxygen levels can be zero in low flow conditions. We also found that for species with erect growth forms, invasive species can tolerate much lower levels of oxygen relative to native species. Integrating the field and laboratory data showed that up to 30% of available microhabitats within low flow environments are physiologically stressful for native species, while only 18% of the same habitat is physiologically stressful for invasive species. These results suggest that invasive species have adapted to low oxygen habitats associated with manmade habitats, and artificial structures may be creating niche opportunities for invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Influence of releases of I-129 from reprocessing plants on the marine environment of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterc, Andrej; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2012-03-01

    Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing plants located at Sellafield and La Hague. Their liquid discharges influence Northern Europe and most research was conducted in the area of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. In this article data on (129)I content and (129)I/(127)I ratios observed in the North Adriatic Sea, which is a rather enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea, are presented. To the best of our knowledge no data on (129)I in the Mediterranean Sea have previously been reported. As this area is isolated from direct liquid discharges, the main transport pathway is probably gaseous releases from reprocessing plants. Surface sea water, the marine alga Fucus virsoides, an iodine accumulator, and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in 2009 and 2010, and marine sediment collected in 2005 and 2009 were analysed. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios observed were in the range from 0.8 to 3.0×10(-08) for seawater, from 0.06 to 0.35×10(-08) for marine sediment, from 0.05 to 0.10×10(-08) for F. virsoides and from 0.3 to 0.9×10(-08) for M. galloprovincialis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecosystem biomonitoring with eDNA: metabarcoding across the tree of life in a tropical marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Huggett, Megan J; Bernasconi, Rachele; DiBattista, Joseph D; Berry, Tina E; Newman, Stephen J; Harvey, Euan S; Bunce, Michael

    2017-09-25

    Effective marine management requires comprehensive data on the status of marine biodiversity. However, efficient methods that can document biodiversity in our oceans are currently lacking. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sourced from seawater offers a new avenue for investigating the biota in marine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the potential of eDNA to inform on the breadth of biodiversity present in a tropical marine environment. Directly sequencing eDNA from seawater using a shotgun approach resulted in only 0.34% of 22.3 million reads assigning to eukaryotes, highlighting the inefficiency of this method for assessing eukaryotic diversity. In contrast, using 'tree of life' (ToL) metabarcoding and 20-fold fewer sequencing reads, we could detect 287 families across the major divisions of eukaryotes. Our data also show that the best performing 'universal' PCR assay recovered only 44% of the eukaryotes identified across all assays, highlighting the need for multiple metabarcoding assays to catalogue biodiversity. Lastly, focusing on the fish genus Lethrinus, we recovered intra- and inter-specific haplotypes from seawater samples, illustrating that eDNA can be used to explore diversity beyond taxon identifications. Given the sensitivity and low cost of eDNA metabarcoding we advocate this approach be rapidly integrated into biomonitoring programs.

  10. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  11. Knowledge discovery in large model datasets in the marine environment: the THREDDS Data Server example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bergamasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor, describe and understand the marine environment, many research institutions are involved in the acquisition and distribution of ocean data, both from observations and models. Scientists from these institutions are spending too much time looking for, accessing, and reformatting data: they need better tools and procedures to make the science they do more efficient. The U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (US-IOOS is working on making large amounts of distributed data usable in an easy and efficient way. It is essentially a network of scientists, technicians and technologies designed to acquire, collect and disseminate observational and modelled data resulting from coastal and oceanic marine regions investigations to researchers, stakeholders and policy makers. In order to be successful, this effort requires standard data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Starting from the US-IOOS approach, which is being adopted throughout much of the oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we describe here the CNR-ISMAR Venice experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services Data Server (TDS, a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users. The TDS provides services that allow data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, to visualize and to use them in an easy way, without downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata to allow the data to be read and searched in a standard way. The core idea is then to utilize a Common Data Model (CDM, a unified conceptual model that describes different datatypes within each dataset. More specifically, Unidata (www.unidata.ucar.edu has developed CDM

  12. Marine radioecology. A study of the fate of radionuclides released into the marine environment and applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the art of the knowledge gained in France and in foreign countries for some 20 years on the points concerning man from the sanitary point of view and radionuclides transfers in the ocean environment especially. The various data of physico-chemistry (viz. behaviour of trace elements), geochemistry, physiology, physical and biological oceanography are included. In situ data are included on various sites of radioactive releases after several years of monitoring. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of concentration factors necessary for impact assessment studies and regulatory provisions governing effluents [fr

  13. Danish Women in the Trades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    1997-01-01

    A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry.......A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry....

  14. Guidelines for environmental monitoring after acute oil spill in the marine environment; Retningslinjer for miljoeundersoekelser i marint miljoe etter akutt oljeforurensning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, N.M.; Camus, L.-H.; Larsen, B.; Voegele, G.M.; Spikkerud, C.; Anker-Nilsen, T.; Dijk, J van; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Stabbetorp, O.; Bjoerge, A.; Boitsov, S.; Klungsoeyr, J.

    2012-07-01

    Contents of environmental damage assessments and monitoring of acute oil spills in the marine environment are outlined. The guideline provides general advice on timing, contents and scope of post spill surveys for documenting biological recovery and food safety.(Author)

  15. New Bio-Composites Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Posidonia oceanica Fibres for Applications in a Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Cinelli, Patrizia; Mallegni, Norma; Balestri, Elena; Puccini, Monica; Vitolo, Sandra; Lardicci, Claudio; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Bio-composites based on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and fibres of Posidonia oceanica (PO) were investigated to assess their processability by extrusion, mechanical properties, and potential biodegradability in a natural marine environment. PHAs were successfully compounded with PO fibres up to 20 wt % while, at 30 wt % of fibres, the addition of 10 wt % of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) was necessary to improve their processability. Thermal, rheological, mechanical, and morphological characterizations of the developed composites were conducted and the degradation of composite films in a natural marine habitat was evaluated in a mesocosm by weight loss measure during an incubation period of six months. The addition of PO fibres led to an increase in stiffness of the composites with tensile modulus values about 80% higher for composites with 30 wt % fibre (2.3 GPa) compared to unfilled material (1.24 GPa). Furthermore, the impact energy markedly increased with the addition of the PO fibres, from 1.63 (unfilled material) to 3.8 kJ/m2 for the composites with 30 wt % PO. The rate of degradation was markedly influenced by seawater temperature and significantly promoted by the presence of PO fibres leading to the total degradation of the film with 30 wt % PO in less than six months. The obtained results showed that the developed composites can be suitable to manufacture items usable in marine environments, for example, in natural engineering interventions, and represent an interesting valorisation of the PO fibrous wastes accumulated in large amounts on coastal beaches. PMID:28772689

  16. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Plutonium diffusion in the marine environment: a quantitative study on marine species of the channel shores, from Brest (St Mathieu Point) to Honfleur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, Albert; Guary, J.-C.

    1977-03-01

    Plutonium levels were measured on marine species of the Channel shores, from Cancale to Honfleur in 1975, from Brest to the Cap de La Hague in 1976. Measurements carried out on a lichen: Lichina pygmaea, two algae: Corallina officinalis and Fucus serratus, a spongiae: Hymeniacidon sanguinea and a crustacean: Balamus balanoides, showed the effect of waste disposal from La Hague fuel reprocessing plant on the radioactivity levels of these organisms. This effect, decreasing progressively, appeared at distances of about 150 km from the point of release. As compared to value observed for samples taken at the far West of Brittany and to plutonium levels in the marine environment resulting from atmospheric fallout only, the levels observed in the studied area were higher and varying according to the geographic position, increasing by a factor of 100 near the emissary. These data are an actual instance of radioactive dispersal following disposal into the sea; they should bring valuable information for the assessment of the radiological capacity of a given coastal area [fr

  18. Mixing of Marine and Terrestrial Sources of Strontium in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Saskia; Crowley, Quentin; Deegan, Eileen; Snoeck, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    87Sr/86Sr from bulk soils, soil extracts and plant material have been used to investigate and quantify the extent of marine-derived Sr in the terrestrial biosphere. Samples were collected along coastal transects and 87Sr/86Sr biosphere values (plant and soil) converge to marine values with increasing proximity to the coast. R2values indicate highly significant trends in certain regions. The National Soils Database (NSDB), TELLUS and TELLUS Border datasets, all of which are geochemical surveys have been employed to further test the extent of marine elemental contribution. Collectively these data cover all of Ireland and Northern Ireland, with varying degrees of sampling density. A strong spatial correlation exists between the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA; (Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O)) in topsoil (CIA marine geochemical contribution. Topsoil CIA can therefore be used to identify areas likely to feature significant marine inputs and identify regions where the 87Sr/86Sr budget may deviate from bedrock values.

  19. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lee Chew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985–86 and 2014–15 interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica. Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons were unaffected

  20. Patterns and processes of shell fragmentation in modern and ancient marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuschin, Martin; Stachowitsch, Michael; Stanton, Robert J.

    2003-10-01

    Shell fragments are important components of many Recent and fossil marine benthic ecosystems and can provide crucial information on past and present environmental conditions. Interpreting such fragments requires integrated knowledge in various fields and the information potential is therefore rarely optimally utilized. This paper uses the definition of a fragment as being a piece of shell having less than 90% of its original form. It then outlines the potential characteristics, pathways, and fates that shells and their fragments can have. Fragmentation is a key factor shaping the shelly part of death assemblages, but it is difficult to interpret because it can be broadly caused by ecological, biostratinomic or diagenetic processes and also depends on shell strength. Strength, in turn, reflects multifunctionality during ontogeny and depends on a complex set of skeletal and taphonomic factors. Therefore, no particular shell parameter clearly determines strength, but thickness, microstructure type and degree of organic matrix have the strongest influence on pre- and post-mortality strength. Size measurements are usually less important for shell strength than thickness, although ecologically complex size refuges from predation do exist. Similarly, shell shape, sculptural features and specific aperture types (in gastropods) provide various defence strategies rather than increasing strength per se. Key ecological factors of fragmentation include predation due to crushing, peeling, along with mistaken predation, self-inflicted damage during predation and burrowing, and more physical aspects such as impacts by stones. Modern studies must consider damage by benthic commercial fisheries or dredging by scientific vessels. Key biostratinomic factors include transport-induced abrasion (littoral zone of surf-washed beaches), bioerosion and dissolution (mainly sublittoral environments). Diagenetically, fragmentation during compaction mainly occurs when shells are in direct

  1. The use of embedded sensors for the monitoring of adhesive joints in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-05-01

    A copolymer incorporating polyaniline was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate / vinyl acetate) and a copolymer containing polyaniline emeraldine salt was obtained. The sensing medium was then developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting polymer residue in dichloromethane to produce a processable polymer blend solution. Some of this polymer residue was also de-doped in a solution of ammonia, and then washed with distilled water until the waste water had a neutral pH. This residue was then redissolved at 1-2 w/w% in dichloromethane to produce a second processable polymer blend this time containing polyaniline emeraldine base. The final sensor design utilised 125μm polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the emeraldine salt copolymer solution and allowed to dry in a desiccator. The sensor was then dip-coated in a protective barrier layer of the emeraldine base copolymer to prevent over-oxidation and/or de-protonation of the emeraldine salt sensing medium under this coating. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 150μm and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. Sensors were monitored for 2-probe resistance changes when in contact with water. Calibration curves for each sensor were produced to convert the resistance reading to mass uptake of water. Individual sensors were embedded within Aluminium 5083 / Araldite 2015 adhesive joints to monitor mass uptake of water when exposed to marine environments. Correlations between mass uptake of water and joint strength were made. There are various advantages of such a sensor design. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. The ease of

  2. Impact of Anthracene Exposure on Bacterial Community Composition and Function in an Egyptian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, A.E.M.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    2013-01-01

    The application of bioremediation technology for pollution treatment requires more knowledge about how do microbial communities respond to pollutant exposure. The main goals of this study are to investigate the behavior of natural bacterial microflora of Suez Gulf (SGM) in response to exposure to different concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different periods. In this study, anthracene, as a model of (PAHs) was added in different concentrations, (30,150 and 500 ppm) to fertilized Suez Gulf water in shaking microcosms to examine the possible shifts in bacterial community composition and function. Changes in bacterial community composition was followed up after different periods of exposure (0, 6, 12, and 18) days to the above mentioned concentrations of anthracene by profiling the amplified product of 16S rDNA via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of SGM in treated microcosm separately. DGGE profiles revealed remarkable changes in diversity due to exposure concentration and duration to anthracene. A diverse relationship between anthracene concentration and bacterial diversity was detected. On the other hand, changes in community function were determined by testing the biodegradation capabilities of the consortia after different exposures separately in microcosms containing 50 ppm of anthracene for 14 days. The remaining anthracene was extracted and monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DGGE profiles of amplified 16S rDNA extracted from parallel biodegradation microcosms were examined to indicate the effects of pre-exposure to different concentrations for different periods to PAHs on the bacterial community compositions. The results confirm that the long term effects of pre exposure to high concentrations of PAH on the bacterial community composition, suggesting that that some organisms can be used as a bio marker indicating the exposures of the marine environment to high concentrations of PAHs. HPLC

  3. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of dalytyphloplanida (platyhelminthes: rhabdocoela reveals multiple escapes from the marine environment and origins of symbiotic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Van Steenkiste

    Full Text Available In this study we elaborate the phylogeny of Dalytyphloplanida based on complete 18S rDNA (156 sequences and partial 28S rDNA (125 sequences, using a Maximum Likelihood and a Bayesian Inference approach, in order to investigate the origin of a limnic or limnoterrestrial and of a symbiotic lifestyle in this large group of rhabditophoran flatworms. The results of our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions indicate that dalytyphloplanids have their origin in the marine environment and that there was one highly successful invasion of the freshwater environment, leading to a large radiation of limnic and limnoterrestrial dalytyphloplanids. This monophyletic freshwater clade, Limnotyphloplanida, comprises the taxa Dalyelliidae, Temnocephalida, and most Typhloplanidae. Temnocephalida can be considered ectosymbiotic Dalyelliidae as they are embedded within this group. Secondary returns to brackish water and marine environments occurred relatively frequently in several dalyeliid and typhloplanid taxa. Our phylogenies also show that, apart from the Limnotyphloplanida, there have been only few independent invasions of the limnic environment, and apparently these were not followed by spectacular speciation events. The distinct phylogenetic positions of the symbiotic taxa also suggest multiple origins of commensal and parasitic life strategies within Dalytyphloplanida. The previously established higher-level dalytyphloplanid clades are confirmed in our topologies, but many of the traditional families are not monophyletic. Alternative hypothesis testing constraining the monophyly of these families in the topologies and using the approximately unbiased test, also statistically rejects their monophyly.

  4. The marine environment monitoring in Saco Piraquara de Fora after the beginning of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory collects several environmental samples and analyses them radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. In the Environmental Monitoring Laboratory, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures and the activities of the detectable radionuclides are obtained by gamma spectrometry. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory analyses tritium in sea water as well. This paper will describe only the monitoring of the marine samples and the results of the measurements are compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982), Angra 2 (1996 - 2000) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2008. The results show that, since 1982 until now, there is no impact on marine environment caused by the operation of Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  5. Strength and Durability of Fly Ash-Based Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete in a Simulated Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Rivera, Francisco Javier

    This research is aimed at investigating the corrosion durability of polyolefin fiberreinforced fly ash-based geopolymer structural concrete (hereafter referred to as GPC, in contradistinction to unreinforced geopolymer concrete referred to as simply geopolymer concrete), where cement is completely replaced by fly ash, that is activated by alkalis, sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. The durability in a marine environment is tested through an electrochemical method for accelerated corrosion. The GPC achieved compressive strengths in excess of 6,000 psi. Fiber reinforced beams contained polyolefin fibers in the amounts of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% by volume. After being subjected to corrosion damage, the GPC beams were analyzed through a method of crack scoring, steel mass loss, and residual flexural strength testing. Fiber reinforced GPC beams showed greater resistance to corrosion damage with higher residual flexural strength. This makes GPC an attractive material for use in submerged marine structures.

  6. Corrosion Activity on CFRP-Strengthened RC Piles of High-Pile Wharf in a Simulated Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report test results from an experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP against reinforcing steel bar corrosion. Twelve reinforced-concrete pile specimens of 180 mm square by 1,600 mm long were cast. Three pile specimens were corroded to 5% steel mass loss and then strengthened with CFRP sheets; four specimens were strengthened by using CFRP sheets, whereas the remaining five specimens were not strengthened. The specimens were placed in a simulated marine environment, and corrosion was induced by an impressed current technique. At different theoretical corrosion degrees, nondestructive tests were performed to investigate the corrosion activity of the pile specimens, and destructive tests were performed to determine reinforcing steel bar mass loss. Based on the findings, the effectiveness of the CFRP-strengthened RC piles under aggressive marine environmental conditions was established.

  7. Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of a Ni-Advanced Weathering Steel in Simulated Tropical Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zeng, Zhongping; Cheng, Xuequn; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni-advanced weathering steel, as well as carbon steel and conventional weathering steel, in a simulated tropical marine atmosphere was studied by field exposure and indoor simulation tests. Meanwhile, morphology and composition of corrosion products formed on the exposed steels were surveyed through scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results indicated that the additive Ni in weathering steel played an important role during the corrosion process, which took part in the formation of corrosion products, enriched in the inner rust layer and promoted the transformation from loose γ-FeOOH to dense α-FeOOH. As a result, the main aggressive ion, i.e., Cl-, was effectively separated in the outer rust layer which leads to the lowest corrosion rate among these tested steels. Thus, the resistance of Ni-advanced weathering steel to atmospheric corrosion was significantly improved in a simulated tropical marine environment.

  8. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.

  9. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  10. Novel, resistant microalgal polyethers: An important sink of organic carbon in the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, F.; Boogers, I.; Noordeloos, A. A. M.; Damsté, J. S. Sinninghe; Hatcher, P. G.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1996-04-01

    Five out of seven marine microalgal species investigated were found to biosynthesize nonhydrolysable, mainly aliphatic, biomacromolecules (algaenans). The molecular structure of the algaenan isolated from the microalga Nannochloropsis salina of the class Eustigmatophyceae was determined by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chemical degradations with HI and RuO 4. The structure is predominantly composed of C 28-C 34 linear chains linked by ether bridges. The algaenan isolated from a second eustigmatophyte ( Nannochloropsis sp.) was structurally similar. Algaenans isolated from two chlorophytes also possess a strongly aliphatic nature, as revealed by the dominance of alkenes/alkanes in their pyrolysates. Accordingly, we propose that the aliphatic character of numerous Recent and ancient marine kerogens reflects selectively preserved algaenans and that these algaenans may act as a source of n-alkanes in marine crude oils.

  11. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  12. TiO2 nanoparticles in the marine environment: Physical effects responsible for the toxicity on algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Lao, Yongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Tao, Yi; Huang, Boming; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2016-09-15

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) has been widely used in cosmetics, catalysts, varnishes, etc., which is raising concerns about its potential hazards to the ecosystem, including the marine environment. In this study, the toxicological effect of nTiO2 on the marine phytoplankton Phaeodactylum tricornutum was carefully investigated. The results showed that nTiO2 at concentrations ≥20mg/L could significantly inhibit P. tricornutum growth. The 5-day EC50 of nTiO2 to P. tricornutum growth is 167.71mg/L. Interestingly, nTiO2 was found to exert its most severe inhibition effects on the first day of exposure, at a lower EC50 of 12.65mg/L. During the experiment, nTiO2 aggregates were found to entrap algae cells, which is likely responsible for the observed toxic effects. Direct physical effects such as cell wall damage from the algae entrapment were confirmed by flow cytometry and TEM imaging. Moreover, low indirect effects such as shading and oxidative stress were observed, which supported the idea that direct physical effects could be the dominant factor that causes nTiO2 toxicity in P. tricornutum. Our research provides direct evidence for the toxicological impact of nTiO2 on marine microalgae, which will help us to build a good understanding of the ecological risks of nanoparticles in the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: the role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommasi, Desiree; Stock, Charles A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in global dynamical climate prediction systems have allowed for skillful predictions of climate variables relevant to living marine resources (LMRs) at a scale useful to understanding and managing LMRs. Such predictions present opportunities for improved LMR management......, benefitting both managers and stakeholders. Here, we provide an overview of climate prediction systems and advances in seasonal to decadal prediction of marine-resource relevant environmental variables. We then describe a range of climate-sensitive LMR decisions that can be taken at lead-times of months...

  14. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  15. Alternative biosphere modeling for safety assessment of HLW disposal taking account of geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard

    2001-03-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system, it is required to estimate radiological impacts on future human beings arising from potential radionuclide releases from a deep repository into the surface environment. In order to estimated the impacts, a biosphere model is developed by reasonably assuming radionuclide migration processes in the surface environment and relevant human lifestyles. It is important to modify the present biosphere models or to develop alternative biosphere models applying the biosphere models according to quality and quantify of the information acquired through the siting process for constructing the repository. In this study, alternative biosphere models were developed taking geosphere-biosphere interface of marine environment into account. Moreover, the flux to dose conversion factors calculated by these alternative biosphere models was compared with those by the present basic biosphere models. (author)

  16. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  17. Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Marine microorganisms constitute the largest percentage of living biomass and serve as the major driving force behind nutrient and energy cycles. While viruses only comprise a small percentage of this biomass (i.e., 5%), they dominate in numerical abundance and genetic diversity. Through host

  18. Summary of other human activities in the coastal and marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available of the freely provided ecosystem goods and services. The exploitation of WIO genetic resources is a largely unexplored opportunity for the benefit of the regional and indeed the global population. Furthermore, the attractive and desirable coastal and marine...

  19. Toward a harmonized approach for environmental assessment of human activities in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, J.E.; Vries, de P.; Jongbloed, R.H.; Lagerveld, S.; Jak, R.G.; Karman, C.C.; Wal, van der J.T.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Klok, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    With a foreseen increase in maritime activities, and driven by new policies and conventions aiming at sustainable management of the marine ecosystem, spatial management at sea is of growing importance. Spatial management should ensure that the collective pressures caused by anthropogenic activities

  20. Evaluation of the quality of measurement of organochlorine contaminants in the marine environment: the QUASIMEME experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in marine environmental test materials have been included in QUASIMEME Laboratory Performance Studies since 1996. The methods of data assessment include the Cofino model, which provides a sound basis for obtaining a reliable assigned value from the wide range of data

  1. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  2. Measurement of gas/water uptake coefficients for trace gases active in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, P. (Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Worsnop, D.W.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. (Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics)

    1992-02-01

    Ocean produced reduced sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}CH) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) deliver a sulfur burden to the atmosphere which is roughly equal to sulfur oxides produced by fossil fuel combustion. These species and their oxidation products dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) dominate aerosol and CCN production in clean marine air. Furthermore, oxidation of reduced sulfur species will be strongly influenced by NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} chemistry in marine atmospheres. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. We have measured the chemical and physical parameters affecting the uptake of reduced sulfur compounds, their oxidation products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides by the ocean's surface, and marine clouds, fogs, and aerosols. These parameters include: gas/surface mass accommodation coefficients; physical and chemically modified (effective) Henry's law constants; and surface and liquid phase reaction constants. These parameters are critical to understanding both the interaction of gaseous trace species with cloud and fog droplets and the deposition of trace gaseous species to dew covered, fresh water and marine surfaces.

  3. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Assessment of Phylogenetic Diversity and Biogeography in Thalassospira Bacteria from Diverse Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Du, Juan; Wang, Liping; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Thalassospira bacteria are widespread and have been isolated from various marine environments. Less is known about their genetic diversity and biogeography, as well as their role in marine environments, many of them cannot be discriminated merely using the 16S rRNA gene. To address these issues, in this report, the phylogenetic analysis of 58 strains from seawater and deep sea sediments were carried out using the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on acsA, aroE, gyrB, mutL, rpoD and trpB genes, and the DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) based on genome sequences. The MLSA analysis demonstrated that the 58 strains were clearly separated into 15 lineages, corresponding to seven validly described species and eight potential novel species. The DDH and ANI values further confirmed the validity of the MLSA analysis and eight potential novel species. The MLSA interspecies gap of the genus Thalassospira was determined to be 96.16–97.12% sequence identity on the basis of the combined analyses of the DDH and MLSA, while the ANIm interspecies gap was 95.76–97.20% based on the in silico DDH analysis. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analyses showed that the Thalassospira bacteria exhibited distribution pattern to a certain degree according to geographic regions. Moreover, they clustered together according to the habitats depth. For short, the phylogenetic analyses and biogeography of the Thalassospira bacteria were systematically investigated for the first time. These results will be helpful to explore further their ecological role and adaptive evolution in marine environments. PMID:25198177

  4. Multilocus sequence analysis for assessment of phylogenetic diversity and biogeography in Thalassospira bacteria from diverse marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Lai

    Full Text Available Thalassospira bacteria are widespread and have been isolated from various marine environments. Less is known about their genetic diversity and biogeography, as well as their role in marine environments, many of them cannot be discriminated merely using the 16S rRNA gene. To address these issues, in this report, the phylogenetic analysis of 58 strains from seawater and deep sea sediments were carried out using the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA based on acsA, aroE, gyrB, mutL, rpoD and trpB genes, and the DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH and average nucleotide identity (ANI based on genome sequences. The MLSA analysis demonstrated that the 58 strains were clearly separated into 15 lineages, corresponding to seven validly described species and eight potential novel species. The DDH and ANI values further confirmed the validity of the MLSA analysis and eight potential novel species. The MLSA interspecies gap of the genus Thalassospira was determined to be 96.16-97.12% sequence identity on the basis of the combined analyses of the DDH and MLSA, while the ANIm interspecies gap was 95.76-97.20% based on the in silico DDH analysis. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analyses showed that the Thalassospira bacteria exhibited distribution pattern to a certain degree according to geographic regions. Moreover, they clustered together according to the habitats depth. For short, the phylogenetic analyses and biogeography of the Thalassospira bacteria were systematically investigated for the first time. These results will be helpful to explore further their ecological role and adaptive evolution in marine environments.

  5. The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

  6. The sperm whale sonar: Monitoring and use in mitigation of anthropogenic noise effects in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Michel [Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona 08800 (Spain)], E-mail: michel.andre@upc.edu

    2009-04-11

    Noise pollution in the marine environment is an emerging but serious concern. Its implications are less well understood than other global threats and largely undetectable to everyone but the specialist. In addition, the assessment of the acoustic impact of artificial sounds in the sea is not a trivial task, certainly because there is a lack of information on how the marine organisms process and analyse sounds and how relevant these sounds are for the balance and development of the populations. Further, this possible acoustic impact not only concerns the hearing systems but may also affect other sensory or systemic levels and result equally lethal for the animal concerned. If we add that the negative consequences of a short or long term exposure to artificial sounds may not be immediately observed one can understood how challenging it is to obtain objective data allowing an efficient control of the introduction of anthropogenic sound in the sea. To answer some of these questions, the choice to investigate cetaceans and their adaptation to an aquatic environment is not fortuitous. Cetaceans, because of their optimum use of sound as an ad-hoc source of energy and their almost exclusive dependence on acoustic information, represent not only the best bio-indicator of the effects of noise pollution in the marine environment, but also a source of data to improve and develop human underwater acoustic technology. Here, we present how the characteristics and performance of the sperm whale mid-range biosonar can be used to develop a mitigation solution based on passive acoustics and ambient noise imaging to prevent negative interactions with human activities by monitoring cetacean movements in areas of interest, e.g. deep-sea observatories.

  7. Influx of Dissolved Silica in Shallow Marine Environments in the Early Rhaetian (Late Triassic): Implications for Timing of Supercontinental Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Rhaetian Stage of the Late Triassic terminated with a mass extinction, but the late Norian-early Rhaetian paleoecological and geochemical transitions and their relationship to events leading up to the End-Triassic mass extinction are poorly understood. To address this issue, presented here is a multi-proxy dataset from New York Canyon, Nevada (USA) relating isotope chemostratigraphy (Sr, C, O), shallow marine benthic macrofossils, and microfossils. At this Panthalassan locality the Norian-Rhaetian boundary is characterized by a negative strontium isotope excursion that facilitates correlation with Tethyan deposits. In sedimentary horizons immediately below and above this excursion, siliceous demosponge spicules (desmids) are abundant components of the microfossil populations, and silicification of calcareous microfossils becomes common. In the sedimentary beds marking the main excursion, hexactinellid sponge spicules are abundant. These results indicate a large input of dissolved silica in shallow marine environments, while the negative strontium values are consistent with increased seafloor spreading and hydrothermal vent activity or basalt weathering, either scenario being a plausible silica source for the typically silica-limited sponges that proliferated during this interval. The biosedimentary features observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary are similar to those observed in the earliest Jurassic in marine sections around the world following the End-Triassic mass extinction, but no clear biotic turnover is observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary in this succession. Thus, biosedimentary shifts across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary may add important geochemical context to the end-Triassic mass extinction event.

  8. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sá-Pinto

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the scale of dispersal and the mechanisms governing gene flow in marine environments remains fragmentary despite being essential for understanding evolution of marine biota and to design management plans. We use the limpets Patella ulyssiponensis and Patella rustica as models for identifying factors affecting gene flow in marine organisms across the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. A set of allozyme loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome C oxidase subunit I were screened for genetic variation through starch gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, respectively. An approach combining clustering algorithms with clinal analyses was used to test for the existence of barriers to gene flow and estimate their geographic location and abruptness. Sharp breaks in the genetic composition of individuals were observed in the transitions between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and across southern Italian shores. An additional break within the Atlantic cluster separates samples from the Alboran Sea and Atlantic African shores from those of the Iberian Atlantic shores. The geographic congruence of the genetic breaks detected in these two limpet species strongly supports the existence of transpecific barriers to gene flow in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic. This leads to testable hypotheses regarding factors restricting gene flow across the study area.

  9. Assimilation of the Observational Data in the Marine Ecosystem Adaptive Model at the Known Mean Values of the Processes in the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Е. Тimchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Assimilation of observational data in the marine ecosystem adaptive models constructed by the adaptive balance of causes method is considered. It is shown that the feedback balance between the ecosystem variables and the rates of their change used in the method equations, permits to introduce a stationary state of the ecosystem characterized by the observed mean values of the variables. The method for assessing the normalized coefficients of influences based on application of the Euler theorem on homogeneous functions to the functions representing material balances of biochemical reactions of the substance transformation is proposed. It is shown that the normalized ratios of the modeled process mean values can be used as the estimates of the reaction product derivatives obtained on the basis of their resources included in the equations of material balances. One-dimensional adaptive model of the sea upper layer ecosystem is constructed as an example; it is based on the scheme of cause-effect relations of the Fasham, Dacklow and McKelvie model of plankton dynamics and nitrogen cycle It is shown that in such a model, observational data is assimilated by automatic adaptation of the model variables to the assimilated information providing that the substance material balance are preserved in the transformation reactions. The data simulating both observations of the chlorophyll a concentrations and the marine environment dynamics are assimilated in the model. Time scenarios of the biochemical processes are constructed; they confirm applicability of the proposed method for assessing the effect coefficients based on the ratios of the simulated process mean values.

  10. Principles of biofouling protection in marine sponges: a model for the design of novel biomimetic and bio-inspired coatings in the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Proksch, Peter; Perry, Carole C; Osinga, Ronald; Gardères, Johan; Schröder, Heinz C

    2013-08-01

    The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or man-made substrates, a population of different bacterial taxa associates under the formation of a biofilm. These microorganisms communicate through a complex quorum sensing network. Macro-foulers, e.g., barnacles, then settle and form a fouling layer on the marine surfaces, a process that globally has severe impacts both on the economy and on the environment. Since the ban of tributyltin, an efficient replacement of this antifouling compound by next-generation antifouling coatings that are environmentally more acceptable and also showing longer half-lives has not yet been developed. The sponges, as sessile filter-feeder animals, have evolved antifouling strategies to protect themselves against micro- and subsequent macro-biofouling processes. Experimental data are summarized and suggest that coating of the sponge surface with bio-silica contributes to the inhibition of the formation of a conditioning film. A direct adsorption of the surfaces by microorganisms can be impaired through poisoning the organisms with direct-acting secondary metabolites or toxic peptides. In addition, first, compounds from sponges have been identified that interfere with the anti-quorum sensing network. Sponge secondary metabolites acting selectively on diatom colonization have not yet been identified. Finally, it is outlined that direct-acting secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of macro-fouling animals and those that poison the multidrug resistance pump are available. It is concluded that rational screening programs for inhibitors of the complex and dynamic problem of biofilm production, based on multidisciplinary studies and using sponges as a model, are required in the future.

  11. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, Cecilia; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 ), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH 2 )(NH 3 ) 2 + ) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: → This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. → Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. → Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. → Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. → Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  12. Optical modeling of aerosol extinction for remote sensing in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    A microphysical model is presented for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles in different geographic sites. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (RH) are investigated. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro (Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles) are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained from the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) and the Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM). Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable tool for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  13. Spectral signatures of fluorescence and light absorption to identify crude oils found in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2014-08-01

    To protect the natural marine ecosystem, it is necessary to continuously enhance knowledge of environmental contamination, including oil pollution. Therefore, to properly track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the natural components of seawater, a description of the essential spectral features describing petroleum products is necessary. This study characterises two optically-different types of crude oils (Petrobaltic and Romashkino) - substances belonging to multi-fluorophoric systems. To obtain the spectral features of crude oils, the excitation-emission spectroscopy technique was applied. The fluorescence and light absorption properties for various concentrations of oils at a stabilised temperature are described. Both excitation-emission spectra (EEMs) and absorption spectra of crude oils are discussed. Based on the EEM spectra, both excitation end emission peaks for the wavelengthindependent fluorescence maximum (Exmax/ Emmax) - characteristic points for each type of oil - were identified and compared with the literature data concerning typical marine chemical structures.

  14. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...... water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...... sea level rise was curbed by isostatic rebound and accompanying regression and constriction of marine passages to the White Sea. Local, low-saline, stratified basins developed and characterised the next 5-6 millennia....

  15. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects.

  16. Neutrophilic Iron-Oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and Mild Steel Corrosion in Nearshore Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    their biology that could be used to tease out the potential influence of these bacteria on MIC. Microaerobic, lithotrophic FeOB require redox...vents, and to date, almost all reports of marine FeOB have been associated with venting, primarily at volcanic seamounts in the deep ocean (5, 7, 13...proteobacteria, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, from an iron mat at Loihi Seamount , provided phylogenctic confirmation of the uniqueness of

  17. Role of Fe-Oxidizing Bacteria in Metal Bio-Corrosion in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    using a variety of culture- independent and cultivation-based approaches. These include fluorescent in situ hybridization ( FISH ) using primers...laboratory. This system allowed control of Oj levels, pH , flow rates, and supplemental iron additions, and was designed so steel coupons could be...this project, we also conducted a study that investigated salinity effects on populations of marine and freshwater FeOB, showing that

  18. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms ...

  19. Transfer factors of trace elements and radionuclides in the marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, M.V.M.; Pulhani, Vandana; Padmanabhan, Hemalatha

    1998-11-01

    The document presents the data base on Bioaccumulation Factor, B p and Distribution Coefficient, K d values generated in the eastern and western coastal marine waters of India with a view to develop site-specific or species-specific values. Comparison with the IAEA default values from Safety Series No. 57 and Technical Report Series No. 247 values is made. Generally, the B p values for trace elements do not vary by more than a factor of 3 except for some specific cases like Fe in molluscs, crustaceans and fish, Ni in molluscs and Zn in sea weeds and molluscs. The same is true for the B p values of fission nuclides viz., 137 Cs and 90 Sr in molluscs, crustaceans and sea weeds except for the B p of 137 Cs in fish which is significantly lower in the Indian context. The fission nuclide 144 Ce shows distinctly higher accumulation factors in all organisms. The B p values of natural radionuclides such as 210 Pb , 210 Po, Ra and U are close to the IAEA default values except for the high value of U in fish. Similarly, B p values of Pu in fish and crustaceans are significantly higher than that of the IAEA default values. The report presents B p values for Cu and Cd in different marine organisms and K d values in marine sediments. K d values for suspended particles are also presented. B p values for plankton and porifera are also given. (author)

  20. Effort-reward imbalance at work and risk of sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional and prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. METHODS: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative...... disturbances in the Danish workforce. Among women, an association between ERI and sleep disturbances was restricted to the cross-sectional sample. Improving psychosocial working conditions might reduce the risk of sleep disturbances and subsequently also help to prevent clinical disorders related to sleep.......82, 95% CI=1.46-2.28). In the prospective analysis, a 1 S.D. increase of the ERI ratio at baseline predicted the onset of sleep disturbances among men (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.03-1.87) but not among women (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.76-1.24). CONCLUSION: Among men, ERI is a risk factor for the development of sleep...